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CBSE-i

Central Board of
Secondary Education

CLASS-X

CBSE-i

POLITICAL SCIENCE
UNIT I

POWER SHARING
STUDENTS MANUAL

CBSE-i

CLASS-X POLITICAL SCIENCE


UNIT-I Power Sharing

STUDENTS' MANUAL

Acknowledgements
Conceptual Framework
Shri G. Balasubramanian, Former Director (Acad), CBSE
Ms. Abha Adams, Consultant, Step-by-Step School, Noida
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training), CBSE

Advisory
Shri Vineet Joshi, Chairman, CBSE
Dr. Sadhana Parashar, Director (Training), CBSE

Ideators: Classes IX and X


Dr. Anju Srivastava
Mr. N K Sehgal
Dr. Uma Choudhary
Ms. Anita Sharma

Ms. Sarita Manuja


Ms. Preeti Hans
Ms. P Rajeshwary
Ms. Suganda Vallli

Ms. Varsha Seth


Ms. Sunita Tanwar
Ms. S Radha Mahalakshmi
Ms. Neelima Sharma

Prof. Chand Kiran Saluja


Dr. Usha Sharma
Ms. Renu Anand
Dr.Rajesh Hassija
Mr Mukesh Kumar

Material Developers: Classes IX - X


English :
Ms. Gayatri Khanna
Ms. Renu Anand
Ms. P Rajeshwary
Ms. Sarabjit Kaur
Hindi :
Ms. Sunita Joshi
Ms. Babita Singh
Ms. Veena Sharma
Mr. Akshya Kumar Dixit
CORE-SEWA
Ms. Vandna
Ms. Nishtha Bharati
Ms. Seema Bhandari,
Ms. Seema Chopra
Ms. Madhuchhanda
Ms. Reema Arora
Ms. Neha Sharma

Chemistry :
Ms. Charu Maini
Ms. S Anjum
Physics :
Ms. Novita Chopra
Ms. Meenambika Menon
Biology :
Ms. Pooja Sareen
Ms. Neeta Rastogi
CORE-Perspectives
Ms. Madhuchhanda,
RO(Innovation)
Ms. Varsha Seth, Consultant
Ms. Neha Sharma
CORE-Research
Ms. Renu Anand
Ms. Gayatri Khanna
Dr. N.K. Sehgal
Ms. Anita Sharma
Ms. Rashmi Kathuria
Ms. Neha Sharma
Ms. Neeta Rastogi
Ms. Manjustha Bose
Ms. Varsha Manku
Dr. K.L. Chopra

Mathematics :
Dr. K P Chinda
Dr. Ram Avtar
Sh. Mahender Shankar
Sh. J C Nijhawan
Ms. Rashmi Kathuria
Ms. Reemu Verma

Geography:
Ms. Meera Bharihoke
Ms. Parul Tyagi
Ms. Sudha Tyagi
Ms. Sonia Jarul
Ms. Neena Phogat
Mr. Nisheeth Kumar

Economics :
Ms. Anubha Malhotra
Ms. Vintee Sharma
Ms. Chaitali Sengupta

History :
Ms. Sajal Chawala
Ms. Jyoti Sharma
Ms. Kamna Kurana
Ms. Shalini Chatarvedi
Mr. Dalia Haldar

ICT
Ms. Guneet Kaur
Ms. Ritu Ranjan
Mr. Mukesh Kumar
Ms. Babita
Mr. Akashdeep

Political Science:
Dr. Sangeetha Mathur
Ms. Ananya Roy
Ms. Sunita Rathee
Ms Amarjit Kaur
Ms. Nishu Sharma
Ms. Manisha Anthwal
Ms. Mamta Talwar

Chief Co-ordinator : Dr. Srijata Das, EO

Coordinators:
Ms. Sugandh Sharma, E O
E OMr. Navin Maini, R O (Tech)

Dr Rashmi Sethi, E O
Ms. Madhu Chanda, R O (Inn)

Shri Al Hilal Ahmed, AEO

Ms. Anjali, AEO

Ms. S. Radha Mahalakshmi,


Shri R. P. Sharma,
Consultant (Science)
Ms. Reema Arora,
Consultant (Chemistry)

EO
Ms. Neelima Sharma,
Consultant (English)
Mr. Sanjay Sachdeva, S O

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Preface
This International Curriculum initiated by Central Board of Secondary Education - (CBSE) is a
progressive step in making the educational content and methodology more sensitive and
responsive to the global needs. It signifies the emergence of a fresh thought process in
imparting a curriculum which would restore the autonomy of the learner to pursue the
learning process in harmony with the existing personal, social and cultural ethos.
The Central Board of Secondary Education has been providing support to the academic
needs of the learners worldwide. It has about 12500 schools affiliated to it and over 158
schools situated in more than 23 countries. The Board has always been conscious of the
varying needs of the learners and has been working towards contextualizing certain
elements of the learning process to the physical, geographical, social and cultural
environment in which they are engaged. The International Curriculum being designed by
CBSE-i, has been visualized and developed with these requirements in view.
The nucleus of the entire process of constructing the curricular structure is the learner. The
objective of the curriculum is to nurture learner autonomy, given the fact that every learner
is unique. The learner has to understand, appreciate, protect and build on values, beliefs and
traditional wisdom, make the necessary modifications, improvisations and additions
wherever and whenever necessary.
The recent scientific and technological advances have thrown open the gateways of
knowledge at an astonishing pace. The speed and methods of assimilating knowledge have
put forth many challenges to educators, forcing them to rethink their approaches for
knowledge processing by their learners. In this context, it has become imperative for them
to incorporate those skills which will enable young learners to become'life long learners'.
The ability to stay current, to upgrade skills with emerging technologies, to understand the
nuances involved in change management and the relevant life skills have to be a part of the
learning domains of the global learners. The CBSE-i curriculum has taken cognizance of
these requirements.
The CBSE-i aims to carry forward the basic strength of the Indian system of education while
promoting critical and creative thinking skills, effective communication skills, interpersonal
and collaborative skills along with information and media skills. There is an inbuilt flexibility
in the curriculum, as it provides a foundation and an extension curriculum, in all subject areas
to cater to the different pace of learners.
The CBSE introduced classes I and X in the session 2010-11 as a pilot project in schools. It was
further extended to classes II, VI and X in the session 2011-12. In the seesion 2012-13, CBSE-i is
going to enter in third year with classes III, VII and XI. The focus of CBSE-i is to ensure that the
learner is stress-free and committed to active learning. The learner would be evaluated on a
continuous and comprehensive basis consequent to the mutual interactions between the
teacher and the learner. There are some nonevaluative components in the curriculum which

