Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

(Final)

Jeremiah Lindemann Lisa Markham Robert Burke Janis Davis Thad Tilton

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI All rights reserved. Course version 3.2. Revised July 2004. Printed in the United States of America.

The information contained in this document is the exclusive property of ESRI. This work is protected under United States copyright law and the copyright laws of the given countries of origin and applicable international laws, treaties, and/or conventions. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying or recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, except as expressly permitted in writing by ESRI. All requests should be sent to Attention: Contracts Manager, ESRI, 380 New York Street, Redlands, CA 92373-8100, USA.

The information contained in this document is subject to change without notice.

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C O N T E N T S

1

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA
Welcome to Intro to Programming ArcObjects Logistics Course materials Course objectives Course timeline What is ArcGIS? Software support resources Learning paths VBA: Visual Basic for Applications What can ArcObjects do? Exercise options Exercise typographic conventions Exercise 1 overview Exercise 1: Install the class database 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-11 1-12 1-16 1-17 1-19

2

The VBA development environment
Lesson overview The VBA development environment ArcGIS commands Using the Customize dialog box The Customize dialog Using the Customize dialog box Creating a new command Setting control properties Accessing your customizations Storing your customizations Examining a control’s source code Demonstration Overview The Visual Basic Editor Understanding ArcMap software’s code storage Writing Visual Basic statements Some common Visual Basic functions Procedure types Running an event procedure 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-20 2-21 2-23 2-24

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Contents

Navigating event procedures in a module The ThisDocument module Creating a new module Creating a new sub or function procedure (macro) Defining procedure scope Running a subroutine or function procedure Adding a macro to a toolbar Getting help Exercise 2 overview Exercise 2: Explore the Visual Basic Editor

2-25 2-26 2-27 2-28 2-30 2-31 2-32 2-33 2-34

3

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?
Lesson overview Object-oriented programming Example: Object-oriented terms How: Visual Basic syntax Preset ArcObjects variables Automatic code completion Where: Controls, documents, and forms Working with forms Setting properties at design time Writing code for a form Using control properties at run time When: Form and control events When: Map document events Saving your work Exercise 3 overview Exercise 3: Create a user form 3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-9 3-11 3-13 3-14 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-20 3-22 3-23

4

Using variables
Lesson overview Variables Working with variables Dim (dimension) statement Assigning a value to a variable Function procedures Comparing values Decision making: The If Then statement 4-2 4-3 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-10 4-12 4-14

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Contents

Controlling If Then Decision making: The Select Case statement Levels of variable scope Procedure-level variables Module-level variables Public-level variables Static variables Exercise 4 overview Exercise 4A: Work with variable scope Exercise 4B: Create a guessing game

4-15 4-17 4-19 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-24 4-25

5

Programming with class
Lesson overview Class Classes and objects Class libraries ArcObjects Class Libraries Exploring class libraries with the Object Browser Object Browser icons Creating objects at design time Instantiating an object in code To Set or not to Set? Coding a class with Visual Basic Client and server environment Distributing your classes Demonstration: Creating a simple class Exercise 5 overview Exercise 5: Work with your own object 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5-7 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-17 5-18

6

COM before the storm
Lesson overview Introducing COM COM classes have interfaces Working with ArcObjects COM classes More on interfaces … Polymorphism ArcObjects polymorphism Using methods and properties 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-9

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Contents

Getting other interfaces Testing an object reference COM class code Using library names Using the ESRI Object Browser Demonstration: Creating a COM class Exercise 6 overview Exercise 6: Work with COM classes

6-10 6-12 6-14 6-16 6-17 6-18 6-19

7

Understanding object model diagrams
Lesson overview ArcObject object model diagrams Relationship symbols ArcMap objects Creatable Class (CoClass) Instantiable Class (Class) Abstract class Inheritance Property and method symbols Getting properties Setting properties Finding interfaces Wormholes Exercise 7A overview Exercise 7A: Navigating the object model diagrams Lesson overview Finding object model diagrams Finding the right OMD: Step 1 Finding the right OMD: Step 2 Finding the right OMD: Step 3 Finding the right OMD: Step 4 Where to begin? Getting into the OMD Example: MxDocument > Map > layer Exercise 7B overview Exercise 7B: Using the object model diagrams 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-14 7-15 7-16 7-17 7-18 7-19 7-20 7-21 7-22 7-23 7-24

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Contents

8

Maps and layers
Lesson overview Loop review Object model overview Accessing maps Looping through a collection of maps Managing flow in a loop Accessing layers Working with a map’s layers Looping through layers Working with layer properties Adding a new layer to a map Setting a FeatureLayer’s data source Exercise 8 overview Exercise 8: Working with maps and layers 8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5 8-6 8-7 8-8 8-9 8-10 8-11 8-12 8-13 8-14

9

Data access and creation
Lesson overview Data creation objects Opening an existing Workspace Connecting to an ArcSDE database Getting a FeatureDataset Getting FeatureClasses Pseudocode: Adding a data layer GxDialog Example: GxDialog Exercise 9A overview Exercise 9A: Create a layer from a shapefile Working with Name objects Creating a new Workspace Creating a new Table or FeatureClass Field and Fields classes IField and IFieldEdit Creating a Fields collection Creating a Table or FeatureClass Work with fields in a table Adding rows and values to a table Exercise 9B overview Exercise 9B: Creating data 9-2 9-3 9-5 9-7 9-8 9-9 9-10 9-11 9-12 9-13 9-14 9-15 9-17 9-18 9-19 9-20 9-21 9-23 9-24 9-26

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Contents

10

Geometry and geoprocessing
Lesson overview Geometry objects Feature geometry Points and multipoints Segments Polylines and polygons Envelopes Zooming in to a Feature Displaying features Geometry spatial operator interfaces ITopologicalOperator IRelationalOperator IProximityOperator Area and length Spatial reference Spatial reference OMD Exercise 10 overview Exercise 10: Use coordinate input to draw features 10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10 10-11 10-12 10-13 10-14 10-15 10-16 10-17 10-18

11

Working with subsets and selections
Lesson overview Object Model overview SelectionSet Cursors and FeatureCursors Creating a QueryFilter Returning a Search cursor SpatialFilter Three types of cursors Accessing records in a cursor Example: Summarizing a cursor’s attributes Review: Features and geometry Displaying a subset of features Exercise 11 overview Exercise 11: Working with subsets and selections 11-2 11-3 11-4 11-6 11-7 11-8 11-10 11-12 11-14 11-15 11-16 11-18 11-19

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Contents

12

Symbolizing elements and layers
Lesson overview Subclasses of Symbol Using color ColorRamps Creating simple graphic elements Example: Make a new element, set its symbol Defining an element’s position Adding an element to the map (or layout) FeatureRenderers SimpleRenderer UniqueValueRenderer ClassBreaksRenderer ScaleDependentRenderer Storing layers on disk GxLayer object Example: Saving a layer from ArcMap Exercise 12 overview Exercise 12: Symbolizing elements and layers 12-2 12-3 12-4 12-5 12-6 12-7 12-8 12-9 12-11 12-12 12-13 12-14 12-15 12-16 12-17 12-18 12-19

13

Working with layout elements (Optional)
Lesson overview Object Model overview Review: Elements FrameElements Example: Reference MapFrames on the layout Review: Subclasses of Symbol Review: Color classes The StyleGallery Getting style items from the gallery Example: Referencing an individual style item Getting the item Basic steps: Adding a map surround StyleSelector Printing a layout Exporting a layout Exercise 13 overview Exercise 13: Working with layout elements 13-2 13-3 13-4 13-5 13-6 13-7 13-8 13-9 13-10 13-11 13-12 13-13 13-14 13-15 13-16 13-17

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Contents

14

Using tools
Lesson overview Tool events Getting the user X and Y Display transformation Convert display coordinates to map units Example: Rubberbanding IGraphicsContainer Managing graphics Refreshing the display Partially refresh the display Exercise 14 overview: Choose one Exercise 14A: Create a tool to draw point graphics Exercise 14B: Create a Parcel Proximity tool 14-2 14-3 14-4 14-5 14-6 14-7 14-8 14-9 14-10 14-11 14-12

15

Data management
Lesson overview Name objects Object Model overview: Name classes Creating a DatasetName Data manipulation objects Converting feature classes Exercise 15A overview Exercise 15A: Data conversion Editing with a cursor Editing cursors Example: Updating misspelled attributes Adding a field Creating a domain Adding a domain to a database Assigning a domain to a field Exercise 15B overview Exercise 15B: Data management 15-2 15-3 15-4 15-5 15-6 15-7 15-8 15-9 15-10 15-12 15-13 15-14 15-15 15-16 15-17

16
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Application framework and events
Lesson overview Customizing the user interface CommandBars class 16-2 16-3 16-4

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Contents

Types of CommandBar objects Components of CommandBar: CommandItems Finding a CommandItem Finding an ArcGIS toolbar or menu Document events Example: Displaying a different context menu Displaying a new shortcut menu Creating new menus Creating commands to execute macros Updating the ArcID module Lesson overview Inbound and outbound interfaces Finding outbound interfaces Using an outbound interface Events supported by Map Capturing object events Coding object events Exercise 16 overview Exercise 16A: Program the user interface Exercise 16B: Coding ArcObjects events

16-5 16-6 16-7 16-8 16-9 16-10 16-11 16-12 16-13 16-14 16-15 16-16 16-17 16-18 16-19 16-20 16-21 16-22

17

ArcObjects beyond VBA
Lesson overview Visual Basic versus VBA Remember COM? Basic steps: Building a COM component 1) Create a new COM project 2) Create a COM class 3) Reference the appropriate libraries 4) Implement the required interface(s) Referencing the Application Example: Branching in a COM component 5) Compile your component DLL 6) Registering your COM component Where can COM components plug in? Resources for creating custom components Exercise 17 (Optional): Building a COM command Lesson overview ArcGIS Engine 17-2 17-3 17-4 17-5 17-6 17-7 17-8 17-9 17-11 17-12 17-13 17-14 17-15 17-17 17-18 17-19 17-20

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Contents

ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit Engine Runtime Why ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit? ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit resources Lesson overview ArcGIS Server Why ArcGIS Server? ArcGIS Server resources Exercise 17: Creating COM classes with Visual Basic (Optional)

17-21 17-22 17-23 17-24 17-25 17-26 17-27 17-28

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Course name goes here ModuleTitle

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA
Welcome Logistics Course materials Course objectives Course timeline What is ArcGIS? Software support resources Learning paths VBA: Visual Basic for Applications What can ArcObjects do? Exercise options Exercise typographic conventions Exercise 1 overview 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-7 1-8 1-9 1-11 1-12 1-16 1-17 1-19

contents

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-1

Welcome to Intro to Programming ArcObjects
Instructor introduction Student introductions
Name Organization Role in organization Programming experience GIS experience Goals and expectations for this class

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-2

Welcome to Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA. Prerequisites: Introductions to Visual Basic for ESRI software (Virtual Campus course) Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA is a five day course, consisting of approximately 40 hours of class time. The course uses instructor-led lectures and demonstrations in conjunction with hands-on programming exercises. You should expect to spend most of your class time engaged in writing Visual Basic code for the ArcMap and ArcCatalog applications.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-2

Logistics
Daily schedule
Start _______________ Lunch _______________ Finish _______________

Facilities
Refreshments and break area Restrooms Telephones and messages Internet access Student ID badges Parking

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-3

Daily schedule Under normal conditions, the class will begin each day at 8:30 a.m. and continue until 5:00 p.m. There will be at least one break in the morning and one in the afternoon. You will generally be given one hour for lunch. Facilities Your instructor will provide information regarding the facilities. Internet access Some training facilities provide Internet access for your use during class. ESRI® regards Internet access as an essential business resource for classroom demos, exercises, arranging travel, and maintaining contact with your office. Please limit your use of the Internet to business activities only and, as a courtesy to your classmates, refrain from typing or surfing during lecture presentations.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-3

Course materials
Books
Lecture Exercise

CDs
Course data Samples

ESRI
Training Data

Online course evaluation
http://classeval.esri.com Requires Course Identification Number

Software evaluation
E-mail enhancement requests to product teams
desktop_comments@esri.com

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-4

Teaching methods Research indicates that students learn differently. This course maximizes your learning experience by combining instructor-led lectures and discussions, demonstrations, computerbased exercises, and review questions. Class materials Your class materials include lecture and exercise course books, and Object Model Diagrams. These are yours to take home, so feel free to write in them. Included at the back of your exercise book is a CD that contains all the data required for the course. Here you will find all the map documents, data, and solution code used for each exercise. You will also find over 100 different code samples that are not described or used during the course, but that you might find useful when you begin to write your own applications. The class data CD contains all the data sets you will work with during class. A second CD contains the ArcSDE 8.1 for SQL Server software, which you will install later today. Course evaluation Your feedback improves ESRI’s courses. At the end of the week, please evaluate the following: • Instructor • Course materials • Teaching facilities • Overall course

Software evaluation If you have access to a Web-based e-mail account during class, you can send comments about the software directly to the product development teams. Your comments directly influence enhancements to ESRI products, so please let us know what you think.
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Introduction 1-4

Course objectives
Reinforce VBA programming techniques Build VBA Applications with ArcObjects
Understand Object Oriented Programming Gain familiarity with COM classes Interpret ArcObject Object Model Diagrams Gain comfort in programming with some of the commonly used ArcObjects

Ask questions and participate in discussions

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-5

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA is a five day course that focuses on the concepts of the component object model (COM), object oriented programming, and understanding the ArcObject object model. Although no prior experience with Visual Basic (VB) is assumed, the introductory portion of the course moves very quickly. Fundamental VB topics are covered in the first couple of lessons, and then applied (and thus reinforced) throughout the week. You will learn to program through a combination of instructor-led lectures and hands-on programming exercises. You should expect to spend the majority (approximately 60%) of your class time writing Visual Basic code. Later in the week, your instructor will give you time to experiment on your own, either by choosing a programming task from a set of workshop exercises in Appendix B, or by tackling your own programming problem. By the end of the course, you can expect to have a solid understanding of the VBA development environment. You will be able to modify the user interface, design VB user forms, and write applications that enhance or extend the functionality of ArcGIS.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-5

Course timeline
Day 1 VBA Skills Working with Classes

Day 2

COM Classes Reading OMDs Maps and Layers Selections and Subsets

Day 3

Day 4

Symbolizing layers Data management

Day 5

Application framework ArcObjects beyond VBA
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

1-6

Day 1 Lesson 1: Introduction Lesson 2: The VBA Environment Break Lesson 3: Visual Basic code: How, where, when? LUNCH Lesson 4: Using Variables

Day 2 Lesson 6: Working with COM

Day 3 Lesson 9A: Data access and creation

Day 4 Lesson 12: Layer Rendering

Day 5 Lesson 15B: Data Management

Break Lesson 7A: Understanding Object Model Diagrams LUNCH Lesson 7B: Understanding Object Model Diagrams Break Lesson 8: Maps & Layers

Break Lesson 9B: Data access and creation

Break Lesson 13: Working with Layout Elements LUNCH Lesson 14: Using Tools

Break Lesson 16A: Application Framework

LUNCH Lesson 10: Working With Geometry

LUNCH Lesson 16B: Events

Break Lesson 5: Programming with Class

Break Lesson 11: Subsets and Selections

Break Lesson 15A: Data Management

Break Lesson 17: ArcObjects beyond VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-6

What is ArcGIS?
E X T E N S I O N S ArcGIS Desktop
ArcInfo ArcInfo ArcEditor ArcEditor

ArcGIS Engine
Custom Custom application application

ArcGIS clients

E X T E N S I O N S

ArcReader ArcReader

ArcView ArcView

ArcPad ArcPad

Web Web browser browser

Components

ArcObjects ArcObjects Network ArcGIS Server ArcGIS Server ArcIMS ArcIMS ArcSDE ArcSDE

Application/Data servers

RDBMS
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-7

ArcGIS is the name used to identify ESRI’s flagship family of GIS products. ArcGIS® includes ArcGIS client software, components, and application and data server software. ArcGIS itself is not a GIS application; rather, it is a set of software products for building ArcGIS systems that best suit your GIS needs. ArcGIS is based on a common library of shared GIS software components, called ArcObjects™. ArcGIS is composed of client and server applications. Each software application can create, manage, analyze, and serve data stored in one or more formats. •ArcGIS Desktop: Integrated suite of advanced GIS applications consisting of three software products: ArcView®, ArcEditor™, and ArcInfo®. The ArcGIS Desktop applications provide the same core mapping, editing, and analysis functionality. The level of functionality available differs depending on which license you have. ArcInfo provides users with the most complete level of GIS functionality. It is composed of ArcInfo Desktop and ArcInfo Workstation. •ArcReader™: Allows users to view high-quality published maps (PMFs) created in ArcMap™. •ArcGIS Engine: Developer toolkit of embeddable GIS components for building custom stand-alone applications using COM, C++, Java, and .NET. •ArcPad®: Used with PDAs for creating and managing data while in the field. •ArcGIS Server: A shared library of GIS software objects used to build and develop serverside GIS applications in enterprise and Web computing frameworks. •ArcIMS®: Used to publish maps, data, and metadata through open Internet protocols. •ArcSDE®: Manages and serves spatial information from external RDBMs to ArcGIS clients. For more information, go to http://www.esri.com/software/index.html.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

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Software support resources
ESRI Support Center a gateway to resources
http://support.esri.com

Knowledge Base
Technical articles White papers System requirements

Downloads
Patches and service packs Data models ArcScripts

For Developers
Developer resources

User Forums
Discussion groups E-mail lists
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Request ESRI Technical Support
Available to support subscribers
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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ESRI’s primary resource for software support is the ESRI Support Center at http://support.esri.com. Knowledge Base The Knowledge Base is a searchable database of focused technical articles. It includes answers to frequently asked questions, step-by-step directions for performing common tasks, and workarounds for known software limitations. The Knowledge Base also contains topicfocused white papers organized by product, system requirement information, and product documentation. Downloads Obtain the latest software correction, software and code samples, utilities, tutorials, user contributed scripts and sample code (ArcScripts), data models, and evaluation software from ESRI’s Download page. User Forums In the user forums, you can ask questions, provide answers, and exchange ideas with other ESRI product users. Resources include several discussion forums, and two subscription e-mail discussion lists moderated by ESRI. ArcView-L is for ArcView users, and ESRI-L is for users of all other ESRI products. For Developers This page is for ESRI’s developer community. It provides the latest developer information, including sample code, technical documents, and object model diagrams for ESRI’s developer products.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

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Learning paths
http://www.esri.com/training_events.html

Learning Guide
Learning paths organized by software and topic

Learning options
Instructor-led courses Virtual Campus courses Training seminars Web workshops

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-9

Depending on which ESRI software your organization has licensed, your skills, and your plans for upcoming projects, you may benefit from additional training on advanced topics, on specialized software, or on background topics to refine your understanding of GIS and related technologies. Detailed information about Instructor-led and Web-based courses—including a list of topics covered, intended audience, duration, schedules, and pricing—is available in the ESRI Course Catalog. You can access this catalog on the Web at http://www.esri.com/training/index.html. On the ESRI Training Web site, you can also find information about new courses developed since the course catalog was printed. Web-based courses offer convenience and savings. Also, many ESRI Virtual Campus courses include a free lesson, called a module. You can create a free account and begin training with these free modules within minutes at http://campus.esri.com. In addition to Web-based courses, the Virtual Campus also offers free live training seminars, training seminars, and Web workshops. Live training seminars are focused lectures on a variety of GIS topics for all levels of users. Consult the Virtual Campus for upcoming topics, dates, and times. Training seminars are free recordings of live training seminars, viewable at your convenience. Workshops are recordings of live training seminars, viewable at your convenience, plus printable slides of the presentation, questions and answers from the live training seminar, a software exercise with accompanying data, an optional exam to assess understanding, and a certificate for successfully completing the exam.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-9

Learning paths
Foundation
i

Extensions Learning ArcGIS I ArcSDE Databases Many Others

Introduction to ArcGIS I

W

Customization / Programming Introduction to Visual Basic for ESRI software Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Advanced Customization / Programming Extending the ArcGIS Desktop Applications

W

i

i

Other ArcObjects/VBA Resources Virtual Campus VBA Workshop Series Getting to Know ArcObjects
i

W

B

Developing Applications with ArcGIS Engine

i

Developing Applications with ArcGIS Server
1-10

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Courses identified with the i symbol occur in a classroom with an instructor. The W symbol indicates Web-based courses available on the ESRI Virtual Campus at http://campus.esri.com. The B indicates a book from ESRI press available at http://gis.esri.com/esripress/display/index.cfm. Students taking this course (Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA) are expected to have a least a basic understanding of programming languages. The Web based course Visual Basic for ESRI Software will provide sufficient information for taking this course. ESRI’s Virtual Campus also has a 4 part VBA Workshop Series that introduces you to to the VBA environment, also a sufficient prerequisite for this course. You may also find the ESRI press book, Getting to Know ArcObjects to be an excellent resource to get start with ArcObjects and a valuable resource even as you become more proficient with using ArcObjects. After completing Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA, you may want to further your knowledge by taking advanced ArcObjects courses. This course is a prerequisite to the advanced ArcObjects courses that ESRI provides. The subject matter of these advanced courses will be discussed on the following slides and the last section in this course..

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-10

VBA: Visual Basic for Applications
Evolution of software customization languages VBA: Single programming language and development environment embedded within an application
Past
Applications had separate customization languages Application Access ArcView® Word ArcInfo Programming Language Access Basic Avenue™ Word Basic AML

Future Now
Applications can share one customization environment Application Programming Language

Access ArcView Word ArcInfo
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

VBA

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

1-11

Visual Basic for Applications The VBA development environment consists of two primary tools: the Customize dialog box for interactively modifying the user interface, and the Visual Basic Editor for creating user forms and for writing, testing, and debugging Visual Basic code. Because VBA is the industry standard, there are two big advantages to programming in this environment. First, if you are familiar with using VBA in a particular application, you will find it very similar (sometimes nearly identical) in other applications that support it. Second, you will be able to (easily) use object libraries between applications. When developing an application for Power Point, for example, you might choose to embed objects from the ArcObject library (or vice versa). Other applications that use the VBA development environment Microsoft Office: Excel, PowerPoint, Word, and so on. Visio Corel WordPerfect Office 2000 Corel Draw 9 AutoCAD MYOB Accounting (Accounting package for small businesses) Micrografx iGrafx series (Business graphics) OmniTrader (Securities tracking and analysis ) Many others …

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-11

What can ArcObjects do?
Use VBA to extend ArcMap/ArcCatalog Create custom user forms, buttons and tools Automate workflows Subject of this course

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-12

Using VBA to extend ArcMap/ArcCatalog Both ArcMap and ArcCatalog come with Visual Basic for Applications (VBA). VBA provides an integrated programming environment and the Visual Basic Editor. VBA is an excellent way to create custom commands. You can create a new button, tool, combo box, or edit box (all referred to as UIControls), then attach code to the control’s events. Once you have your custom control created, you can drag it to any toolbar. Macros can also be created which can be executed from the Tools toolbar. By creating the UIControls and Macros you can build sophisticated ArcGIS applications for the user to interact with and automate workflows. All of these concepts will be covered in this course.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-12

What can ArcObjects do?
Use stand alone programming language to extend Desktop applications and geodatabase Create custom components to enhance functionality Extending the ArcGIS Desktop Applications Command Command Edit Task Edit Task

Table of Contents Tab Table of Contents Tab

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-13

Extending ArcGIS Desktop Applications In some cases, you will want to extend ArcGIS Desktop outside of VBA. You can create custom objects that plug into ArcGIS Desktop with any programming language that supports the Microsoft Component Object Model (COM), such as Visual Basic 6.0 or Microsoft Visual Basic .NET. Custom commands or toolbars created outside VBA are often distributed as ActiveX DLLs. If you have created custom commands and toolbars, you can distribute these as ActiveX DLLs and easily add these objects to ArcMap or ArcCatalog. This will put the code into a binary version of the object so the end user will never see the source code. Components can be broadly categorized into two areas of customization: those that reside at the application level, such as custom buttons, toolbars, windows and extensions, and those that reside at the geodatabase level, such as custom feature class extensions and custom features. Some of these more advanced customizations cannot be accomplished through the VBA environment. The information on this subject matter is discussed in the Extending the ArcGIS Desktop Applications instructor-led course.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-13

What can ArcObjects do?
Use the ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit to build custom applications Developing Applications with ArcGIS Engine
Windows Example

Java Example
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-14

The ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit The ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit allows developers to create custom applications that can be deployed to machines that do not currently have ArcGIS Desktop installed. It provides the developer with many resources to complete their development task. The ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit is not a product for end users. It is strictly for people who are developing applications. As a developer, you can build applications based on ArcGIS Engine and deliver those programs to end users. The ArcGIS Engine supports a variety of developer languages including COM, .NET, JAVA, and C++, which allows applications to be deployed on different platforms. The information on this subject matter is discussed in the Developing Applications with ArcGIS Engine instructor-led course.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-14

What can ArcObjects do?
Use ArcGIS Server to build custom Web-based applications Developing Applications with ArcGIS Server
Geodatabase Editing

Network Tracing
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-15

ArcGIS Server ArcGIS Server allows you to build custom Web-based applications, exposing ArcObjects through the Internet or LAN (Local Area Network). ArcGIS Server is a GIS enterprise application server that provides complete GIS capabilities throughout an organization while maintaining a centrally managed database. Mapping, geocoding, spatial queries, editing, tracing and linear referencing are all examples of applications that developers can build using ArcGIS Server. These applications can be consumed by browser-based clients, custom applications built with ArcGIS Engine, and ArcGIS Desktop. ArcGIS Server will support all common development environments (Java, .NET, C++, COM) and all major server platforms. The information on this subject matter is discussed in the Developing Applications with ArcGIS Server instructor-led course.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-15

Exercise options
Exercise shortcut

Full exercise steps

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-16

Exercise shortcut Appearing at the beginning of an exercise, the exercise shortcut summarizes the steps found in the main exercise. Each shortcut step corresponds with the same step number in the main exercise. Exercise shortcuts are ideal for those students who have had some experience with the software and want to be challenged by trying to complete the step without detailed explanation. Of course, if you cannot complete the shortcut step, you can refer to the main exercise for more detail. Full exercise steps The main exercise steps provide detail on how to complete each task. If you are new to the software, follow the full exercise steps.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-16

Exercise typographic conventions
Action Descriptive text

Note

Control name

Warning Question with hint
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Keyboard input

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Before you begin your first exercise, you need to recognize the typographic conventions used in your exercise coursebook. Descriptive text This text can provide an overview of the next sequence of actions, a review of actions just completed, or an interpretation of output on your computer monitor. Descriptive text may introduce what is about to happen with phrases like “Next, create a new map in ArcMap”; the actual instruction follows, indicated by the checkbox symbol. Action Actions are tasks—like starting an application, clicking a button, or typing a command—that you must perform during the exercise. The square checkbox symbol indicates an action; act only on instructions that are prefaced with the checkbox symbol. You can mark the checkbox symbol in your exercise coursebook as you complete each task. This is especially helpful when shifting your attention between your book and your computer monitor. Control name Names of objects on your monitor with which you interact are italicized in your exercise coursebook. These include windows, menus, and buttons. Many buttons reveal their names when you hold your mouse pointer over them.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-17

Note Paragraphs prefaced with Note: provide inconsequential information, such as an optional way to perform an action or platform-specific syntax for a script. Warning The large exclamation point symbol and bold text signals critical information for performing the next action. Warnings may alert you to a subtle syntactical rule in a command you will type or inform you that the next button you click will produce an error intentionally. If you have questions about a warning, ask your instructor for clarification before proceeding. Keyboard input Text you need to type—like commands in a Command Prompt, entering a file name in a Save dialog, and pressing Ctrl + Alt + Delete—appears in bold, constantly-spaced font. Question with hint Questions require you to record answers in your course book. Questions are renumbered within each exercise and may be followed by a hint. Sometimes the answer to one question depends on your answer to a previous one. Courses that use this teaching technique extensively will include an exercise worksheet as an appendix in your lecture course book, enabling you to record all answers on the worksheet for easier cross-referencing. Answers to questions immediately follow each exercise.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-18

Exercise 1 overview
Install the class data

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-19

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-19

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1-20

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction

1-20

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment
Lesson overview The VBA development environment ArcGIS commands Using the Customize dialog box The Customize dialog Using the Customize dialog box Creating a new command Setting control properties Accessing your customizations Storing your customizations Examining a control’s source code Demonstration Overview The Visual Basic Editor Understanding ArcMap software’s code storage 2-3 2-4 2-5 2-6 2-8 2-9 2-10 2-11 2-13 2-14 2-15 2-16 2-17 2-19 2-21 2-23 2-24

2-25 2-26 2-27 2-28 2-30

2-31 2-32 2-33 2-34

contents

2-2

Writing Visual Basic statements Some common Visual Basic functions Procedure types Running an event procedure Navigating event procedures in a module The ThisDocument module Creating a new module Creating a new sub or function procedure (macro) Defining procedure scope Running a subroutine or function procedure Adding a macro to a toolbar Getting help Exercise 2 overview

2-20

The VBA development environment

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-1

Lesson overview
The VBA development environment Customize dialog box
Create new toolbars and commands Add, delete, and move commands Set control properties

Storing and distributing customizations Visual Basic Editor
Code storage Modules Procedures

Visual Basic statements
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-2

Lecture 2 overview In this lesson, you will learn about the VBA development environment. This environment consists of the Customize dialog box, which is used to modify the ArcMap or ArcCatalog graphical user interface, and the Visual Basic Editor, which is used to write VBA procedures (macros). The first half of this lesson will discuss the Customize dialog box. You will learn how to modify the ArcMap and ArcCatalog user interface by (1) adding new toolbars, (2) adding existing ArcGIS commands, (3) removing existing commands from toolbars and menus, (4) altering command properties (e.g., icon), and (5) creating custom interface controls. You will also learn how to store and distribute your customizations. The last half of this lesson will teach you how to use the Visual Basic Editor.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-2

The VBA development environment
Similar environment for all applications that use VBA
Customize dialog box: Interface customization Visual Basic Editor: Writing code
Customize dialog box Visual Basic Editor

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-3

The VBA development environment consists of two parts: the Customize dialog box for modifying the user interface and the Visual Basic Editor for writing code. An advantage of using VBA that you will soon discover is that several applications use the VBA development environment for customization. While these environments are not identical, they are very similar. All Microsoft Office products, for example, will have a Customize dialog box that allows you to add, remove, and rearrange interface controls. All of these applications will have a Visual Basic Editor for writing macros or designing forms. Once you are familiar with the ArcGIS™ VBA development environment, your skills will be portable to several other applications. Customize dialog box The Customize dialog box is a powerful tool that allows you to customize ArcMap and ArcCatalog without writing a single line of code. You can create, add, move, and remove toolbars and commands, and even add tools others have created. Visual Basic Editor The Visual Basic Editor provides an interface for creating forms and writing code. It also provides several utilities for debugging and getting help that will be discussed throughout this course.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-3

ArcGIS commands
Toolbars and menus contain commands Commands are buttons, menus, macros, and UIControls Each command has associated code
Toolbar Toolbar

Commands Commands

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-4

ArcMap and ArcCatalog have toolbars that contain commands (i.e., controls). Commands are things such as buttons and menus, macros (Visual Basic procedures), and UIControls (user interface controls). UIControls are custom controls that an ArcGIS VBA developer can add to the interface to perform specialized tasks. There are four types of UIControls: UIButtonControls, UIToolControls, UIEditBoxControls, and UIComboBoxControls. COM commands are similar to UIControls, except they are stored in DLL, EXE (executable), or similar files and are created by a developer in a full-scale programming environment such as Visual Basic or C++. Users interact with commands by clicking, typing, selecting, or applying, depending on the type of control. Behind each control, there is associated code that will execute in response to user interaction. As a developer of a UIControl, you can write code to respond to button clicks, mouse interaction (mouse button down, mouse button up, mouse move), and keyboard typing. While the Customize dialog box is open, you can reorganize commands by dragging and dropping them to a new location on a toolbar or menu. You can even drag them between toolbars and menus or remove them altogether.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-4

Using the Customize dialog box
Open the dialog to put the interface in design mode With the Customize dialog box open, you can …
Rearrange or remove existing commands Add new toolbars and commands Change command properties

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-5

In the ArcMap and ArcCatalog Customize dialog box, you will find utilities for adding new toolbars, menus, and commands to the user interface. You may want to simply modify some of the existing commands by rearranging them or changing their icon, for example. Regardless of the interface customization you want to make, however, you always need to start by opening the Customize dialog box. While the Customize dialog box is open, the user interface is in design mode, which means clicking on commands will not execute them but will instead allow you to rearrange them or change their properties. Once you are satisfied with the interface customizations you have made, close the Customize dialog box to begin working with the controls.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-5

The Customize dialog
Three tabs (panels)
Toolbars: Turn toolbars on or off, create new toolbars Commands: Drag new commands onto the interface Options: Lock customization with a password, etc.

A
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-6

The Customize dialog has three panels: Toolbars, Commands, and Options. The Toolbars and Commands tabs are the ones you will use to modify the user interface, while the Options tab provides some control over basic customization options. Toolbars On the Toolbars tab of the Customize dialog, you have the ability to work with existing toolbars by turning them on or off, renaming them, or deleting them. If you make a mistake while customizing the interface, you can also reset an individual toolbar to its original state by selecting it in the Customize dialog and clicking Reset. You may also use the Customize dialog to create brand new toolbars. When creating a new toolbar, you will be prompted for a name and a location in which to save it (more about storing customizations later). A new toolbar will be nothing more than a small gray box; to add commands to a new toolbar, use the Commands tab. Commands The Commands tab on the Customize dialog box contains all existing ArcMap or ArcCatalog commands (depending on which application you are customizing). Commands can be dragged from the Customize dialog onto a toolbar as a button or onto a menu as a menu choice.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

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Options The Options tab on the Customize dialog box allows you to control some basic properties of your customization development environment. Lock Customization: Clicking this will allow you to provide a password to protect your customizations. When a user tries to access the Customize dialog box or the Visual Basic Editor, he or she will be required to provide the password. Change VBA Security: Viruses may be distributed in a macro within a document, template, or add-in. When you open such a document or perform an action that triggers a macro virus, the macro virus might be activated, transmitted to your computer, and stored in your Normal template. The levels of security are described in the Security dialog box to reduce the chances of macro viruses infecting your documents, templates, or add-ins. Update ArcID module: All commands in ArcGIS have a unique identifier (UID) that allows a programmer to easily reference it in code. This ID is stored in a special document called the ArcID module. Update this module to write unique identifiers for custom interface commands (DLLs you have added from file) to the ArcID module.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-7

Using the Customize dialog box
Commands are organized into categories All ArcMap or ArcCatalog commands are here
Some that are not on the interface by default

Drag commands onto toolbars or menus

Command Categories Commands

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-8

As mentioned earlier, the Customize dialog box contains all ArcMap or ArcCatalog commands. These commands are available on the Commands tab and are organized into categories. By highlighting a category on the left side of the dialog, you will see all commands in the category listed on the right. Some familiar categories are things like Selection, Pan/Zoom, and File. You will also find categories for Visual Basic procedures you write yourself (Macros), for creating new menus (New Menu), and for creating new custom controls (UIControls). Because many of the commands you find here are not found on the default (outof-the-box) ArcGIS interface, you might find a few gems here: functionality that you did not know existed. Once you locate a command you want to add to the interface, you can select the command in the dialog and drag it to a toolbar as a button or onto a menu as a menu choice. You need to be careful, however, as controls that require user interaction will not work as menu choices, and some commands only work as context menu choices (e.g., layer properties).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-8

Creating a new command
UIControls category
User-created commands

Four types
Button Tool EditBox ComboBox

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-9

Creating new commands (user interface controls) The Customize dialog box contains controls you develop yourself in a category called UIControls. You can add these commands to the user interface by dragging them onto a toolbar or menu, just as you would any ArcGIS command. To create a new UIControl, click New UIControl and choose one of the four types described below. • UIButtonControl: a simple button or menu choice. • UIToolControl: use to create a tool. Differs from a button in that the developer has access to mouse and keyboard input while the tool is selected. • UIEditBoxControl: a text line (on a toolbar or menu) that allows the user to type some input. • UIComboBoxControl: a pulldown list that allows the user to choose existing items (text) or to type his or her own. Once you have created one of these controls, the next step would be to write the Visual Basic code behind the control user events (button clicks, mouse, keyboard, etc.) that make it work. Adding custom commands from file Custom commands are ActiveX controls or libraries stored as OLB, TLB, EXE, OCX, and DLL files. You can add these custom commands from the Customize dialog box by clicking Add From File. Once you add a custom control from file, it will be placed in the appropriate category in the Customize dialog box (sometimes a new category is created). Just like the other controls in the dialog, you must then drag the command to the desired location on the interface. Note: These controls would have been developed in a standalone programming environment such as Visual Basic or C++, and cannot be created in VBA.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-9

Setting control properties
Customize dialog box must be open Right-click a control to view and change properties Characteristics that define appearance
Name Image Display text or image Begin a group

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-10

Command properties While the Customize dialog is open, the user interface is in design mode. To access command properties, simply right-click on a command and use the context (popup) menu that appears. With the dialog open, you can modify the following command properties. Name The text that appears for a command if Text Only or Image and Text is chosen for display. Changing the Name property does not affect how the command is referred to in code. Button image You can choose a new icon for any command (including menu choices) by selecting one from the menu or browsing to one of your own. If you create your own image, it must be a bitmap (.bmp) that is 16 x 16 pixels. Text and image There are three ways in which a command can be displayed on a toolbar: Text only (see the Name property described above), Image only, or both Image and Text. Menu commands (choices) may be displayed as Text or Image and Text; you may not use the Image only choice for menu choices. Groups Beginning a group adds a separator line to the left of the selected control. Use groups to visually organize related commands.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-10

Accessing your customizations
ArcMap has three levels of storage Templates are read in order on startup
Affects all documents Affects all documents using this template Affects this document Normal Template

Base Template

This Document

ArcCatalog only uses the Normal template

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-11

Templates In ArcMap, there are three levels at which you can store your customizations: the Normal template (Normal.mxt), an intermediate (or base) template (*.mxt), and the current map document (*.mxd). Each level of customization is represented by a document. Upon opening a map, these documents are read from top to bottom in the graphic above in order to incorporate customizations from all levels. The read order is important because changes in one template can affect other templates and the current map. For example, the Normal template may have the AddData command turned off, but a base template may turn on the AddData command. Normal template The Normal templates contain all the original ArcMap (Normal.mxt) and ArcCatalog (Normal.gxt) graphical user interface (GUI) settings. Every time an application starts, the Normal template is read. The Normal templates are stored in the user’s Windows NT Profiles directory for Windows NT or in the user’s Documents and Settings directory for Windows 2000 and XP. Each user can have different customizations stored in the Normal templates even if they are running the same installation of ArcGIS. In ArcCatalog, all customizations are stored in the Normal.gxt template. If the Normal template is deleted, it is re-created when the application starts. Base template Base templates allow you to store map elements for the creation of standard maps. When initially creating a new ArcMap map document, you can choose to base your map on a template. While there are several predefined base templates that come with ArcGIS, you can actually save any map document as a template (*.mxt). Templates can also store customizations, which will apply to all maps subsequently produced from them.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

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Map document The most local level of customization is the map document itself (*.mxd). Customizations stored in the map are available only in that particular document. The map document is the last document to be read when opening a map, so customizations at this level can override ones defined in the Normal or Base templates.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

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Storing your customizations
All customizations are saved
Normal template, Base template, or the current document

Current map overrides any templates
For example, controls can be added or removed

Save in:
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Normal.mxt

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-13

All ArcMap customizations are stored at one of the three levels described on the last slide. Everything from new Visual Basic forms and programs to simply changing a command’s image is saved in Normal.mxt, a base template (*.mxt), or with the current map document (*.mxd). When a map is opened, these three documents are read in the following order. Normal template The Normal template is always read first when opening a map. Because the Normal template is stored in the Windows user profiles directory, customizations stored here are global to a specific login. If the Normal template does not exist when ArcMap or ArcCatalog is started, an out-of-the-box version is re-created. As a precaution, you should make periodic backups of the Normal template if you are storing a lot of customizations there. Base template Base templates are designed primarily to store a set of map layout elements, such as north arrows, scale bars, and base layers, to aid in the production of standard maps. These templates may also contain customizations such as specialized controls or scripts. As an example, your organization might work with parcel maps that all have a custom property value calculator control inherited from their common template. Maps that were not produced from this template would not have the custom control. Current map If customizations are saved in a map document, they will only be available in that particular document. For example, you might have a map document that contains sensitive information such as archaeological site locations. You could protect this particular document with a custom startup routine that prompts for a password when the map document is opened.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-13

Examining a control’s source code
Commands have events (e.g., Click, Double-click, MouseUp, KeyDown, KeyUp) Code runs when its corresponding event occurs

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-14

Control source code The code behind a command is called the source code or sometimes simply the source. By right-clicking on a custom control (UIControl or Macro) and choosing View Source, you can view (and edit) its source code. Because the existing ArcGIS commands have been compiled as DLLs (and were written in C++ anyway), you cannot view or edit an existing command’s source code. Code window When you first create a UIControl, it only knows how to be a control but has no real code to make it work. It other words, if it is a button it will click like any other button, if it is an edit box it will allow you to type text in it, and so on. It will have all the properties of a control (such as an image and a name) but will not do anything when it’s interacted with. To add functionality to a control, you can choose View Source as shown above to access the control’s associated code document (module). Once you are in the control’s code module, you can write Visual Basic programs that are associated with user events (e.g., a button click).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-14

Demonstration
Using the Customize dialog box to …
Create a new toolbar Add existing commands to the interface Rearrange interface commands Create a new UIControl Change command properties Reset a toolbar to its original appearance

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-15

Demonstration: Using the Customize dialog box Your instructor will now use the Customize dialog box to perform some of the simple user interface customizations discussed in this lecture.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-15

Overview
The VBA development environment Customize dialog box
Create new toolbars and commands Add, delete, and move commands Set control properties

Storing and distributing customizations Visual Basic Editor
Code storage Modules Procedures

Visual Basic statements
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-16

The first half of this lecture introduced you to the Customize dialog box. While the Customize dialog is used to modify the user interface and to add new controls, the Visual Basic Editor is where you write code to make new controls work. You can also use the Visual Basic Editor to produce standalone programs (macros) and user forms. In this half of the lecture, you will learn how to access and use the Visual Basic Editor, how code is stored and organized in ArcMap and ArcCatalog, as well as some basic VB-related terminology (e.g., module, procedure, macro). Finally, you will learn to write Visual Basic statements and how to use some simple Visual Basic functions.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-16

The Visual Basic Editor
Project Explorer

Projects

Code Modules
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Procedures
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-17

Working with the Visual Basic Editor The Visual Basic Editor is where you will write code and design user forms. There are several utilities here for writing, testing, and debugging your VB programs. Before looking at VB editing utilities, let’s examine how code is organized in the Editor. Project Explorer The Visual Basic Project Explorer window organizes all code written for a particular ArcMap document or for the ArcCatalog application into three kinds of projects: the Normal template, a base template (if one is referenced), and the current project, also known as your currently opened map document. Use the Project Explorer to access all available Visual Basic programs. Projects Projects are like root directories that organize several subfolders of code documents. In ArcMap, the projects define the level of customization for code you write (Normal versus the current document). When developing in ArcCatalog, the Normal template will be the only project listed in the Project Explorer. In ArcMap, you will also have the current map document and perhaps a base template project. Modules A module is simply a document that contains code. In the Visual Basic Editor, you can work with three types of modules: form, standard, and class. The details of these three module types will be described later.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

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Procedures Procedures are sometimes referred to as macros. They are nothing more than blocks of code you will write as a Visual Basic programmer. There are three kinds of procedures: event, subroutine, and function. The example above shows the Project Explorer organizing two projects (Normal.mxt and Malaysia.mxd). There are two open modules shown (as shown in the Project Explorer, Malaysia.mxd contains 6 modules total). The module in the foreground contains three procedures, and the one in the background contains one, which consists of a single statement (MsgBox …).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

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Understanding ArcMap software’s code storage
Project Explorer: Organizes projects (levels of customization) Project: Folder that stores modules (e.g., Normal.mxt) Module: Document that stores code Procedure: A block of code (e.g., macros) Statement: A line of code
Module Module

Procedure Procedure

{

Statements Statements

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-19

Components of ArcGIS VBA code storage All code written for an ArcMap document or for ArcCatalog can be accessed from the Visual Basic Editor’s Project Explorer window. The Project Explorer organizes all projects that might contain Visual Basic code, and these projects are analogous to the levels of customization discussed earlier (Normal template, base template, map document). By using the Project Explorer, you can access existing code documents (or modules) stored with the document or application, or create new ones. Visual Basic code always lives inside a module, which is nothing more than a document for writing code. Modules, in turn, consist of procedures, which are VB programs (macros). The smallest unit of Visual Basic code that can be executed is the statement. Statements are simply lines of code. Compact disk analogy The code organized in the Visual Basic Editor is like your music collection. The Project Explorer is the rack that contains all your compact disks. To access any of your music, you must start at the CD rack. Just as the Project Explorer may have several Projects, your music rack may have several sets of CDs: your CDs and your spouse’s, for example. Each CD in turn contains several songs, just like a code module may contain several procedures. Individual songs are composed of lines of lyrics, just as procedures are built from lines of code.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

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Writing Visual Basic statements
Carry out actions Written inside procedures May have arguments
Multiple arguments are separated with commas Some arguments are optional
Private Sub ShowMsgBox() Beep MsgBox "ESRI" End Sub

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2-20

Statements The smallest unit of Visual Basic code that can be executed is a statement. Statements are simply lines of code, and each statement carries out some simple action. Statements, therefore, are the building blocks for constructing sub procedures and functions. Although individual statements can be executed in the Immediate window, for practical purposes all statements will exist inside of a procedure. Statements may or may not have arguments. An argument is simply some extra piece of information that must be specified for a statement to work correctly. In the second statement above, for example, the MsgBox statement has the string ESRI as an argument. Without this argument, a message could not be displayed. Multiple arguments can be specified as a commadelimited list, as shown below.
'3 arguments: a Message, a Style, a Title MsgBox "Continue?", vbYesNo, "Abort operation?"

I don’t want to argue You will often hear the terms argument and parameter used interchangeably, but they are not exactly the same thing. As a programmer using a function or sub procedure, you specify arguments. As a programmer writing a sub or function, you define parameters. In other words, they are called arguments when they are passed and parameters when they are received.
'Argument (intDollarAmount) … intTotalTax = CalcTax (intDollarAmount) 'Parameter (Amount) … Public Function CalcTax (Amount As Integer) As Integer CalcTax = Amount * 0.07 End Function

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

The VBA development environment

2-20

Some common Visual Basic functions
InputBox to get information
InputBox "Enter the new Landuse Code: "

MsgBox to report a message
MsgBox "ArcMap is Great!"

Combine (concatenate) strings with & … Get the Date or Time …
MsgBox "The date is " & Date MsgBox "The time is " & Time MsgBox "The date and time is " & Now

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Visual Basic functions There are several predefined Visual Basic functions that you can use to do things like get the current date and time from the operating system, display several types of message and input boxes, concatenate strings, and convert data types. Open the Visual Basic help topic Visual Basic Language Reference > Functions for an alphabetical listing of VB functions. Message boxes To display various types of message boxes, use the Visual Basic MsgBox function. This function has only one required argument, a message (prompt) to display. By specifying values for the optional arguments below, you can further define the appearance of your message box. Buttons: Use any combination of Visual Basic MsgBox constants to specify the type of buttons, icons, or both to appear on the message box. To use several of these options, you can simply add the constants together. A sample of these constants is shown below. • vbYesNo—place a Yes and a No button on the message box • vbYesNoCancel—display a Yes, a No, and a Cancel button • vbExclamation—display an exclamation mark image on the message box • vbInformation—display an I image on the message box • Several others • Title: provide a string to appear on the message box title bar The code below will display a message box with Yes and No buttons, an exclamation image, and a title.
MsgBox "Continue?", vbYesNo + vbExclamation, "Yes or No?"

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Input boxes To get keyboard input from your user, you can use the InputBox function. Like MsgBox, InputBox has a single required argument, a message (prompt) to appear on the box. When the InputBox statement is executed, your code will pause until the user clicks OK on the input box. Once the user clicks OK, the value that he or she typed can be used in your program. Note: If the user clicks the Cancel button on the input box, an empty string is returned (“”). Concatenation To concatenate two strings, use the ampersand (&) character. The concatenation function does not add a space between the strings. To add a space between concatenated strings, use one of the methods as shown below.
MsgBox "Hello, my name is " & strFirstName MsgBox "My full name is " & strFirstName & " " & strLastName

Date and Time functions Visual Basic has functions that return the current date, time, or both from the operating system. These functions have no arguments (required or optional) and return values of the variant data type. Date: returns the current calendar date (e.g., 6/14/04) Time: returns the current system time (e.g., 3:08:47 PM) Now: returns both the current date and time (e.g., 6/14/04 3:08:47 PM)

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Procedure types
Event procedures
Have an associated object (e.g., control) Code runs when the corresponding event occurs (e.g., click)

Subroutine and function procedures
No associated object Must be called Functions return a value

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Procedures All procedures are blocks of Visual Basic code and are simply a group of VB statements that are executed sequentially. There are some important distinctions that can be made about specific types of procedures, however, as described below. Event procedures Event procedures are associated with objects. More specifically, they are associated with an object event. Execution of these procedures is triggered when the associated event occurs. For example, when UIButtonControl3 is clicked, the code in the UIButtonControl3_Click event procedure executes. When the mouse cursor hovers over UIButtonControl3, the UIButtonControl3_ToolTip event procedure executes to display a tool tip. Every control, form, and the document itself has a suite of events for which you can provide code. Subs and functions Subs and functions are essentially no different than event procedures in that they are collections of Visual Basic statements that run sequentially as a unit of code. Subs and functions, however, are not directly associated with an object event. These procedures will only execute when they are explicitly told to run. Procedures carry out an action (adding a layer to a map, for example) but are not able to pass back a value. Functions, on the other hand, are generally used to produce some value to pass back to the procedure that called it (calculating and returning a total area, for example). You will learn more about these procedures in the next lesson.
'Run a Sub called AddLayer Call AddLayer 'Run a Function called CalcTotalValue, store a returned value in intTotalValue … intTotalValue = CalcTotalValue (intValueA, intValueB, intValueC)

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Running an event procedure
Controls have a predefined set of events
You choose which ones to code

When an event is fired, the associated code executes

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Controls respond to events All controls have a predefined set of events that they can respond to. A control responds to an event by running the associated event procedure—this does not mean you need to write code for every event that a control supports, however, only those required to make your control work. A UIButtonControl, for example, has five events that can be coded, but it is quite typical to write code only for the Click event. Each control type will have different available events available to code. A UIEditBoxControl, for example, has a Change and a KeyDown event for responding to user keyboard input, while a UIToolControl has events, such as MouseDown, MouseUp, and MouseMove, to capture user input from the mouse. The example When the control above (UIButtonControl1) is clicked by the user, its Click event code is executed (UIButtonControl1_Click), which reports the name of a layer in a message box.

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Navigating event procedures in a module
Choose a control in the Object box Choose an event in the Procedure box
Object box Procedure box

MsgBox "Hi!"

Wrapper lines are added automatically
A
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Write code to run when UIButtonControl1 is clicked
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Finding a procedure To start coding (or just to find) an event procedure in a particular module, select an object and an event procedure from the respective dropdown lists. The Object box (upper left) contains all the objects available in the module (e.g., UIControls), while the Procedure box (upper right) lists all the event procedures for the object selected in the Object box. If you choose an object and an event procedure for which there is already code, the module will scroll to this procedure. Otherwise, a new event procedure definition will be created. Wrapper code If the event procedure you chose does not exist, wrapper code will be automatically produced for you. Wrapper code (sometimes called stub code or template code) simply provides the procedure definition; the code you provide inside (between) the wrapper lines will be executed when the event is triggered. The example In the example above, UIButtonControl1 was chosen in the object list. Upon pulling down the procedure list, the five available event procedures for UIButtonControl1 are displayed. After Click is chosen from the procedure list, wrapper lines are automatically added to the code module (Private Sub … End Sub). The code inside the wrapper lines will execute when UIButtonControl1 is clicked and will simply display a message box that says ‘Hi’.

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The ThisDocument module
Contains code associated with a document
Normal template Current map document (mxd) Base template (optional)

Customize at any level

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How many documents do I have? As the name implies, the ThisDocument code module is associated with a document. You may become confused, however, on opening an ArcMap document to find three ThisDocument code modules. When you think of templates as documents, however, it makes perfect sense. Each level of ArcMap customization is represented by a document: Global customizations are stored in the Normal.mxt template, customizations applied to a set of map documents may be stored in a base (intermediate) template, and customizations meant for a single map document are stored in that map document itself. By writing code in the appropriate ThisDocument module, you are controlling the scope for your programs. What kind of code goes into a ThisDocument module? You may write any macros you want in ThisDocument, but perhaps most importantly, all code powering your UIControls will be written in one of the ThisDocument code modules. Remember that before adding a UIControl to the ArcMap interface, you must indicate (in the Customize dialog) where you want to store the new control (normal template, base template, or in the current document). Once you have made your choice, the code you write for the control will be in the corresponding ThisDocument module. For example, you create a new UIButtonControl, and save it in Normal. When you right-click the new interface control and choose View Source, you will find yourself writing code for the control in the ThisDocument code module under the Normal project heading.

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Creating a new module
Module (standard module): Contains standalone code Class module: Contains a class definition (Lesson 5) UserForm: Contains code and layout for a form (Lesson 3)

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Creating a new code module New code modules can be added to your Visual Basic project by using the Insert menu on the Editor interface or by choosing Insert from the Project Explorer context menu (as shown above). When adding a new code module, be especially aware of where you are placing it (Normal, Base template, Current document). There are three types of modules you may add, which are described below. Module (standard module) Standard modules are used to write standalone procedures that you might want to call from other Visual Basic programs. The most common use of standard modules is to contain code that you use a lot. Instead of having to constantly rewrite the code to add a layer to a map, for example, you could place the code in a standard module in your Normal.mxt, then reference the procedure whenever it is needed. Class module Class modules are used to design custom classes. The ArcObjects library already has classes such as Maps, Layers, Symbols, and PageLayout. By writing code in a class module, you can define your own class to use in your programs. The specifics of programming a custom class will be discussed in more detail in Lesson 5. UserForm Module UserForm modules are code modules associated with a form (dialog). In the Visual Basic Editor, you can design a form by adding and rearranging controls (CommandButtons, TextBoxes, OptionButtons, etc.) and setting their properties. After the form layout is designed, you can write code in the associated form code module to make the controls work. You will design and write code for a UserForm in the next lesson.

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Creating a new sub or function procedure (macro)
Scope: Public or Private Sub or Function: Functions return a value Parameters: List all required inputs Return Type: Type of data returned (functions only)

Scope

Name

Parameter List

Return Type
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Creating a new procedure To add a new procedure to a code module, you can choose Procedure from the Visual Basic Editor’s Insert menu, or you can simply type the procedure definition directly into the module. When defining a new procedure, you need to provide the following information. Scope Scope defines how widely a procedure may be used and can be defined as either Public or Private. A procedure that has a public scope can be called from any code module in the same project, while a private procedure can only be called from within the same code module. Sub versus Function The two basic types of procedures are Subs (sub procedures) and Functions. If you only need to perform some action and do not need to return a value, define your procedure as a sub. Functions can also carry out some action but also have the ability to return a value. For example, you could write a sub to add a layer to a map. The sub could simply take a pathname from the user and add that data as a new layer. By writing the same procedure as a function, you could add the data as a new layer, then also return a Boolean (true or false) value that describes whether the operation was successful or not. Parameters The parentheses following the procedure name are a required part of the procedure definition, even if they are empty. A sub or function might require some additional input to work properly, and this is where any required inputs (parameters) can be defined. If you were creating an AddLayer procedure, for example, you would probably define a layer as a required parameter. Notice that the parameters are defined with a name (e.g., Total) and a data type (e.g., As Double).

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Return Type (Functions) Because functions will return a value, the function definition needs to include the type of data value that will be returned. Following the parameter list for a function, indicate the type of value returned by using the As keyword. In the example above, the Tax function will return a Double (double-precision decimal number).

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Defining procedure scope
Public: May call procedure from any module Private: Procedure may be called only from other procedures in the same module

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Procedure scope Sub procedures and functions can be defined as public or private in scope. A public procedure can be called from any module in the same project, while a private procedure can only be called from a sub or function inside the same module. When you define a new procedure, you need to consider whether or not the procedure should be called from outside its own code module. A procedure that enables controls on a particular user form would probably have a private scope because no other form would need to call that procedure. A procedure that calculates a total area value would probably have a public scope because this procedure would be useful for other modules to use. Running a procedure as a macro The following slides will describe how you can run your procedures as macros. In order to see your macros listed in the macros dialog (Tools > Macros > Macros) or in the Customize dialog box (Macros category), you need to make sure they have a public scope. Procedures defined as private will not appear (and therefore cannot be run) as a macro.

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Running a subroutine or function procedure
No event to cause code execution Must call the procedure
Macro menu: Interface Call statement: Code

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Running a procedure Unlike event procedures, there is no object event to signal a subroutine or function procedure to execute. In fact, these procedures will never run unless they are explicitly told to. You can tell a subroutine or function procedure to execute in one of the following ways. From the interface To execute a procedure from the interface, choose Macros from the Tools menu. On the Macros submenu, again choose Macros. In the dialog that is launched, select the procedure you want to execute, then click Run. From code Subroutine and function procedures can be called from other code in your project, depending on where it is being called from and the scope of the procedure (review the previous slide on procedure scope). To execute a procedure with code, you can use statements like those below.
'With the Call statement Call MyOtherProcedure 'Simply call it using its name MyOtherProcedure

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Adding a macro to a toolbar
Macros category of the Customize dialog Macro becomes a button on the toolbar
Edit the control’s properties

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Macros that are defined with a public scope can be added to the ArcMap or ArcCatalog interface as a button on a toolbar or a menu choice. To access your macros and add them to the interface, launch the Customize dialog and open the Macros category on the Commands tab. Macros you find there can simply be dragged onto the interface like any other command in the Customize dialog. When it is placed on the interface, the macro will be given a default icon. To change this image, you may right-click the macro and choose Change Button Image. Adding a tool tip to a macro on a toolbar Unlike UIControls, macros added to the interface do not have events such as Enabled, ToolTip, and Message for you to code. However, there are ways to get at some of these properties programmatically. The VBA Sub below changes the tool tip and message for a macro called Project.NewMacros.Test.
Private Sub ChangeToolTip( ) Dim pItem As ICommandItem Set pItem = _ ThisDocument.CommandBars.Find("Project.NewMacros.Test") pItem.ToolTip = "My ToolTip" pItem.Message = "My Message for the status bar." End Sub

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Getting help
F1 key for context-sensitive help ArcObjects Developer Help ArcGISDeveloperonline.esri.com

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

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ArcGIS and Visual Basic provide many ways to get help. There is help documentation available for Visual Basic as well as help specific to using ArcObjects. In addition to the traditional sources for help described below, there are several utilities available in the Visual Basic Editor for helping you write code. You will be exposed to several resources for help throughout the course. Context-sensitive help You can obtain context-sensitive help by highlighting a word in your code and pressing the F1 key on your keyboard. If the word you highlight is related to Visual Basic, the Visual Basic Help will launch and take you directly to the appropriate Help page; if the highlighted piece of code is related to ArcObjects, the appropriate ArcObject Help page will open. ArcGIS Developer Help When you install ArcGIS, you have the option of also installing the ArcGIS Developer Help. If you installed the Developer Help, you can access it from the Windows Start menu > Programs > ArcGIS > Developer Help > VB6 Help. In addition to help on individual ArcObjects classes, the ArcGIS Developer Help has plenty of sample code that you can borrow and modify for your own applications. ArcGIS Developer Online An online version of the ArcObjects Help is available from the ESRI Web site. ArcGIS Developer Online contains updated code samples and documentation. You will find ArcGIS Developer Online at the URL listed below: http://arcgisdeveloperonline.esri.com Visit this site frequently as it will be updated often with new samples and detailed explanations. For versions earlier than ArcGIS 9 (8.x), this information can be found at ArcObjects Online: http://arcobjectsonline.esri.com.
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA The VBA development environment 2-33

Exercise 2 overview
Explore the Visual Basic Editor Navigate event procedures Add a new code module Run procedures Export code to a file on disk

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

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Exercise 2: Design a user form In this exercise you will do the following: • Explore the Visual Basic Editor. • Write simple VB statements in the Immediate window. • Add a new control to the interface. • Write code in various project modules. • Run a macro from the interface. • Run a macro from code. • Export code.

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?
Lesson overview Object-oriented programming Example: Object-oriented terms How: Visual Basic syntax Preset ArcObjects variables Automatic code completion Where: Controls, documents, and forms Working with forms Setting properties at design time Writing code for a form Using control properties at run time When: Form and control events When: Map document events Saving your work Exercise 3 overview

3-11 3-13 3-14 3-16 3-17 3-18 3-20 3-22 3-23

contents

3-2 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-7 3-9

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-1

Lesson overview
How?
Object-oriented programming Visual Basic syntax Application and ThisDocument variables

Where?
Creating forms and controls

When?
Document, control, and form events

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-2

Overview This lesson will discuss some of the fundamentals of writing Visual Basic code. You will learn about object-oriented programming, basic VB syntax, creating user forms, and coding various user events. This lesson will answer the following questions. How … … does object-oriented programming work? … do I write a Visual Basic statement? Where … … do I begin? … can I write code? … can I save customizations? When … … will my code execute?

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Object-oriented programming
Objects are …
Visual Basic: Forms, text boxes, command buttons, … ArcObjects: Maps, layers, symbols, tables, …

Manipulate objects to carry out tasks
Properties: Characteristics of an object Methods: Things an object knows how to do Events: Actions that an object can respond to

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Treat them like objects The (perhaps over-used) term object-oriented programming simply means that your programs work by using objects. Objects are basically anything you use in your Visual Basic code, whether visible or not. Things like maps, layers, symbols, and spatial references are all examples of ArcGIS objects, while UserForms, CommandButtons, and ComboBoxes are examples of Visual Basic objects. In object-oriented programming, you can work with existing objects (e.g., get the current map the user is working in), or you can create new objects (e.g., make a new layer to add to the map). Once you have referenced or created the objects you want to work with, you can manipulate them by using their properties, methods, and events. • Properties: A property is a characteristic (noun) of an object that, as a programmer, you will be able to read (get) or write (set). As an everyday example, a computer might have properties such as RAM, disk space, and monitor size. • Methods: A method is an action (verb) that an object can carry out. A computer might have methods such as boot up, log in, or crash. • Events: Like methods, events are actions (verbs). Instead of actions that an object carries out, however, events are actions that an object responds to (usually actions triggered by the user). Events that a computer might have: type, move mouse, click mouse.

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Example: Object-oriented terms

Car Property Method Event
Horsepower Accelerate Brakes are pressed

Map
MapUnits AddLayer SelectionChanged

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-4

Object-oriented programming terms Part of learning anything new, of course, is learning new terminology. Some common terms that you will hear throughout this course for describing object-oriented concepts are listed here. The objects you work with in your Visual Basic code are, in reality, nothing like real-world objects; they are simply blocks of code that are held in memory. Conceptually, however, they are very much like everyday objects in that they have characteristics (properties), actions they can perform (methods), and actions that they can respond to (events). The syntax for working with object properties and methods is described on the following page. Properties As described on the previous page, properties are characteristics of an object and are generally nouns (color, for example). When working with object properties, you can either get (read) them or set (write) them. In the example above, the ArcObject called Map has a property MapUnits. Notice that the property is a noun, indicating that it is some characteristic that the Map has. Similarly, an everyday object like car has a horsepower characteristic. Methods Methods are actions that an object knows how to perform. A car, for example, can accelerate when you tell it to. The ArcObject Map has a method called AddLayer. If a programmer wants to add a layer in ArcMap, he or she can ask a Map to do it. Events Events are another type of action that is associated with an object. Instead of being actions that the object performs, however, these are actions that an object can respond to. When you press the brake pedal in your car, for example, the car will respond by stopping (hopefully). Likewise, a Map can respond to the user making a new selection by executing some code that you provide (events will be covered in more detail in a later lesson).
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Visual Basic code: How, where, and when? 3-4

How: Visual Basic syntax
Get the value of a property with Object.Property
MsgBox "The map name is " & myMap.Name

Assign a value to a property with Object.Property = value
myMap.Name = "Zaire"

Call methods with Object.Method arg1, .., argN
myMap.AddLayer CityLayer myMap.SelectFeature CityLayer, KahembaPoint myMap.ClearSelection

ArcObject events will be covered in Lesson 16

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Visual Basic syntax Regardless of the object with which you are working, the VB syntax is basically always the same: the name of the object variable, followed by a dot ( . ), followed by one of the object’s methods or properties. Properties Follow the syntax below to set (assign) a new value to an object property.
myObjectVariable.SomeProperty = ANewValue

To get (read) an object property, use this simple syntax.
myObjectVariable.SomeProperty

Keep in mind that you may not be able to set (assign a new value to) all properties of an object. Oftentimes, you will find properties that cannot logically be given a new value. A Map, for example, has a LayerCount property. While it makes sense to get this property, it does not make sense to (and therefore you cannot) directly set a new value for LayerCount. Instead, this property will only be updated when layers are added to or removed from the map. Oddly enough, you will actually encounter some properties that can be set but cannot be read. (Look at the IFieldEdit interface for some examples.) Use the Visual Basic or ArcObjects help resources to learn whether or not you can get a given property, set a given property, or do both.

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Methods Follow the syntax below to call (use) a method that has no arguments.
myObjectVariable.SomeMethod

Use a comma-delimited list for calling a method that has several arguments.
myObjectVariable.SomeMethod Arg1, Arg2, Arg3

Returning a value Use parentheses around a method or function’s argument list if you want to return a value.
theResult = myObjectVariable.SomeMethod (Arg1, Arg2, Arg3) theAnswer = SomeFunction (Arg1)

Example:
theAnswer = MsgBox ("Continue?", vbYesNo) 'This returns either vbYes or 'vbNo and stores the value in theAnswer MsgBox "Continue?", vbYesNo 'This displays a message box with a Yes 'and No button, but does NOT return what the user clicks.

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Preset ArcObjects variables
ArcObjects variables can always be accessed in VBA
Application ThisDocument

A Starting point for your code More about variables in the next lesson
MsgBox "You are currently working in " & Application.Name MsgBox "The current map is " & ThisDocument.Title Object Object Property Property

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Where to begin? In ArcMap and ArcCatalog, you have two preset variables that will serve as the starting point for much of your code: Application and ThisDocument. These object variables are always available as soon as you launch ArcMap or ArcCatalog. While the number of methods and properties that are available on these variables is fairly limited, they serve as a stepping stone to other objects you might want to program with (maps, layers, files, etc.). Application Application is a preset variable that points to (you guessed it) the current application. In ArcMap, Application refers to the ArcMap application, while in ArcCatalog, it refers to ArcCatalog. In either environment, the Application variable will always have the same methods and properties. Below is a sample of some methods and properties available on Application. • Caption: a read/write property to get or set the text that appears on the application’s title bar • Name: a read-only property that will always return the name of the application as a string (ArcMap or ArcCatalog) • RefreshWindow: a method to redraw the application window ThisDocument The ThisDocument preset variable points to the document that is currently open in the application. In ArcCatalog, ThisDocument always refers to the Normal.gxt template, while in ArcMap it refers to the current map document (.mxd). Unlike the Application preset variable, there are some differences in the methods and properties available on ThisDocument in ArcCatalog and ThisDocument in ArcMap.

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Note: You can also reference the current document by using the Document property of the Application preset variable described above. Here are some methods and properties that you will find on ThisDocument. • AddLayer: ArcMap only. A method to add a new layer to the document (a layer is required as an argument). • Title: a read-only property to get the name of the document (e.g., normal.mxt, UtahMap.mxd). • Type: a read-only property that describes the type of current document (Normal template, Base template, Map document).