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would be commented upon by the teachers and the school. The objective of this part or the
core of the curriculum is to scaffold the learning experiences and to relate tacit knowledge
with formal knowledge. This would involve trans-disciplinary linkages that would form the
core of the learning process. Perspectives, SEWA (Social Empowerment through Work and
Action), Life Skills and Research would be the constituents of this 'Core'. The Core skills are
the most significant aspects of a learner's holistic growth and learning curve.
The International Curriculum has been designed keeping in view the foundations of the
National Curricular Framework (NCF 2005) NCERT and the experience gathered by the
Board over the last seven decades in imparting effective learning to millions of learners,
many of whom are now global citizens. The Board does not interpret this development as an
alternative to other curricula existing at the international level, but as an exercise in
providing the much needed Indian leadership for global education at the school level. The
International Curriculum would evolve building on learning experiences inside the
classroom over a period of time. The Board while addressing the issues of empowerment
with the help of the schools' administering this system strongly recommends that practicing
teachers become skillful learners on their own and also transfer their learning experiences
to their peers through the interactive platforms provided by the Board.
I profusely thank Shri G. Balasubramanian, former Director (Academics), CBSE, Dr. Sadhana
Parashar, Director (Training) CBSE, Dr. Srijata Das, Education Officer CBSE along with all the
Officers involved in the development and implementation of this material.
The CBSE-i website enables all stakeholders to participate in this initiative through the
discussion forums provided on the portal. Any further suggestions for modifying any part of
this document are welcome.

Vineet Joshi
Chairman, CBSE

CBSE-i

CLASS-X POLITICAL SCIENCE


UNIT-I Power Sharing

STUDENTS' MANUAL

CLASS-X
POLITICAL SCIENCE
UNIT-I
POWER SHARING
CONTENTS
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INTRODUCTION

POWER-SHARING: CONCEPT OF ACCOMODATION

NEED FOR POWER-SHARING

CASE STUDY: BELGIUM AND SRI LANKA

COMPARISON AND CONTRAST

SOME OTHER EXAMPLES

FORMS OF POWER SHARING


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HORIZONTAL

VERTICAL

AMONG SOCIAL GROUPS

AMONG POLITICAL PARTIES, INTEREST GROUPS AND MOVEMENTS

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INTRODUCTION
Contemporary world, divided by National and International boundaries, is full of natural
resources and ethnic diversity, and is further supported by luxury, comforts and innovations
provided by advancement in science and technology. It is, at the same time, a land of social
strife, conflict, wars and human suffering. The possible causes range from rigidity of
thought, racial/ethnic hatred to lack of power sharing among people of diverse groups and
regions. Effective, competent and expert governance in such a situation becomes a
herculean task.
A variety of political systems and forms of government have existed in this world in various
countries, through which people have tried to solve these problems and also to establish
good governance, but it is Democracy which has been able to provide an acceptable and
people friendly political set up. Modern day Democracy does this in a better way than any
other form of government and finds existence in almost all parts of the world- from one
continent to another, from big countries to the smaller. It is the Democratic government,
which works on the key principle of equality, decision making on the basis of majority and
protection of the interests of the minorities and thus gives us a chance to accept cultural,
ethnic and regional diversity. Above all, it creates scope for power sharing among various
claimants and stake holders in a political system, and leads to amicable solution. If the
contemporary governments do not share power with the people, ethnic groups and
minorities present in their nation and don't allow them to have due representation, the
situation is going be disastrous for the very integrity of the country.

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POWER SHARING: A CONCEPT


WARMING UP ACTIVITY

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Ask the students to observe the given pictures and try to understand the
ideas/messages which are being promoted commonly by all of them.
Let the students discuss and brainstorm on these ideas
All these pictures represent diversity and its acceptance as well as
accommodation by others. The pictures also symbolize the ideas - unity/
integrity, collaboration and team spirit.
Talk about the significance of all these issues in daily life and the political
system of a country and relate them to the concept of POWER SHARING.

A Democratic system of governance is the possible solution to this problem, where the final
political power rests in the hands of the people who elect their representatives from all the
sections, classes, and categories of their society, and send them as representatives in the
government to take important decisions on their behalf. A little imbalance in this situation
can lead to conflicts, disputes and social-political strike, hence, an intelligent power sharing
amongst the organs of the Government at various levels, in various forms is required.
Observe the pictures given in the source box and try to understand the message they give.

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Power-sharing : a concept
Power-sharing is a method, a powerful strategy for settling all kinds of conflicts, disputes,
claims, regarding control and use of political power in a Democratic system. It is the most
potential way out for resolving disputes over the issue of holding most powerful position in
the political hierarchy. Instead of struggling and fighting over who should possess more
political power and authority over the rest, power sharing depends and relies upon the joint
exercise of political power. It promotes peaceful co-existence among diverse groups, ethnic
Nationalities, and minority communities of a Democratic Nation and creates unity among
them.
Power-sharing also allows the cross-cutting of socio-economic or cultural differences
among the people and convinces them to put forward their conflicts demands and
grievances in such a way that they become positive and constructive for the community and
the Nation. This can be done in a variety of ways. One possible approach is to grant
autonomy to the diverse groups, regional or ethnic, over a few or all aspects of their own
affairs. For instance, this freedom and autonomy can be restricted just to the cultural issues,
i.e., religion and education or it can be extended to cover-up the socio-economic, and the
political fields as well. At the extreme level, power sharing can result in granting selfdetermination, and complete independence, allowing a minority group to establish its own
sovereign Nation state. In this case, power-sharing finally leads to peaceful power-dividing.

Fig : Power sharing in Lebanon


Under Lebanon's power-sharing system, the 128 seats are divided equally between
majority Muslims and minority Christians, who make up about a third of the four
million populations. Top political posts are also allocated along confessional lines.
The president must be a Maronite Christian, the speaker of parliament a Shiite
Muslim and the prime minister a Sunni Muslim.
Source: Al-Manar

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Another approach to accommodation and power-sharing is much more inclusive and


integrative in nature. According to this approach, the task and responsibility of governance
is shared by elected leaders from regional, lingual, ethnic or minority group within the
country. They work jointly, cooperatively and more effectively for the making of better and
acceptable decisions, for the resolution of even the most serious issues involving ethnic
conflict, and socio-political strife. While exercising political power, taking important
decisions and making public policies, they all are expected to be ethnically, and regionally
neutral. This approach requires establishment of a well-structured free and fair electoral
system which encourages multi-ethnic collaboration and coalition within the political
system of the Nation. This generally leads to the establishment of Federalism.
Implementation of either of the methodologies on power-sharing is quite challenging as the
ethnic or regional groups holding political-power are usually unwilling to give up or
relinquish this power. On the other hand, the groups devoid of this power tend to demand a
substantial and considerable change in the system and claim a share in the exercise of
political power, which the dominant group usually does not accept. Here begins the conflict,
which at times, may lead to serious consequences. However, if the ethnic or minority groups
promote their demands, in such a way that they highlight joint benefit of all the
communities, and focus on evolving a mutually acceptable method of achieving autonomy,
and self-determination for all the groups, they are likely to be more successful in getting
their demands fulfilled than they are, if they take a more aggressive or competitive
approach.

Fig : Power Sharing in U.S.A. and India


Source- www.ablueview.com
Examine these cases from India and USA in context of power sharing arrangement in these
countries.

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Need for power-sharing


In the modern era - a desire for progress, and growth, a good respectable standard of living,
social-justice, cultural recognition, economic equality, growing awareness among people,
regarding interdependence have led to the demand for political autonomy and selfdetermination among diverse communities of a country. People want governments to be
more responsive to the citizens, and their needs, they desire even regional and local political
units to give expression and recognition to their linguistic, religious, and cultural
background, which provides the necessary basis and foundation for a community's specific
distinct identity. They don't want this identity to be lost, or suppressed. In such a condition,
the main objective of the political system of the Nation is not to eliminate diversity but rather
to accommodate, reconcile, and manage social-diversities in such a manner that they all feel
important, being a part of the Nation, their interests are well taken care of, their cultural
identity well secured, making them to develop a sense of belongingness, trust, and faith in
the political system of the country.
So, on the basis of this discussion, we can conclude that power-sharing is genuinely
desirable and is primarily required for two main reasons moral and prudential.
WHAT DO YOU THINK - Is it wrong if the majority community rules over Sri Lanka? If
Sinhala don't rule in Sri Lanka, where else will they rule? But, on the other hand if Sri
Lankan Tamils don't have equal rights in their own country, what shall they do?

Find out the reason behind urban unrest in the United States of America.
www.ablueview.com

Moral Reasons
Morally, power-sharing is the core essence of Democracy as Democracy cannot sustain in
absence of power sharing. A Democratic rule is all about sharing power with all those people
who are affected by its exercise, and who have to live with its effects. It is for this profound

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reason that power-sharing is required. People of a country belonging to any of the regions,
areas, communities, or ethnic groups of the country have a right to be informed and
consulted, on how they are going to be administered and governed. A legitimate
government is peoples own government and is whole heartedly accepted by them. It
creates such arrangements, situations and opportunities where citizens, through active
participation, acquire a stake in the political system. These moral reasons highlight the very
deed of power-sharing as important and essential. They are sufficient to enough to justify its
requirement.

Prudential reasons
The prudential reasons are based on careful calculation of gains and losses and are much
more practical and logical. So, practically, power sharing is a good option because it reduces
the possibility of civil strife and socio-political conflict. Since, civil conflict generally leads to
violence, loss of life and property as well as political instability; power sharing is a good
approach to maintain mutual trust and reliance among the claimants of political power as
well as the stakeholders and guarantees stability of the political system. Forcing upon the
will of the majority community on rest of the minorities of the Nation and compelling them
to abide by it may appear to be an attractive option in the short run, but in the long run it
creates tension, mistrust and unrest among the citizens and undermines the unity and
integrity of the of the Nation. Domination and suppression by majority is not just unfair,
exploitative and torturous to the minority but it also brings decline as well as deterioration
to the majority and the Nation as well. Hence, it is always judicious and sensible in a
Democracy to embrace power sharing arrangement.

CASE STUDY: BELGIUM AND SRILANKA


BELGIUM
Belgium is a small country located in the Western
Europe, which has a small territory with a population
little over one crore. Belgium has the Netherlands,
France and Germany as its immediate neighbours,
which also share a deep connection with the historical
past of this country. This may be the reason which has
made the ethnic composition of this country very
complex. According to the demographic data, 59
percent of the Belgians speak Dutch and reside in the
Fleming region in the North. Another 40 percent of
them speak French and live in Walloonia region towards the south. Rest 1 percent of the
Belgians speak German. The state of affairs is just opposite in the capital region of Brussels
which has 80 percent of its population as French speakers and 20 percent as Dutch speakers.
The majority community of the Nation is a minority in the National capital.

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It was in 1950s that the Flanders saw economic boom, while Walloonia at that time came to
an economic standstill. As the Flemings became educated, aware and economically sound,
they started demanding a reasonable and an equal share in the exercise of political power.
This led to emergence of tensions between the two communities. Lots of violence and
unrest prevailed during 1950s and early 1960s. The problem became more serious in Brussels
where the majority community of the Dutch speakers was in minority and minority
community of the French speakers was in majority.
SRI LANKA
Let us now compare this situation with the situation of
another country, Sri Lanka, which is an Island Nation situated
in South Asia, just a few kilometers away from the southern
coast of Tamil Nadu, a state in India. Its population is about
two crore, which is quite varied and diverse in nature. The
major communities of Sri Lanka are the Sinhala speakers
known as the Sinhalese, who comprise 74 percent of the
country's total population, and the Tamil speakers, who form
18 percent of the population. Tamils are further divided into
two sub groups; Sri Lankan Tamils or the native Tamils, 13
percent and 5 percent Indian Tamils, whose forefathers were
brought from India as plantation workers by the colonial
British. Sri Lankan Tamils are concentrated in the North and
Fig : Sri Lanka
the Eastern parts of the country and form majority in these
areas, but on the other hand they are a minority in rest of the country. These Tamils are the
followers of either Hinduism or Islam, whereas the majority community of the Sinhala
follows Buddhism. There are about 7 percent Christians in Sri Lanka, who are both Tamil
and Sinhala.
SRI LANKAN POLICY OF MAJORITARIANISM
Sri Lanka achieved its Independence from British colonial
rule in the year 1948. As per the constitution, Sinhala
community got an upper hand in the governance of the
country, Indian Tamils were not given the citizen rights
and Sri Lankan Tamils were given the status of a minority.
Article 29(b) of the Sri Lankan constitution of 1948 gave
special protection to them. For around seventeen
centuries the Sinhala people continued to maintain
historical awareness through various modes of
transmission. The leaders of this community tried to
secure domination over the government by advantage of
their majority in the population. This resulted in the