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Automatic code completion
Lists available properties and methods Displays when the name of an object is typed
If the list is not displayed, the object is not recognized

Press Tab, Enter, or Space to select the method or property

Press Tab, Press Tab, Enter, or Enter, or Space Space

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-9

Those who finish with the fewest keystrokes win One of the best ways to avoid getting errors in your Visual Basic code is to be lazy. The Visual Basic Editor has several utilities that help you write code by providing timely help, helping you navigate through code, and even completing some of your code for you. When you let Visual Basic automatically complete such code as variable names, methods, and properties, you avoid the possibility of making simple typographical errors that may cause run-time errors in your code. Auto Quick Info Auto Quick Info is a feature that was discussed briefly in the last lecture. As you type a statement that Visual Basic recognizes, a box (that looks like a tool tip) will pop up with the proper syntax required. You will be able to see all arguments required for the statement, as well as any optional ones (shown in square brackets). If the statement you are typing returns a value, you will also see the return data type (e.g., As Integer). Automatic code completion Upon typing an object variable that Visual Basic recognizes, followed by a dot, a list of all methods and properties available for that object will appear. You can then scroll through the list manually or type the first few letters to choose the method or property you want to use. Upon pressing Tab, Enter, or Space, the highlighted method or property will be added to your code. This automatic code completion feature is good not only because it saves you some typing, but also because it helps catch errors. If the code completion list does not appear when it should, it means that Visual Basic does not recognize the object variable you typed, and it’s likely that you made a mistake earlier in your code.

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Automatic completion of variable names In addition to the automatic code completion described above for object methods and properties, there is a way to automatically complete variable names. After typing the first few letters of a variable name, hold down the control key (CTRL) and press the spacebar. The variable name will be completed in your code if you have typed enough letters to distinguish it; otherwise, a completion list will appear from which you can choose the variable. By having Visual Basic automatically complete your variable names whenever possible, you avoid mistyping your variables.

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Where: Controls, documents, and forms
Create UIControls Store macros with the document Create forms for user interaction
More sophisticated than message boxes and input boxes

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-11

Where to write code The previous lesson discussed using the Visual Basic Editor to write standalone procedures (macros) and how to use the customize dialog to add macros or UIControls to the ArcMap or ArcCatalog interface. Another place you may want to write code is inside of a form module. Forms are nothing more than windows (dialogs) that contain a set of controls. Forms are ideal for certain types of user interaction, especially where a lot of data input may be required. Instead of having to pop up several message boxes or input boxes in your code, you can simply launch a single form to prompt for many pieces of information at once. Forms are also much more intuitive for a user to work with: There are various types of controls you can place on a form, each designed for a particular type of data input. Some common form controls are listed below (there are many others). • TextBox: Displays or allows the entry of text. Use TextBoxes to display information or more commonly, to allow a user to type some input. In the example above, TextBoxes are used to accept latitude and longitude values from the user. • OptionButton: Allows one selection to be made from a group of possible choices. OptionButtons are sometimes referred to as RadioButtons, as they function like the station preset buttons on old car radios: Upon selecting one OptionButton, all others automatically become unselected. In the example above, OptionButtons are used to indicate latitude (North, South) and longitude (East, West). Only one from each group may be selected at a given time. • CheckBox: Displays the selected state of an item (checked=selected, unchecked=unselected). Use CheckBoxes to have the user answer yes/no questions.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-11

• CommandButton: Begins execution of an action or series of actions. The code written for the Click event determines what action the CommandButton will execute. For example, a CommandButton may open another form, close the current form, or perform some action based on the values in the form controls. • ListBox: Displays a list of values from which the user can select (one or several items). ListBoxes may appear as simple lists or as a list of CheckBoxes.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-12

Working with forms
Form = window of controls + associated code

Code module Code module Properties window Properties window

Form Designer Form Designer Toolbox Toolbox

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-13

Visual Basic forms When you add a UserForm module to your Visual Basic project, you are really adding two things: a form designer, in which you can add and position controls for the form, and a form code module that stores all the code required to make the form work. Adding a new form module To add a new form to the Visual Basic project, click the Insert menu on the editor interface or right-click in the Project Explorer window and choose Insert > UserForm from the context menu. When adding a form to an ArcMap document, be sure to add it to the proper project (e.g., normal.mxt or the current mxd) by highlighting the desired level of storage in the project explorer. All forms you add to an ArcCatalog project will be stored in the normal template (normal.gxt). Designing a form Remember that a form consists of a design window and a code module. A new user form will simply be an empty form designer to which you can add controls and an associated empty code module. By clicking and dragging from the toolbox to the form designer window, you can add several types of controls to the form. At design time for a form (in the form design window), controls behave like graphics: They can be added, removed, repositioned, and resized. All form controls will also have a set of properties that a programmer can define using the Properties window. Writing code for a form After the desired controls have been added to the form, positioned so they are intuitive for the user to work with, and their desired properties set, the next step is to write code to power them. Every control on a form will have a set of events for which you may provide code, as will the form itself. By providing code in the appropriate control event procedures, you can prepare the form for the anticipated user interaction.
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Visual Basic code: How, where, and when? 3-13

Setting properties at design time
Select a control View or change properties with the Properties window
Appearance: Caption, Font, BackColor Behavior: TabIndex, Locked, Enabled NAME

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-14

Setting form and control properties The Properties window displays design time properties for the selected object (control or form) in the form designer. Upon selecting an object (by clicking it on the form designer or by choosing it from the Properties window dropdown list), you can set any of its design time properties by clicking in the Properties window. To set a common property for several controls at once, you can hold down the shift key or click and drag a box to select several controls. When more than one control is selected in the form designer, you will only see those properties common to all selected controls in the Properties window. Varying with the type of property, there are several ways in which they are set. Properties such as Name and Caption, for example, are set by simply typing in a new text value. Font, on the other hand, is set by launching the Font Properties dialog and defining font style, font size, bold, italic, and so forth. Some properties will toggle between true and false (e.g., Enabled), some will require numbers (e.g., Height and Width), and others will allow you to choose from a finite list of possible values (e.g., BackStyle). Naming controls One property that is common to all controls (and to the form itself) is the Name property. While the user will never care (or even know) what your controls are named, this property is very important to the programmer. In your code, you will always refer to controls by name. When a control is added to a form, a default name is assigned that simply consists of the type of control and the order in which it was added (e.g., CommandButton1). Ideally, controls should be named so the type and purpose of the control is apparent from the name alone. As a suggestion, name controls with a three-letter prefix that indicates the control type, followed by a description of what the control does (often this description will correspond to the control’s caption property). Note: If you will not need to reference a control in your code, it’s OK to keep the default name.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-14

Some examples of naming controls with this convention are shown below. Object Command button Form Label Text box List box Combo box Check box Option button Prefix cmd frm lbl txt lbo cbo chk opt Example cmdApply frmConvertCelsius lblFahrenheit txtCelsius lboAttributes cboGeometryType chkWriteLogFile optLegendType

See the Microsoft Web site listed below for a comprehensive list of recommended naming conventions:
http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/enus/vbcon98/html/vbconcodingconventionsoverview.asp

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-15

Writing code for a form
UserForms consist of a designer and a code module Double-click a control to reveal its code
Each control on a form has several event procedures

Code Module Code Module Form Designer Form Designer

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-16

Writing code for a form and controls Each form has a code module that stores its associated code. All code that powers a form (including each form control) is stored in the form code module. After using the form designer, the form toolbox, and the Properties window to design your form, the next step is to write the code required to make the form work. Just as each type of control has a different set of design time properties for you to set, they also have a unique set of events for which you can write code. As a programmer, you do not need to write code for every control event, only the ones that are required to make your form work. There are several ways to access a form’s code module. The easiest way is to simply doubleclick a control in the form designer, which opens the form’s code module and places your cursor in the default event for that control (e.g., the Click event for a CommandButton). Optionally, you can toggle between the form designer and its code module by choosing Code or Object from the Visual Basic Editor’s View menu (as shown above). The Project Explorer window also has controls (at the top) for switching between these two components of your form.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-16

Using control properties at run time
Get/Set properties with code while the form is running Syntax: Object.Property
Controls are objects

Private Sub cmdApply_Click() strFTemp = ( txtCelsius.Text * 9 / 5 ) + 32 lblFahrenheit.Caption = "Fahrenheit: "& strFTemp End Sub

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-17

Getting and setting control properties at run time The properties you set in the form designer are used primarily to control the appearance of a form when it is first launched. When a user begins to interact with your form, however, it may also become necessary to get and set control and form properties during run time. Syntax for getting and setting control properties Remember that controls are Visual Basic objects, and the syntax for working with object properties is Object.Property. In the example above (when the form’s Apply button is clicked), the Celsius temperature entered by the user is referenced using the TextBox control’s Text property (txtCelsius.Text). A temperature in Fahrenheit is calculated and then placed on one of the form’s labels by setting the Label control’s Caption property (lblFahrenheit.Caption = "Fahrenheit: " & strFTemp). Run-time versus design time properties Most control properties can be set either at design time or at run time. Indeed, you will often provide an initial value at design time, only to change it in your code at run time. There are, however, some properties that may only be set at design time. Although you can get these properties at run time, you will receive an error if you try to set a new value at run time. Perhaps the best example of this is the Name property that each control has. If you provide a name at design time, you cannot change the name at run time. Controls that are added at run time, however, can also have their name set at run time. Consult the Visual Basic Help for control properties that are read-only at run time.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-17

When: Form and control events
Code runs when an event fires Different controls have different sets of events
Form events

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-18

Control events Every Visual Basic control has a set of events to which it can respond. As a programmer, you need to anticipate how your user will interact with the form and then write your code accordingly. Each type of control has a different set of events for which you can write code, although you do not need to code every control event. Below are some common control events and the type of code you might write for them. Control UserForm TextBox Event Initialize Change KeyPress CommandButton OptionButton Click Click Example Set variables, fill combo or list boxes Enable/Disable controls according to what is entered Check for a valid character before writing it to the TextBox (e.g., numeric values only) Execute code with values on the form (e.g., TextBoxes), close the form Update contents of list or combo boxes, enable/disable appropriate controls

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-18

Default control events Each type of control has a default event. When you double-click a control in the form designer, you will be dropped off at this event in the code module. Generally, this event will usually be either Click or Change. The default events for several Visual Basic controls are listed below. Object UserForm TextBox Label CheckBox ComboBox Default Event Click Change Click Click Change

CommandButton Click

Note: If code does not exist for the default event but does for another, double-clicking a control will take you to the existing (coded) event procedure.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-19

When: Map document events
Available in the ThisDocument module
Normal, base template, or current map (.mxd)

Event procedures for the MxDocument object
Open, close, new, change, etc.
Object List Object List

Procedure List Procedure List

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-20

Document events In both ArcMap and ArcCatalog, code can be associated with events related to the document. In ArcCatalog, the document is simply the Normal template (normal.gxt), and code written here will execute every time the appropriate ArcCatalog event fires. In ArcMap, document events can be coded for one of three documents: the Normal template (normal.mxt), a base template (*.mxt), or the map document itself (*.mxd). Scope of ArcMap document events The three documents for which events can be coded in ArcMap represent different levels of customization. By writing your event code for the appropriate document, you can control the scope of ArcMap customization, as described below. Document event code in ArcMap’s Normal template will execute for all maps when the corresponding event occurs; this is a global customization. For example, you may want to display a custom splash screen with your company logo each time a map document is opened. To accomplish this, you would supply code in normal.mxt’s OpenDocument event. Document event code in an ArcMap base template (*.mxt) will execute only for map documents that were based on that particular template. You may have several parcel maps, for example, that will be produced from a template called ParcelMap.mxt. When a user of a parcel map changes to PageLayout view, you may want to display a custom toolbar. You would write such code in the ParcelMap.mxt ActiveViewChanged event procedure, thus providing this behavior for all future maps that are created from the template. For document event code that is specific to a single map, you can provide document event code in the map document itself (*.mxd). If you have one map that contains restricted information, for example, you could code the map’s OpenDocument event procedure to require a password before opening it. No other maps would exhibit this behavior.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-20

ArcMap document event run order Potentially, you can have code for a document event (e.g., OpenDocument) in all three of the documents described above. In such a situation, the event code will execute in the following order: 1—Project (*.mxd) 2—Base Template 3—Normal Template

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-21

Saving your work
Save modules with a document
ArcCatalog normal template ArcMap normal template ArcMap template (*.mxt) Map document (*.mxd)

Export modules
Form file (*.frm): designer and code Standard and class modules Can be imported into other projects

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-22

Saving maps and templates The primary difference between VBA and regular Visual Basic is that code in VBA must always be stored in a document. Unlike a programmer using standalone Visual Basic, a VBA programmer has no way of compiling his or her code into a DLL or EXE, for example. Therefore, in ArcMap and ArcCatalog (or any other application that uses the VBA development environment), all code is saved with a document of some sort. In ArcCatalog, all customizations are stored in a single document: Normal.gxt (in the user’s profiles). In ArcMap, remember that customizations (including code) can be stored at three different levels and with various types of documents. Whenever you write code in ArcCatalog or ArcMap, you are storing that code in some document on disk, whether you realize it or not. All ArcGIS code is stored in either a normal template (normal.gxt, normal.mxt), a base template (*.mxt), or a map document (*.mxd). When programming in ArcMap, you need to be especially careful where you place your code, as this will affect the scope of your customizations. Exporting code modules In addition to storing your code in one of the documents listed above, you also have the option of exporting code to a separate file on disk. To export a code module (user form, standard, or class module), right-click the desired module in the Project Explorer and choose ‘Export …’ from the context menu that appears. You will be prompted for a name and a location on disk for the exported file. When exported, a module’s extension will indicate whether it is a user form (*.frm), a standard module (*.bas), or a class module (*.cls). These files can then be imported into other projects such as another ArcMap document, ArcCatalog, or even a standalone Visual Basic project. Note that although you can easily export your code modules to disk, the code cannot be executed except in the context of an application such as ArcMap or ArcCatalog.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-22

Exercise 3 overview
Create a form Set initial control properties Write code to convert to decimal degrees Test and debug the form Work with preset variables
Application ThisDocument

Save your work

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-23

Exercise 3: Design a user form In this exercise you will: • Create a new user form. • Add controls to the form. • Set control properties at design time. • Write code to convert degrees/minutes/seconds values on the form to decimal degrees. • Test your form with actual latitude and longitude values. • Write code using the preset Application and ThisDocument variables. • Export your form to its own file on disk. • Save your map.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-23

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

3-24

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Visual Basic code: How, where, and when?

3-24

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

Lesson overview Variables Working with variables Dim (dimension) statement Assigning a value to a variable Function procedures Comparing values Decision making: The If Then statement Controlling If Then Decision making: The Select Case statement Levels of variable scope Procedure-level variables Module-level variables Public-level variables Static variables Exercise 4 overview

4-14 4-15

4-17 4-19 4-21 4-22 4-23 4-24 4-25

contents

4-2 4-3 4-4 4-6 4-8 4-10 4-12

Using variables

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-1

Lesson overview
Variables defined Working with variables: Declaring, assigning values, evaluating Passing and returning values
Function procedures

Comparing values Branching: Making decisions in your code Variable scope

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

4-2

Overview This lesson will cover the use of variables in your Visual Basic code. Basics of working with variables • Declaring • Setting • Evaluating Storing values in a variable • What kinds of data can be stored in a variable? • Using variables to pass and return values. • Using relational operators with variables. Decision-making structures • If Then • Select Case Variable scope • Procedure • Module • Public This lesson will discuss the use of variables to contain simple data types, such as numbers and text. The use of object variables will be covered in a later lesson.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-2

Variables
An empty box for storing values
Of a specific type (integer, date, string, etc.) The value stored can change
'the VB version of: a² + b² = c², is … dblCSquare = (dblA * dblA) + (dblB * dblB) 'convert Celsius temperature … intTempCelsius = InputBox ("Enter temperature (C): ") intTempFahrenheit = (intTempCelsius * 1.8) + 32

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

4-3

Remember 7th grade algebra? Variables are simply containers (like an empty box) that can contain a value, and if you have done any type of programming before you probably had to work with variables. The values stored by a variable may be numeric (bytes, integers, double-precision floating point decimals, etc.), text (string), dates, or even objects (such as forms, controls, maps, and layers). Variables (as the name implies) can change their value. For example, a variable called ‘myAge’ might have a value of 33 at one point and then be changed to store the value 43 shortly thereafter. According to the Visual Basic help, a variable is … “ … a named storage location that can contain data that can be modified during program execution. Each variable has a name that uniquely identifies it within its scope. A data type can be specified or not.” Uses for variables in a Visual Basic program Storing a value returned by a function or calculation
datThreeWeeksFromToday = Date + 21 'Date is a Visual Basic function that returns the current date from the OS

Looping a specified number of times (covered in Lesson 7)
For intCount = 0 To 200

Storing an object property
intLayerCount = theParcelMap.LayerCount

Storing user input
theAnswer = MsgBox ("Format your hard drive?", vbYesNo) 'Using parentheses forces a return value.

Representing constant values
PI = 3.1415926535897932
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Using variables 4-3

Working with variables
Declaring: Create a variable
Dim strDog As String

strDog strDog

Setting: Store a value
strDog = "Sparky"

Evaluating: Get the value
MsgBox strDog

Sparky

strDog strDog

Sparky

Sparky

strDog
A
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

4-4

Continuing with the variable-as-an-empty-box analogy, there are three things you will need to do in order to work with your box. To start with, you will need to create your box (define its size and the type of items it can store). You will then need to know how to place something inside it or get something out of it when you need it. Declaring variables To create a variable, you can declare it. Declaring a variable accomplishes two things: first, it specifies the name for your variable, and second, it defines the type of data to be stored in the variable. Although it is not technically required, it is good programming technique to declare all variables before you use them (and it is very poor programming technique not to declare them). The example above declares a variable called ‘strDog’, which will contain a string (text) by using the Dim statement (more about Dim on the following slide). Storing a value in a variable To store a (simple data type) value in a variable, use the equal sign ( = ). Whatever is evaluated on the right side of the equal sign will be stored in the variable. The example above is a simple assignment statement; the text Sparky is stored in the variable called strDog. Here are some more examples of assigning a value to a variable. strName = InputBox ("What’s your name?") 'The text typed from the
user is stored in strName intMySistersAge = intMyAge – 2 sister will always be 2 years younger strApplicationName = Application.Name 'Whatever my age is, my

'ArcMap or ArcCatalog?

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-4

Retrieving a value from a variable To get a value from a variable, you can simply refer to the variable itself. If I have a variable called intPrice, for example, and it stores the value 30000, I can calculate sales tax with a statement like: intTax = intPrice * 0.0825. The example on the slide above displays the text stored in the variable strDog in a message box. Notice that the string ‘strDog’ doesn’t appear in the message box—rather, the value stored in the variable is displayed. AML and Avenue comparison In AML, all variables are treated as gigantic strings (regardless of size), and all are put into the same refrigerator-sized box. Although AML makes it easy to work with variables, it does so at the expense of storage space. Visual Basic lets you choose the right kind of variable for the task. Likewise, in Avenue, a programmer does not need to declare variables, which makes the code more succinct but makes debugging much more difficult.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-5

Dim (dimension) statement
Declares a variable for future use Defines the variable as a particular type
'Declare variables Dim strFilePathName As String Dim datSparkysBirthday As Date Dim intCount As Integer 'Other ways to declare variables (to be discussed later).. Private strFilePathName As String Public datSparkysBirthday As Date Static intCount As Integer

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

4-6

Dim statement To declare a variable in Visual Basic, it is common to use the Dim keyword. Dim is short for Dimension (although using the word Dimension would give you an error). As the name implies, Dim defines what will be stored in your variable and therefore the amount of memory required for it. There are three parts to a Visual Basic variable declaration statement: the declaration keyword (Dim, Private, or Public), the name of the variable, and the type of data (or object) to be stored. The significance of using the Dim, Private, or Public keywords will be discussed shortly. When using the Dim statement, it is a good practice to declare all variables using mixed case with the first letter in lower case. Using mixed case in variable names will allow for easier debugging later (as you will soon discover). Listed below are the simple data types that you can dimension a variable to store, as well as the amount of memory allocated. Type (bytes) String (10+length) Boolean (2) Date (8) Byte (1) Integer (2) Long Integer (4) Single (4) Double (8) Variant (>16) Sample value Elm Street True or False 1/1/100 to 12/31/9999 0 to 255 -32768 to 32767 -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647 1.401298E-45 to 3.402823E38 positive 1.79769313486232E308 maximum Any type

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-6

Variable naming rules Must begin with a letter Cannot contain periods Cannot contain data type characters (@, $, %, &, #) Can contain an underscore ( _ ) No more than 254 characters Reserved words cause errors (For, And, Loop) Should have unique names within the same scope (more about scope later) Variable naming conventions Using standard variable naming is important for making code easier to follow (especially by someone other than the author of the code) and to avoid ambiguity. The standard developed by Microsoft, and used by most programmers, is to use lowercase and uppercase in variable names and to name the variable with a three-letter prefix indicating the data type. If you follow such a naming convention, other programmers will find it easier to understand your code. Below is a sample of the Microsoft naming convention (commonly referred to as Hungarian notation). Type Boolean Byte Date Double Integer String Variant Prefix bln byt dat dbl int str var Example blnStatus bytAge datBirth dblLatitude intDistance strAddress varLongitude

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-7

Assigning a value to a variable
Assign a value directly or with a return value
Use parentheses to return a value from a function
'Assign values directly intCount = 23 'Assign a function return value strFilePathName = InputBox("File to open: ") 'Assign an object property strMapName = ThisDocument.Title

!

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

4-8

To assign a value to a variable, use the equal sign. Whatever appears or is evaluated on the right side of the equal sign will be stored in the variable. Variables may be given a value explicitly, or may derive a value from a calculation, function, or object property. Fun with variables It is safe to say that most pitfalls encountered when debugging an application can be directly attributed to variables. Below are illustrated some common problems. Order of evaluation is always left to right. Use parentheses to change this order.
dblAnswer = 2 * 4 + 8 / 4 – 1 'This evaluates to 9.0000 'This evaluates to 10.6667 dblAnswer = (2 * 4) + 8 / (4 – 1)

Storing a decimal number in an integer variable will not give an error; instead, the number will be rounded behind your back.
Dim intAnswer As Integer intAnswer = 3 / 4 'intAnswer now contains the value 1

A value will not be returned from a function unless you place parentheses around the argument list. intAnswer = MsgBox "Will you marry me?", vbYesNo, "A Proposal"
'This will give an error intAnswer = MsgBox ("Will you marry me?", vbYesNo, "A Proposal") 'This works.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-8

Avenue comparison In Avenue, there are several requests for changing values between strings (AsString) and numbers (AsNumber). This step is not required in Visual Basic, as the software will automatically treat your variable as a string or as a number depending on the context in which it appears. Below is an example of code that would not work in Avenue but will in Visual Basic.
Dim strAge As String Dim intNextYearsAge As Integer strAge = "32" intNextYearsAge = strAge + 1 number. ' Here strAge is treated like a

MsgBox "Next year you will be " & intNextYearsAge " Years old" ' Here intNextYearsAge is treated as a string.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-9

Function procedures
Functions return a value
… by assigning a value to the function name Syntax for calling a function: Value = Function ( arguments )
'Call the TotalPrice function Private Sub Purchase() dblPrice = InputBox ("Enter price before tax:") dblTotal = TotalPrice(dblPrice) MsgBox "Here is the price including tax: " & dblTotal End Sub 'The function procedure TotalPrice Private Function TotalPrice(Price As Double) As Double TotalPrice = Price * 1.0775 End Function

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

4-10

Remember that the only difference between a vanilla-flavored sub procedure and a function is that a function procedure has the ability to return a value. Visual Basic has some built-in functions that you have already worked with such as MsgBox and InputBox. As a programmer using these functions, you can treat them simply as black boxes; you know what needs to be put in, you know what you will get out, but you do not need to be concerned with how the function actually works. In addition to using the standard Visual Basic functions, you may want to write your own. Functions can make your life easier as a programmer because they give you the ability to centralize useful pieces of code into reusable units. For example, you might write a function that returns the average area for a polygon layer. Anytime you need this functionality, you can simply call your function, passing in the required layer argument, instead of having to rewrite the functionality (sub procedures can also be reused to perform common tasks; they cannot, however, return a value). Returning a value from a function As a programmer writing a function procedure, you have the ability to return a single value or object (however, this single object could be a Collection object that contains several objects). In the function definition, the programmer specifies the type of object or value to be returned, as well as any required inputs (parameters). Inside the function, the programmer can refer to values passed to the function by the names listed in the function definition. In the code above, for example, Price is listed as a required function parameter (as a double). Inside the function procedure, the variable Price will refer to whatever was passed in when the function was called, regardless of what this variable may have been named in the calling procedure. To pass a value back from a function, the programmer simply sets the name of the function equal to the value he or she wants to return.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-10

Capturing a function’s return value It is possible to call a function without capturing the return value. Some functions, for example, are used primarily to perform some action (such as deleting a file from disk) and return a value simply to indicate the success of the operation (e.g., True or False). If you are confident that such a function will work (or you simply do not care), you would not necessarily require the return value. To store the result of a function in a variable, you need to place parentheses around the argument list when calling the function (if there are no required function parameters, you can return a value with or without using empty parentheses). In the example above, the TotalPrice function is called from the Purchase sub procedure, with the one required parameter surrounded in parentheses. This ensures that the return value will be stored in the dblTotal variable.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using variables

4-11

Comparing values
Use relational operators ( <, >, <>, = )
Return a Boolean result (true/false)
intAnswer = MsgBox ("Delete File?", vbYesNo) MsgBox intAnswer = vbYes

Functions
IsDate IsNumeric IsNull TypeName

MsgBox "Number? " & IsNumeric(VagueVariable)

strType = TypeName (VagueVariable) MsgBox "Variable is of data type " & strType

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

4-12

Boolean expressions evaluate to True or False In order to make decisions in your code at run time, you might need to evaluate certain conditions. Common decision making in Visual Basic uses a Boolean value (True or False) in order to run corresponding sets of code. To evaluate a variable and return a True or False result, you can use familiar relational operators such as < (less than), > (greater than), = (equal to), and <> (not equal to). Visual Basic MsgBox constants The Visual Basic message box function does not return a Boolean result. Instead, it returns a numeric value that can be referred to by a constant name. The Visual Basic MgBox constants are: vbYes, vbNo, vbCancel, vbAbort, vbIgnore, vbRetry, and vbOK. If you need a Boolean value, you can compare the message box result with a particular constant (as shown in the first example above). Connectors In order to check several criteria and return a single Boolean value, you can string together more complex expressions by using connectors such as and, not, and or. To return a True result, both conditions of an and statement must be true; only one condition of an or expression needs to be true to return a True result. The not connector is used to reverse the result of an expression.

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Below are some examples of simple Boolean expressions and their results. Expression 13 < 108 "Bob" < > "Sally" "Bob" = "Sally" 13 < 108 AND 10 > 25 13 < 108 OR 10 > 25 NOT 1 > 99934599 "ArcMap" Like "Arc Map" Functions for evaluating variables Visual Basic has some functions for evaluating variables. There are three functions for checking the type of value stored in a variable: IsDate, IsNumeric, and IsNull. These functions return a Boolean value that indicates whether the variable contains a value that can be used as a date or a number or whether the value is Null. The Visual Basic TypeName function returns a string that describes the data type of a specified variable. Below is an example of how the IsNumeric function might be used.
Dim strSalary As String strSalary = InputBox ("Enter your salary" ) string variable Dim blnIsNumber As Boolean blnIsNumber = IsNumeric (strSalary) ' If any non-numeric characters were entered, this will be False (e.g., dollar signs 'or commas) MsgBox "Did you type only numeric characters? " & blnIsNumber ' strSalary is a

Evaluation True True False False True True False

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Decision making: The If Then statement
Branch based on a condition
Use a Boolean expression Make decisions
'Syntax example: If a condition is true Then 'do something... End If

?

If intLayerCount < 1 Then MsgBox "There are no layers in your map!", vbExclaimation End If

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

4-14

If Then The If Then statement in Visual Basic is used to provide a decision making mechanism in your code. There may be situations in which your program will break under certain conditions such as dividing by zero. In order to avoid such pitfalls and to gracefully handle these situations, you can write an If Then statement like the one below.
Dim intNumber As Integer intNumber = InputBox ("Enter a number to divide 10 by") If intNumber = 0 Then MsgBox "No division by zero!!" 'executes if intNumber = 0 'Code here to exit the procedure .. End If MsgBox "Ten divided by " & intNumber & " is " & 10 / intNumber ' intNumber can never be 0 at this line above ' This code only

Any expression or variable that evaluates to a Boolean value (True or False) may be used as the basis of an If Then statement, like all of those shown below.
IsNumeric (strApples) MsgBox ("Continue?", vbYesNoCancel) = vbYes myMap.LayerCount > 0 And Not IsNull (intParcels) blnAnswer True

Note: Parentheses may be used for clarity but are not a required part of the If Then syntax.
If (strName = "Paxton") Then works the same as … If strName = "Paxton" Then

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Controlling If Then
Exit Sub: Exits procedure before completion ElseIf: Check another condition Else: Code for a False condition
Private Sub WelcomeUser() If strUser = "Mark" Then MsgBox "Welcome Mark" ElseIf strUser = "Dana" Then MsgBox "Welcome Dana" Else MsgBox "You are not an authorized user!" Exit Sub End If 'Code here to add layers to the map … 'Code here to start an edit session … End Sub
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4-15

Controlling the flow of an If Then statement If Then statements in Visual Basic can be more complex that those that simply evaluate a single condition. If needed, a programmer can evaluate numerous conditions in a single If Then block by using keywords such as ElseIf and Else. Inside an If Then block, execution of the entire procedure may also be terminated early by using Exit Sub. Exit Sub When the Exit Sub line of code is encountered, execution of the procedure is terminated immediately. Exit Sub will generally only appear inside of an If Then block in the context described below. Often, the purpose of an If Then statement in your Visual Basic code is to check for a condition that will cause a run-time error. If your code asks the user to input a currency amount, for example, you would want to verify that the input is numeric (e.g., 20.00 instead of $20.00, or twenty) before attempting to use it in a mathematical operation. If the value is not numeric, you need to stop execution of the procedure before an error occurs, as shown below.
dblPrice = InputBox ("Please enter a price (without a dollar sign or commas)" ) If Not IsNumeric (dblPrice) Then ' NOT 'numeric check to see if the input is

MsgBox "Please enter only numbers!", vbExclaimation, "Exiting" Exit Sub ' **Stop execution of the procedure if the error'causing condition is true!** End If dblDiscount = dblPrice * 0.20 ' calculate a 20% discount on the 'price, this line will only execute if dblPrice is numeric
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Using variables 4-15

ElseIf and Else To check more than one condition in an If Then block, a programmer can use the ElseIf keyword. ElseIf requires another Boolean condition to evaluate. Using ElseIf, it is possible to evaluate a (potentially) infinite number of conditions. To provide code for a false condition in an If Then statement, use the Else keyword. Else does not require another expression, as it provides the code that will run when none of the other conditions in the If Then … ElseIf block are true.
theAnswer = MsgBox ("Save edits?", vbYesNoCancel) If theAnswer = vbYes Then 'Code here to save edits, stop editing ElseIf theAnswer = vbNo Then 'Code here to stop editing without saving Else 'User pressed Cancel Exit Sub End If MsgBox "Edit session is complete"

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Decision making: The Select Case statement
Branches based on a value
May use a range or list of values Case sensitive

Alternative to several If Then Else statements
Select Case someVariable Case Is = someValue 'Do this Case someValueA, someValueB, someValueX 'Do that Case startValue To endValue 'Do the other Case Else MsgBox "Invalid entry!" End Select

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Select Case In addition to the If Then branching construct, a Visual Basic programmer can also use a Select Case statement to make decisions in his or her code. Unlike an If Then statement, Select Case makes decisions based on the value of a variable instead of using Boolean expressions. These values do not have to be numeric; a Select Case statement could also use variables that contain strings, dates, and so on. For this reason, Select Case is better suited for evaluating a value against a range or list of values, as shown in the example below.
intBirthDay = InputBox("Enter your age on your next birthday") Select Case intBirthDay Case Is < 0 Case 1 To 5 Case 16, 18, 21 Case 55 ' ' ' ' **evaluate a relationship **evaluate against a range **evaluate against a list **evaluate against a single value MsgBox "C’mon! You aren’t even born yet??!!" MsgBox "Enjoy yourself before you begin school!" MsgBox "Your next birthday will be a landmark!" MsgBox "Congrats! You’re eligible for the Senior Discount!" Case Is > 100 Case Else ' ' **evaluate a relationship **if none of the cases above are true MsgBox "Willard Scott will read your name on the air!" MsgBox "There’s nothing interesting about your next birthday" End Select
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Using variables 4-17

In the example above, the Select Case statement evaluates a numeric input (any type of variable, however, can be used in a Select Case statement). Once a case is found that fits the variable’s value, no other cases are evaluated. This means that even if more than one of the cases fits, only the first one encountered will execute for a given variable. If none of the cases fit the variable’s value, the Case Else block of code will execute. If a Select Case statement does not have a Case Else, no code within the block will execute unless the variable’s value fits one of the cases. The End Select statement must be used to terminate a Select Case statement.

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Levels of variable scope
Procedure-level: Local to a single procedure Module-level: Local (private) to a single module Public-level: Available to all project modules

Module-level

Public-level Procedure-level

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Variable scope The term scope, when referring to a variable, describes the lifetime of a variable or how widely it can be used within a Visual Basic project. As you will see, depending on how you declare a variable, it might be available throughout your entire project, within a single procedure, or somewhere in between. In a Visual Basic project, you will work with three levels of variable scope: procedure level, module level, and public level. House pets analogy You can think of variables as house pets, each one with a different scope, or range of territory. Procedure-level variables: Procedure-level variables are local to a single procedure (sub or function). Like the goldfish in the slide above, they are restricted to a single goldfish bowl (procedure), outside of which they cannot live. Module-level variables: Module-level variables are variables that can work within a single module. Like the housecat above, these variables can roam within a single house (module) and can visit each goldfish bowl (procedure) inside the house. The housecat is not allowed outside of the house, however, as she will instantly be hit by a garbage truck. Public-level variables: Public-level variables have the widest scope; they are global to an entire Visual Basic project. Public-level variables are like the dog in the slide above. They can freely roam the neighborhood (project) and are welcomed in every house (module) they come to (OK, so they are not exactly like dogs). Public-level variables are not destroyed until the project closes.

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Variable naming conventions II In addition to some of the variable naming conventions described earlier, it is common for some programmers (and a good practice) to name variables with an additional prefix describing their scope, as shown below. Public-level: prefix with ‘g_’ (for global) Module-level: prefix with ‘m_’ Procedure-level: no prefix

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Procedure-level variables
Declared within a procedure Not recognized outside its procedure Destroyed when procedure ends
'Procedure1 Private Sub cmdSet_Click() Dim intNumber As Integer intNumber = intNumber + 1 lblnumber.Caption = intNumber End Sub 'Procedure2 Private Sub someOther_Event() lblnumber.Caption = intNumber 'Procedure 2 can’t see it 'and causes an error. End Sub
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

1

4-21

Procedure-level variables (often called Local variables) can be seen only in the procedure in which they are created (declared). Procedure-level variables are declared using the Dim statement inside a procedure (sub or function). Any variable that is declared inside of a procedure will automatically be procedure-level in scope. Procedure-level variables are re-dimensioned each time the procedure executes. They are also destroyed each time the procedure ends, which means their value cannot be retained between calls to the procedure (this is not true for Static variables, which will be described later). The example In the example above, the first procedure declares a procedure-level variable called intNumber. When the procedure is executed, the Dim statement will create this variable and initialize it to 0. (In Visual Basic, numeric variables are set to 0 when they are declared; this is not true for many other languages such as C++.) The next line of code increases the value of intNumber by 1. Finally, the value is placed on a label on the form. Because intNumber is a procedure-level variable, however, it is destroyed each time the procedure finishes, then recreated (and set to 0) when it runs again. This means the label will always read ‘1’ no matter how many times the user clicks the button. The next procedure in the example tries to use the intNumber variable. Because intNumber was declared in another procedure, it is not recognized here, and an error is reported when the code is executed.

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Module-level variables
Declared with Dim or Private in a module’s General Declarations section Must initialize (assign a value) within a procedure Available to all procedures in a module
Declaration Declaration Initialization Initialization

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Module-level variables are variables that can be used throughout an entire code module. Unlike procedure-level variables, module-level variables are not destroyed after the execution of a procedure. Therefore, the values of module-level variables can be retained and referenced (or changed) by any procedure inside the module. The variables declared in a module will, however, be destroyed when (if) the object represented by the module is destroyed (i.e., user forms and classes). Module-level variables, of course, cannot be referenced by procedures in other modules. Module-level variables can be declared in any code module (standard module, form module, or class module). To declare a module-level variable, simply place the declaration statement in the module’s General Declarations section (which is simply the very top of any code module). The declaration statement for a module-level variable can use the familiar Dim keyword or the keyword Private. There is no difference between using Dim or Private in a module-level variable declaration, although the Private keyword is preferred for clarity (you are, after all, declaring a variable that will be private to the module). Although module-level variables must be declared in a module’s General Declarations section, they cannot be initialized (set) there. You can only assign values to a variable within a procedure. Module-level variables in a User Form It is quite common to use module-level variables in a form module. Remember that modulelevel variables are declared in General Declarations but cannot have values assigned there. When using module-level variables in a form module, therefore, the best (and therefore most common) place to initialize module-level variables is in the UserForm_Initialize event procedure. Because Initialize is the first event procedure to fire for a form, all later event procedures (button clicks, etc.) will have access to the module-level variable values.

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Public-level variables
Declared with Public in the General Declarations section of a module If declared in a form, other modules must reference form
MsgBox “Hello ” & GetName(frmHello.g_intID)

Available anywhere in the project
frmHello Public g_intID As Integer Private Sub SetID() Randomize g_intID = Int(11 * Rnd) 'more code here End Sub
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Module1 Public Function GetName()as String Select Case frmHello.g_intID Case 0 GetName = “Hercules” Case 1 'more code here End Sub
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Public-level variables have the widest scope of all Visual Basic variables. They can be referenced from any procedure in any module inside the project, making them truly global variables. Public-level variables can be declared in any code module (standard module, form module, or class module). To declare a public-level variable, simply place the declaration statement in the module’s General Declarations section (just as you would for a module-level variable). The declaration statement for a public-level variable must use the Public keyword. Although module-level and public-level variables are always declared in a module’s General Declarations section, they cannot be initialized (set) there. As a reminder, values are always assigned to any variable inside a procedure. Tips for using public-level variables As a general rule, the use of public-level variables should be avoided whenever possible. Public variables will remain in memory for as long as your application is running, unless you explicitly destroy them. This can take up valuable memory resources and may be difficult to manage. If you need to use public variables, it is best to declare them in their own standard module. This way, you can easily keep track of the variables that you have defined with a public scope. You should be careful when declaring public-level variables in a form module because even though they are public-level in scope, these variables will be destroyed when the associated form is unloaded from memory. When referring to a public-level variable that was declared in a form module, you must preface the variable name with the name of the form, as shown in the slide above.

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Static variables
Initialize first time their procedure runs
Does not reinitialize variables (Dim does)

Preserve the value between procedure executions Used for procedure-level variables only
Private Sub cmdSet_Click() Static intNumber As Integer intNumber = intNumber + 1 lblNumber.Caption = intNumber End Sub 'Click Set a second time: 'Click Set a third time:

1

2 3
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

4-24

Static variables are simply another flavor of procedure-level variable. Although static variables can still only be referenced inside the procedure in which they were declared, they have the advantage of remembering their last value. In other words, each time you call a procedure that uses a static variable, you can get at its last value. The Static keyword is used to declare procedure-level variables only. You cannot declare a module-level or public-level variable with the Static keyword. Module-level and public-level variables are, by nature, static. They retain their values until their associated module or project are unloaded from memory. The example Remember the earlier example for procedure-level variables? In that example, the Dim statement was used to declare the variable, which meant that the variable’s value would be destroyed each time the procedure finished and then reinitialized (to 0) when the procedure was called again. In the example above, intNumber is still procedure-level in scope, which means it cannot be recognized outside of this procedure (Private Sub Count). Its value, however, will not be destroyed when the procedure finishes execution. This means that the variable can now act as a counter and effectively keep track of how many times the user calls the procedure (clicks the Set button).

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Exercise 4 overview
4A: Review variable scope 4B: Create a guessing game
Generate a random number Pass the number to a function that selects a state Get the user’s guess from an inputbox Compare each guess to the selected state’s name Keep track of the number of guesses the user makes Write code to give hints about the selected state

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

4-25

Exercise 4A: Work with variable scope In this exercise, you will explore variables of different scope by typing variables and declaration statements into a predefined form. Exercise 4B: Create a guessing game In this exercise, you will explore variables of different scope and data types by creating a guessing game. The application will randomly select one of the states in the United States, zoom in to it, then ask the user to guess which state they are looking at. You will also write code to keep track of how many guesses the user has made, as well as how many states he or she has guessed correctly. The scope of variables used is an important factor in the design of this application. It also illustrates some common uses of variables such as storing an object’s property (state name), storing a value returned from a function (the Visual Basic Rnd function), passing values to functions or subs (passing a random number to a procedure that chooses a state), and incrementing a count (number of guesses).

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Programming with class
Lesson overview Class Classes and objects Class libraries ArcObjects Class Libraries Exploring class libraries with the Object Browser Object Browser icons Creating objects at design time Instantiating an object in code To Set or not to Set? Coding a class with Visual Basic Client and server environment Distributing your classes Demonstration: Creating a simple class Exercise 5 overview

5-7 5-9 5-10 5-11 5-13 5-14 5-15 5-16 5-17 5-18

contents

5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6

Programming with class

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Programming with class

5-1

Lesson overview
Understanding objects and classes Class libraries Instantiating objects Declaring and setting object variables Creating your own classes Distributing classes

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-2

Overview This lecture will discuss some of the more important concepts of object-oriented programming. Classes defined The difference between an object and a class Where classes come from Class libraries Referencing additional class libraries How to work with existing classes Using the Visual Basic Object Browser Instantiating objects Working with object variables How to write your own class Client versus server code How to share your classes with other users Exporting code modules

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Class
A blueprint for creating objects Defines the properties and methods of an object Some objects can be created new

Ferrari Class

New Ferraris

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-3

A class is really nothing more than a blueprint (or template) that defines how objects created from the class will look and behave. A class defines all the properties and methods that a particular type of object will have. As a familiar example, all the command buttons you have added to your Visual Basic forms belong to the CommandButton class. The CommandButton class defines all properties, methods, and events that any CommandButton object will have. In other words, every CommandButton you create (add to a form) has the same set of properties available in the Visual Basic properties list such as Caption, BackColor, Name, Font, and Height. It has the same set of events that you can write code for such as Click, DblClick, and MouseDown. Does this mean that every CommandButton you create will look exactly the same? Of course not. Although the same properties, methods, and events will be available on each object created from the CommandButton class, they can be coded uniquely. Code that defines a class is stored in a special type of module, called a Class module. Later in this lesson, you will learn how to create your own classes by writing code in a Class module. Car analogy Cars provide a good analogy for classes and the objects they create. You can think of the car factory as the Class. The factory knows how to produce a certain type of car—a Ferrari, for example. The blueprint of the car used by the factory dictates that each Ferrari produced will have certain characteristics and behaviors. The factory can produce new Ferraris, and each one will be made from the same definition.

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Classes and objects
Ferrari class
Color Engine Year Convertible

Color: Red Engine: V12 Year: 1997 Convertible: False

Color: Blue Engine: V12 Year: 1998 Convertible: True

Objects of the Ferrari class
Map class
Label Extent Layers Scale Projection

Objects of the Map class
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5-4

The terms Class and Object are often used interchangeably, although there is an important difference between the two. Remember that a class is the definition for how an object will look and behave. In this respect, a class is abstract; it is not real. An object, on the other hand, is a concrete thing that has been created from a class. An object, of course, has all the characteristics and behaviors that have been defined on the class, but it is a real object that can be manipulated in your code. In other words, you are able to get and set an object’s properties, call its methods to carry out tasks, or write code to respond to its events. Car analogy continued To continue with the car analogy, the Ferrari factory (Class) will create new Ferraris (Objects) that have identical designs (methods, properties, events). Each Ferrari object that is produced, however, can have different values for its predefined properties. For example, one Ferrari might have the value Blue for its Color property, while the next has the value Red for this same property. Although the Ferrari factory knows how to create new cars, you could not put a key in the factory, start it up, and drive off. Likewise, you could not ask a Ferrari object to make a new Ferrari. An ArcObjects example There is an ArcObjects class called Map. The Map class defines the properties and behaviors that all maps have. Obviously, this does not mean that all maps you work with in ArcMap will be identical—simply that they will all have the same familiar properties such as Scale, Spatial Reference (Projection), and Layers (none, one, or several). Every map is produced from this same mold, ready to be manipulated by the map user.

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Class libraries
Libraries contain class definitions
Stored in files (DLL, OLB, TLB, EXE, OCX) ArcObjects are stored in many class libraries

Can reference additional libraries
ArcMap/ArcCatalog references all the ArcObjects class libraries

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-5

A class library is simply a collection of several classes that are contained within a single file. Class libraries are generally stored in files with extensions such as .DLL, .OLB, .EXE, or .OCX. Visual Basic for Applications has its own library that contains all the classes you work with in VBA such as Strings, Math, and Collection. The Microsoft Forms library contains all the classes you have worked with to create user forms such as Forms, CommandButtons, and TextBoxes. All of the ArcGIS objects are defined in ArcObjects libraries and contain classes such as Map, Layer, Polygon, and Table. Referencing a class library As a programmer, you have the ability to control which class libraries you work with in a given project. You can bring in additional libraries or remove existing ones from your Visual Basic project by choosing References from the Tools menu on the Visual Basic Editor toolbar. The References dialog (shown above) allows you to browse available class libraries, remove libraries that are currently referenced, or check libraries to bring them into the project. By referencing additional libraries, you give yourself access to more objects, and you may be surprised by the number of class libraries available on your machine. If you have Internet Explorer, Crystal Reports, or Visio, for example, you can reference and use the classes available in those applications in your own application. Note that when programming an application with VBA, you will always have a default set of class libraries referenced. In ArcMap and ArcCatalog, for example, you will always have a reference to the ArcObjects libraries, as well as the VBA and the Microsoft Forms library. All classes defined in these libraries will be available in your project as soon as you start the application. You only need to make a reference to a class library if you want to bring in classes that are not defined in one of these default libraries.

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ArcObjects Class Libraries
ArcObjects contained in many class libraries Logically grouped based on functionality
Geodatabase Geometry Cartography

VBA references all class libraries for you by default Developer Help contains information on which library an object belongs to

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-6

At ArcGIS 9.x, the ArcObjects have been placed into many different class libraries, based on functionality (Geometry, GeoDatabase, Cartography, Editor, etc.). This is to allow for smaller, more manageable and modular arrangement of the classes. If you click on Tools > References in the Visual Basic Editor, you will notice that all of ESRI’s class libraries are referenced for you. These libraries are stored in the C:\Program Files\ArcGIS\com directory. If you are working with previous versions of ArcGIS (8.x), you will notice that all the ArcObjects were grouped in one large library named esriCore.olb. If you would like to know what class library a particular ArcObject belongs to, the ArcGIS Developer Help is a useful resource. For example, within the Developer Help, if you type in the word Map CoClass into the Index tab and hit enter, you will see information regarding this class, including the class library it’s contained in (ESRICarto). There is also a handy Library Locator utility that will find which library a particular class belongs to. The LibraryLocator.exe can be found in C:\Program Files\ArcGIS \DeveloperKit\tools if you install the Developer Kit with ArcGIS Desktop. Further discussion on the various class libraries will be left for Lesson 17 and the Extending ArcGIS Desktop Applications instructor-led course.

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Exploring class libraries with the Object Browser
Library Library list list Search Search string string Search Search matches matches

Classes Classes list list

Properties Properties and and methods methods Arguments and Arguments and return values return values

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-7

The Visual Basic Object Browser The Visual Basic Editor comes with a utility for browsing the contents of class libraries called the Object Browser (remember that object and class are often used interchangeably, so it would be more accurate to call this a class browser). This utility can be very helpful for writing your Visual Basic code. It provides a quick reference for which classes are available, as well as what they can do for you. In later lessons, you will explore some other utilities that give you information about classes, such as the ESRI Object Browser and the ArcObjects object model diagrams. Using the Object Browser The Object Browser can be launched by pressing the button shown above or by choosing ‘Object Browser …’ from the View menu. At the top of the Object Browser is a pulldown list for choosing a class library to search. You will see all referenced class libraries listed here (including the current project and the Normal.mxt file, which are also considered libraries). By default, the Object Browser will search all referenced libraries. Below the library list is a text box for typing a search keyword. After providing a keyword and pressing enter (or clicking the search button to the right), the Object Browser will display all matches for the string (whether it appears in a class name, property, method, etc.). By selecting a match in the search results list or a class in the class list, a list of members will be displayed in the Object Browser. Members are basically methods and properties but could also include events. To get more information about a member, highlight it in the member list and a description of its syntax (e.g., required arguments) will be displayed at the bottom of the browser.

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‘I’ is for interface Many of the classes that you will see in the Object Browser begin with the letter ‘I’, which stands for interface. Interfaces will be covered in great detail in a later lesson. For now, you only need to know that interfaces are special classes that organize a set of properties and methods. It is through an interface that a programmer communicates with an object. For example, the IMap interface has methods such as AddLayer and DeleteLayer and properties such as Extent and Scale. The Map class uses this interface, which gives programmers access to these properties and methods.

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Object Browser icons
Property Method Event Module Class Others …

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-9

The Object Browser uses many different symbols to represent items found in a class library. These icons give you a quick way of distinguishing the various types of things illustrated in the Object Browser. Although there are several of these symbols, the handful shown above are the ones you will generally be concerned with. Notice that the icons that appear in the Visual Basic Object Browser are the same ones that appear in the Visual Basic code completion list when you are typing your code.

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5-9

Creating objects at design time
ArcMap: Customize dialog box VBA: UserForm Toolbox
Objects Objects Class Class

Class Library Class Library Object Properties Object Properties

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Design time The term design time refers to the part of the application development process when you are creating forms and controls, changing control properties, modifying the user interface, and so on. At design time, you work in an interactive environment with objects such as forms and controls. Creating objects at design time Whether you realized it or not, you have already created objects in this course. At design time when you add a new UIControl to the ArcMap or ArcCatalog interface, you are creating a new object. When you create a new user form or add new controls to a user form, you are also creating new objects. These objects have been defined in one of the available class libraries, and by placing them on the interface or on a form, you are producing an instance (or object) from that class. The example: classes and objects revisited In the slide above, you can think of the Toolbox as a visual representation of a class library. It contains all the possible controls you can place on a form. Each of the controls on the Toolbox is like a class; they define the methods, properties, and events for each type of control. If you click one of the controls in the Toolbox, does it do anything? Can you change the properties of one of these controls? No—the controls in the Toolbox simply provide the template for actual controls. Once you drag a control from the Toolbox to the form, however, you have created an object (an instance of that particular class of control). Now, working with the object, you can change its properties. You can resize it, change its name and its color, and write code for its click event. If you add another control of the same type (class), it will have the exact same set of methods, properties, and events, but you may choose to use them differently.

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Programming with class

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Instantiating an object in code
1. Declare an object variable (As Class) 2. Use Set when assigning an object to a variable
Use New to create

3. Use methods and properties

Dim myDog As Dog Set myDog = New Dog myDog.Bark

DOG Bark Growl CallPet Name Color

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Run time The part of the development process dedicated to executing code is referred to as run time. Declaring an object variable Working with objects in code is similar to working with intrinsic data values (such as numbers and strings) in that the first step is to declare a variable. Object variables are declared the same way as variables that store standard data types: by using the Dim, Static, Private, or Public keyword and specifying an object type to store. Just as you would declare a variable as Integer, String, or Date, you can declare a variable as CommandButton, Collection, or IPageLayout (more about interfaces later). Once you have declared a variable as a particular type of object, it will only be able to store that type of object. Instantiating or creating an object variable Setting an object variable equal to a new or existing object is called instantiating an object. Making an object brand new is referred to as creating an object. As you will learn in more detail later, not all classes allow you to create their objects new. Whenever you instantiate any object variable (unlike intrinsic data variables), you must use the Set keyword. As with intrinsic data variables, whatever is evaluated on the right side of the equal sign is stored in the object variable. For classes that allow objects to be created new, use the Visual Basic New keyword. Below are examples of instantiating an object variable with an existing object (a layer in the map) and creating an object with the New keyword (a new Visual Basic Collection object).

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'Existing instance of a layer Dim pLayer As ILayer Set pLayer = pDoc.SelectedLayer 'New instance of a collection Dim myList As Collection Set myList = New Collection

The example The code above works with a class called Dog. By looking at the simple diagram of the Dog class (more about object model diagrams in a later lesson … much more), you can see the methods and properties that are defined for the class (arrows for methods, boxes for properties). As programmers using the Dog class, you do not need to be concerned with how a Dog object works, only with what it can do for you (Bark, Growl, etc.). In this case, the Dog class would be referred to as Server code, while the code that uses a Dog object is called Client code. The server provides a service that the client (somewhat ignorantly) takes advantage of. For your purposes, most of the code you write will be client code. The ArcObject classes will provide most of the server code. The first line of code declares a variable of the appropriate type, Dog. The variable is then instantiated (set) by creating a New Dog. The myDog variable now contains an instance (object) of the Dog class. Finally, because you know (from the diagram) what is defined on the Dog class, you can successfully call methods such as Bark.

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To Set or not to Set?
'Using VB objects Dim myButton As CommandButton Set myButton = frmMain.cmdApply 'Using ArcGIS objects Dim pMap As IMap Set pMap = New Map 'Using variables of "intrinsic" data types Dim x As Integer x = 1234 ' ------ No SET keyword

p = pointer to an object variable
Naming convention used for COM object variables

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-13

When to use Set One of the most common pitfalls for new Visual Basic programmers is knowing when—and when not—to use the Set keyword with variables. The answer is really quite simple, although it may take a little practice before it sticks. You must use Set when you are instantiating an object variable of any kind. You must not use Set when you are assigning a value to a variable of a standard data type (strings, numbers, dates, etc.). Can you write it down? A quick way to remember the rule for using Set is to keep in mind that anything you can write down on a piece of paper is an intrinsic (standard) data type. Anything you cannot write down on a piece of paper (drawing pictures does not count) will require the use of the Set keyword. Variable datBirthday intAge blnMarried strName pMap Set pMap = New Map Variable naming conventions continued There is one more convention to add to your list of naming standards. In much of the code you encounter (and a lot of it in this course), you will notice that object variables are named with a preceding lowercase ‘p’. This stands for pointer, as object variables do not really contain the object (the way an integer variable contains an integer); instead, they simply point to the referenced object. Type Date Integer Boolean String Object Write It? 2/28/67 33 False Wendy ? Use Set? No No No No Yes

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Programming with class

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Coding a class with Visual Basic
Class module
Define methods Define properties

Use the class
Set properties Get properties Call methods

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-14

Class module: Methods The general procedures of the Dog class module define the class’s methods. In the example, the Bark procedure contains code that will run when any Dog instance calls its Bark method. Class module: Properties A class module also contains property procedures that can store and return values. For example, the Get and Let property procedures below set up storage and retrieval for Dog’s Name property.
'This is server code. Private m_pDogName as string Public Property Get Name() As String Name = m_pDogName End Property Public Property Let Name(ByVal vNewName As String) m_pDogName = vNewName End Property

Instantiate a dog and set its Name property:
'This is client code. Dim pDog as Dog Set pDog = New Dog pDog.Name = "Rex"

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Client and server environment
Classes are server code
Class modules, class libraries (e.g., ArcObjects)

Client code uses these predefined classes Server Server
Map MyClass Table Layer Text Box Form

Client Client

ArcObjects Libraries

Microsoft Forms Library
Command Button

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-15

Client and server relationships In COM there is a relationship between client code and server classes. The server provides functionality that a client uses. COM facilitates the communication between components. In a COM system, the client, or user of functionality, is completely isolated from the server, or provider of that functionality. All the client needs to know is that the functionality is available. With that knowledge, the client can make calls to the server and expect the server to honor them. In this way COM acts as a contract between client and server. If the server breaks that contract, the system may not respond as expected. In this way COM development is based on trust between the implementer and the user of functionality. A developer using ArcObjects can assume all these properties and methods have been fully implemented and are there to use if they are present on the object diagrams. Server storage: EXEs and DLLs The client and its servers can exist in the same process or in a different process space. In process servers are packaged in DLL form and loaded into the client’s address space when the client first accesses the server. Out of process servers are packaged in EXEs and run in their own address spaces. There are diametrically opposed pros and cons to each packaging method. DLLs load into memory faster, and DLL functions are faster to call. Executables, on the other hand, provide a more robust solution (if the server fails, the client will not crash) and better security because the server has its own security context. In a distributed system, EXEs are more flexible, and it does not matter if the sever has a different byte ordering to the client.

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Distributing your classes
Save the class in a map or template Save the class module in its own file
Export to create a CLS file Others can load CLS file into their project

Create a DLL, OCX, or EXE file
Cannot do this with VBA Use Visual Basic 6, C++, or similar program

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-16

Export a class file You can share your class with others by exporting your class (CLS) file. Anyone with Visual Basic can import the file. If your file is dependent on any libraries, anyone importing the class file will also need those libraries. Save a map When you save a map, all code modules are saved with that map. Your class can be used by anyone opening a map with class modules. The same goes for saving modules to template files. Anyone using a template has access to that template’s code modules.

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Demonstration: Creating a simple class
Create a class module to define a Dog Define some simple properties (public variables) Define a Bark method (function) Define a RespondToCall method (sub) Use the class in a form’s code

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-17

Instructor demonstration Your instructor will now demonstrate how to create your own class using Visual Basic for Applications.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Programming with class

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Exercise 5 overview
Write client side code to create NEW Country object Set properties and call methods Instantiate NEW City object

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

5-18

Exercise 5: Create your own class In this exercise, you will: Create a new class module. Write code to represent a country object. Use a country object in some client code.

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

COM before the storm
Lesson overview Introducing COM COM classes have interfaces Working with ArcObjects COM classes More on interfaces … Polymorphism ArcObjects polymorphism Using methods and properties Getting other interfaces Testing an object reference COM class code Using library names Using the ESRI Object Browser Demonstration: Creating a COM class Exercise 6 overview 6-5 6-6 6-7 6-8 6-9 6-10 6-12 6-14 6-16 6-17 6-18 6-19

contents

6-2 6-3 6-4

COM before the storm

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

COM before the storm

6-1

Lesson overview
COM: Component Object Model Working with COM classes
Interfaces Polymorphism QueryInterface

Testing an object reference
Is it nothing? What type of object is it?

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Components For GIS, an object-oriented approach is more flexible compared to the object approach (e.g., ArcView GIS 3.x) because it adds a framework for anyone to extend the data model, and end users or third party developers are not restricted to developing with a proprietary language (e.g., Avenue or AML). In the basic object model approach, only the original GIS software vendor has complete customization capabilities and is free from performance and functionality bottlenecks. Also, because of the closed nature of the object model approach, users are bound to proprietary macro languages for their customization efforts. With the object component approach, users can extend the data model with exactly the same technology as the GIS software vendor. As a result, users have more options, and they cannot tell the difference between your custom objects and the GIS vendor-supplied objects. COM: Component Object Model COM is a protocol that connects one software component, or module, with another. With this protocol, it is possible to build reusable software components that can be dynamically interchanged in a distributed system. Interfaces All classes used to build ArcMap and ArcCatalog are COM classes and referred to as ArcObjects. These ArcObjects COM classes use interfaces to organize properties and methods. Classes may have many interfaces. QueryInterface COM objects use COM interfaces to communicate with each other. When working with ArcObjects COM objects, the developer never works with the COM object directly, but via one of its interfaces. When you instantiate a class, you can only use one interface. However, after instantiation, you can query for any other interface. Polymorphism Classes can share the same interface but have unique implementation.
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA COM before the storm 6-2

Introducing COM
COM is a standard for creating classes Classes can be reused between applications
Independent of programming language

All ArcObjects are COM classes Technologies based on COM
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE) OLE DB ActiveX is any technology built on COM DCOM and COM+

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-3

COM is a standard that specifies how classes should be programmed, not a language. COM is a binary specification that establishes a common method of building software components. These components can then be dynamically interchanged between applications. The Country class of the previous lesson can only be used in Visual Basic. If it were created as a COM class and compiled as a COM DLL, any other COM-compliant language would be able to use it. Reuse COM allows components to be reused at a binary level, meaning third party developers do not require access to source code, header files, or object libraries in order to extend the system, even at the lowest level. For this reason, an ArcObjects programmer can work with a FeatureLayer class without knowing the nuts and bolts of how the class works; he or she only needs to know what the class is able to do. Because the ArcObjects are COM classes, you can easily work with them in conjunction with other COM objects and applications. Technologies There are many terms in circulation that refer in part to COM: OLE DB, ActiveX, DirectX, and so on; all are technologies based on the COM specification. COM provides support for distributed computing, which is often referred to as DCOM. COM components that interact with each other can be on the same machine or on different machines on the network, and if the operating system supports COM, these machines can even use different operating systems.

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COM classes have interfaces
Objects have one or more interfaces Interfaces define a logical group of methods and properties Communicate with an object through an interface
GarbageTruck IDrive Fuel Accelerate Brake IGarbage Dump PickUp IRace IDrive RaceCar Fuel Accelerate Brake LapTime PitStop

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-4

COM interfaces Developing with COM means developing using interfaces. All communication between COM components happens via the components’ interfaces. Interfaces are standardized by COM rules, so it does not matter what language is used to create a class. Interfaces help a class evolve over time because new interfaces can be added. However, once an interface is added, it can never be removed. The actual implementation can be altered (e.g., an algorithm can be updated without breaking any third party developer code), but the interface is permanent. Why interfaces? Some object-oriented programming languages use only classes and objects without interfaces. Problems can arise when a class needs to be updated and code changes. As the class and its code evolve, client code could become obsolete, and any client code using the class (instantiating it and using its properties and methods) may be caused to fail. For example, imagine a car dealer installing the latest stereo in your car. The new stereo has an AM/FM radio and a CD player. But what if you own cassettes, not CDs? Programming with interfaces would allow the dealer to install the new CD interface without changing or removing the cassette interface. Interfaces solve this problem of evolving code. Once written, code for an interface never changes; therefore, client code is less likely to break. The client code can assume an interface will never change. If the class needs to be reprogrammed, new interfaces are created. The class evolves without causing headaches for the existing client code. When a new interface comes out, the class stays the same, but the client can interact with the class through the newest interface.

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Working with ArcObjects COM classes
Instantiate COM classes with an interface
Dim <variable> As <some interface>

Interfaces group properties and methods
GarbageTruck Dim pGarbage As IDrive Set pGarbage = New GarbageTruck pGarbage.Fuel = "Full" pGarbage.Accelerate IDrive Fuel Accelerate Brake Dump PickUp

IGarbage

p = pointer to an object variable
Naming convention used for COM object variables

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-5

Interface programming When programming with ArcObjects, you are programming with objects. More importantly, however, you are communicating with the objects through interfaces. You need to remember that methods and properties are not available on an object; they are only exposed through an interface. An object may have several interfaces, each with a different set of available methods and properties. How do I know which interface to use? Before writing your code, you need to understand the interfaces that are available for the objects you are using and which ones contain the methods and properties you require. The next lesson will discuss one of the most useful tools for this purpose: the object model diagrams. Later in this lesson, help utilities such as the Visual Basic and ESRI Object Browsers will be discussed. How do I specify the interface I want to use? The interface used to work with an object is specified when the object variable is declared. When you declare a variable as a pointer to a particular interface, that variable can be used on any object that uses (supports) that interface. Only the methods and properties that exist on that interface may be used, however, and a programmer will need to declare additional variables for each interface he or she wants to work with—even if they are on the same object. The example The example above illustrates declaring a variable (pGarbage) as a pointer to an interface, IDrive. This variable could be used on any object that supports the IDrive interface. Variables are declared as an interface; they are instantiated, however, to point to a specific object. In the example above, pGarbage is set equal to a new GarbageTruck object. Using this variable, you can use only those methods and properties defined on IDrive. The code above sets the fuel level using the Fuel property, then accelerates by calling the Accelerate method. At this point, you could not call the Dump method, as it exists on a different interface.
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA COM before the storm 6-5

More on interfaces …
Boom box analogy
One object can play radio, tapes, or CDs Must use the proper interface If Tape is selected, will not hear the radio Dim pBBox As ITape Set pBBox = New BoomBox pBBox.FM = True

IRadio ITape ICD

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-6

The Boom Box analogy An ArcObject that you work with in your code can be compared to a boom box like the one shown above. Although it is a single entity (a particular Map, FeatureLayer, Symbol, etc.), the characteristics of the object, as well as the things it’s able to do, are organized on different interfaces. In order to get to the desired characteristics or functionality, you need to make sure you have tapped into the correct interface. If, for example, you wanted to hear the radio, you would have to make sure the switch on the boom box was set to the Radio setting. Does this mean that you cannot play a tape? No … you would simply need to change interfaces and move the switch to the proper setting (Tape). Many of the ArcObjects you program with will have functionality that is spread among several interfaces. Just remember that the key to accessing an object’s functionality is using variables that point to the appropriate interface. The example The code above shows an example of a common error when programming with interfaces. The FM property is not defined on ITape, which is what the pBBox variable has been defined as. Therefore, Visual Basic does not recognize the property and gives the error Method or Data Member not Found. The code below, of course, would fix this problem.
Dim pBBox As IRadio Set pBBox = New BoomBox pBBox.FM = True

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

COM before the storm

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Polymorphism
Many classes can support the same interface
All methods and properties May implement methods and properties differently

IDrive
Fuel Accelerate Brake

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-7

Interfaces COM interfaces are abstract, meaning there is no implementation associated with an interface; the code associated with an interface comes from a class implementation. An interface defines properties and methods of an object that chooses to implement the interface. How that interface is implemented can be different depending on the object. The objects inherit the type of interface, not its implementation, so it is called Type Inheritance. A programmer who defines an interface simply provides definitions for how an object should be interacted with. In the example above, a programmer decided that any vehicle implementing his or her interface should have a Fuel property that can be written or read, a method called Accelerate to speed the vehicle up, and one called Brake to slow it down. The programmer also decided that these two methods will not have any arguments passed in. Because an interface does not have any implementation (i.e., code that makes the properties or methods work in a certain way), all classes that choose to support a given interface can decide how each method and property should be executed. In the example above, every vehicle could implement the IDrive interface. If this were the case, each vehicle could potentially carry out each method and property differently. Even though a boat, for example, would accelerate differently than a horse and buggy, the code a programmer uses to call Accelerate on the IDrive interface would be the same.
Dim pWagon As IDrive Set pWagon = New HorseAndBuggy pWagon.Accelerate Dim pTitanic As IDrive Set pTitanic = New Boat pTitanic.Accelerate

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COM before the storm

6-7

ArcObjects polymorphism
Many ArcGIS classes exhibit polymorphism General interfaces for all subtypes
ILayer: All layer types (raster, tin, feature, etc.) IGxFile: All ArcCatalog file types (shapefile, map, table, etc.) IActiveView: Map (data view) and PageLayout (layout view) Several others …

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-8

As an ArcGIS programmer, you will encounter several examples of polymorphism in ArcObjects. Remember that the advantage of polymorphism is that several classes can use the same interface (with the exact same methods and properties available), but each class can implement methods and properties differently. This can be convenient for a programmer. ILayer All layers that can be brought into ArcMap support the ILayer interface. There are, of course, several different types of layers: FeatureLayers (point, line, polygons), RasterLayers (images), and GraphicsLayers, to name a few. As an ArcObjects programmer, you can access any layer in the map, and be assured that you can use the ILayer interface in order to work with methods and properties that are common to every layer (e.g., change the name, or turn it on and off). IGxFile All files listed in the ArcCatalog application support the IGxFile interface. Because all files have a Path property (a location on disk) and can be opened, saved, edited, or closed, these properties and methods are defined on this common interface. IActiveView When working in ArcMap, a user can be in Data view (referred to as Map in ArcObjects) or in Layout view (PageLayout). In either case, an ArcObjects programmer can access some functionality that is common to both views such as refreshing the display, getting the visible extent, or getting the active data frame.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

COM before the storm

6-8

Using methods and properties
Dim the variable pointing to an interface Instantiate the object (Set) Call methods, set properties
'Create a new RaceCar with IDrive Dim pDrive As IDrive IDrive Set pDrive = New RaceCar pDrive.Accelerate pDrive.Fuel = "Full"
IRace RaceCar Fuel Accelerate Brake LapTime PitStop

pDrive.PitStop

Only use methods and properties for the declared interface
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-9

To work with an ArcObjects COM class, you need to dimension a variable that points to an interface supported by that class. Dimensioning an interface variable, however, does not give you access to any particular object; it simply defines how you will eventually communicate with the object once it is referenced. The next step, therefore, is to initialize the variable to point to an actual object. Some objects can be created by using the New keyword, while others can only be returned from another object (a Table can create a Row, for example). Once you point your variable to a specific object, you can use any methods or properties that exist on that particular interface. The code above, for example, returns an error because the PitStop method exists on an interface other than the one you used to declare your variable (Dim pDrive As IDrive). If you need to access methods, properties, or both on a different interface, you will need to declare another variable that points to the required interface.