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making of a popularly elected government which started following a chain of measures to


establish supremacy and hegemony of the Sinhala over the Tamils. All these measures
amounted to majoritarianism, with a belief that if majority community will not rule in its own
country then where else will it ever rules.
All this started with an All Sinhala Act passed in 1956. This act recognized Sinhala as the only
official language of Sri Lanka, thus ignoring and disregarding Tamil, which was the language
of the minority. Preferential policies were followed by the successive governments towards
Sinhala applicants and job seekers in the universities and government jobs respectively,
making it difficult for the Tamils to enter university and government jobs. Tamil population
was totally ignored. The problem worsened when a new constitution adopted Buddhism as
the official religion and directed the government to protect and foster it. Later in 1973,
article 29(b) of the constitution that protected the rights of the minorities, was also
scrapped off.
All these steps taken by the Sri Lankan government came as a shock to the Tamil population
and gradually strengthened the feeling of seclusion and isolation amongst them. As a result,
relations between the two communities soured and strained over the period of time.

Sri Lankan Tamils started struggles for recognition of Tamil as the official language in the
Tamil majority areas, for equality of opportunity in securing education and jobs and for
regional autonomy. Initially the demands were made peacefully, following the
constitutional methods. But all of the demands, categorically the one seeking provincial
autonomy for the Tamil majority areas were denied and rejected repeatedly. The agony and
the discontent kept on growing among the Sri Lankan Tamils and led to the emergence of
militant organizations. During the 26 years of the civil war, thousands of the Tamils had been
killed in the armed conflict, many more were forced to leave the country as refugees, many

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became homeless and many lost their livelihoods. This ethnic strife has not benefitted either
of the communities. Neither majority community of the Sinhala nor minority Tamils have
been able to enjoy the benefits of peaceful co-existence. Long civil strife caused a deep
setback to the social, cultural and economic life of the country and its excellent record of
economic development, education and health has been badly shattered.

Fig : Cartoon by Surendra in the Hindu, January 23, 2010 chauvinism, a statement on
majoritarianism in Maharashtra, India

ACCOMODATION: The path taken by Belgium


Today Belgium has a framework of a Federal,
Parliamentary, and Representative Democratic,
Constitutional Monarchy. The king is the
constitutional head of the state and the Prime
Minister of Belgium is the head of the government
in a multi-party system. The constitution of a
country is the source of all political power and
authority and lays the foundation of the political
system of the Nation. All the laws, regulations or
political arrangements made by the legislature of a
country have to be in accordance with the
constitution. Hence, the constitution of Belgium,
which was enforced on February 7th, 1831has been
changed several times. Between 1970 and 1993, it

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was amended by the political leaders at least four times so as to develop a system which was
acceptable to all the citizens, where there was no space for conflict, where all the lingual and
cultural diversities were accommodated, which would enable everyone to live together in
harmony within the boundaries of the country, where the differences were acknowledged,
recognized and accepted as an integral part of the society and not turned into divisions. The
plan which they worked out is however very complex, composite and different from other
countries but at the same time is very original, creative and cooperative in essence. Let us
have a look at it.

Establishment of Federal Government


The Executive power in Belgium is held by the Prime Minister and his Council of Ministers
along with the secretaries of the state. Members of this Federal government are appointed
by the king from the political parties which form the government coalition. The number of
ministers in the council, inclusive of the Prime Minister, is 15, which cannot exceed. As per
the constitution, the total number of the Dutch and the French speaking ministers in the
council must remain equal. Some special laws require the support of majority of members
from each linguistic community. For any change in the constitution, approval of two thirds
majority from each of the linguistic group is required. Thus, none of the communities can
make any decision unilaterally.

Formation of Regional/State Governments


Belgium comprises of two main lingual as well as political regions. They are - the Flemish and
Walloonia. Both of these regions have their own elected governments, each headed by a
Minister President. Many powers of the Central government have been delegated to these
governments and they are not subordinate to the Central government in any case. These
regional governments have authority over transportation, public works, housing, economic
and industrial policy and environment etc. They depend on the system of revenue sharing
for funds and can levy a few taxes as well.

Setting up Community Governments


Other than the Central and the Regional/State government, there is a third kind of
government elected by people belonging to each of the lingual community the Dutch,
French and German regardless of where they live. This is the Community Government,
which has jurisdiction over cultural, educational and language related issues. The following
heads hold power in this regard: a) Minister-President of the Dutch community, b) MinisterPresident of the French community, c) Minister President of the German community.
Power sharing on the basis of community is an inclusive approach and creates a sense of
security and belongingness among ethnic minorities.

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Government in the National Capital


Brussels, the national capital region has a separate government in which both the
communities have equal representation. Principle of accommodation allowed the French
speaking people to accept equal representation in Brussels as the Dutch community has
accepted equal representation in the central government. Besides this, Belgium is divided
into 10 provinces and 589 municipalities which work under the competency of the two main
regions.
We may find the Belgian model of power sharing very complex, confusing and complicated.
It actually is, even for its own people. But this arrangement to accommodate cultural and
lingual diversity, to make majority as well as minority communities equal share holders of
political power has been successful till now. It has helped in protecting interests and the
rights of people and has provided them with a sense of security. It has also helped in
avoiding civil strife and a bitter struggle for power between the two major communities and
has averted a possible partition of the country on the basis of language.