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COM before the storm

6-9

Getting other interfaces
QueryInterface (QI) Access other methods and properties
'Create a new RaceCar with the IDrive interface Dim pDrive As IDrive Set pDrive = New RaceCar pDrive.Accelerate IDrive I Q 'Switch interfaces Dim pRace As IRace Set pRace = pDrive IRace pRace.PitStop pDrive.Accelerate '**pDrive and pRace point to the same object** RaceCar Fuel Accelerate Brake LapTime PitStop

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-10

Remember that COM classes have at least one interface. In reality, most of them have several, and it is not uncommon for an ArcObjects COM class to have ten or more interfaces. Because you may need functionality that exists on different interfaces, you may need to declare more than one variable when working with a single object. Indeed, you will need to dimension a variable for each interface you want to access. A common point of confusion for programmers new to the concept of interfaces is that, contrary to other programming they may have done, one object does not mean one variable. In fact, you may require several variables to work with a single object in your code. QueryInterface The term QueryInterface refers to the process of using additional interfaces on the same object. You will hear this term used often throughout this course, and in the code you will often see it abbreviated as ‘QI’. Here is the basic form for QueryInterface:
Dim A As IInterfaceA Set A = New SomeObject 'This instantiates the object variable (A) Dim B As InterfaceB Set B = A 'This is QueryInterface. 'Both A and B are using the same object from different interfaces

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The example In the example above, a variable (pDrive) is declared to point to the IDrive interface. This variable is then used to access any methods or properties that are needed on IDrive. Eventually, however, it becomes necessary to call a method (PitStop) that exists on another interface. In order to access this method, the first step is to dimension a variable that points to the new interface (IRace). A new variable (pRace) is declared, therefore, that points to the IRace interface. Dimensioning the variable does not point it to an object, however, so the next step is to instantiate the pRace variable. A common mistake at this point is to set pRace equal to a New RaceCar. This will give access to the IRace interface, but on an entirely different RaceCar object. In order to access the IRace interface on the same RaceCar that pDrive is pointing to, code like this is needed: Set pRace = pDrive. After this line of code (QueryInterface), both variables are pointing to the same RaceCar object: pDrive using the IDrive interface and pRace using the IRace interface. Each of these variables can then be used to control different aspects of the same RaceCar.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

COM before the storm

6-11

Testing an object reference
Is an object Nothing?
If pLayer Is Nothing Then MsgBox "You must select a layer." Exit Sub End If

What TypeOf object is it?
If TypeOf pLayer Is IFeatureLayer Then MsgBox "You selected a Feature Layer. " Else MsgBox "This layer is not a Feature Layer." End If

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-12

As an ArcObjects programmer, you will often find it necessary to test the object variables you are using. The most common tools for testing an object reference are to see if it is Nothing or to see what TypeOf object it is. Nothing If an object variable does not reference an object, it will contain Nothing. Nothing is a Visual Basic keyword that you can use in your code to verify that an object variable was properly instantiated. This is particularly important for code that relies on the user to provide input. By using an If/Then structure like the one above, your code can handle invalid input a little more gracefully by reporting the error to the user and then stopping execution of the procedure. Nothing is used for object variables only. To check for an empty string variable, for example, use the following syntax:
If strMyString = "" Then

Notice that the empty string is used instead of Nothing, and equals (=) is used in place of the Is keyword.

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COM before the storm

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TypeOf You may have code that works for several types of objects: a procedure that works with the selected layer in the map, regardless of the specific type of Layer object, for example. In such a case, you would first need to check that the selected layer is not Nothing (as described above). Next, you would need to evaluate the type of layer that was selected. The tool used for this is the TypeOf statement. Although it is not proper English, the syntax of the TypeOf statement is:
If TypeOf SomeObjectVariable Is SomeInterface Then …

What the TypeOf statement is really asking is, Does this object support this interface? This can be useful for avoiding errors when setting object variables, as in the example below:
If TypeOf pMxDoc.SelectedLayer Is IRasterLayer Then Dim pRLayer As IRasterLayer Set pRLayer = pMxDoc.SelectedLayer 'layer supports IRasterLayer End If ' You can be sure that this

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COM before the storm

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COM class code
Class module
Implement methods and properties

Interface module
Define methods and properties

Interface Interface

Server

Client module
Instantiate class Use methods and properties Client

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-14

COM classes under the hood The class (Country) that you used in the last exercise consisted of a single class module that defined methods and properties. ArcObjects COM classes are also written class modules, but are organized quite differently. To rewrite your Country class as a COM class, you would need to also write at least one interface for the class to implement (ICountry, for example). Interfaces are also written in a class module and are nothing more than definitions for methods and properties a class should implement. Interfaces To create an interface, simply write the stub code for methods (subs or functions) and properties you want to define. When developing an interface, you need to make sure you produce a group of methods and properties that form a logical group. It is also the interface developer’s duty to define any parameters required for the methods defined and whether properties are read-only, write-only, or read–write. Class modules that define interfaces are generally named with a leading ‘I’ (e.g., ICountry). Classes Class modules that define a COM class use the Implements statement in the General Declarations section to list the interface(s) that the class will support. By using the Implements statement, a COM programmer is agreeing to write code for every method and property that has been defined on the interface. Remember that it is the Class module that actually implements (performs some action) for methods and properties; therefore, other Class modules could implement the same interface and use different code for the interface’s procedures (polymorphism).

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COM before the storm

6-14

Clients and servers Classes, such as the ArcObjects, provide a service. A programmer using these classes does not need to know how the code works inside (and there is usually no way of finding out anyway); he or she only needs to know what kind of functionality is available. In other words, what kind of services are provided. As an ArcObject programmer, you will spend the great majority of your programming time writing client code. As the name implies, client code is code that simply takes advantage of services provided by pre-defined classes. Client code uses objects that have been defined by a server (a class library, DLL, or class module, etc.), and uses the methods or properties defined there.

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6-15

Using library names
Many libraries may share interface or class names
Can explicitly refer to the library first
'Create a new point and line from the esriGeometry library Dim pPoint As esriGeometry.IPoint Dim pLine As esriGeometry.ILine Set pPoint = New esriGeometry.Point Set pLine = New esriGeometry.Line

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

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To be more specific with the objects and interfaces you are using in your code, you may choose to preface class and interface names with the name of the library from which they are coming. This is particularly important if there are potential conflicts with class or interface names between different libraries. Some class names may be particularly common in several class libraries, classes such as Field, Row, or Point, for example. By using the library name, you can be sure that you are referencing the right class. To determine what class library a class or interface belongs to, the ArcGIS Developer Help is a useful resource. In the Index tab, type the name of the class or interface in question and hit Enter. At the top of the page, in brackets will be the name of the class library. If you do not use the library name, and there is a conflicting class or interface name, the class or interface in the first library encountered will be used.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

COM before the storm

6-16

Using the ESRI Object Browser
Lists classes, interfaces, properties, and methods

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-17

The ESRI Object Browser The ESRI Object Browser is a utility for browsing object libraries. The browser displays details of the coclasses, interfaces, properties, methods, enumerations, and structures contained in one or more object library. You can load type library information contained in TLB, OLB, DLL, OCX and EXE files. You can browse all of the objects contained in the loaded object libraries, or you can use a search string and search criteria to find specific objects. For example, you can perform a search to find all the coclasses that use a particular interface. To run the ESRI Object Browser 1) Click Start Button > Programs > ArcGIS > Developer Tools > Object Browser. 2) File > Object Library References. 3) Click on Add. 4) Select the second radio button that states – Select from registry. 5) Reference the class library you would like to browse. 6) Click on Ok. See the ArcGIS Developer Help for further details.

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Demonstration: Creating a COM class
Design an interface Create a class that uses (implements) the interface Work with the class in some client code

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Instructor demonstration Your instructor will now demonstrate the process for defining a simple COM class that implements an interface.

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COM before the storm

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Exercise 6 overview
Write client code to create a COM Country object Use QueryInterface Create a new instantiate of a City COM class

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

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6-19

Exercise 6: Work with COM objects In this exercise you will create COM classes with interfaces, instantiate your classes, and use QueryInterface to get other interfaces on an existing object. First, you will design an interface for use on a Country class. You will define a logical set of methods and properties on the interface. Next, you will rewrite the Country class you made in the last exercise as a COM class that implements your interface. Finally, you will use the Country COM class in some client code.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

COM before the storm

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Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

6-20

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

COM before the storm

6-20

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Understanding object model diagrams
Lesson overview ArcObject object model diagrams Relationship symbols ArcMap objects Creatable Class (CoClass) Instantiable Class (Class) Abstract class Inheritance Property and method symbols Getting properties Setting properties Finding interfaces Wormholes Exercise 7A overview Lesson overview Finding object model diagrams Finding the right OMD: Step 1 Finding the right OMD: Step 2 7-2 7-3 7-4 7-5 7-6 7-7 7-8 7-9 7-10 7-11 7-12 7-13 7-14 7-15 7-16 7-17 7-18 7-19 7-22 7-23 7-24

contents

Finding the right OMD: Step 3 Finding the right OMD: Step 4 Where to begin? Getting into the OMD Example: MxDocument > Map > layer Exercise 7B overview

7-20 7-21

Understanding object model diagrams

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Understanding object model diagrams

7-1

Lesson overview
Lesson 7A
Reading an object model diagram
Types of classes Relationships between classes

Symbols for interfaces, properties, and methods Interpreting OMDs to write code

Lesson 7B
ArcObject object model diagrams

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-2

Object model diagrams The ArcGIS Developer’s Help includes several object model diagrams that describe how the ArcObject libraries are put together. As a programmer, these diagrams are invaluable tools that help you plan how to write your code. Specifically, they indicate how to work with certain classes (can objects be created brand new or must they be obtained from an existing object, for example), and how each class is related to others (a Map is composed of several Layers, for example). This lesson will introduce you to the ArcObject object model diagrams. You will learn the symbology used to describe ArcObject classes and class relationships. Code examples based on the diagrams will illustrate the importance of understanding these diagrams in order to work with the ArcObjects.

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Understanding object model diagrams

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ArcObject object model diagrams
OMDs help you write code
Show interfaces, methods, and properties for each class Show relationships between classes

Over 2,700 classes on several diagrams Over 3,000 interfaces

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-3

Conceptually, there is only one ArcObject object model. All of the ArcObject classes are defined in a series of libraries with an .olb extension that work together to create this one conceptual object model. With a default installation, these libraries are stored in C:\Program Files\ArcGIS\com. Each ArcObject class is somehow related to the other ArcObjects because all the libraries work together to compose ArcGIS. ArcObject object model diagrams, which describe logical subsets of ArcObject classes, can be used to determine how one ArcObject is related to another ArcObject. If you are writing code to change the projection for a data frame, for example, you would consult the Geometry Spatial Reference object model diagram. You will find the object model diagrams useful for answering the following questions … • Which interfaces does this class support? • Which objects will I need to complete my task? • How can I reference an object of this class? • Can I create a new instance based on this class? The object model diagrams, however, are not the only source of help you will use when writing code. The diagrams are commonly used in conjunction with other sources of help, such as the Visual Basic object browser and ArcObject class help. The diagrams, for example, are not designed to always answer these questions … • What methods and properties are on this interface? • Are there any hidden methods or properties on this interface? • Are there any other classes that support this interface?

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Relationship symbols
Is a type of Is composed of Creates a Multiplicity Association *
_____ Chicken
CoClass

Bird
Abstract

Nest

CoClass

*

Feather

Class

Egg

2 Class

Wing

Class

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-4

Object model diagram symbology In many ways, an object model diagram is like a map. Symbols are used to represent different types of features (i.e., classes) found on the diagram, as well as to show how the classes are related. Just like reading a map, in order to understand an object model diagram, you need to consult the legend. Each diagram has a legend that indicates which types of classes and relationships the symbols in the diagram represent. Below is a short description of the most common symbols found on the object model diagrams. • Inheritance—In the example above, a chicken Is a type of bird. This is a superclass–subclass relationship. As a programmer, this relationship is important because it indicates that anything a Bird can do, the Chicken can do. In other words, all methods and properties defined for a superclass will be available for each of its subtypes. • Composition—The chicken diagrammed above Is composed of exactly two wings and several feathers. If the chicken is destroyed, these other objects are also destroyed. If there is an exact cardinality in the relationship the number will be listed on the diagram, a one-to-one relationship is described with a simple line, while an indefinite multiplicity relationship (0 to infinity) is described with the asterisk (*). •--- Creation—The arrow in the diagram above indicates that a Chicken object can be used to create an Egg object. This can be an important relationship for a programmer, because some objects can only be created from other objects. •* Multiplicity—An asterisk is used to indicate potential multiplicity in a relationship. The Chicken class above, for example, is composed of several Feather objects. The asterisk indicates that there could be anywhere from 0 to an infinite number of Feathers on a Chicken. Some relationships have a range of possible values, in which case the range will be indicated like this: 0 .. 3. •— Association—A plain line connecting two classes indicates a simple relationship. In this kind of relationship, each object could exist individually. In the example above a Chicken is associated with a Nest, but if the Chicken was deleted, the Nest would still exist. Contrast this relationship with the composition relationship, in which case the lifetime of an object is controlled by the object to which it is related.
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Understanding object model diagrams 7-4

ArcMap objects
Classes and their corresponding objects
MxDocument Application

Map

*

Layer

*

FeatureLayer

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-5

ArcMap/OMD Example Remember that Application is a preset global variable that points to the currently running application (ArcMap or ArcCatalog). In the simplified object model shown above, you can see that the ArcMap Application object is composed of ( ) exactly one MxDocument object. This relationship is more than simple association; if the Application were closed, the MxDocument could not live on independently. The MxDocument is composed of ( ) potentially several (*) Map objects. A Map to an ArcObject programmer is called a Data Frame on the ArcMap user interface. Again, in this composed of relationship, the Map could not exist independently of an MxDocument. A Map, in turn, is composed of ( ) potentially several (*) Layer objects. Layer is an abstract class that has several subtypes ( ), such as RasterLayer, TinLayer, and CadLayer. FeatureLayers are Layers that are based on a shapefile, coverage, or geodatabase dataset, such as the States layer in the example above.

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Creatable Class (CoClass)
Creatable: Use the New keyword
Dim pMap As IMap Set pMap = New Map

Instantiable: Obtain from other objects
Dim pMap As IMap Set pMap = pMxDocument.FocusMap

OMD symbol: Shaded 3D rectangle

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-6

CoClass CoClasses are the only type of class from which instances can be created with the New keyword. Logically, it makes sense that many objects you work with should be created only from other objects (Classes), while others should be creatable (CoClasses). In ArcMap, for example, you may want to create new Maps, FeatureLayers, FillSymbols, or GraphicElements. Although objects can be created new from a coclass, an ArcObject programmer might still want to access existing instances from other objects. If you needed to reference the selected FeatureLayer in your user’s map, for example, you would not create a new FeatureLayer (even though you could, it is a coclass), but instead would reference the existing FeatureLayer using the MxDocument class. In the object model diagrams, you will find CoClasses represented as three-dimensional shaded boxes.

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Instantiable Class (Class)
Noncreatable class
Cannot create with the New keyword

Obtain instances from other objects
Dim pNewRow As IRow Set pNewRow = pTable.CreateRow

OMD Symbol: 3D Rectangle with no shade
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-7

Class Some objects in the ArcObject libraries can only be created from another ArcObject. Referred to as Instantiable Classes or sometimes just Classes, instances of these classes are often created by the object that will contain them. A Table object, for example, can create new Rows, a FeatureClass can create new Features, and a Workspace can create new Datasets. When you instantiate one of these objects using another object, the new object will immediately exist in its proper context. This makes more sense than creating a brand new Row, for example, and then having to place it in the appropriate Table. Attention Although instances of instantiable classes must always be obtained from another object, you will not always find the ‘creates a’ (--- ) relationship explicitly listed on the diagram for these classes. On the Geodatabase OMD, for example, there is no dashed arrow between the Workspace and Table classes. Upon scanning the methods on the Workspace class, however, you will find that a Workspace can indeed be used to create a new Table, FeatureDataset, or FeatureClass.

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Abstract class
Not creatable or instantiable
Can never have instances of an abstract class

Define general interfaces for subclasses
Subclasses inherit interfaces

OMD symbol: 2D shaded rectangle
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-8

Abstract classes As the name implies, an instance of an abstract class cannot exist (in your code) as a concrete object. Abstract classes are used only to organize and group a set of more specific subclasses. Therefore, you will never find an abstract class on the object model diagrams that does not have at least one (usually several) subtypes ( ). In the example above, Layer is an abstract class that is used to organize a set of subtypes, such as CoverageAnnotationLayer, FeatureLayer, and TinLayer. Because of the superclass-subclass relationship, a programmer working with any subtype of Layer can use all the interfaces defined on Layer (ILayer or IGeoDataset). The concept of the abstract class exists in your daily lives as well. When you talk about a Car, for example, you are talking about an object that has a certain set of characteristics (properties) and has certain things it can do (methods), but does not really exist as a concrete object. In other words, although you know a Car can accelerate and has an engine, you never see anyone driving a Car; instead you see concrete examples of Car subtypes (Volkswagen Bugs, Honda Civics, etc.).

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Inheritance
Type of inheritance
QI needed

Interface inheritance
If interface does not inherit from IUnknown or IDispatch QI not needed
Dim pFC As IFeatureClass Set pFC = pSomeObj.FeatureClass 'No need to QI to IObjectClass MsgBox pFC.AliasName

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-9

There are two ways interfaces can be inherited to other objects: Type of Inheritance Type of Inheritance is what you will typically work with when using ArcObjects. Type of Inheritance is provided by the Type of relationship on the Object Model Diagrams. For instance, on the last slide Abstract Classes were discussed. Any class below an abstract class will inherit all interfaces on the abstract class due to the Type of relationship provided by the Abstract class. With Type of Inheritance, you still must perform a QueryInterface in order to obtain all the functionality on an additional interface. Interface inheritance For each interface on the Object Model Diagram, the first line before all methods and properties will indicate which interface is being inherited. In the example above, it is shown as IFeatureClass: IObjectClass. This means that IFeatureClass inherits from the IObjectClass interface. The majority of ArcObject interfaces will inherit from IUknown, which provides the backbone for how COM classes are created and the ability to QueryInterface. To find out more about IUknown, you may read about it in any COM book. If an interface does not inherit from IUnknown or IDispatch, that interface is automatically getting all methods and properties from the interface it is inheriting from. In the example above, IFeatureClass automatically gets all methods and properties from IObjectClass (AliasName, ObjectClassID, and RelationshipClasses). Although it does not directly appear on the interface, the code completion will show properties and methods for both IFeatureClass and IObjectClass. IObjectClass also inherits from IClass, which means IFeatureClass inherits from both IObjectClass and IClass.

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Property and method symbols
Property
Barbell symbol

Property Get Property Get (read) (read)

Property Set Property Set (write) (write)

Method

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-10

Symbols for properties, methods, and events Although the object model diagrams show all the interfaces that each class supports, they do not show the methods and properties for every interface (there simply is not enough room). They do, however, show a complete listing of methods, properties, and events for some of the more common interfaces on each class. • Property: Properties are illustrated on the object model diagrams with a box symbol. For each property on the diagram, a programmer may have the ability to assign (write) a value to the property, or to get (read) the property’s current value. A box on the right means a programmer can set the property, a box on the left means he or she can get the property. Therefore, a programmer can use an object model diagram to determine whether some of the more common properties are read-only, write-only, or neither. • Method: Methods are symbolized on the diagrams with a solid (black) arrow. In addition to the name of the method, any required arguments from the method, return values from the method, or both will be specified as part of the diagram listing.

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Getting properties
Return a value
Name: String

Return an object reference
Document: IDocument StatusBar: IStatusBar
Dim strName As String strName = Application.Name 'Value MsgBox strName Dim pDoc As IDocument Set pDoc = Application.Document 'Object MsgBox pDoc.Title Dim pBar As IStatusBar Set pBar = Application.StatusBar 'Object
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-11

Getting property values In addition to indicating whether a property can be read or written, the object model diagrams also list the type of value or object used for each property. Reading the property listing from left to right, you will first find the barbell symbol for the property, followed by the name of the property, and finally (on the right of the colon), the value to expect when getting the property value (or the type of value to use when setting it). It is important to know what type of value to expect from a property so you can declare your variables appropriately. If you do not declare your variable as the proper return type, you may receive a type mismatch error. If an interface name is listed as the return value, the property returns a reference to the object through this interface. However, any other interface the object supports can be used when retrieving the property, if desired. In the example above, three variables are declared: one as a string, one as a pointer to the IDocument interface, and another to the IStatusBar interface. These are the documented return types for the Name, Document, and StatusBar properties.

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Setting properties
Property Put: Most ArcObjects properties
Property holds a value or a copy of an object Do not use Set keyword
pLayer.Name = "Port Moresby" 'No Set keyword

Property Put by Reference: Some ArcObjects properties
Property holds a reference to an object Must use the Set keyword
Set pLayer.FeatureClass = pMoresbyData 'Must use Set!

If the referenced object changes, property is affected (dynamic)
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-12

There are two ways in which a value may be assigned to an object property, by value or by reference. Most object properties are set by value, which means a copy of the value is stored as the property value. Below is an example of setting a property by value:
valueY = 43 someObjectVariable.PropertyX = valueY valueY = 100 MsgBox someObjectVariable.PropertyX

In the example above, even though the value of valueY changes later in the program, someObjectVariable’s PropertyX value is unchanged. The value that appears in the message box above would be 43. Some object properties, however, are set by reference, which means the property is not assigned using a copy of a value, but rather with a reference to some existing object. Below is an example of setting a property by reference:
valueA = 43 Set anotherObjectVariable.PropertyB = valueA valueA = 100 MsgBox anotherObjectVariable.PropertyB

When a property is assigned with a reference, there is a dynamic association between the object property and the object that was used to set it. In the example above, the value 100 would be displayed in the message box because as the value of valueA changes, so does the value of anotherObjectVariable’s PropertyB property. When to use set Notice that you must use the Set keyword when assigning a property by reference, and that you must not use Set when assigning a property by value. You cannot choose when to use put by value or put by reference when assigning a value to an object property. The symbols described above will indicate which method you must use.

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Finding interfaces
Lollypop symbols ( )

Inherited interfaces are available. Inherited interfaces are available. This interface is used by the class. This interface is used by the class. All methods and properties are listed. All methods and properties are listed.

These interfaces are available. These interfaces are available. Must look elsewhere for specific Must look elsewhere for specific methods and properties methods and properties (e.g., Object Browser). (e.g., Object Browser).

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-13

Remember that the object model diagrams are not the only source of help for writing your code. Object model diagrams are useful for showing all the interfaces supported by a given class, but do not, however, list the methods and properties for every interface (there simply is not enough room). Generally, you will find methods and properties listed for the most common interfaces on each class. On the Map class, for example, you will find a listing for IMap, which is the interface you would be most likely to use. You will also be able to identify other interfaces supported by the Map class, such as IMapBookmarks, without a complete listing of its methods and properties. Once you know that the Map class supports the IMapBookmarks interface, however, you can use the object browser (or other help tool) to find more specific information about that interface. Keep in mind that when you see the inheritance ( ) relationship, all interfaces defined on the superclass will be available for the subclass. To learn more about the IUnknown interface and its use with other programming languages, explore one of the following books or Web pages related to COM programming: David Chappell. Understanding OLE and ActiveX. Microsoft Press, 1996. ISBN 1-57231-216-5. Wayne S. Freeze. Visual Basic Developer’s Guide to COM and COM+. Sybex, 2000. ISBN 0-7821-2558-1.

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Wormholes
Conceptually, there is one object model Physically, there are several diagrams
Wormholes connect related classes between diagrams

Class Name

OMD Name

Layer Class on Layer Class on Carto Layer OMD Carto Layer OMD

Element Class on Element Class on Carto OMD Carto OMD
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

7-14

Remember that there is only one ArcObject object model. All of the ArcObject classes are defined in multiple libraries, and all of these classes are somehow related to other ArcObject classes. To make your life (at least a little) simpler, the object model diagrams have been organized into logical groups of classes. At the moment, there are over 60 different object model diagrams, such as ArcMap, Geodatabase, Raster, Display, and Geometry. When a class on one diagram is related to a class on another diagram, a Wormhole is used to indicate the related class and the diagram on which it appears. As a programmer, this is your bridge that connects each of the object model diagrams. In the example above, the wormhole on Layer indicates that the Layer class is related to the Map class, which can be found on the Carto Object Model Diagram. The Element class is associated with the Geometry class, found on the Geometry Object Model Diagram.

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Exercise 7A overview
Interpret a fictitious object model diagram
Answer questions based on class relationships Complete some code

Start using printed ArcObject OMDs

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-15

Exercise 7A In this exercise, you will begin by working with a fictitious object model diagram. You will interpret this (Country) diagram to answer questions about relationships illustrated there. You will then move on to interpret the ArcObjects diagrams to answer similar questions and then to write some code in ArcMap using the diagrams.

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Lesson overview
Lesson 7A
Reading an object model diagram
Types of classes Relationships between classes

Symbols for interfaces, properties, and methods Interpreting OMDs to write code

Lesson 7B
ArcObject object model diagrams

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-16

Object model diagrams The ArcGIS Developer Help includes several object model diagrams that describe how the ArcObject libraries are put together. As a programmer, these diagrams are invaluable tools that help you plan how to write your code. Specifically, they indicate how to work with certain classes (can objects be created brand new or must they be obtained from an existing object, for example), and how each class is related to others (a Map is composed of several Layers, for example). This lesson will introduce you to the ArcObject object model diagrams. You will learn the symbology used to describe ArcObject classes and class relationships. Code examples based on the diagrams will illustrate the importance of understanding these diagrams in order to work with the ArcObjects.

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Finding object model diagrams
Large paper diagrams are included with this course Start > Programs > ArcGIS > Developer Help > VB6 Help
Simple and detailed diagrams

PDF files
Course CD Software install folder
All OMDs

Find a specific OMD

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-17

Finding ArcObject object model diagrams You will find several (over 50) object model diagrams (OMDs) in the ArcGIS Developer Kit. The diagrams are organized according to logical groups of objects, such as Map Layers, Output (printing and exporting), IMS, and Labeling and Annotation, to name a few. Diagrams are available in Adobe Acrobat (PDF) format in the ArcGIS installation directory C:\Program Files\ArcGIS\DeveloperKit\Diagrams). Within this directory, you will see two subdirectories of Object Model Diagrams (Desktop and Engine). The Engine folder contains all OMDs that compose the ArcGIS Engine Runtime, which is needed for products of the ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit product. The Desktop folder contains all OMDs specific to working with ArcGIS Desktop. You will be using OMDs from both of these directories. To download the (free) Adobe Acrobat viewer, visit the Adobe Web site at:
http://www.adobe.com/products/acrobat/readstep.html

You will also find object model diagrams included with your training material. Your class database CD contains Adobe Acrobat versions of each diagram, in addition to the three postersized hard copy diagrams that you have been provided (ArcMap, Map Layer, and Geodatabase). Other useful information in the ArcGIS Developer Help The ArcGIS Developer Help also provides a vast resource to find out information about all the classes, interfaces, properties and methods that ArcObjects is composed of. You will also find Developer Guides and Samples here as well.

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Finding the right OMD: Step 1
Use Index/Search tabs to find any Class or Interface

Type in Class or Interface name

Name of OMD/library: Click on this link for Step 2

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-18

The Index tab The Index tab is an excellent resource for an ArcObjects Developer. The Index tab provides an Alphabetical listing of virtually all the contents contained within the ArcGIS Developer Help. This listing also includes all classes, interfaces, properties and methods. In the example above, the MxDocument CoClass was found using the Index tab. The help panel provides a comprehensive overview of what the class is used for, as well as all the interfaces MxDocument implements. If you would like to find the Object Model Diagram a particular class is contained on, the next few slides will step you through, using MxDocument as an example. The next step is to click on the name of the Library, which in this example is esriArcMapUI. As a developer, you will find the help as being a great resource for finding more information about the classes you want to work with. The help however, does not show the explicit relationships between classes as the Object Model Diagrams do.

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Finding the right OMD: Step 2
Library will show all interfaces available for all classes

Click Contents tab for Step 3

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

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7-19

Libraries Remember, all ArcObjects classes (and their interfaces, properties, and methods) are stored in libraries. Many libraries are used to package all the ArcObjects. Each library is listed in the ArcGIS Developer Help. The example above, shows the ArcMapUI Library, which contains the MxDocument class as seen on the last slide. The help panel also shows all the other interfaces the ArcMapUI library contains. You could click on an individual interface to find the members of that interface. This slide shows an overview and the contents of the ArcMapUI Library. If you would like to find the Object Model Diagrams for this particular library, click on the Contents tab.

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Finding the right OMD: Step 3
Contents shows overviews of all libraries/OMDs

Library Reference contains overviews of all libraries and OMDs

Open OMD for Step 4

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-20

The Contents Tab The Contents Tab will list everything in the ArcGIS Developer Help in logical groupings. This slide portrays the Library Reference contents. This gives a listing of all the libraries that store all the ArcObjects that compose ArcGIS Desktop. Expanding any library (esriArcMapUI on this slide) will give you: an overview of the library; the contents of the library (as seen on the help panel on this slide; and the Object Model Diagram(s) for that particular library. Clicking on the Library Object Model Diagram will allow you to open the Object Model Diagram(s) for that particular library in .pdf format.

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Finding the right OMD: Step 4
Open the OMD in Adobe Acrobat Reader
MxDocument Class from Step 1 Name of OMD/Library

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-21

Using Adobe Acrobat Reader Once you have opened the OMD in Adobe, you will see the name on the diagram, as ArcMapUI Object Model is highlights on this slide. Some libraries contain many ArcObjects and are composed of multiple Object Model Diagrams. The MxDocument class, which the original search was for in Step 1, is highlighted in red. Once you have found the appropriate Object Model Diagram, you can easily find the relationships to other classes.