Comparison and Contrast


What do we understand from the study of these two nations? Belgium and Sri Lanka, both
are Democracies. But both of them handled the problem of power sharing with ethnic
diversities and minorities in quite a different manner. The people and their political leaders in
Belgium realized that imposing the will of majority community on the entire Nation is
actually exercising majoritarianism, the other version of internal colonialism. They
understood that the only possible way to maintain unity and integrity of the Nation and to
keep the country ahead on the path of prosperity was by respecting the feelings and
interests of different communities and regions, by accepting cultural and lingual differences
and by accommodating them in the political system of the country. Such a realization
resulted in formation of innovative and practical power sharing arrangements which were
acceptable to both the communities. Hence, the problem is somehow solved and peaceful
co-existence prevails.
On the other side Sri Lanka emerged as a totally different and opposite case. It shows that
when the majority community enforces its will on the Nation at the cost of the minorities,
tries to dominate over others by ignoring their needs as well as interests and refuses to share
political power, it can weaken the unity and integrity of the Nation. It not only hampers
peace, violates human rights, results in the loss of hundreds and thousands of lives but also
brings huge economic and socio-cultural loss to the country. Sri Lanka could have followed
examples from various other countries of the world like Switzerland, Spain, Canada, India
and Malaysia etc, which are multicultural as well as multi-ethnic and are all federations,
which share real political power within the state at the National level and equitably between

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the constituting units at the regional level. For instance Tamils in India have Tamil Nadu
inside the Indian Union, which actually is a federation, and follows the principle of
accommodation. The Sri Lankans should also try to work out on a solution which is
acceptable to both the communities and leads to a peaceful settlement of the conflict while
satisfying their political aspirations. It is just a matter of power sharing.

Fig : All these pictures depict, in one way or the other people's demand for acceptance,
accommodation and power sharing.

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SOME OTHER EXAMPLES


ARTICLE-1
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
"Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the
Consent of the Governed."
- Thomas Jefferson
The Declaration of Independence
Since the Second Continental Congress declared America's independence from Great
Britain on July 4th, 1776, the United States government has sought to realize the
fundamental principle on which our nation was founded: that all people have the right
to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness.
This principle was formalized in 1788 with the ratification of the Constitution. That
document still the supreme law of the United States became the foundation of a
Federal government that allowed the several states to act together as one, while
protecting the sovereignty of each individual state.
To ensure that no person or group would amass too much power, the founders
established a government in which the powers to create, implement, and adjudicate
laws were separated. Each branch of government is balanced by powers in the other
two coequal branches: The President can veto the laws of the Congress; the Congress
confirms or rejects the President's appointments and can remove the President from
office in exceptional circumstances; and the justices of the Supreme Court, who can
overturn unconstitutional laws, are appointed by the President and confirmed by the
Senate. In creating this balance, the framers of the Constitution hoped to form what
they called "a more perfect union" a government that would not only serve the
people but would also be a long-lived exemplar to other Nations around the world.

ARTICLE 2
WHAT DO YOU THINK?
The Breakup of Yugoslavia (1991-1995)
Once a predominantly agricultural country Yugoslavia was transformed into a mid-range
industrial country after the Second World War, and acquired an international political
reputation by supporting the de-colonization process and by assuming a leading role in the
Non-Aligned Movement. Socialist Yugoslavia was established as a Federal state comprising
six republics: Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and

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Montenegro and two autonomous regions - Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. The two
autonomous regions were at the same time integral part of Serbia. Because of such an
administrative division and due to historical reasons, the Serbs - the most numerous of the
Yugoslav peoples - lived in all six Republics and both autonomous regions.
The trend to secure the power of the Republics at the expense of the federal authorities
became particularly intense after the adoption of the 1974 Constitution that encouraged the
expansion of Croatian, Slovenian, Moslem and Albanian Nationalism and secessionism.
Since the Socialist Federal Republic was formed in 1945, the constituent Socialist Republic of
Serbia included the two autonomous provinces Socialist Autonomous Provinces of
Kosovo and Vojvodina. With the 1974 constitution, the influence of the central government
of Socialist Republic of Serbia over the provinces was greatly reduced, which gave them
long-sought autonomy. The government of Serbia was restricted in making and carrying out
decisions that would apply to the provinces. In Serbia, there was great resentment towards
these developments, which the Nationalist elements of the public saw as the "division of
Serbia". Ethnic problems in Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Macedonia also added fuel to
fire.
Between 1991 and 1992, Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina forcibly seceded from
Yugoslavia, whilst Macedonia did so peacefully. Serbia and Montenegro opted to stay on in
the federation and at the combined session of the parliaments of Yugoslavia, Serbia and
Montenegro held on April 27 1992 in Belgrade, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia was passed thus reaffirming the continuity of the state first founded on
December 1st 1918. Since 2003 this entity was officially called Serbia and Montenegro.

Final Breakup (20062008)


The rump of the former Communist Yugoslavia was re-named the Federal Republic of
Yugoslavia by Serbia and Montenegro on 28th April 1992. The Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
was prevented by a UN resolution on 22nd September 1992 from continuing to occupy the
United Nations seat as successor state to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and
not re-admitted until 1st November 2000 after an application for membership was submitted
as a new country. The country was renamed a second time on 4th February 2003 as the State
Union of Serbia and Montenegro.
The State Union of Serbia and Montenegro was itself unstable, and finally broke up during
2006 to 2008 as the last act in the disintegration of Yugoslavia. In a referendum held in
st
Montenegro on 21 May 2006 independence was backed by 55.5% of voters, and
rd
independence was declared on 3 June 2006. In Kosovo, which had been administered by
th
the UN since 1999, a unilateral declaration of independence was made on 17 February 2008.
This is not recognized by Serbia, and has limited recognition across the international
community.

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Fig : Political and ethnic maps of former Yogoslavia


Source:-www.wikipedia.org
Source:-www.travelserbia.info/history
Shown above are the political and ethnic maps of former Yugoslavia. The ethnic map gives
some background to the events that led to the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990's.