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Where to begin? Getting into the OMD
Special preset variables
Application: IApplication interface of the Application object ThisDocument: IDocument interface of the MxDocument object

Your entry point to ArcMap or ArcCatalog
ArcMap OMD

Application ThisDocument

ArcMapUI OMD

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-22

You have to start somewhere In Visual Basic for Applications, you will generally have preset global variables that allow you to easily access the current application or document. You will find that it is fairly standard for applications that use the VBA development environment to use a preset variable called Application. As the name of this variable implies, it points to the current application in which you are programming. When programming in ArcMap, for example, Application will point to ArcMap. In ArcCatalog, it will point to ArcCatalog. In Microsoft Word, it will point to … you guessed it, Word. In any of the above applications, a programmer could also use a preset variable called ThisDocument that points to the document that is currently being customized. Although you have already programmed with these preset variables, you probably did not realize that they point to a specific interface on the objects they represent. The Application preset variable points to the IApplication interface, while the ThisDocument variable points to the IDocument interface. It will be common in your code to use QueryInterface (QI) on these variables to access other interfaces supported by the Application or MxDocument objects.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Understanding object model diagrams

7-22

Example: MxDocument > Map > layer
Get the FocusMap (active data frame) from MxDocument
MxDocument may have several Maps ( * )

Get a layer from the the Map
Many types of layers (
Dim Set Dim Set Dim Set

MxDocument

)

*
Map

pMxDoc As IMxDocument pMxDoc = ThisDocument pMap As IMap pMap = pMxDoc.FocusMap pLayer As ILayer pLayer = pMap.Layer(1)

*
Layer

'Is pLayer a FeatureLayer? If TypeOf pLayer Is IFeatureLayer Then MsgBox "Yes!, it’s a feature layer" End If
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

FeatureLayer Others
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-23

OMD code example: Maps and layers In the example above, the object model diagram can be used as a guide for writing code. Your starting point for writing code in ArcMap is generally the ThisDocument preset variable. By consulting the ArcMapUI object model diagram, you would find that the IMxDocument interface on MxDocument (rather than the default IDocument interface to which ThisDocument points) has properties for accessing Maps (data frames). Because of the composed of relationship ( ) shown in the diagram, and the multiplicity (*), you know that an MxDocument could potentially have several associated Maps. To insure that you get the Map that your user is currently working in, you use the FocusMap property. Looking at the diagram again, you notice that a Map is composed of ( ) potentially several (*) Layers. From the Map, you can retrieve a Layer at a given index position (you are accessing the 2nd Layer in the code above). Finally, because Layer is an abstract class that has several subtypes ( ), you would want to test to see what kind of Layer you have. The TypeOf statement can be used to see if a particular object supports a given interface.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Understanding object model diagrams

7-23

Exercise 7B overview
Interpret the ArcObject object model diagrams
Write your first code accessing ArcObjects Write code to change the ArcMap caption Work with the MxDocument and its Maps

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

7-24

Exercise 7B In this exercise, you will write your first ArcObjects code by using the Object Model Diagrams and ArcGIS Developer help to assist you in determining which objects and classes you need to use. This exercise is intended to show the relationships between classes and symbology on the Object Model Diagrams. The following exercises will provide more detail about the specific classes and objects you use.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Understanding object model diagrams

7-24

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

Lesson overview Loop review Object model overview Accessing maps Looping through a collection of maps Managing flow in a loop Accessing layers Working with a map’s layers Looping through layers Working with layer properties Adding a new layer to a map Setting a FeatureLayer’s data source Exercise 8 overview

8-6 8-7 8-8 8-9 8-10 8-11 8-12 8-13 8-14

contents

8-2 8-3 8-4 8-5

Maps and layers

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-1

Lesson overview
Looping Review Accessing maps and layers Looping through maps and layers
Collections Enumerations

Working with layer properties Creating new layers
Setting a layer’s data source

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-2

Maps and layers In this lesson, you will learn the basics of working with maps and layers in an ArcMap document. Because an ArcMap document can contain several maps (i.e., Data Frames), you may need to loop through the entire map collection. A Map, in turn, is composed of several map layers. You will also learn methods for looping through a set of map layers. Accessing a document’s Maps Focused map Map collection Layers Accessing layers Creating a new layer Layer properties Specifying a data source for a layer Looping Collections: For Next loop Enumerations: Do While/Do Until loops

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-2

Loop review
Loop a specified number of times
For Next

Loop based on condition
Do While Do Until

Beware of endless loops
'Here is an Endless Loop Do While Not MsgBox("Add a Record?") = vbYes 'Code here to add a record to a table MsgBox "Record Added" Loop

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-3

When it is known how many times a loop must iterate, For Next is most often used. For Next loops use an index variable (usually an integer) to control the number of loop iterations. By default, a For Next index variable is incremented by a value of 1; optionally, different increments can be used by specifying a step. Do While and Do Until loops are used to loop based on a condition. These loops will execute as long as (or until) a condition is true. Do While/Do Until loops are best for looping according to user input (e.g., ‘Do you want to continue?’) or for looping through items in an enum or cursor (cursors will be discussed later). To prematurely exit a loop, use Exit Do or Exit For inside an If Then statement. Endless loops If you have a logic error in your loop, you might get caught in an infinite loop. The most common cause of an endless loop is forgetting to update the condition on which your loop is iterating. If you get caught in an endless loop, use <Control>+<Break> on the keyboard to get into Break mode (and out of the endless loop).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-3

Object model overview
MxDocument DataSet * Map

Carto Geodatabase
Table

* Layer

Carto Layer
FeatureLayer 0 .. 1 FeatureClass * FeatureDataset

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-4

In this lecture, the objects related to maps and layers will be discussed. Because of how the object model diagrams are organized, the objects discussed here can be found on three separate diagrams: Carto, Carto Layer, and Geodatabase. You will see wormholes on each diagram that indicate the related class in the other diagrams. It should be noted that although the name of the diagram is Geodatabase, it refers to all formats of data you might use in ArcMap (shapefile, coverage, ArcSDE or personal geodatabase, and even tabular formats such as INFO and dBASE). As you already know, the ArcMap Application is composed of a single MxDocument object. The MxDocument is composed of several (indicated by the asterisk, *) Map objects, which are also composed of several Layers. Layer is an abstract class. A Map never literally contains Layer objects; it contains layers of various types (FeatureLayer, RasterLayer, TINLayer, etc.). One of the types of Layer is FeatureLayer, which is a layer based on vector data (shapefile, coverage, or geodatabase format). A FeatureLayer has either 0 or 1 associated FeatureClass object (indicated by the 0 .. 1 in the diagram). Notice that a FeatureLayer’s associated FeatureClass is listed on the Geodatabase object model diagram. There is a wormhole between FeatureLayer on the Carto diagram and FeatureClass in the Geodatabase diagram. A FeatureClass is the data being displayed by the FeatureLayer (a shapefile, for example). In reality, a FeatureClass is nothing more than a Table that also stores coordinate geometry (shape). A Table, according to the diagram above, is a type of dataset.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-4

Accessing maps
Access maps from MxDocument Get the active map
Dim Set Dim Set pMxDoc As IMxDocument pMxDoc = ThisDocument pMap As IMap pMap = pMxDoc.FocusMap

Get all maps (IMaps)
A collection of Maps
Dim pAllMaps As IMaps Set pAllMaps = pMxDoc.Maps

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-5

Accessing maps in the document Remember that what are called Data Frames by someone using the ArcMap interface are called Maps by an ArcObjects programmer. An ArcMap document (MxDocument) is composed of (potentially) several Maps. Each map in a document can have a different set of layers, a different extent, and even a different spatial reference. Maps can be accessed from the document or MxDocument object. All the properties used to access Maps are on the IMxDocument interface, so it is necessary to first QueryInterface to this interface (see the first two lines in the example above). Depending on the purpose of your code, you might want to get a particular map (the first one, for example), or the focused map (i.e., the active data frame), or you might want to access and work with all maps in the document. To get all maps, use the Maps property, which will return a collection object (IMaps interface) that contains all the document’s maps. Once you have accessed the map collection, you can retrieve a particular map according to its index position (counting from top to bottom, starting at 0). The focused map can be referenced by using the FocusMap property on the IMxDocument interface.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-5

Looping through a collection of maps
Collections are ordered
Reference items by position (index) First item is at position 0
' Syntax Example ' Syntax Example For <index = start> To <end> For <index = start> To <end> ' process each item … ' process each item … Next <index> Next <index> ' Map Dim Dim Set collection example … intIndex As Integer pMaps As IMaps pMaps = pMxDoc.Maps

0 0 1 1

2 2

For intIndex = 0 To pMaps.Count - 1 MsgBox pMaps.Item(intIndex).Name Next intIndex

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-6

For Next loops To loop through any kind of collection, you will use a For Next looping structure. For Next loops are used whenever you know how many times the loop should execute. This type of loop requires the use of an index variable to control loop iterations. This variable is generally an integer, although it does not have to be. The syntax for a For Next loop is
For index = startNumber To endNumber Next index

Once the endNumber has been reached, the loop finishes execution. By default, the index variable is incremented by 1 after each iteration. Optionally, however, you can specify a step value to change the increment value. The example below will increment by a value of 2 after each iteration of the loop.
For index = startNumber To endNumber Step 2

Looping on a map collection Because the maps collection has a Count property, you can use this to dictate how many times a loop should execute in order to access each map. Remember that the collection of maps is zero-based (the first item is at position 0); therefore, a loop on the collection should execute Count–1 times or an error will occur.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-6

Managing flow in a loop
Exit a loop prematurely when a condition is true
For Next loops: Exit For Do While and Do Until loops: Exit Do
Dim pCityMap As IMap Dim X As Integer For X = 0 To pMaps.Count - 1 If pMaps.Item(X).Name = "Cities" Then Set pCityMap = pMaps.Item(X) Exit For End If Next X MsgBox "All Done", vbInformation

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-7

Ending a loop Most loops terminate when a condition is no longer true, when a condition becomes true, after a specified number of iterations, or when all of the elements in a collection have been evaluated. Less common methods of ending a loop are to use either the Exit For statement within a For loop or an Exit Do statement within a Do loop as shown in the code example above. Exit For and Exit Do always occur inside an If Then statement; if a certain condition is true, the loop is exited prematurely. In the example, a loop is used to examine each map in the maps collection. Once the desired map is found (the one named Cities), execution of the loop is terminated prematurely by using the Exit For statement. Using Exit For and Exit Do can make your code more efficient in examples such as this because it avoids the execution of unnecessary code. Example Below is an example of a loop that could theoretically loop forever, as long as the user chooses No in the message box. Notice that the entire If Then statement can be written on a single line.
Do If MsgBox ("Stop?", vbYesNo) = vbYes Then Exit Do MsgBox "Aren’t you bored with this yet?" Loop

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-7

Accessing layers
Access layers from Map or MxDocument Get the selected layer (IMxDocument)
Dim pLayer As ILayer Set pLayer = pMxDoc.SelectedLayer

Get a specific layer (IMap)
Dim pLayer As ILayer Set pMap = pMxDoc.FocusMap Set pLayer = pMap.Layer(3)

Get all layers (IMap)
An enumeration of layers
Dim pAllLayers As IEnumLayer Set pAllLayers = pMap.Layers

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-8

Accessing layers from a map A Map is basically a collection of layers, and once you have referenced a particular map, you will find properties (on the IMap interface) for referencing the layers it contains. As with accessing a map from the document, it is possible to either access a particular layer or retrieve all layers in a map. Unlike the Maps property, however, which returns a collection of maps, the Layers property (on IMap) returns an object known as an enumeration (or enum). An individual layer can also be obtained directly from the MxDocument (IMxDocument interface) by using the SelectedLayer property. Getting the SelectedLayer will return whichever layer is highlighted in the ArcMap Table of Contents (similar to the idea of an active theme in ArcView GIS 3.x). Enumerations (Enums) An enumeration, usually called an enum for short, is a package of objects contained (managed) in a single object. It is very similar in concept to a collection. It differs from a collection in several important aspects, however. An enum generally has a very simple interface with the following two methods (and usually nothing more). Next: retrieves the next item in the enum. Reset: moves the pointer back to the top of the enum. Notice that, unlike a collection, there is no way to (easily) reference an object by its position (order) inside the enum. There is also no easy way to get the number of items in the enum (such as the Count property found on collections).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-8

Working with a map’s layers
IMap’s Layers property returns IEnumLayers
Like a collection with fewer methods and properties Next returns ILayer Reset moves to top of Enum
Dim pLayer As ILayer Dim pLayers As IEnumLayer Set pLayers = pMap.Layers Set pLayer = pLayers.Next Set pLayer = pLayers.Next Set pLayer = pLayers.Next Set pLayer = pLayers.Next Nothing
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

IEnumLayer Top

pLayers.Reset

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

8-9

Working with an enumeration of layers An enum is like a collection in that it stores a group of items in a single object. It is much different in how you work with it, however. When an enumeration is first initialized, a pointer (which is managed by the enum) is pointing above the first item in the enum. As items are taken out of the enum, this pointer is updated to point to each successive position in the enum. You will find that all enumeration objects have basically the same methods for working with items stored within. Although there are several enumeration interfaces, each named for the type of object they contain (e.g., IEnumLayer, IEnumGxObject, IEnumElement), they generally all have the same two methods (and no properties). The Next method returns the next item in the enum, then moves the pointer to the next item. Each time Next is called, this pointer is automatically moved down in the enum. The Reset method returns the pointer above the first item in the enum. Plates analogy Working with any enum is like taking plates off a stack. You can take plates off one at a time until you reach the bottom or until you find the particular plate you want. You are not able, however, to take a plate out of the middle (by counting down the stack) as you can with a collection. To begin working your way down through the stack again, you need to Reset in order to put the stack back into its original state.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-9

Looping through layers
Do While or Do Until Loop based on a Condition (Boolean)
' Syntax Example ' Syntax Example Do Until/While <a condition is true> Do Until/While <a condition is true> 'Run this code 'Run this code Loop Loop ' Layer enum example Dim pLayer As ILayer Dim pMapLayers As IEnumLayer Set pMapLayers = pMap.Layers Set pLayer = pMapLayers.Next Do Until pLayer Is Nothing MsgBox pLayer.Name Set pLayer = pMapLayers.Next Loop

!

Nothing

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-10

Looping based on a condition Looping based on a condition is probably the most common and useful method of looping. There are two methods that allow for looping based on a condition and two variations of each. Do While Loops execute while the condition in the logical expression evaluates to true. Do While Loops check the logical expression at the top of the loop and, if the initial condition is false, may never loop at all. Under special circumstances, the developer may want to force at least one evaluation of the loop, in which case the expression can be placed at the bottom in a Do Loop While. Do Until Loops or Do Loop Until work identically to the While loops, except execution terminates when a condition becomes true. Looping through map layers Conditional loops are used for looping through layers because there is no way to (easily) get a count from an enum object (IEnumLayer), which is required for the For Next loops described earlier. It is much more efficient to write a loop such as the one shown above. This loop pulls layers out of the enum one at a time and stores them in a variable (pLayer). The item pulled from the enum is evaluated, and when it becomes Nothing (i.e., the bottom of the enum is reached), the loop terminates.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-10

Working with layer properties
All layers inherit interfaces defined on the Layer class Properties on ILayer
Name, Visible, ShowTips, MaximumScale, MinimumScale, etc.

Properties on IGeoDataset
Extent, SpatialReference
'This code will work for ANY type of layer 'Access the document’s selected layer Dim pLayer As ILayer Set pLayer = pMxDoc.SelectedLayer 'Set basic layer properties pLayer.Name = "Streets" pLayer.Visible = True pLayer.ShowTips = False

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-11

Basic Layer properties The layer properties that are available in the Layer Properties dialog from the ArcMap interface are the same ones you will find available as a programmer. Because all Layers in ArcMap inherit from the generic Layer abstract class, they can all use the ILayer and IGeoDataset interfaces. These interfaces allow access to basic layer properties such as Name, MaximumScale, MinimumScale, Visible, Extent, and SpatialReference. Feature Layer properties One of the most common layer types you will work with is the feature layer. Feature layers are layers based on vector data (such as shapefiles, coverages, and geodatabase data). Feature layers have properties such as FeatureRenderer, which controls how the layer is displayed (symbols, colors, classification, etc.), FeatureClass, which accesses or sets the dataset displayed by the layer, and DefinitionExpression, which can be used to restrict the features shown in the layer by using attribute criteria.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-11

Adding a new layer to a map
Layer is an abstract class: Not creatable
Creatable subclasses: TinLayer, FeatureLayer, RasterLayer, etc.
'Make a New FeatureLayer Dim pFLayer As ILayer Set pFLayer = New FeatureLayer 'Add a layer to MxDocument or Map Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Dim pMap As IMap Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pMap = pMxDoc.FocusMap pMap.AddLayer pFLayer

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-12

Layer is an abstract class that has several creatable subtypes. As a programmer, you can create several kinds of layers brand-new by using the New keyword. Remember that a Layer is nothing more than a pointer to some dataset on disk, and the symbology (and other basic properties) used to display the data in the map. The type of layer you create depends on the type of data you want to represent in the map. You can create RasterLayers, for example, to display data that is in Grid (or some other image format), TinLayers to display TIN data, and FeatureLayers to display vector data (shapefile, geodatabase, or coverage). The example The code above creates a new FeatureLayer (using the Visual Basic New keyword). The IMxDocument interface on the current document (ThisDocument) is then used to access the document’s activated data frame (FocusMap). The AddLayer method is called on the Map, and the new FeatureLayer is passed in as the only required argument. After the code above executes, an empty layer would appear in the ArcMap Table of Contents (as shown above). Before adding a layer, obviously, a programmer would generally set some of its basic properties, such as its name and the data on disk that it will display in the map. You will learn more about working with these layer properties in a later lesson.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-12

Setting a FeatureLayer’s data source
FeatureClass property (IFeatureLayer)
Specifies the data source to display Set by reference (must use the Set keyword)

More about accessing data in the next lesson
'Make a new FeatureLayer Dim pFLayer As IFeatureLayer Set pFLayer = New FeatureLayer 'Get another layer’s FeatureClass Dim pFClass As IFeatureClass Set pFClass = pSomeOtherLayer.FeatureClass 'Set the new layer’s FeatureClass property Set pFLayer.FeatureClass = pFClass

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-13

Working with a FeatureLayer’s FeatureClass property Feature layers are based on a type of dataset known as a FeatureClass. FeatureClasses are datasets that have a single feature type (point, line, polygon), a common set of attributes, and a common spatial reference. FeatureClasses are basically just a collection of features and their associated attributes. Examples of FeatureClasses are Shapefiles, Coverages, and Geodatabase datasets. To access a FeatureLayer’s dataset, use the FeatureClass property on IFeatureLayer. This is a read–write property, so in addition to simply getting a FeatureLayer’s data source, you can also set it. FeatureClass is a property put by reference, which means you must use the Set keyword when setting this property (see the example above). The example The code above simply gets the FeatureClass from one FeatureLayer in the map, then assigns it as the data source for a new FeatureLayer by setting the new layer’s FeatureClass property equal to the same FeatureClass object. This code has simply made a copy of an existing layer in the map (probably with different symbology, however). The code below is more succinct and would also work.
Dim pFLayer As IFeatureLayer Set pFLayer = New FeatureLayer Set pFLayer.FeatureClass = pSomeOtherLayer.FeatureClass

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-13

Exercise 8 overview
Loop
Maps in a document Layers in a map

Optional steps (choose one: 3, 4, or 5)
Fields in a layer table Determining object reference Add a layer to a map
Set basic properties Set the data source

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

8-14

In this exercise, you will write code to manage maps in the current document, layers in the maps, and fields in each attribute table. You will also write code that adds a layer to the map.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Maps and layers

8-14

Programming ArcInfo with Visual Basic for Applications ModuleTitle

Data access and creation
Lesson overview 9-2 Data creation objects 9-3 Opening an existing Workspace 9-5 Connecting to an ArcSDE database 9-7 Getting a FeatureDataset 9-8 Getting FeatureClasses 9-9 Pseudocode: Adding a data layer 9-10 GxDialog 9-11 Example: GxDialog 9-12 Exercise 9A overview 9-13 Working with Name objects 9-14 Creating a new Workspace 9-15 Creating a new Table or FeatureClass 9-17 Field and Fields classes 9-18 IField and IFieldEdit 9-19 Creating a Fields collection 9-20 Creating a Table or FeatureClass 9-21

contents

Work with fields in a table 9-23 Adding rows and values to a table 9-24 Exercise 9B overview 9-26

Data access and creation

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data creation

9-1

Lesson overview
Data creation objects
Workspace FeatureDataset FeatureClass
Workspace Workspace FeatureDataset FeatureDataset FeatureClasses FeatureClasses

Working with fields and field collections Creating Tables and FeatureClasses Adding rows Editing table values

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-2

Overview This lesson will discuss how to access existing data on disk as well as how to create new data. You will learn how to create and define new fields for a table or feature class, how to add records (rows or features), and how to add new values. Specifically, the following objects related to working with data will be examined: WorkspaceFactory Workspace FeatureDataset Table FeatureClass Fields/Field Name Row Feature

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data creation

9-2

Data creation objects
WorkspaceFactory WorkspaceFactory Workspace

*

Dataset

Field

1 ..

*

Fields

ShapefileWorkspaceFactory

Row

Table

AccessWorkspaceFactory FeatureClass

ArcInfoWorkspaceFactory Others

Which ones can be created new? Which ones can be created new?
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-3

Object Model overview Notice that a lot of the objects used to access or create data are Classes, which means they cannot be created with the New keyword. These objects (such as Workspace, Table, and Row) must be created from another class. The first step in working with data on disk is to reference a Workspace object. A Workspace is simply a folder that contains data (shapefiles, coverages, geodatabase, tables, etc.). Once you have a Workspace, you can get to all the datasets contained within. Workspaces Although all Workspaces implement the same interfaces, Workspace objects come in various forms, some of which are listed below (this is a good example of polymorphism). ArcInfo Workspace: A directory containing coverages and an INFO subdirectory Shapefile Workspace: A directory containing ESRI shapefiles Access Workspace: A personal geodatabase containing tables and feature datasets SDE™ Workspace: An ArcSDE™ instance that contains tables, feature datasets, and layers Raster Workspace: A Workspace containing grids and images TIN Workspace: A Workspace containing TINs You can only access datasets of the type identified by your Workspace object. For example, if you have a directory, C:\Data, that contains both shapefiles and coverages, you would need two Workspace objects in your code to get at all these datasets (one Shapefile Workspace and one ArcInfo Workspace).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data creation

9-3

Dataset According to the diagram above, a Workspace is associated with several (*) datasets. A dataset is an abstract class that represents both geographic and nongeographic data collections such as tables, feature datasets, grids, and images. Datasets are accessed through the Workspace that contains them. If you look at the detailed Geodatabase diagram, you will notice a lot of subclasses that inherit from the abstract dataset class (such as Table, ObjectClass, FeatureClass, GeoDataset, etc.).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data creation

9-4

Opening an existing Workspace
Use IWorkspaceFactory to return a Workspace object
Generic interface for all sub-types of WorkspaceFactory OpenFromFile: Access an existing folder on disk Open: Connect to an existing database (e.g., ArcSDE)

Dim pWFactory As IWorkspaceFactory Dim pWFactory As IWorkspaceFactory Set pWFactory = New ArcInfoWorkspaceFactory Set pWFactory = New ArcInfoWorkspaceFactory Dim pWorkspace As IWorkspace Dim pWorkspace As IWorkspace Set pWorkspace = pWFactory.OpenFromFile("D:\Covers", 0) Set pWorkspace = pWFactory.OpenFromFile("D:\Covers", 0)

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-5

The first step in accessing data on disk is to reference the Workspace that contains the data. Because the Workspace class is a Class (instantiable, but not creatable), a programmer must access objects of this class from other objects. In the case of an existing Workspace, you can use the WorkspaceFactory object to instantiate a Workspace. WorkspaceFactory As the name implies, a WorkspaceFactory can create Workspace objects. According to the type of data you want to access, use the corresponding WorkspaceFactory CoClass. For example, to access ArcInfo coverages, you need to create your Workspace using an ArcInfoWorkspaceFactory; to open personal geodatabase feature classes, you need to create a Workspace from an AccessWorkspaceFactory, and so on. Either of the methods below can be used to open an existing Workspace. OpenFromFile: use for Workspaces that do not require a connection such as folders or a personal geodatabase on your local machine. Open: use to open Workspaces that you need to connect to such as an ArcSDE database. The Open method takes a PropertySet object as an argument, which contains all connection information. Both methods (OpenFromFile and Open) have a second argument being a window handle (or OLE_HANDLE). A window handle is a long value, that the operating system assigns to each window on your computer. Therefore, if for example, you type in the wrong path to your directory, VBA will tie the dialog box indicating this error, with the ArcMap application. In VBA, you may specify 0, as this is a default number that tells VBA to get the ArcMap window handle.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data creation

9-5

PropertySet A PropertySet is a collection of name–value pairs. PropertySets support methods to find properties by name. Property Values are represented as Variants. This allows a Property Value to hold either a common type, such as a string or a number, or a COM object. PropertySets are used to represent the metadata available for any dataset. PropertySets can also be used to represent the set of properties for an individual feature in the database. For example, a PropertySet used to store connection information for an ArcSDE Workspace may contain username, instance, and password properties. hWnd This argument is very important for the user-interface programmer. OpenFromFile and Open might display a dialog if the file does not contain all of the necessary properties required for connecting. In this situation, the dialog needs to know that parent window to maintain the correct modality. Not using it could result in OpenFromFile creating a dialog that is parented incorrectly. (For example, the parent of the dialog could end up being some other application.) If you are calling Open from ArcMap, you can pass in the ArcMap application’s hWnd. Getting the ArcMap or ArcCatalog hWnd: Application.hWnd There are two cases where you can use 0 (zero): • You know that all the required properties are contained in the connection file. • You are calling it from a non-GUI application.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data creation

9-6

Connecting to an ArcSDE database
Use SDEWorkspaceFactory
Use IWorkspaceFactory to retrieve a workspace

Set connection properties with IPropertySet

Use SetProperties method to set Database Connection properties (Server, Instance, etc)

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

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Use the SDEWorkspaceFactory to retrieve a Workspace object, just as you would if you want to connect to a folder containing shape. The last slide shows the OpenFromFile method to open an ArcInfoWorkspaceFactory. If using an ArcSDE Workspace, use the Open method, which asks for a ConnectionProperties parameter. With the ConnectionProperties parameter, you can pass in a PropertySet object which allows you to set the database connection properties. Note that when using the example below, the password is exposed in the code. You could get around this by having the user fill it in through a form that you create. The password could also be stored by creating custom components (.dlls). Creating custom components is discussed in the Extending ArcGIS Desktop Applications instructor-led course.
Public Function openSDEWorkspace(Server As String, Instance As String, User As String, _ Pswd As String, Optional Dbse As String = "", Optional version As String = "SDE.DEFAULT") As IWorkspace Dim pPropSet As IPropertySet Dim pSdeFact As IWorkspaceFactory Set pPropSet = New PropertySet With pPropSet .SetProperty "SERVER", Server .SetProperty "INSTANCE", Instance .SetProperty "DATABASE", Dbse .SetProperty "USER", User .SetProperty "PASSWORD", Pswd .SetProperty "VERSION", version End With Set pSdeFact = New SdeWorkspaceFactory Set openSDEWorkspace = pSdeFact.Open(pPropSet, 0) End Function

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Getting a FeatureDataset
IFeatureWorkspace interface on Workspace
OpenFeatureDataset method
Dim pFWorkspace As IFeatureWorkspace Set pFWorkspace = pWorkspace 'QI for IFeatureWorkspace Dim pCover As IFeatureDataset Set pCover = pFWorkspace.OpenFeatureDataset("streets") Workspace Workspace

FeatureDataset FeatureDataset FeatureClasses FeatureClasses

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-8

FeatureDatasets A FeatureDataset is simply a collection of FeatureClasses. ArcInfo coverages, for example, are all FeatureDatasets. A single coverage may contain several feature types (such as Polygons, Lines, Label Points, and Tics), each of which is a FeatureClass. A Geodatabase might also contain FeatureDatasets, which, like coverages, can organize a set of FeatureClasses. The concept of a FeatureDataset does not exist for Shapefiles, as Shapefiles are FeatureClasses in themselves and cannot contain more than one feature type. Getting a FeatureDataset On the Workspace class, the IFeatureWorkspace interface has several methods that are dedicated to accessing or creating all types of datasets. It is here that you will find the OpenFeatureDataset method that can be used to open ArcInfo coverages or geodatabase feature datasets (depending on the type of Workspace you have referenced). To open a feature dataset from a Workspace, you only need to provide the name of the dataset, as shown in the example above.

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Getting FeatureClasses
Use IFeatureClassContainer to get existing FeatureClasses from a FeatureDataset

Dim Dim Dim Dim Set Set Set Set

pFCC As IFeatureClassContainer pFCC As IFeatureClassContainer pStreetArcs As IFeatureClass pStreetArcs As IFeatureClass pFCC = pCover 'QI for IFeatureClassContainer pFCC = pCover 'QI for IFeatureClassContainer pStreetArcs = pFCC.ClassByName("arc") pStreetArcs = pFCC.ClassByName("arc")

FeatureClasses FeatureClasses

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-9

FeatureClasses Remember that a FeatureClass is a set of features that have the same feature type (all points, lines, or polygons), the same set of attributes, and the same spatial reference (coordinate system, extent, etc.). FeatureClasses can exist directly inside a Workspace, as in the case of a Shapefile in a folder, or can reside within a FeatureDataset, as in the case of polygons inside a particular ArcInfo coverage. In a geodatabase, FeatureClasses can exist either inside a FeatureDataset or directly inside the Workspace (both situations can exist in the same geodatabase). Getting a FeatureClass Using the IFeatureWorkspace interface on the Workspace class, a programmer can access FeatureClasses that are stored directly inside the Workspace by using the OpenFeatureClass method (this is how you would access a Shapefile from a particular folder, for example). In the case of FeatureClasses that are stored in a FeatureDataset, a programmer can use the IFeatureClassContainer interface on the FeatureDataset object. As the name implies, the IFeatureClassContainer interface is used to get at the contents of a FeatureDataset. FeatureClasses can be accessed from this interface with properties such as ClassByName, ClassByID, or Class(index). All FeatureClasses can be accessed (and returned as an enum) by using the Classes property.

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Pseudocode: Adding a data layer
Get the MxDocument using ThisDocument Get the MxDocument using ThisDocument Get the active Map from the MxDocument Get the active Map from the MxDocument Make a new FeatureLayer object Make a new FeatureLayer object Make a new ShapefileWorkspaceFactory object Make a new ShapefileWorkspaceFactory object Get a Workspace from the ShapefileWorkspaceFactory Get a Workspace from the ShapefileWorkspaceFactory Get the FeatureClass from the Workspace Get the FeatureClass from the Workspace Set the FeatureClass for the FeatureLayer Set the FeatureClass for the FeatureLayer Assign the Name and ShowTips properties for the FeatureLayer Assign the Name and ShowTips properties for the FeatureLayer Add the FeatureLayer to the Map Add the FeatureLayer to the Map

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-10

Pseudocode is code that cannot be understood or executed by Visual Basic; instead, it is used to help a programmer begin to solve a coding problem. Oftentimes, pseudocode can be a useful first step in designing an application. It should be written so it can be easily understood yet should also conform to the general structure of a Visual Basic program. After outlining a program in pseudocode, it should be a fairly straightforward task to convert the pseudocode into actual Visual Basic code. The pseudocode above adds a shapefile as a new layer in the active dataframe. Does this pseudocode help you better see the overall process? Would you find this helpful in writing your code, or an unnecessary step?

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GxDialog
ArcCatalog type dialog box for browsing directories
User-friendly identification of input/output files Can open modally for saving or opening a file

Properties that define appearance and behavior
StartingLocation Title ObjectFilter AllowMultiSelect FinalLocation

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-11

GxDialog provides the developer with an easy way to let the user specify input or output files. Like ArcCatalog, GxDialog lets you connect or disconnect folders or view thumbnails of your spatial data. GxDialog will always open modally, meaning you cannot interact with any other application until the dialog is closed. A GxDialog can be used to open or save a single file or to open several files. Before opening a GxDialog, you may want to set several of its properties. You can use the StartingLocation property to indicate a pathname to show the dialog box to begin browsing. Use the ObjectFilter property to specify types of items to show in the dialog box. Use the Title and the ButtonCaption to specify text for the dialog box title bar and the OK button. When a user is through browsing, you can find the last directory he or she entered with the FinalLocation property of the GxDialog object. To access objects that were selected (for input), an IEnumGxObject object is provided as a parameter.

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Example: GxDialog
Dim pGxDialog As IGxDialog Dim pGxObjEnum As IEnumGxObject Set pGxDialog = New GxDialog

pGxDialog.AllowMultiSelect = True pGxDialog.StartingLocation = "C:\Esri\EsriData\Mexico" pGxDialog.Title = "Select Files for Input" pGxDialog.ButtonCaption = "GO!" pGxDialog.DoModalOpen 0, pGxObjEnum

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-12

The example above uses only a few lines of code to present the user with an intuitive dialog box for specifying several input files. Notice that a required parameter for the DoModalOpen method is an EnumGxObject. This variable will contain all files (GxObjects) selected by the user. If AllowMultipleSelect is set to false (the default), this enumeration object is still required to store the single selected object. When asking the user to save a file, use DoModalSave. This method has no parameters. If AllowMultiSelect was set to False, you could access the one file that was selected with code such as this (also test to see if it is Nothing, because the user might have pressed Cancel)
Dim pGxObject As IGxObject Set pGxObject = pGxObjEnum.Next If pGxObject Is Nothing Then Exit Sub

If you wanted to read through the selected files and delete certain types (e.g., shapefiles), you might use code such as the following to loop through the enumeration.
Dim pGxObjEdit As IGxObjectEdit Set pGxObj = pGxObjEnum.Next Do Until pGxObj Is Nothing If pGxObj.Category = "Shapefile" Then Set pGxObjEdit = pGxObj pGxObjEdit.Delete End If Set pGxObj = pGxObjEnum.Next Loop

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Exercise 9A overview
Add a layer to a map
Set a shapefile data source

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-13

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data creation

9-13

Working with Name objects
A lightweight version of the object it represents
Use Open on IName to return the object

Several creatable subtypes

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-14

A Workspace by any other name … A Name object identifies and locates a geodatabase object (such as a dataset or a Workspace) or a map object (such as a layer). Although a Name object is simply a surrogate for the object it represents, it supports an Open method that a programmer can use to instantiate the actual object represented. The Open method lets you instantiate the actual object from the Name object. The example below uses QueryInterface to get the IName interface on a feature class name then instantiates the corresponding feature class using the Open method.
Dim pName as IName Set pName = pFeatureClassName Set pFeatureClass = pName.Open

IUnknown Pointer If you look at the Open method (on IName) on the Geodatabase object model diagram, you will notice that its return value is listed as IUnknown Pointer. This may seem confusing at first glance; how can a programmer tell what kind of object is actually returned from the Open method? Because there are several classes that support the IName interface, including FeatureDatasetName, WorkspaceName, and TableName, there is no way the diagram can list specifically what will be returned when the Open method is called. When Open is called on a TableName object, for example, a Table is returned. When it is called on a FeatureDatasetName, a FeatureDataset is returned, and so on. Because all COM objects inherit the generic interface IUnknown, the diagram lists this as the return type. As a programmer, you would know what is actually being returned, of course, because you would know what type of Name object you were opening.

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Creating a new Workspace
Use IWorkspaceFactory to get a WorkspaceName
Create method

Use IName to get a Workspace
Open method

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-15

Using the Create method New Workspaces, as you may have guessed, are created from a WorkspaceFactory. The IWorkspaceFactory interface, which is supported by the creatable (coclass) subtypes of the WorkspaceFactory class, uses the Create method not to produce new Workspaces, but to produce new WorkspaceName objects. WorkspaceName objects, as described on the previous slide, are simply lightweight versions of a Workspace and not the Workspace itself. In order to instantiate the actual Workspace object from the WorkspaceName, use the Open method on the IName interface, as shown below.
'Use Create to return a WorkspaceName. 'Parameters are 1) the parent folder, 2) the name, 3) a PropertySet, and 4) an hWnd Dim pWorkName As IWorkspaceName Set pWorkName = pShapeFileWSFactory.Create ("C:\Data", "MyFiles", Nothing, 0) Dim pName As IName Set pName = pWorkName interface ' QueryInterface to get the IName

Dim pShapeWSpace As IWorkspace Set pShapeWSpace = pName.Open object ' Open on any Name returns the

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PropertySet A PropertySet is a collection of name–value pairs. PropertySets support methods to find properties by name. Property Values are represented as Variants. This allows a Property Value to hold either a common type, such as a string or a number or a COM object. PropertySets are used to represent the metadata available for any dataset. PropertySets can also be used to represent the set of properties for an individual feature in the database. For example, a PropertySet used to store connection information for an ArcSDE Workspace may contain username, instance, and password properties. If you do not require a PropertySet to open or create a Workspace, you can use the Nothing keyword (as in the example above) to ignore this parameter.

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Creating a new Table or FeatureClass
Use IFeatureWorkspace interface on Workspace
CreateTable and CreateFeatureClass methods

Requires a Fields collection

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-17

Creating a new dataset Once you have referenced a Workspace object (new or existing), you can create new datasets inside the Workspace by using one of the methods on the IFeatureWorkspace interface listed below. CreateFeatureClass CreateFeatureDataset CreateRelationshipClass CreateTable Remember, the type of data you create is dictated by the type of Workspace object you created or opened. If, for example, you use the CreateFeatureClass method on a ShapefileWorkspace, you have created a Shapefile. If you called CreateTable on this same Workspace, you would create a dBASE table (the table format for Shapefiles). CreateTable and CreateFeatureClass The CreateTable and CreateFeatureClass methods on IFeatureWorkspace are very similar in their syntax. This is not surprising because a FeatureClass is simply a table that has coordinate geometry. Both methods require a string to specify the name of the dataset, UIDs for specifying custom behavior DLLs, a string for an ArcSDE configuration keyword, and a collection of fields. CreateFeatureClass has additional parameters related to geometry such as FeatureType and ShapeFieldName. Before calling the CreateTable or CreateFeatureClass methods, a programmer would have to produce a collection of fields to satisfy the Fields parameter.