ARTICLE -3
CANADA
Power-sharing in Canada is a process of continued negotiations based on mutual
respect
-Ayesha Zuhair
It is home to Canada's largest francophone population with 82% of its inhabitants
speaking French as their first language and is the only officially French-speaking
province in the world's seventh largest economy. The province of Qubec, Canada's
largest territorial province and second largest administrative district, accounts for 86%
of all francophone in the country.
Stationed in a vast continental peninsula bordering the North Atlantic, Qubec has a
history spanning well-over 450 years and offers many useful pointers for those of us in
Sri Lanka who have witnessed decades of bloodshed due to ethnic friction.
That being said, it must be emphasized at the outset that Canada is - by no means - a
perfect society, devoid of any deficiencies. And Qubec does not offer a perfect model
on a platter that can be replicated in Sri Lanka.
Why? It is because every country has its own unique culture, history, geography and
connected complexities. Something that has worked in one country cannot be blindly
adopted in another and if there are any attempts to do so; it could well and truly be a
recipe for disaster. In the final analysis, there is no doubt that the solution to Sri Lanka's
protracted armed conflict must be a home-grown one. But learning from the
experience of others who have experienced similar situations can offer a fresh
impetus and provide the inspiration that we are in dire need of.
SOURCE - http://www.tamilcanadian.com/article/4822

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ARTICLE -4
THE UN NEWS
UN Information Centre for India and Bhutan
July 2011, Vol. 7, No. 7
Birth of a nation
South Sudan admitted to UN as 193rd member
The General Assembly on 14th July admitted the Republic of South Sudan as the 193rd
member of the United Nations, welcoming the newly Independent country to the
community of Nations. South Sudan's independence from the rest of Sudan is the
result of the January 2011 referendum held under the terms of the 2005
Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the decades-long civil war
between the North and the South. At this moment in this place the world
gathers to say in one voice: Welcome, South Sudan. Welcome to the community of
Nations, Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon said after the Assembly adopted a
resolution, by acclamation, to admit Africa's newest country.
Mr. Ban, who was among the UN dignitaries who attended the independence
ceremony in South Sudan's capital, Juba, last Saturday, pledged the world body's
assistance as the country shapes its future. The commitment of all Member States
will be essential as South Sudan moves forward, he stated. Together, let us say to
the citizens of our newest Member State: You now sit with us. We stand with you.
Source www.unic.com
On the eve of South Sudan's independence, the Security Council voted unanimously to
set up a new United Nations mission to help Africa's newest nation consolidate peace
and lay the foundation for longer-term state-building, conflict prevention and
economic development.
Source- www.unic.org.in

Forms of Power Sharing


Power sharing is relatively a contemporary idea and has evolved in contrast to the notion of
centralized, unified and undivided political power. For a long time it was believed that all
political power or the ruling authority must reside in one person or a group, having seat of
the governance at one place. People feared if decision making power was divided or
delegated, it could lead to confusions and great delays in taking decisions and their
implementation will not be easily possible. Enforcement of important, fundamental and

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crucial decisions would become a problem. But these notions have changed with the
emergence and growth of democratic government in various countries of the world.
Democracy rests on the basic principle that the people are the source of all political power.
They rule themselves through the institutions of self -governance and are equal before law.
Democracy cannot exist without the establishment of equality. Hence, in a true democratic
set up, due respect is given to all the ethnic and diverse groups, views and opinions, that
exist in a society. Everyone has a right to participate in the making of the government
decisions and shaping public policies. Therefore it is imperative that the political power in a
democracy should be shared and distributed among as many citizens as possible.
Concentration of power in one hand or a group of persons would lead to despotism,
majoritarianism or internal colonialism.
In modern times democracy has become the preferred choice of people in most of the
countries of the world, where political power is shared in a variety of forms. Let us have a
looks at some of these arrangements.

HORIZONTAL POWER SHARING


It is the arrangement when political power is shared
among various branches or organs of the
government such as Legislature, Executive and
Judiciary. It allows Legislature to make laws,
Executive to execute or implement them and
Judiciary to check their legitimacy, validity and
acceptance by people. All three of these organs of
the government are placed at the same level but
exercise different jurisdictions. So, this type of an
arrangement can be called as the horizontal sharing
or distribution of power. Political power in this
system is separated in such a way that all three of
the organs remain independent in their working but at the same time none of them can
misuse or exercise unlimited power. Each organ checks the others. It results in a maintaining
an equilibrium or balance of power among these institutions. For example, in a Democracy,
ministers take important decisions regarding their ministries and exercise political power
but they are directly responsible and answerable to the Legislature, i.e. Parliament and the
State Assemblies. In the same manner, although the judges of the Supreme Court or the
High Court are appointed by the Executive, and their number is regulated by a bill passed in

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the Parliament but they can check the actions and functioning of the members of the
executive if a case has been filed against any of them. Judges of the Supreme Court can also
review the laws made by the Parliament under their special power of the judicial review and
can declare those laws to be null if they are not in accordance with the constitution. This is
how each organ of the [Type a quote from the document or the summary of an interesting
point. You can position the text box anywhere in the document. Use the Text Box Tools tab
to change the formatting of the pull quote text box.] Government exercises its own power
and checks the others to strike a balance. Hence, because of this reason the horizontal
system of power sharing is also called as the system of checks and balances.

Fig : Horizontal Power Sharing in USA

Vertical system of power sharing


Political power can be shared among the
governments at different levels - a) the National
government for the entire country which is called as
the Federal Government, in India it is called as the
Union or the Central government, b) the state or
the provincial government, c) in some countries,
the local self-government. This arrangement of
power sharing is called as Federalism. In such a
system certain powers of the central government
are delegated to the state governments and
jurisdiction of the government at each level is
clearly defined by the constitution of the country.

Fig : Vertical / Federal system of


governance in India

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Separation of powers is done to prevent the over lapping of powers which may lead to any
confusion, dispute or a conflict. In India these powers are separated in the form of three listsunion list, state list and the concurrent list.
In such a system, the states or provinces are an integral part of the country but remain
independent in their functioning and in any are not subordinate to the central government.
At local level the governmental power is shared at both, the rural as well as the urban areas
like villages, towns, cities and metropolises etc. the division of political power from higher to
the lower level is called as the vertical distribution of power. This can be the best
arrangement to accommodate regional and cultural diversities in the true sense.

Power sharing among social groups

This is an arrangement where political power is shared among various social groups like
religious, lingual and regional ethnic groups etc. Community government in Belgium is a
good example of this kind of a government. Some countries extend legal and constitutional
provisions to provide proportional representation and special privileges to the weaker
sections of the society, like SC/ST/OBC and women in India. Their interests and rights are
secured in the form of reserved constituencies in the assemblies, and parliament of the
country, and by reservations of seats in collages, and government jobs. Such a system is
meant to give space to minorities, and diverse social groups in the government which were
exploited in the past, or would feel alienated from the government. This arrangement is
used to provide minority communities an equal, and a fair share in the exercise of political
power. At times this kind of power sharing is also called as consociationalism.

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Fig : Power sharing among political parties, pressure groups, and movements
Source www.guardian
This type of power-sharing arrangement happens when in a democracy, citizens are allowed
to form political parties in order to seek representation in the government at national,
provincial, or local level. These political parties contest elections, and enter into a political
competition. Citizens have a freedom to choose among these contenders for power, and
elect their representatives. This competition among political parties ensures that power
does not remain concentrated in one hand, and is shared among different political parties
that represent different regions, groups, and ideologies. These days, various parties share
political power directly, when they for an alliance with two or more parties to contest
elections. When their alliance wins majority of seats in the elections, they form a coalition
government, and thus share power. One can find many interest groups in a Democracy like
those of the industrialists, traders, businessmen, industrial workers, farmers etc. The also
seek a share in the political power, either by participating in government committees or by
influencing the decision making process. Common people also share political power, when
they rise in to a popular movement like the movement for civil rights in the United States of
America, and the movement for Democracy in Nepal.

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Source - http://fromthecab.blogspot.com

Source-www.toonpool.com

Source www.cartoonstock.com

www.googlepics.com

Fig : Humour with power sharing

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GLOSSARY
l

Civil War : An armed or a violent conflict between opposing groups within a country that
becomes so intense that it appears like a war.

Prudential : Based on prudence, on or careful calculation of gains and losses. Prudential


decisions are usually contrasted with those decisions based purely on moral
considerations.

Ethnic : A social division based on shared culture. People belonging to the same ethnic
group believe in their common dissent because of similarities of physical type or of
culture or both. They need not always have the same religion or nationality.

Consociationalism : A consociational state as a state which has major internal divisions


along ethnic, religious, or linguistic lines, with none of the divisions large enough to
form a majority group, yet nonetheless manages to remain stable, due to consultation
among the elites of each of its major social groups. Consociational states are often
contrasted with majoritarian electoral systems.

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WORK SHEET - 1
MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS
1.

Democracy is the possible solution for


a) Youth problems
b) Social strife
c) Civil and criminal cases
d) Administrative problems

2.

An effective strategy to settle all kinds of disputes can be


a) Rule by one political leader
b) Rule by sharing political power
c) Rule by the elites/aristocrats
d) Rule by the majority community

3.

Which of the following statements is NOT true?


a) Article 29(b)of the Constitution of 1948 protected Sri Lankan minorities
b) In 1956 an All Sinhala Act was passed in Sri Lanka supporting Sinhalas
c) Regional autonomy was given to the Sri Lankan Tamils in 1973
d) State protected and fostered Buddhism under the Act of 1956

4.

Vertical division of political power refers to


a) Power shared at one level of government
b) Power shared at different levels of government
c) Power shared at two levels of government
d) Power shared among different organs of the government

5.

Power sharing results in which of the following?


a) Cross-cutting all differences
b) Overlapping social differences
c) Removing cultural differences
d) Diluting regional differences

6.

In order to create political stability the political system of a country should


a) Eliminate diversity
b) Ignore diversity
c) Promote diversity
d) Accommodate diversity

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Which of the following is the prudential reason to justify power sharing?


a) People have the right to be consulted for being ruled
b) People will be able to take political stands
c) People will increase participation in politics
d) People will be able to reduce social conflict

1.

State the meaning of power-sharing? What does it lead to?

2.

Which approach of power sharing is more inclusive and why?

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WORK SHEET 2
READ THROUGH THE PICTURE

Source: www.srilankacampaign.com
1.

Observe and interpret the given picture and explain the condition of Sri Lanka during
the civil war and the role of the Sri Lankan Government in it.

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1.

What makes implementation of power sharing difficult and challenging?

2. How can people be convinced to share power?

3. For what reasons power sharing is required?

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WORK SHEET 4
DEVELOP A PHOTO STORY

Divide the class into five groups.

Each group to prepare one photo story and present it in the class.

Photo story to be developed on the following outline:


l
Power sharing : A concept Meaning and significance
l
Need of power sharing: Moral and Prudential reasons
l
Case study of any two countries: Country of origin/ Residence/ Choice
l
Compare and Contrast Matrix: Historical background of the problem, Current
situation, Demands of ethnic groups, Response of the government, solution to the
problem.
l
Interesting Facts/Pictures/Charts
l
Final verdict/ Conclusion

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WORK SHEET 5
COMPARE AND CONTRAST
SITUATION IN BELGIUM

SITUATION IN SRI LANKA

RESPONSE OF THE GOVERNMENT

RESPONSE OF THE GOVERNMENTNET

RESULT / OUTCOME

NET RESULT OUTCOME

SPECIAL COMMENTS

SPECIAL COMMENTS

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WORKSHEET 6
ARTICLE INTERPRETATION
Read the Articles 1,2,3 and 4, given in your manual and comment on the power sharing
structure and its result in each case.

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WORK SHEET - 7
VOICE YOUR OPINION
1.

Power sharing allows cross cutting of socio-economic or cultural differences.

2.

Oppression by majority is not just torturous to minority but also brings downfall to
the majority. Justify the statement.

3.

Democracy cannot exist in the absence of equality.

4.

Power sharing is good because it reduces the possibility of social conflict.

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WORK SHEET 8
1.

Write basic principles of democracy.

2.

Distinguish between horizontal and vertical division of power.

3.

Give a detailed description of horizontal and vertical distribution of power sharing in


country of your residence/ origin.

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WORK SHEET 9
FACE TO FACE WITH REALITY
l

If you had the power and authority to lead Sri Lankan politics, how would you have dealt
with the problem of social conflict in this country?

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WORK SHEET- 10
AN ENCOUNTER WITH DIVERSITY
Conduct a survey in your class and try to gather the following information on individual
basis.
l

Find out any ethnic/lingual/regional/communal differences among the students of your


class.

Do these differences ever create divisions among the students? Why or why not?

How is power authority exercised in the class? (Selection of class monitor, manner to
resolve different class problems, role of teacher in solving disputes in the class.)

On the basis of the above information, hold a class discussion to generate a healthy class
atmosphere and a feeling of harmony and brotherhood amongst the students at large.

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WORK SHEET 11
Imagine yourself as a future politician or bureaucrat and pen down the manner in which
you would try to cater to the democratic aspirations and claims of the people in your
country and attempt to bring about unity in diversity.

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WORK SHEET 12
CONNECTING TIES
Pick up any two of the following passages of your choice and comment on the manner in
which power is shared in these respective countries. Also come up with possible solutions to
resolve the problem of social conflict and civil strife in these countries.

CASE STUDIES
Jammu and Kashmir
Jammu and Kashmir is an autonomous entity within India. India's claim of
sovereignty over Jammu and Kashmir is contested by Pakistan, and the region has
been at the center of conflict between India and Pakistan since 1947. Of the
region's inhabitants 64% are Muslim and 32% are Hindu. Autonomy status for
Jammu and Kashmir is enshrined in the Indian Constitution of 1957 and the Kashmir
Constitution of the same year. The Indian Constitution identifies Jammu and
Kashmir as a unique state within India. The local government has exclusive
authority over police, gas, education, hospitals, unemployment, land tenure and
the running of local government. The government of Jammu and Kashmir also has
the power to regulate movement of peoples to and from Jammu and Kashmir.

Northern Ireland
Northern Ireland is part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern
Ireland. Northern Ireland was the only region in Ireland that did not gain
independence following the 1916 Easter Uprising and the establishment of an Irish
Free State in 1921. Violence between separatist Catholics and unionist Protestants
has plagued the region. Attempts at reconciliation and accommodation intensified
in the mid-1980s and continued with little result until 1996. The negotiations
culminated in the 1998 Good Friday Agreement, which established a complex
governance system whereby different matters affecting the region are dealt with
by different governing institutions.

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Quebec
Quebec is a province of Canada. It is located between the Canadian province
Ontario to the west and the Canadian Maritime provinces to the east. Originally a
French colony founded in 1534, Quebec has a culture rooted in French language
and tradition. There is a significant percentage of the population who believe that
Quebec can only preserve its unique culture through independence from Canada.
Two referenda on Quebec's political status were held, first in 1980 and again in
1995. Neither received the required majority to trigger secession from Canada. In
1987, the Canadian government amended the Canadian constitution to give
greater powers to the Quebec provincial government. No concessions were made
to Quebec following the 1995 referendum, though it was narrowly defeated by a
vote of 50.6% against to 49.4% in favor of independence.

Scotland
Scotland is a distinct state within the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland. Scotland has been united with England and Wales in the United
Kingdom since the 1707 Act of Union. The Act of the Union provided that Scotland
would retain a separate legal system, church, national bank, currency and flag.
Additionally, Scotland was reserved a fixed percentage of representation in the
British Parliament and home rule in local government, education and social
functions. Following a 1997 Scottish referendum, the Scotland Act was passed in
1998, establishing a separate Scottish Parliament, the first since 1707. Under the
Act, the United Kingdom retained responsibility over foreign policy with Europe,
defense and national security, economic stability, common markets for goods,
employment legislation, social security and transport safety regulations. Scotland
has authority in all other areas.

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WORK SHEET 13

Do women in your country enjoy equal political rights and social status? Trace the struggle of
any of the women's movement for equal socio - economic and political rights that had taken
place in the country of your residence/ origin.

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WORK SHEET 14

Observe the given picture and answer the following questions:


1.

Identify the persons in the picture given above and mention what are they doing?

2.

What are human rights? Whose human rights are being talked about by the speaker in
the given picture? Why?

3.

Guess the reason for which nose of the speaker has stretched out.

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4.

Why should the government of a country be committed to the protection and


promotion of human rights?

5.

In what way the human rights are related to the concept of power sharing?

6.

Discuss the significance of human rights? How do they help in the development of one's
personality?

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WORKSHEET 15

Across
4. Armed conflict among communities of a country.
6. A belief that the majority community should rule.
11. Residents of Flemish region
12. Power Sharing among government organs at same level.
14. A decision made after proper calculation of losses, and gains.
15. Power sharing among social groups and communities.
16. Third type of government in Belgium.
Down
1. Did not get Citizenship rights in Sri Lanka.
2. Feeling among the Sri Lankan Tamils as a result of Majoritarianism.

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3.
5.
7.
8.
9.
10.
13.

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French majority area in Belgium.


Act passed in Sri Lanka in 1956.
Principle of accepting ethnic diversities.
Capital of Belgium
Government at different levels.
Majority community of Sri Lanka
Government formed by an alliance of two or more parties.

Eclipse Crossword
will guide you through the entire process of creating your first puzzle. Just click
Start, then Programs, and then Eclipse Crossword.
For more information, visit:
http://www.eclipsecrossword.com
2000-2005 Green Eclipse. Eclipse Crossword is protected by international
copyright treaties. For more information, please visit Their website.

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SOURCES & GENERAL REFERENCE:


l

NCERT Class X Political Science -Democratic Part II

Power Sharing as Peace Structure: The Case of Sri Lanka by JOHAN GALTUNG, 2005

IMPORTANT TERMS (NCERT, Democratic Politics part II, Class X)

Source for title/cover page image: http://www.abcey.com

IMPORTANT LINKS for Content and Images http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/.a/


6a00d8341c630a53ef0147e35877c4970b-320wi

http://www.anigalla.net/70mm/image.axd?picture=2009%2F6%2Flebanon_elections_
division.jpg

http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/.a/6a00d8341c630a53ef014e86d8c307970d-600wi

http://t3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTHIKgUNABLssMxP-wHv0a1jXjh9V4Zt
Pf9mYaM4GAqbJpB6uIL

http://newsimg.bbc.co.uk/media/images/41567000/jpg/_41567424_pokharaprotest1_
416bap.jpg

http://www.internationalrivers.org/files/images/Indienpakistanreise%20april06
%20024_0.preview.jpg

http://magnificentbihar.co.in/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/Narmada_Bachao_
Andolan.jpg

http://westorlandonews.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/01/equal-housing.jpg

http://ericredmond.files.wordpress.com/2009/05/civil_rights_march_cut.jpg

http://www.racismreview.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2009/01/icfi-poc.jpg

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/_REkgXByDyuU/S3Vbb22HedI/AAAAAAAAF_8/RKd0_
TqkEXY/ s400/aa14.jpg

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CBSE-i

STUDENTS' MANUAL

CLASS-X POLITICAL SCIENCE


UNIT-I Power Sharing

43

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