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Field and Fields classes
Tables and FeatureClasses have an associated Fields
A Fields is a Collection

A Fields object has Field objects
One or several (1..*)

Creatable

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-18

Field and Fields Before creating a new FeatureClass or Table, you need to produce a collection of fields for the new dataset. Individual Field objects can be created with the New keyword (they are coclasses). After creating each Field that you want in the dataset, you need to add them to a Fields object. Fields is an object that manages a set of individual Field objects. Simply put, it is a collection of Fields. Like the Field class, Fields is a coclass and can therefore also be created New. The fields of an existing dataset can also be accessed. Tables and FeatureClasses have a Fields property that returns the dataset’s associated Fields object. From this Fields object, you can access individual Field objects according to index position (as with any collection object). Caution Do not use a dataset’s Fields collection to add a Field to an existing dataset. This method is only appropriate when creating a new dataset. To add a Field to an existing Table or FeatureClass, use the AddField method on the dataset itself.

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IField and IFieldEdit
Get field properties with IField
Read-only

Set field properties with IFieldEdit
Write-only
Dim pNameField As IFieldEdit Set pNameField = New Field With pNameField .Name = "StreetName" .Type = esriFieldTypeString .Length = 16 End With

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-19

What a difference an ‘s’ makes Both the Field and Fields classes support interfaces for reading properties and another for writing properties. These interfaces are named IField (IFields) for read-only access and IFieldEdit (IFieldsEdit) for write-only access. When declaring variables to work with field objects and field collections, take care to use the proper interface. A common mistake is to inadvertently add or forget an ‘s’ when dimensioning one of these variables, which leaves the programmer working with a collection instead of a single field object or vice versa. When creating new Field objects or a new Fields collection, you need to use the editing interfaces. From the IFieldEdit interface, for example, you can set properties for the new field such as its name, the type of data it will contain, and it length. Likewise, you can only add new Field objects to a Fields collection if you are using the IFieldsEdit interface. The OID field The OID field is an internal identification field and is basically a record number (object identifier). The values stored by the OID field are integers that uniquely identify each record (starting from one and incrementing from top to bottom). These values are managed internally and do not need to be explicitly set by the user. When creating a table with code, make sure to create an OID field for your dataset (also make sure to define only one Field as type OID).

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Creating a Fields collection
Use the IFieldsEdit interface
AddField method: Puts a field in the collection
Dim pFieldsEdit As IFieldsEdit Set pFieldsEdit = New Fields pFieldsEdit.AddField pOIDField pFieldsEdit.AddField pNameField pFieldsEdit.AddField pSalesField
'Field = Fields !

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-20

Fields collection Fields is a coclass and can be created New in your code. Once a new Fields collection has been created, use the AddField method on the IFieldsEdit interface to put each Field you have defined into the collection. Each Field that you add will be added to the Fields collection. Later on you will use the Fields collection to add it to a Table or Feature Class. A Fields collection should contain one (and exactly one) OID field. This field will be managed by the software and will basically store a record number. If you attempt to create a Table without an OID field, you will receive an error. IFieldsEdit methods AddField DeleteAllFields DeleteField (index) Adds a field to the collection. This is a hidden method by default. Deletes all fields from the collection. Deletes a field at the position specified by the index (integer).

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Creating a Table or FeatureClass
Use IFeatureWorkspace interface on Workspace
CreateTable and CreateFeatureClass methods
Dim pTable As ITable Set pTable = pFeatureWorkspace.CreateTable _ ("Store55", pFieldsEdit, Nothing, Nothing, "") Table Name Table Name CLSID and EXTCLSID CLSID and EXTCLSID (Custom Behavior DLLs) (Custom Behavior DLLs) Fields Collection Fields Collection CreateFeatureClass takes additional CreateFeatureClass takes additional FeatureType and ShapeFieldName parameters FeatureType and ShapeFieldName parameters
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcSDE Configuration ArcSDE Configuration Keyword Keyword

9-21

Once you have created the Field objects required for your Table or FeatureClass and placed them into a Fields collection, you can use the CreateTable or CreateFeatureClass method on a Workspace object’s IFeatureWorkspace interface. The syntax for the CreateTable method is:
Set aTable = aWorkspace.CreateTable (aTableName, aFieldsCollection,_ aClassID, _aClassExtensionID, aConfigKeyword)

aTable: aTableName:

A variable declared as an ITable object. The name of the table as it will appear on disk (e.g., Streets.dbf). A string. A GUID that identifies a DLL used to define custom behavior for the table. A UID object.

aFieldsCollection: The fields to appear in the table. A Fields object. aClassID:

aClassExtensionID: A GUID that identifies a ClassExtension DLL for the table. An UID object. aConfigKeyword: Storage parameters for an ArcSDE server. A string. Notice that the Nothing keyword can be used to ignore certain parameters that require an object. The final parameter, the ArcSDE configuration keyword, requires a string. In order to ignore this parameter, a programmer must provide an empty string (“”) and not the Nothing keyword. In this example, a Fields collection must be provided; a programmer could not ignore this parameter.

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Additional parameters for creating a FeatureClass Because a FeatureClass stores coordinate geometry, there are additional FeatureType and ShapeFieldName parameters required for the CreateFeatureClass method. FeatureType: satisfied with a constant (esriFeatureType) such as esriFTSimple, esriFTComplexEdge, and esriFTAnnotation ShapeFieldName: a string that identifies the field in the Fields collection that will store coordinate geometry

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Work with fields in a table
IFields interface
FieldCount returns the total number of fields FindField (also on ITable) returns a field’s index number Field returns a field given the index number
For intLoop = 1 To pFClass.Fields.FieldCount – 1 MsgBox pFClass.Fields.Field(intLoop).Name Next intLoop intFieldNum = pTable.Fields.FindField("Area") If intFieldNum > -1 Then '-1 means the field was not found Set pAreaField = pTable.Fields.Field(intFieldNum) End If
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-23

Working with fields In addition to creating a collection of fields for creating a new dataset, the Fields collection can be returned from any existing Table or FeatureClass as well. Once a reference to the Fields collection is made, a programmer can use the IFields interface to work with individual Field objects. Members on Ifields FieldCount: returns the total number of field objects in the collection. The FieldCount may be important for building a looping routine to access each field in the collection, for example. FindField: does not return a Field from the collection. Instead, it returns the index position of the specified Field object in the collection. Index position in the collection is the same as it appears in the table itself, with 0 being the field on the far left of the table, increasing from left to right. If the specified field is not located, the value –1 is returned. Field: use this property to return a Field object from the Fields collection. The Field property requires an index number in order to access a Field. Use the FindField method described above to first locate the Field’s position, then use the Field property to get the Field itself. You can also chain code together to access a Field from the collection, as shown below.
pIncomeField = pTable.Fields.Field(pTable.FindField ("Income") )

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Adding rows and values to a table
CreateRow on ITable returns a Row
CreateFeature on IFeatureClass returns a Feature

Value property
Get or set cell values Specify the field index
Dim pRow As IRow Set pRow = pTable.CreateRow pRow.Value(1) = "Jesse White" pRow.Store

Row

Table

Feature

FeatureClass

'Name

pRow.Value(pTable.FindField("Age")) = 35 'Age
Store commits the new row Store commits the new row Feature has a Shape property to store geometry Feature has a Shape property to store geometry

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-24

Adding Rows to a Table If you look at the simplified object model diagram above, you will notice that Row is a Class, which means it must be instantiated from another object (and not with the New keyword). Also shown by the diagram above is the fact that a Table object can instantiate a Row (dashed arrow means creates a). As a programmer working with Tables and Rows, this makes perfect sense. Creating a Row with the New keyword would mean that the Row would exist outside the context of a Table. By having the Table create the Row, you are assured that the Row is created inside a Table and that it has all the fields that are defined in that Table. Calling the CreateRow method on ITable opens an empty record in the parent table. Obviously, it is important to store the Row that is returned by the CreateRow method in a variable so it can be referenced later in your code. The IRow interface on the Row class has a Value property. This property is read–write, which means you can both access values from an existing Row and provide new values for a new (or existing) Row. To use the Value property, you need to specify the index position of a Field you want to provide a value for. Once all values have been written to a Row, make sure to use the Store method to commit the new Row to the Table. If you do not use Store, your Row will not actually be added to the Table.

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Features in a FeatureClass Just as a Table object contains Rows, a FeatureClass contains Features. Features are like Rows in that they are simply records in a dataset. They differ, however, in the fact that they store geometry. The methods for assigning values (attributes) described above also apply to Features in a FeatureClass, with the exception of setting the geometry. You can directly access geometry for a Feature by using the Shape property defined on the IFeature interface. As with Rows, make sure to use Store to commit the Feature to the FeatureClass. Below is an example of storing a new Feature.
Dim pFeature As Ifeature Set pFeature = pFeatureClass.CreateFeature Set pFeature.Shape = pPolygon pFeature.Value(3) = "Hyrum" pFeature.Value(pFeature.FindField(PropertyValue)) = 160000 pFeature.Value(pFeatureClass.FindField("Owner")) = "Chuck and Joslin Werstak" pFeature.Store

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Exercise 9B overview
Make a new personal geodatabase (workspace) Create a new table
Add records Edit values

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

9-26

Exercise 9 overview In this exercise, you will write code to: Add a shapefile layer to a map. Create a new personal geodatabase on disk. Make a Fields collection. Create a new table inside your geodatabase by using the Fields collection. Add records (Rows) to the table and add new information.

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Geometry and geoprocessing
Lesson overview Geometry objects Feature geometry Points and multipoints Segments Polylines and polygons Envelopes Zooming in to a Feature Displaying features Geometry spatial operator interfaces ITopologicalOperator IRelationalOperator IProximityOperator Area and length Spatial reference Spatial reference OMD Exercise 10 overview

10-11 10-12 10-13 10-14 10-15 10-16 10-17 10-18

contents

10-2 10-3 10-4 10-5 10-6 10-7 10-8 10-9 10-10

Geometry and geoprocessing

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry

10-1

Lesson overview
Geometry 101 Operators: Working with feature geometry Drawing geometry Geoprocessing

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-2

Overview Types of ArcMap geometry objects Creating new geometry with code Measuring proximity Examining spatial relationships Displaying features

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry

10-2

Geometry objects
Geometry *
Geometry collection

Curve

Envelope

Point

*

MultiPoint

Polycurve

Segment *

Path

*

Polyline

Polygon

Line

CircularArc

BezierCurve

Ring

*

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-3

Geometry object model diagram The last slide showed how certain types of geometry can be built by aggregating other types of geometry. For example, segments can be produced from points and paths can be produced from segments. This is illustrated in the object model diagram by the fact that the IGeometryCollection interface is supported by the Polycurve class (inherited by Polygon and Polyline). A GeometryCollection object is a set of geometries of the same type. It may be a collection of paths that describe a line, a collection of segments that describe a path, or even a collection of points that describe a polygon. Notice that the Path class has an ISegmentCollection and an IPointCollection interface (inherited by Ring); therefore, there is no hierarchy for building geometry. You do not have to aggregate points to segments, segments to paths, and paths to rings in order to make a Polygon feature. All geometry has an envelope. An envelope is the minimum bounding rectangle that surrounds a piece of geometry. As the name implies, it is a rectangular geometry with properties such as LowerLeft, UpperRight, Width, and Height. True to the object model, even though points do not have area, they do have an (empty) envelope. Being a type of geometry, even envelopes have an Envelope property. Does an envelope’s envelope have an envelope?

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry

10-3

Feature geometry
Points Multipoints Polylines Polygons

1 Line

1 Poly

Segments have start and end with curve in between Aggregate to paths/rings Aggregate to lines/polygons Edit at any level
Bezier curve Line Segments
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

2 Paths

3 Rings (closed paths)

Circular arc

10-4

ArcMap geometry When storing geometry in a geodatabase, you have the potential to create multipart features. This means a single feature (one record in the Feature Class table) can store the coordinates for several spatially distinct geometries. Aggregation of geometry The point is at the root of all geometry. A point is a single pair of x- and y-coordinates that can be used to build other kinds of geometry such as lines or polygons. Although the above geodatabase geometry illustration is accurate (points can aggregate to form segments, segments to form paths, etc.), notice that any geometry can be produced directly from a collection of points.

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Working with geometry

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Points and multipoints
Points are zero dimensional
Defined with x- and y-coordinates May have Z and M properties

Multipoints are collections of points
Dim pPoint As IPoint Point Set pPoint = New Point pPoint.X = 300 pPoint.Y = 450

Multipoint with six points

Dim pMultiPts As IPointCollection Set pMultiPts = New MultiPoint pMultiPts.AddPoint pPoint

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Points are the most basic type of geometry. They are zero-dimensional and composed of a single pair of x- and y-coordinates. Using the IGeometryCollection or IPointCollection interface, geometry of any type may be built with a collection of points. A Multipoint feature is a single feature that stores the coordinates for several points. Several locations for a single fast food chain, for example, could be represented with a Multipoint feature.

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Segments
Consist of two points (From and To) and a function defining the curve between them
From To To From

Subclasses: Line, BezierCurve, CircularArc Segments used to create other geometry
Paths, polylines, rings, and polygons
Dim pLine As ILine Set pLine = New Line pSegment.FromPoint = pPointA pSegment.ToPoint = pPointB

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-6

Segments, lines, and curves The Segment class is an abstract class, meaning the programmer cannot create a Segment object with the New keyword. Instead, specific types of segments may be created including Lines, CircularArcs, EllipticArcs, and BezierCurves. Segment is a subclass of another abstract class called Curve. All of the above-mentioned classes inherit some of their most basic properties and methods from the Curve class. For example, FromPoint and ToPoint define the start and end for any type of curve. ISegmentCollection More complex geometry, such as paths, rings, polylines, and polygons, may be built by first aggregating segments. The Path and Ring classes directly support the ISegmentCollection interface, while Polyline and Polygon support the more generic IGeometryCollection interface. ISegmentCollection has methods such as AddSegment, RemoveSegment, AddSegmentCollection, and SegmentCount. ICircularArc ICircularArc has more than 30 methods. Examine the ArcGIS Developer Help for more information.
Dim pArc AS ICircularArc Set pArc = New CircularArc pArc.ConstructThreePoints pPoint1, pPoint2, pPoint3

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry

10-6

Polylines and polygons
Polylines
Collections of connected or unconnected paths

Polygons
Composed of one or several rings

1 Polyline with four segments
1 Polygon with seven rings

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-7

Example: Building a ring from a Segment collection, making a polygon from a ring
Dim pSegColl As ISegmentCollection Dim pSegColl As ISegmentCollection Set pSegColl = New Ring 'pSegmentA and pSegmentB are Lines built earlier pSegColl.AddSegment pSegmentA pSegColl.AddSegment pSegmentB Dim pRing As IRing Set pRing = pSegColl pRing.Close Dim pPolygon As IGeometryCollection Set pPolygon = New Polygon pPolygon.AddGeometry pRing 'QueryInterface

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry

10-7

Envelopes
Define a feature’s spatial extent
Minimum bounding rectangle

All geometry has an envelope
Get or set with IGeometry :: Envelope
Dim pEnvelope As IEnvelope Set pEnvelope = pLine.Envelope

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-8

Envelope Envelopes are a rectangular geometry. Every geometry has an envelope, which can be described as the feature’s minimum bounding rectangle, or extent. The Envelope property is defined in the IGeometry interface and can be used to retrieve (but not set) any geometry’s envelope. The Envelope class is a CoClass. This means a programmer may create an envelope object using the New keyword. Example: Setting the extent of the active view to a feature’s envelope
'ActiveView’s Extent property is set with an Envelope 'Get the Envelope from a feature’s shape, use it to set map’s extent pMxDoc.ActiveView.Extent = pFeature.Shape.Envelope

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry

10-8

Zooming in to a Feature
Get the extent using a shape’s Envelope property
On the IGeometry interface Set the ActiveView Extent property with an Envelope
pMxDoc.ActiveView.Extent = pFeature.Shape.Envelope pMxDoc.ActiveView.Extent = pFeature.Shape.Envelope pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh

Feature

Geometry

Envelope 1 Polygon Feature

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-9

Getting geometry A Feature’s Shape property returns feature geometry. The Envelope property returns the minimum bounding rectangle for a shape (Envelope is a property defined on IGeometry and is therefore supported on all types of geometry). You can use the Envelope (rectangle) to set the ArcMap view extent, thereby zooming in on the bounding rectangle of the feature. Example: Zooming into each Feature in a FeatureCursor
Public Sub ZoomToRoads () Dim pQFilter As IQueryFilter Set pQFilter = New QueryFilter pQFilter.WhereClause = "LENGTH > 100000" Dim pFCursor As IFeatureCursor Set pFCursor = pFClass.Search(pQFilter, False) ' All roads longer than 100000 meters are placed in the FeatureCursor Dim pFeature As IFeature Dim Counter As Integer Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature ' Get the first feature Do Until pFeature Is Nothing Counter = Counter + 1 pMxDoc.ActiveView.Extent = pFeature.Shape.Envelope ' Get the shape and zoom in pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh ' Refresh after each zoom Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature ' Keep pulling out features Loop MsgBox "There are " & Counter & " roads longer than 100 km" End Sub
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Working with geometry 10-9

Displaying features
Several Draw methods on IScreenDisplay interface
StartDrawing: Prepare display for drawing DrawPoint, DrawMultipoint, DrawPolyline, DrawPolygon FinishDrawing: Flush caches to screen

Quick draw of geometry and symbol
Dim pDisplay As IScreenDisplay Set pDisplay = pMxApplication.Display pDisplay.StartDrawing pDisplay.HDC, esriNoScreenCache pDisplay.SetSymbol pSym pDisplay.DrawPolygon pPolygon pDisplay.FinishDrawing

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-10

To draw geometry, use the IScreenDisplay interface of the MxApplication’s Display object. Use one of the geometry drawing methods between StartDrawing and FinishDrawing statements. You will learn more about display and saving graphics later. For now, the Start and Finish drawing methods draw geometry to the display area, but the geometry is not saved. This means when you refresh the display, the geometry and its symbol will not be there. Use this quick draw when you do not want to save the graphics. ScreenCache options • esriNoScreenCache • esriAllScreenCaches • esriScreenRecording

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry 10-10

Geometry spatial operator interfaces
Interfaces supported by subtypes of Geometry
ITopologicalOperator IProximityOperator IRelationalOperator

Use to …
Perform familiar spatial operations such as buffer, cut, and clip Measure distances between shapes Examine spatial relationships

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-11

Several interfaces are provided by ArcMap for working with feature geometry. These interfaces allow you to do things such as: Measure distances between features. Evaluate spatial relationships. Produce new geometry based on spatial relationships of existing features. Query features based on spatial criteria.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry 10-11

ITopologicalOperator
Provides methods for working with geometry Supported by Point, Multipoint, Polyline, and Polygon
Intersect Buffer Union

Cut Dim pTopoOp As ITopologicalOperator Dim pBuffPoly As IPolygon Set pTopoOp = pFeature.Shape

Clip

Set pBuffPoly = pTopoOp.Buffer (intBufferDistance)
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-12

ITopologicalOperator interface Coming from an ArcInfo background, you may think of operations such as Buffer, Clip, and Intersect as functions you would call in your Visual Basic code. Perhaps the features on which you are operating would be the arguments passed to the function, much like command line ArcInfo. This is not the case. Instead, the programmer working with ArcInfo geometry objects asks the geometry object to perform operations on itself. The ITopologicalOperator interface is supported by the Point, Multipoint, Polyline, and Polygon geometry classes. When you are working with one of these objects, you can QueryInterface the ITopologicalOperator interface and then call the appropriate method. Be aware that these operators are working on individual geometries, not entire datasets. Also realize that most methods return geometry and require additional geometry as parameters. (Buffer, for example, returns a Polygon object.) Some of the most common topological operations are listed above. Check your object model diagram for a full list of properties and methods supported by ITopologicalOperator.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry 10-12

IRelationalOperator
Methods for examining spatial relationships (return Boolean)
Equals: Are input geometries structurally equivalent? Touches: Do input geometry boundaries intersect? Contains: Is one geometry contained by the other? Disjoint: Are input geometries spatially distinct? Several others
Dim pRelationOp As IRelationalOperator Dim booTouches As Boolean Set pRelationOp = pPoly booTouches = pRelationOp.Touches (pAnotherPoly)

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-13

IRelationalOperator interface IRelationalOperator is supported by the Envelope class as well as the classes that support the ITopologicalOperator interface (i.e., Point, Multipoint, Polyline, and Polygon classes). Working with the IRelationalOperator interface lets the programmer ask questions about a geometry’s spatial relationship to other geometry. Some of the relationships the programmer can check for are listed above; check your object model diagram for all supported methods. All methods on this interface require another piece of geometry as an argument. The resulting answer will always be a Boolean object (true or false). Because the IRelationalOperator interface is supported by the Envelope class, the programmer can check the spatial relationships between the envelopes (extents) of two features.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry 10-13

IProximityOperator
Methods for examining proximity relationships between features
ReturnDistance: Returns the minimum distance between features (double) ReturnNearestPoint: Finds and returns the nearest point on the specified feature (point)
Dim pProxOp As IProximityOperator Dim dblDistance As Double Set pProxOp = pLine dblDistance = pProxOp.ReturnDistance (pSomeOtherLine)

?

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-14

IProximityOperator interface Unlike the ITopologicalOperator and IRelationalOperator interfaces, IProximityOperator is supported by all ArcInfo geometry classes. This interface only has a handful of methods, and each one asks proximity questions of geometry. Using IProximityOperator, the programmer can measure distance between geometries or locate the nearest point on one geometry relative to another.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry 10-14

Area and length
Each feature is a type of Geometry QueryInterface to Curve (Line features) or Polygon
Dim pArea As IArea Set pArea = pPoly ‘QI Msgbox pArea.Area
Polygon
IPolygon IArea
IPolygon: IPolycurve ExteriorRingCount: Long InteriorRingCount(exteriorRing: IRong): Long Close FindExteriorRing(interiorRing: IRing): IRing QueryExteriorRings(ExteriorRings: IRing) QueryInteriorRings(exteriorRings: IRing, interiorRings: IRing) SimplifyPreserveFromTo

Curve
ICurve
ICurve: IGeometry FromPoint: IPoint IsClosed: Boolean Length: Double ToPont: IPoint

Dim pCurve As ICurve Set pCurve = pLine ‘QI Msgbox pCurve.Length

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-15

Area and length can be obtained easily from the Geometry OMD. The Curve class is an Abstract class that allows you to work with all types of Segments (Lines) and polygons. You can work with the ICurve interface by performing a queryinterface to an existing piece of geometry. You then will have access to the length. IArea is an interface that allows you to work with the area of polygons. Like ICurve, you must first queryinterface to an existing polygon to use the area property. Another useful property found on IArea is the centroid, which returns a pointer to IPoint, the center of gravity of the polygon. Both the area and length return units are the units that the data is stored in. In order to obtain different units, you must either multiply it by a constant or apply a different projection to the piece of geometry.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry 10-15

Spatial reference
All geometry inherits from IGeometry Use the SpatialReference property to obtain projection information Use the Spatial Reference OMD for further parameters

Dim pPoint As IPoint Set pPoint = mypoint MsgBox pPoint.SpatialReference.Name

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-16

Every piece of geometry has a SpatialReference property, which returns a pointer to ISpatialReference. ISpatialReference can be found on the Geometry Spatial Reference OMD. With the SpatialReference property, you can obtain many of the parameters associated with the projection assigned to the geometry, or simply the name of the projection. Notice that the SpatialReference property is put by reference (hollow box). Thus, if the projection changes for a feature class, it will automatically be changed for all of the associated features.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry 10-16

Spatial reference OMD
All Geometry has a Spatial reference Use ISpatialReferenceFactory to create Projected Coordinate Systems to apply to geometry or feature class
Make your own or choose from one of ESRI predefined projections
ISpatialReference

SpatialReference

Unknown

Geographic CoordinateSystem

Projected CoordinateSystem

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-17

Spatial reference continued Geographic data will often times be projected into a different coordinate system to accommodate the needs of different organizations. The classes on the Geometry Spatial Reference OMD allow you to reproject your data programmatically. The previous slide demonstrates how all geometry will have a Spatial Reference Property. The Spatial Reference property will return either a Geographic Coordinate System, a Projected Coordinate System, or Unknown (a projection was not assigned). If you want to reproject your data, you can use the ISpatialReferenceFactory to create a projected coordinate system that you want your data to be reprojected to. The ISpatialReferenceFactory Interface is similar to the IWorkspaceFactory Interface used in the last lecture. It is an abstract class that contains only methods that will return a projection, or a parameter associated with a projection. Often times you will choose from one of ESRI’s predefined projection types to project your data to. If you would like to assign a projection to an entire feature class, use the IGeoDataset interface on the FeatureClass Class to obtain the SpatialReference property.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry 10-17

Exercise 10 overview
Create point features from coordinates Store point features Assign feature attributes Create a polygon from a Point collection Challenge: Calculate the area from the polygon you created

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

10-18

Exercise 10: Use coordinate input to draw features In this exercise, you will draw point and polygon geometry and store it as a feature in a Feature Class table.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with geometry 10-18

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA ModuleTitle

Working with subsets and selections
Lesson overview 11-2 Object Model overview 11-3 SelectionSet 11-4 Cursors and FeatureCursors 11-6 Creating a QueryFilter 11-7 Returning a Search cursor 11-8 SpatialFilter 11-10 Three types of cursors 11-12 Accessing records in a cursor 11-14 Example: Summarizing a cursor’s attributes 11-15 Review: Features and geometry 11-16 Displaying a subset of features 11-18 Exercise 11 overview 11-19

contents

Working with subsets and selections

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections

11-1

Lesson overview
Getting the current selection from a table or layer
SelectionSet

Getting a subset of records
Cursor FeatureCursor QueryFilters and SpatialFilters

Three types of cursors: Search, Update, and Insert Looping through cursor records Displaying a subset of layer features

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-2

Overview There are a variety of ways to work with selections and subsets of records with ArcObjects. In this lesson, you will learn: How to get an existing selection using the SelectionSet class … from a feature layer … from a table window How to produce a subset of records using the Cursor and FeatureCursor class … using attribute criteria, spatial criteria, or both … for analysis … for updating a dataset How to process the records in a Cursor using a Do While loop How to display a subset of features in a feature layer

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections

11-2

Object Model overview
SelectionSet Row Cursor Table

QueryFilter

SpatialFilter Feature FeatureCursor FeatureClass = ‘in conjunction with’ = ‘in conjunction with’

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-3

Object model diagram You will find the objects discussed in this lesson on the Geodatabase object model diagram. Notice that, with one exception, all of the classes shown above are Classes and must be instantiated from another class. The only CoClasses shown above are QueryFilter and its subtype SpatialFilter. These are the only ones that can be created with the New keyword. The diamond symbol shown above may be new to you. This symbol indicates that an object is created (dashed arrow) by two classes working together. Therefore, according to the diagram above, a Table working in conjunction with a QueryFilter can create a Cursor or a SelectionSet object. Likewise, a FeatureCursor (which is a type of Cursor) is also created from a FeatureClass (a type of Table) and a QueryFilter. Remember that the dashed arrow symbol indicates a creates a relationship. A Row object can be created from a Table or from a Cursor object. A Feature (which is a type of Row) can be created either from a FeatureClass (type of Table) or FeatureCursor (type of Cursor).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections

11-3

SelectionSet
Get the currently selected records (Rows or Features)
IFeatureSelection :: SelectionSet (FeatureLayer) ITableWindow :: SelectionSet (TableWindow)
Public Sub GetLayerSelection() Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Dim pFSel As IFeatureSelection Dim pSelSet As ISelectionSet Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pFSel = pMxDoc.SelectedLayer 'QueryInterface Set pSelSet = pFSel.SelectionSet MsgBox pSelSet.Count & " selected features" End Sub
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-4

SelectionSet class Use the SelectionSet class to get the current selection from a Table or FeatureClass object. Although you can get a SelectionSet object from a Table or FeatureClass object using the Select method, it is perhaps more common for an ArcObjects programmer to get the selection directly from the FeatureLayer or TableWindow in which the user is working. The example above shows the easiest way to get the selection from a FeatureLayer in a map. The FeatureLayer class supports the IFeatureSelection interface, which allows you to get at selected features by using the SelectionSet property. By dimensioning a variable as the IFeatureSelection interface, you can QueryInterface from a FeatureLayer (the example simply assumes that the selected layer is a FeatureLayer), then retrieve the SelectionSet. As a final step above, the example reports the number of selected features in a message box. If you wanted to access each individual feature in the SelectionSet, you would need to write more code to place the features into a FeatureCursor, which is described on the following slide.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections

11-4

Getting the SelectionSet from a Table A TableWindow object allows you to retrieve selected rows. Use the SelectionSet property on ITableWindow to get a SelectionSet object as shown below.
Public Sub GetTableSelection() Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument 'Use the ITableCollection interface on the Map to get at all tables in the current data frame Dim pTableCollection As ITableCollection Set pTableCollection = pMxDoc.FocusMap If pTableCollection.TableCount < 1 Then MsgBox "There are no tables in the active data frame", vbExclamation Exit Sub End If 'Get the first table from the collection Dim pTable As ITable Set pTable = pTableCollection.Table(0) Dim pTabWin As ITableWindow Dim pOldWin As ITableWindow Set pTabWin = New TableWindow 'Check to see if the table window is already open Set pOldWin = pTabWin.FindViaTable(pTable, False) If Not pOldWin Is Nothing Then Set pTabWin = pOldWin Else Set pTabWin.Table = pTable Set pTabWin.Application = Application 'Allow one selected row pTabWin.TableSelectionAction = esriSelectCurrentRow pTabWin.Show True End If 'Get the SelectionSet Dim pSelSet As ISelectionSet Set pSelSet = pTabWin.SelectionSet ' Use the SelectionSet property on ITableWin to get the selected records 'Show the count of selected records in a message box MsgBox "The table has " & pSelSet.Count & " selected records" End Sub

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections

11-5

Cursors and FeatureCursors
Manages a subset of records as a single object Not visible to the user (e.g., selection)

A Fields property for accessing attributes A Fields property for accessing attributes •• Same fields and order as the parent table Same fields and order as the parent table Methods for working with records Methods for working with records (rows or features) (rows or features)

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-6

Cursor objects (and their subtype, FeatureCursor) give you the ability to manage a set of records (rows or features) in a single object. The subset of records in a Cursor can be defined using spatial criteria, attribute criteria, or both. Once a Cursor is produced, you will have a convenient mechanism for looping through the set of records. Cursor objects have a Fields property that allows you to access all the same attribute fields that are in the parent Table or FeatureClass from which the Cursor was derived. These fields are in the same order in the Cursor as they are in the parent Table, and once you access the Fields collection, you can indicate a particular field by using its index position. Cursor objects have several methods for working with their content rows or features. Depending on the type of Cursor you work with (the three types of Cursors will be covered later), you will have methods for inserting, deleting, updating, or simply accessing records. Keep in mind that a Cursor is not the same as a selection. When you produce a Cursor as a programmer, you are not displaying these records as a selection to the user; you are simply pulling out a subset of records to work with in your application. If you want to display these records as a visible selection in the user’s table or map, you need to work with the SelectionSet class.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections

11-6

Creating a QueryFilter
Create a QueryFilter with the New keyword Set the WhereClause property (string)
Dim pQFilter As IQueryFilter Dim pQFilter As IQueryFilter Set pQFilter = New QueryFilter Set pQFilter = New QueryFilter pQFilter.WhereClause = "LENGTH > 100000" pQFilter.WhereClause = "LENGTH > 100000" QueryFilter QueryFilter

WhereClause WhereClause

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-7

QueryFilter, and its subclass SpatialFilter, are CoCreatable. In other words, they can be created with the New keyword. Before producing a Cursor or FeatureCursor from a dataset (Table or FeatureClass), you need to have a QueryFilter or SpatialFilter to define your selection criteria. A QueryFilter object has a WhereClause property, which is simply an expression that defines an attribute query. A SpatialFilter also defines the criteria for producing a Cursor but instead uses geometry and spatial relationships for making a subset of records. SpatialFilters are discussed in more detail on a later slide. SQL syntax The SQL syntax of your QueryFilter’s WhereClause expression should use the format of the data you are querying. For example, INFO, SQL, BASE, Oracle, and Access databases use slightly different query syntax. The expression that appears between the quotes gets passed on to the database being queried. SQL for Access (personal geodatabase) Here is an example of an expression that will select all U.S. states that contain the letter p from an Access personal geodatabase FeatureClass (or Table):
pQFilter.WhereClause = "STATE_NAME like ‘*p*’"

SQL for Shapefiles The same query above on a Shapefile (or BASE Table) would be case sensitive and look like the following: pQFilter.WhereClause = "STATE_NAME like ’%p%‘ or STATE_NAME like ’%P%‘ " SQL for Coverages The same query above on an ArcInfo coverage (or INFO Table) would look like the following:
pQFilter.WhereClause = "STATE_NAME like ’%p%'"

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections

11-7

Returning a Search cursor
Apply to a Table or FeatureClass
Search method Returns a Cursor or FeatureCursor
Dim pFCursor As IFeatureCursor Dim pFCursor As IFeatureCursor Set pFCursor = pFClass.Search(pQFilter, True) Set pFCursor = pFClass.Search(pQFilter, True) 'What do you think this code does? 'What do you think this code does? Set pFCursor = pFClass.Search(Nothing, True) Set pFCursor = pFClass.Search(Nothing, True)
QueryFilter FeatureClass

Search

FeatureCursor

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-8

Using a QueryFilter to return a Search cursor After creating a QueryFilter (or a SpatialFilter, discussed on the following slide) to define the criteria to produce a Cursor, you can use the Search method on ITable (Table) or on IFeatureClass (FeatureClass) to produce a Cursor or FeatureCursor, respectively. Notice that the Search method has two arguments: the first is the QueryFilter, and the second is a Boolean that describes how memory should be managed by the Cursor (described in more detail below). There are three kinds of Cursors that may be produced from a Table or FeatureClass. Each type of Cursor is used for a different purpose and is defined by the method used to create it. The example above creates a Search Cursor by using the Search method on IFeatureClass. Search Cursors are used to return a subset of records for some type of read-only purpose such as calculating a statistic or getting a count of records. The two other types of Cursors that may be created are Update and Insert and will be discussed shortly. Nothing Remember that the Visual Basic keyword Nothing can sometimes be used to satisfy an object parameter. In the case of the Search method, you can use Nothing in place of a QueryFilter object to return all records from a Table or FeatureClass and place them in the returned Cursor object. Specifying Nothing is essentially defining no search criteria whatsoever and will have the same effect as using an expression such as Name = ‘*’.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections

11-8

Recycling The second parameter for the Search method is a Boolean value that specifies whether memory will be recycled for records retrieved from the Cursor. Recycling memory means that each record pulled from the Cursor will occupy the same location in memory and results in better performance. If memory is not recycled, each record pulled from the Cursor will occupy its own location in memory. For Cursor used for editing or data loading (Update or Insert Cursors), memory should not be recycled. Cursors used for read-only operations such as display or simple analysis should use memory recycling. A value of True indicates that memory will be recycled. A value of False means individual memory locations will be allocated.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections

11-9

SpatialFilter
Type of QueryFilter Select features based on a spatial relationship
Dim pSFilter As ISpatialFilter Dim pSFilter As ISpatialFilter Set pSFilter = New SpatialFilter Set pSFilter = New SpatialFilter Set pSFilter.Geometry = pBufferPolygon Set pSFilter.Geometry = pBufferPolygon pSFilter.SpatialRel = esriSpatialRelContains pSFilter.SpatialRel = esriSpatialRelContains Set pFCursor = pCityFClass.Search (pSFilter, True) Set pFCursor = pCityFClass.Search (pSFilter, True) Geometry Property Geometry Property •• Point Point •• Line Line •• Polygon Polygon SpatialRel Property SpatialRel Property •• Inside Inside •• Contains Contains •• Intersects Intersects •• Etc … Etc …
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-10

The SpatialFilter class is a subclass of QueryFilter. Like QueryFilter, SpatialFilter is a coclass and can therefore be created with the New keyword. As the name implies, a SpatialFilter is used to produce a subset of records based on spatial criteria. Because a SpatialFilter uses spatial relationships (geometry), it is only appropriate to use it with a FeatureClass in order to create a FeatureCursor. Instead of using a WhereClause property as the QueryFilter does, a SpatialFilter uses a Geometry property and a SpatialRel property to define the search criteria. Geometry: After creating a new SpatialFilter, set this property with some geometry that will be the basis of the spatial relationship. This property can be set with any type of geometry (i.e., any class that supports the IGeometry interface). SpatialRel: Use one of the predefined esriSpatialRelEnum constants to define the type of spatial relationship to be used in the search criteria. These constants are listed below.
esriSpatialRelContains esriSpatialRelCrosses esriSpatialRelEnvelopeIntersects esriSpatialRelIndexIntersects esriSpatialRelIntersects esriSpatialRelOverlaps esriSpatialRelTouches esriSpatialRelUndefined esriSpatialRelWithin

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-10

The example The code in the example above will locate all features that are within (esriSpatialRelWithin) the specified piece of geometry (pBufferPolygon). These features will be returned and stored as a subset of records in a FeatureCursor object (pFCursor). The FeatureCursor created is a Search cursor (created with the Search method), so it could not be used for inserting or updating features in the Cursor. Because the second parameter of the Search method is set to True, each feature in the Cursor will occupy the same location in memory (memory will be recycled).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-11

Three types of cursors
Determined by the method used to return the cursor Search cursor
Search method
Dim myCursor As IFeatureCursor Dim myCursor As IFeatureCursor Set myCursor = pFClass.Search(pQFilter, True) Set myCursor = pFClass.Search(pQFilter, True)

Use for read-only analysis of a record subset

Update cursor
Update method

Dim myCursor As IFeatureCursor Dim myCursor As IFeatureCursor Set myCursor = pFClass.Update(pQFilter, False) Set myCursor = pFClass.Update(pQFilter, False)

Use to update or delete records in the database

Insert cursor
Insert method

Dim myCursor As IFeatureCursor Dim myCursor As IFeatureCursor Set myCursor = pFClass.Insert(True) Set myCursor = pFClass.Insert(True)

Use to insert new records into the database

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-12

Types of cursors There are three types of cursor objects that can be obtained from a Table or FeatureClass. The type of cursor returned depends solely on the method that was used to create it. As a programmer using one of these cursors, you need to be mindful of the type of cursor you create and make sure that it is suited to your purpose. Each cursor type will have the same available interfaces (e.g., ICursor, IFeatureCursor), with the same methods and properties available. Calling some of these methods with the wrong type of cursor, however, will return an error. Search cursor Search cursors have already been described. These cursors are created by calling the Search method on a Table or FeatureClass and are used to carry out operations that do not require write access to the records. Search cursors are generally used for tasks such as calculating a statistic for a subset of records (e.g., find the average value for commercially zoned lots), obtaining a count (e.g., the number of records with a value greater than 1,000), or for display (e.g., drawing temporary buffers around all vacant lots). Search cursors are created with a QueryFilter, giving you the ability to store a subset of records in the cursor (or all records by using the Nothing keyword). If you create a cursor as a Search cursor, you will not be able to call methods such as InsertRow, DeleteRow, or UpdateRow (they will be available, but will not work). The only method you will use on a Search cursor is NextRow (NextFeature) to access each record in the cursor.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-12

Update cursor Update cursors are created by calling the Update method on a Table or FeatureClass. An Update cursor is used to update or delete records in the database from which the cursor was created (Table or FeatureClass). Like Search cursors, Update cursors are created with a QueryFilter object, giving you the ability to store a subset of records in the returned cursor (or all records by using the Nothing keyword). If you create a cursor as an Update cursor, you should not try to call the InsertRow (InsertFeature) method. This method only works on an Insert cursor. Insert cursor Insert cursors are created by (you guessed it) using the Insert method on a Table or a FeatureClass. Use an Insert cursor to insert new records into the database from which the cursor was created (Rows in a Table or Features in a FeatureClass). Unlike Search and Update cursors, the Insert method does not take a QueryFilter as a parameter. Insert cursors do not support the NextRow (NextFeature) method or the Insert and UpdateRow methods.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-13

Accessing records in a cursor
When initialized, Cursors point above the first record NextRow/NextFeature to return records (Row/Feature)
Dim myCursor As ICursor Set myCursor = pTable.Search(pQFilter, False) myCursor initializes here myCursor initializes here Set myRow = myCursor.NextRow Set myRow = myCursor.NextRow Set myRow = myCursor.NextRow Set myRow = myCursor.NextRow Nothing is returned when all records have been accessed Nothing is returned when all records have been accessed
Cursor Cursor

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-14

When a cursor is first instantiated (using the Search or Update methods), a pointer is established above the first record. To pull a record out of the cursor, use the NextRow method (or NextFeature for a FeatureCursor). This method will move the pointer down to the first record in the cursor and then return the item it finds there (Row or Feature). Each time this method is called, the pointer moves down one record in the cursor and returns the Row or Feature it finds. When the pointer is at the last record in the cursor and the NextRow method is called, the Visual Basic Nothing object is returned. It will be important, therefore, to immediately check each object retrieved from a cursor to make sure it is not Nothing before working with it in your code. As a programmer, there is no need to explicitly manage the location of the cursor’s pointer; this is handled by the cursor object itself. There is also no way to jump to a certain record (e.g., using an index position) or to go backwards in the cursor. If you want to move back to the top of the cursor, you cannot use a Reset method (as with an enum). To return the pointer to its original position (above the first record) the cursor must be re-instantiated (e.g., using the Search method).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-14

Example: Summarizing a cursor’s attributes
Use a Do Until loop Loop until no more features (Nothing) Use IFeatureClass::FeatureCount to count features
Dim pFeature As IFeature Dim intLength As Long Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature Do Until pFeature Is Nothing intLength = intLength + pFeature.Value(9) Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature Loop MsgBox pFClass.FeatureCount(pQFilter) & _ " roads longer than 100 km." & _ " The total length is " & intLength

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11-15

Example: Accessing records in a cursor To access all records inside a cursor, you need to use a Do While or a Do Until loop. Remember that these loops are based on a condition, rather than on a fixed number of iterations. Before entering the loop, the first feature is pulled out of the FeatureCursor (pFCursor.NextFeature) and stored in a variable (pFeature). The loop will then check to see if pFeature is Nothing, and until it is, the loop will continue to execute. If, at this point, your FeatureCursor had no records (i.e., nothing met the search criteria), the first object retrieved from the cursor would be Nothing, and therefore the body of the loop would never be executed. A variable intLength is declared in the code above to summarize the attribute values for the length field. The field index is specified by the value property (pFeature.Value(9)). For each record that the cursor finds, intLength is incremented to keep track of all the attributes that meet the criteria of the Feature Cursor. After the length is incremented, it is very important to pull another feature from the cursor by again calling the NextFeature method. This moves the pointer and returns the next object in the cursor, which is again tested to see if it is Nothing. Without this line of code, you would have an infinite loop. The IFeatureClass interface has a FeatureCount property that requires a QueryFilter. This will return the total number of features that meet the criteria set by the QueryFilter.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-15

Review: Features and geometry
Every feature has geometry (shape) All geometry has an envelope
A bounding rectangle Use an Envelope to set the ArcMap extent
'Zoom to Qatar … 'Zoom to Qatar … pQFilter.WhereClause = "Name = ‘Qatar’" pQFilter.WhereClause = "Name = ‘Qatar’" Set pFCursor = pFClass.Search (pQFilter, True) Set pFCursor = pFClass.Search (pQFilter, True) Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature If Not pFeature Is Nothing Then If Not pFeature Is Nothing Then Dim pEnv As IEnvelope Dim pEnv As IEnvelope Set pEnv = pFeature.Shape.Envelope Set pEnv = pFeature.Shape.Envelope pMxDoc.ActiveView.Extent = pEnv pMxDoc.ActiveView.Extent = pEnv End If End If

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11-16

Getting geometry A Feature’s Shape property returns feature geometry. The Envelope property returns the minimum bounding rectangle for a shape (Envelope is a property defined on IGeometry, and is therefore supported on all types of geometry). You can use the Envelope (rectangle) to set the ArcMap software’s view extent, thereby zooming in on the bounding rectangle of the feature.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-16

Example: Zooming into each Feature in a FeatureCursor
Public Sub ZoomToRoads () Dim pQFilter As IQueryFilter Set pQFilter = New QueryFilter pQFilter.WhereClause = "LENGTH > 100000" Dim pFCursor As IFeatureCursor Set pFCursor = pFClass.Search(pQFilter, False) 'longer than 100000 meters are placed in the FeatureCursor Dim pFeature As IFeature Dim Counter As Integer Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature Do Until pFeature Is Nothing Counter = Counter + 1 pMxDoc.ActiveView.Extent = pFeature.Shape.Envelope 'zoom in pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature Loop MsgBox "There are " & Counter & " roads longer than 100 km“ End Sub ' ' ' Get the shape and ' Get the first feature ' All roads

Refresh after each zoom Keep pulling out features

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-17

Displaying a subset of features
Use IFeatureLayerDefinition :: DefinitionExpression
Creates temporary subset of features for analysis and display
Public Sub MakeLayerDefinition() Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Dim pFDefine As IFeatureLayerDefinition Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pFDefine = pMxDoc.SelectedLayer 'QueryInterface pFDefine.DefinitionExpression = "Pop > 3000000" pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh 'Refresh the display End Sub

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-18

Displaying a subset of features in a feature layer There may be times when you need to define an attribute expression, not to produce a subset of records in a cursor but to restrict the features being displayed in a feature layer in the map. The easiest way to accomplish this is by using the DefinitionExpression property on the IFeatureLayerDefinition interface. IFeatureLayerDefinition is an interface supported by the FeatureLayer class. By using an attribute expression for a QueryFilter’s WhereClause, you can define a subset of features to be displayed in the map (and in the attribute table for the layer). To clear a subset definition and return to viewing the entire set of features, set the definition expression equal to an empty string (“”).

The example In the example above, a variable is declared as IFeatureLayerDefinition (pFDefine). This variable is set to the selected layer in the current document by using the SelectedLayer property of IMxDocument. If there was no selected layer in the document, or if it were not a feature layer (a TIN, Raster, or CAD layer, for example), this code would return a type mismatch error. The DefinitionExpression property on IFeatureLayerDefinition is set to display only those features that have a value greater than 3,000,000 for the Pop attribute (population). Finally, the ArcMap active view is refreshed in order to see the result of the definition expression.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-18

Exercise 11 overview
Display a subset of layer features
IFeatureLayerDefinition :: DefinitionExpression

Calculate statistics for a subset of features
IQueryFilter :: WhereClause FeatureCursors

Produce a cursor based on attribute and spatial criteria
SpatialFilter SelectionSet

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In this exercise, you will work with some of the ArcObjects related to making selections and producing subsets of data based on attribute criteria, spatial criteria, or both. You will learn how to make a query definition for a feature layer to easily display a subset of features. Finally, you will produce spatial and attribute queries to report information about a subset of features. Here are some tasks that you will write code for: • Restrict the display of the world city and world country layer according to a population threshold. • Calculate some simple statistics for a subset of world countries. • Select cities based on a spatial relationship (the country they fall in) and an attribute criterion (population greater than 3 million). As a challenge step, you will work with an Update cursor to correct a spelling error in the world countries database.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-19

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

11-20

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with subsets and selections 11-20

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Symbolizing elements and layers
Lesson overview 12-2 Subclasses of Symbol 12-3 Using color 12-4 ColorRamps 12-5 Creating simple graphic elements 12-6 Example: Make a new element, set its symbol 12-7 Defining an element’s position 12-8 Adding an element to the map (or layout) 12-9 FeatureRenderers 12-11 SimpleRenderer 12-12 UniqueValueRenderer 12-13 ClassBreaksRenderer 12-14 ScaleDependentRenderer 12-15 Storing layers on disk 12-16 GxLayer object 12-17 Example: Saving a layer from ArcMap 12-18 Exercise 12 overview 12-19

contents

Symbolizing elements and layers

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Lesson overview
Overview of symbology objects
Symbol objects Color objects Color ramps

Adding simple graphics to the map Changing layer display with FeatureRenderers Managing layer symbology with layer files (*.lyr)

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Overview This lesson will introduce you to some of the ArcObjects required to control how elements (“graphics”) and layers are displayed on the map. • Symbol—There are several creatable subtypes of Symbol, including text symbols, line symbols, and fill symbols, for example. • Color—The (abstract) Color class has five creatable subtypes, allowing the programmer to define colors in a variety of ways. • ColorRamp—ArcGIS has four creatable color ramps that a programmer can use to build a collection of colors. • FeatureRenderer—FeatureRenderers control how data in a feature layer are categorized and symbolized. This section will discuss some of the more common types of renderers. You will learn how to programmatically create, modify, and add graphic elements to the map or page layout. You will also learn how to manage layer symbology by saving and retrieving layer files from disk.

Subclasses of Symbol
ISymbol

Symbol *

MarkerSymbol

LineSymbol

FillSymbol

SimpleMarkerSymbol

SimpleLineSymbol

SimpleFillSymbol

CharacterMarkerSymbol

PictureLineSymbol

LineFillSymbol

PictureMarkerSymbol

HashLineSymbol

MarkerFillSymbol

* Several additional types of symbols are listed on the Display OMD, including TextSymbols
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Symbol You will find the Symbol abstract class and all of its subtypes listed on the Display object model diagram. Any item on the Map or PageLayout must have a symbol in order to be displayed. ArcMap uses MarkerSymbols, LineSymbols, or FillSymbols to display geometry, and TextSymbols to display text elements. There are also 3DChartSymbols for drawing charts (graphs). The ISymbol interface (supported by each subtype of Symbol) has methods for drawing a symbol directly to a device context (DC). A device context is basically a window display, such as the ArcMap display, an ArcCatalog preview pane, or a (standalone Visual Basic) user form. Each symbol subclass has methods and properties a programmer can use to define the symbol, such as Style, Line Width, Font, Size, Angle, and Color. Choose the appropriate subclass of symbol according to how you would like to define it: a PictureMarkerSymbol to define a marker from a bitmap or GIF image, a CharacterMaker to define a marker from a specific font and character, for example. Example: Creating a simple (dashed) line symbol
Dim pSLineSymbol As ISimpleLineSymbol Set pSLineSymbol = New SimpleLineSymbol pSLineSymbol.Style = esriSLSDash 'esriSimpleLineStyle

Example: Creating a simple (diagonal-hatched) fill symbol
Dim pSFillSymbol As ISimpleFillSymbol Set pSFillSymbol = New SimpleFillSymbol pSFillSymbol.Style = esriSFSForwardDiagonal 'esriSimpleFillStyle

Using color
Five creatable subclasses
RgbColor CmykColor HsvColor HlsColor GrayColor
CmykColor HsvColor RgbColor HlsColor
IColor

Color

Properties for defining color
Red, Green, Blue values (0–255) Grayscale (0=white – 255=black) Cyan, Magenta, Yellow, Black

GrayColor

Use a color object to assign a symbol’s color property
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Add some color to your code Because the five subclasses of color are coclasses, they can each be created with the New keyword. As a programmer, you can choose Color objects and interfaces according to how you would like to define a particular color. To specify individual values for red, green, and blue for example, you would use the IRgbColor interface on the RgbColor class. Below are brief descriptions of how color is defined for each of the five color interfaces. • IRgbColor: Red, green, and blue (0–255) • ICmykColor: Cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (0–255) • IHsvColor: Hue (0–360), saturation, and value (0–100) • IHlsColor: Hue, lightness, and saturation (0–100) • IGrayColor: Level 0 (white) to 255 (black) Visual Basic functions for defining color Visual Basic has some built in ways to specify color values. One of the most powerful is the RGB function. The RGB function takes three integer arguments that indicate the amount of red, green, and blue respectively. Here’s an example of using the RGB function to make a cyan color:
Dim myColor As IRGBColor Set myColor = New RGBColor myColor.RGB = RGB(0,255,255) '*Red,Green,Blue: 0-255

Visual Basic also contains color constants that can be used to define a handful of basic colors. These constants are: vbBlack, vbBlue, vbCyan, vbGreen, vbMagenta, vbRed, vbWhite, and vbYellow

ColorRamps
Four subclasses
AlgorithmicColorRamp RandomColorRamp PresetColorRamp MultiPartColorRamp
MultiPartColorRamp RandomColorRamp AlgorithmicColorRamp PresetColorRamp
IColorRamp

ColorRamp

Color ramps can also be referenced from the StyleGallery
Accessing items in the StyleGallery will be covered in Lesson 13

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The four subclasses of ColorRamp are coclasses. Therefore, the programmer can create them with the New keyword. After instantiating a ColorRamp object, the number of colors are specified by setting the Size property; the ramp is then created by calling the CreateRamp method. Once the ramp is produced, an enumeration of the colors can be retrieved from the Ramp object by using the Colors property. Choose the ramp appropriate for how you need the colors defined. Example: Create a new random color ramp
Public Function GetRandomRamp (NumColors As Integer) As IEnumColors Dim pRandomColorRamp As IColorRamp Set pRandomColorRamp = New RandomColorRamp pRandomColorRamp.Size = NumColors Dim blnOK As Boolean pRandomColorRamp.CreateRamp blnOK If Not blnOK Then Exit Function Set GetRandomRamp = pRandomColorRamp End Function '* Make it so! '* Exit if there was an error '*Pass back the ramp ' *Passed into the function

Creating simple graphic elements
Several creatable classes Graphic elements
Line, polygon, marker Text and pictures
FrameElement GraphicElement
IElement

Element

Geometry

FrameElements
On the PageLayout Map frames North arrows, legends, scale bars Table frames

TextElement

LineElement

BmpPictureElement

MarkerElement

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Elements There are two broad types of element: GraphicElement and FrameElement. GraphicElements are “dumb” elements that once added to the display, will not change unless the user does so explicitly. Graphic elements are things like simple shapes (markers, lines, polygons), text strings, or images (such as a company logo). FrameElements, on the other hand, are elements that contain objects, such as tables, maps, or map surrounds. Map surrounds are map-related elements added to the PageLayout that will dynamically change to reflect changes in an associated map. A scalebar, for example, after being added to the layout, will change to reflect the current map scale as the user zooms in and out on the display. In this section, you will learn the basics of working with graphic elements. In a later section, you will learn more about adding frame elements to the page layout.

Example: Make a new element, set its symbol
Dim pMarkerElem As IMarkerElement Set pMarkerElem = New MarkerElement 'Make a new element

Dim pMarkerSym As ISimpleMarkerSymbol Set pMarkerSym = New SimpleMarkerSymbol 'Make a new symbol pMarkerSym.Style = esriSMSCircle 'Specify the symbol style Dim pColor As IRgbColor Set pColor = New RgbColor pColor.RGB = RGB(255,0,0) pMarkerSym.Color = pColor pMarkerElem.Symbol = pMarkerSym 'Make a new color 'Make it red (RGB is a VB function) 'Assign color to the symbol ' Assign the symbol 'to the element

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The color’s connected to the … sym-bol. The symbol’s connected to the … mar-ker. Follow the same general process illustrated in the example above for any graphic element you want to create. 1. Create a new graphic element (LineElement, MarkerElement, PolygonElement, 2. Create a new symbol appropriate for the element (LineSymbol, TextSymbol, FillSymbol, etc.). 3. Create a new color object (RgbColor, CmykColor, GrayColor, HlsColor, or HsvColor). 4. Define the color’s value. 5. Assign the color to the symbol. 6. Define the symbol’s style. 7. Assign the symbol to the graphic element. At this point, the graphic element is completely defined, but does not yet appear on the display.

Defining an element’s position
IElement :: Geometry
Supported by all subclasses of Element Defines a position on the map (or layout page) Specify with a point, line, or envelope
Dim Dim Set Set pElem pElem pElem pElem As IElement As IElement = pMarkerElem 'QI = pMarkerElem 'QI

Dim pPoint As IPoint Dim pPoint As IPoint Set pPoint = New Point Set pPoint = New Point pPoint.PutCoords -63.91, -8.77 pPoint.PutCoords -63.91, -8.77 pElem.Geometry = pPoint pElem.Geometry = pPoint

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Tell that element where to go All elements support a Geometry property (defined on the IElement interface). Before adding any element to the display (GraphicsContainer), you must first define where the element is to appear on the page or map. An element’s Geometry property can be specified with either a point, a line, or an envelope, depending on which is most appropriate. Marker elements, of course, should be defined using a point. Text elements, on the other hand, can be positioned with a point (the center of the text), a line (perhaps a curve that the text should follow), or an envelope (bounding box). Geometry can be defined either in page units (for elements added to the page layout) or in map units (for elements added to the data frame).

Adding an element to the map (or layout)
Use IGraphicsContainer :: AddElement
Specify the element and the order Zero is the first (top) element, increases from top to bottom
Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument pMxDoc.ActiveView.GraphicsContainer.AddElement pElem, 0 pMxDoc.ActiveView.GraphicsContainer.AddElement pElem, 0 '--OR— '--OR— Dim pGContainer As IGraphicsContainer Dim pGContainer As IGraphicsContainer Set pGContainer = pMxDoc.FocusMap Set pGContainer = pMxDoc.FocusMap pGContainer.AddElement pElem, 0 pGContainer.AddElement pElem, 0 pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh

Refresh the display to show the new element
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Adding an element to the graphics container Both the Map and PageLayout classes support the IGraphicsContainer interface. As the name implies, this is an interface that allows a programmer to manage graphic elements that appear either in the data frame or in the page layout. The AddElement method is used to place new elements on the display. To add an element to the layout, use IGraphicsContainer on the PageLayout object and make sure your element’s position (Geometry property) has been defined in page units. An element added to the data frame should use IGraphicsContainer on the Map object, and have its geometry defined in map units. To control which elements are drawn on top of others, a programmer can change the order of elements using methods such as SendToBack, BringToFront, or PutElementOrder. When retrieving elements, the GraphicsContainer behaves like an enum. To retrieve elements from the container, a programmer cannot use the element’s position, but must instead use the Next method to pull out elements sequentially, and the Reset method to move the pointer back to the top.

Example: Count all the graphic elements on the layout
Public Sub CountLayoutElements () Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Dim pGContainer As IGraphicsContainer Dim pElement As IElement Dim intGraphicCount As Integer Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pGContainer = pMxDoc.PageLayout pGContainer.Reset '*Make sure the pointer is on the first item '*pull out the first element Set pElement = pGContainer.Next

Do Until pElement Is Nothing '*Loop thru all elements If TypeOf pElement Is IGraphicElement Then intGraphicCount = intGraphicCount + 1 End If Set pElement = pGContainer.Next Loop MsgBox "There are " & intGraphicCount & " graphics on the page" Exit Sub '*pull out the next element '*increment the count

FeatureRenderers
Renderers define how a layer is displayed
IFeatureRenderer

FeatureRenderer

FeatureLayer

SimpleRenderer

UniqueValueRenderer

ClassBreaksRenderer

ChartRenderer

ScaleDependentRenderer

DotDensityRenderer

There are additional Renderers for displaying RasterLayers and TinLayers

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All feature layers have an associated FeatureRenderer that can be set or returned through the Renderer property, which is defined on the IGeoFeatureLayer interface. The Renderer property is a property put by reference, so you must use the Set keyword when assigning an object to this property. There are several subtypes of FeatureRenderers, each of which is a coclass, and can therefore be created with the New keyword. In this lesson, you will be introduced to the common renderers listed below. • SimpleRenderer ArcMap software’s default feature renderer. A SimpleRenderer symbolizes every feature in the layer with the same symbology (i.e., style and color). • UniqueValueRenderer Displays a layer by assigning a different symbol to each unique value found in a given attribute field. A land cover map, for example, could be displayed with a UniqueValueRenderer to show a handful of unique land cover types that may exist for several thousand polygons. • ClassBreaksRenderer Uses a classification based on one of the layer’s numeric attributes to display statistically (or manually) defined groups of features. The class boundaries may be set explicitly or by using one of the ArcMap Classify objects (NaturalBreaks, DefinedInterval, Quantile, EqualInterval, or StandardDeviation). • ScaleDependentRenderer A renderer that actually contains a collection of renderers. Its purpose is to let you specify different renderers for particular scale ranges. You might use more detailed symbols as your user zooms in and more general symbology when he or she zooms out, for example.

SimpleRenderer
Default renderer displays features with a single symbol

USA

Properties
Symbol: Color and Style Label: A string to appear in the legend

Refresh after modifying a layer’s renderer
'Set a feature layer’s renderer 'Set a feature layer’s renderer Set pFLayer.Renderer = pRender Set pFLayer.Renderer = pRender 'Refresh the display 'Refresh the display pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh 'Refresh the Table of Contents (TOC) 'Refresh the Table of Contents (TOC) pMxDoc.UpdateContents pMxDoc.UpdateContents
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Example: Create and modify a SimpleRenderer
Private Sub ApplySimpleRenderer(SomeLayer As IGeoFeatureLayer) Dim pSRenderer As ISimpleRenderer Set pSRenderer = New SimpleRenderer Dim pFillSymbol As ISimpleFillSymbol Set pFillSymbol = New SimpleFillSymbol pFillSymbol.Style = esriSFSForwardDiagonal Dim pColor As IRgbColor Set pColor = New RgbColor pColor.RGB = vbBlue pFillSymbol.Color = pColor 'Property put by reference, must use "Set" … Set pSRenderer.Symbol = pFillSymbol pSRenderer.Label = "USA" 'Set the layer’s renderer, also property put by reference Set SomeLayer.Renderer = pSRenderer Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument pMxDoc.UpdateContents pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh End Sub 'Update legend 'Redraw display

UniqueValueRenderer
Displays features with a symbol for each unique value

Properties
Field(s): The field(s) in the feature class for which unique values are rendered Value(s): Unique categories of features (e.g., “Pacific”) ValueCount: The number of unique values displayed by the renderer (e.g., the U.S. has nine regions)

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Example: Create a UniqueValueRenderer to uniquely symbolize each state
Private Sub ApplyUniqueRenderer(SomeLayer As IGeoFeatureLayer) Dim pUVRenderer As IUniqueValueRenderer Set pUVRenderer = New UniqueValueRenderer Dim pColorEnum As IEnumColors Set pColorEnum = MakeRandomRamp(50) 'Example on pg 12-5 pUVRenderer.FieldCount = 1 pUVRenderer.Field(0) = "STATE_NAME" Dim pFClass As IFeatureClass Set pFClass = SomeLayer.FeatureClass Dim pFCursor As IFeatureCursor Set pFCursor = pFClass.Search(Nothing, False) Dim pFeature As IFeature, pSym As ISimpleFillSymbol Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature Do Until pFeature Is Nothing Set pSym = New SimpleFillSymbol pSym.Color = pColorEnum.Next pUVRenderer.AddValue _ pFeature.Value(pFClass.FindField("STATE_NAME")), "States", pSym Set pFeature = pFCursor.NextFeature Loop Set SomeLayer.Renderer = pUVRenderer 'Property put by reference m_pMxDoc.UpdateContents m_pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh End Sub

ClassBreaksRenderer
A symbol for each grouping of numeric values

Properties
Breaks: Cut-off points between classes Field: Attribute on which classes are derived BreakCount: Number of class breaks

Classification methods
Use the appropriate Classify objects on the Display OMD
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Those are the Breaks A ClassBreaksRenderer is used to display classes of a layer’s features based on a numeric attribute. When creating a ClassBreaksRenderer, you need to specify the number of classes to use, the field on which the classification is based and whether classes should be sorted lowest to highest (ascending) or highest to lowest (descending). The breaks (cut-off points) that define each class also need to be explicitly defined by the programmer, along with the symbol that will be used to symbolize each class. The numeric values that represent the break points for each class can be defined arbitrarily (hard-coded) or may be derived from a statistical method. Assigning classes and symbols to the renderer is usually performed in a looping routine such as the pseudocode shown below.
For i=0 to the-number-of-classes -1 Make a new symbol Set symbol properties (e.g., color) Assign class break i Assign the symbol for class i Next i

ScaleDependentRenderer
A renderer that contains renderers Update the rendering of a layer according to scale
More detail at large scales, less detail at small scales

1:75,000,000

1:7,000,000

Properties
Breaks: Cut-off points (scale ranges) Renderers: Renderers in the ScaleDependentRenderer RendererCount: Number of renderers contained

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A ScaleDependentRenderer is simply a collection of several renderers used to display a single layer. Particular renderers in the ScaleDependentRenderer are applied to the feature layer (i.e., turned on and off) according to the scale at which the data is displayed. This may be useful for dynamically displaying a layer in more detail when viewed at a larger scale while showing a general view when viewed at a smaller scale. When creating a ScaleDependentRenderer, the order in which you add renderers should match the order in which you define the associated scale breaks. In other words, the first renderer added will correspond to the first break that is defined. The code below adds two renderers and sets their scale breaks. Because the renderer represented by pZoomedInRend was added first, it will be associated with the first break (break 0). This renderer will be used to display the layer at scales greater than 1:10000000. When the layer is displayed at scales between 1:10000001 and 1:90000000, it will be displayed using the renderer represented by pZoomedOutRend. Note: If zoomed out beyond the last threshold (scales smaller than 1:90000000 in the example below) the layer will not be renderered.
pScaleDepRend.AddRenderer pZoomedInRend pScaleDepRend.AddRenderer pZoomedOutRend pScaleDepRend.Break(0) = 10000000 ' Set scale threshold for 2nd renderer (pZoomedOutRend) pScaleDepRend.Break(1) = 90000000 Set pFLayer.Renderer = pScaleDepRend 'Assign the layer’s renderer ' Add the 1st renderer ' Add the 2nd renderer

' Set scale threshold for 1st renderer (pZoomedInRend)

Storing layers on disk
Layers may be saved as layer (*.lyr) files Layer files store information about the layer
Path to the data Symbology Label preferences Definition query Etc.

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Layer files In ArcGIS, a layer object can live in one of two places: saved as part of an ArcMap document (*.mxd, *.mxt) or saved individually in a layer file (*.lyr). In either case, the layer will define the path to a data source (e.g., shapefile) and options for data display (classification, symbology, labels, etc.). By storing layers in layer files, display properties only need to be set once. Layers that are used frequently can be easily reused between documents without having to redefine display options inside ArcMap. Layer files are especially well suited for base layers that are used in several maps and may also require a consistent (standard) symbology.

GxLayer object
Use to access layer (*.lyr) files
A subtype of GxFile

IGxFile::Path
Defines the path to a file
GxCatalog

GxFile
IGxFile
IGxFile : IUnknown

*

Path: String

GxLayer
IGxLayer
IGxLayer : IUnknown Layer: ILayer

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

12-17

Example: adding a layer to ArcMap using GxLayer
Private Sub GetLayerFromFile () 'Create a new GxLayer Dim pGxLayer As IGxLayer Set pGxLayer = New GxLayer 'QueryInterface to IGxFile, specify the path Dim pGxFile As IGxFile Set pGxFile = pGxLayer pGxFile.Path = "C:\Data\Waynesboro.lyr" 'Get the layer from the file Dim pLayer As ILayer Set pLayer = pGxLayer.Layer 'Add the layer to the active data frame Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument pMxDoc.FocusMap.AddLayer pLayer End Sub

Example: Saving a layer from ArcMap
Public Sub SaveFirstLayer () Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument 'Create a new GxLayer object Dim pGxLayer As IGxLayer Set pGxLayer = New GxLayer 'Coclass: can create new 'QueryInterface for the IGxFile interface Dim pGxFile As IGxFile Set pGxFile = pGxLayer 'Define the file’s pathname pGxFile.Path = "C:\Data\Shelbyville.lyr" 'Assign the first layer in the focus map to the layer file Set pGxLayer.Layer = pMxDoc.FocusMap.Layer(0) 'Save the file pGxFile.Save 'Done! End Sub

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

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12-18

Programmatically saving layer files The GxLayer class is a coclass, so instances can be created using the New keyword. The only member available on the IGxLayer interface is the Layer property. IGxLayer:: Layer is used to define or retrieve the layer object stored in the file. GxLayer is a subclass of GxFile, and therefore supports the IGxFile interface. When saving a new layer file, you must QueryInterface to IGxFile in order to define the output file name (using the Path property). The Save method must be called to commit the layer file to disk. Example: Saving all layers in the active data frame
Public Sub SaveAllLayers () Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Dim pEnumLayer As IEnumLayer, pLayer As ILayer Set pEnumLayer = pMxDoc.FocusMap.Layers Set pLayer = pEnumLayer.Next Do Until pLayer Is Nothing Dim pGxLayer As IGxLayer Dim pGxFile As IGxFile Set pGxLayer = New GxLayer Set pGxFile = pGxLayer Set pGxLayer.Layer = pLayer pGxFile.Save Set pLayer = pEnumLayer.Next Loop End Sub '**QueryInterface pGxFile.Path = "C:\Data\Layers\" & pLayer.Name & ".lyr"

Exercise 12 overview
Create a new fill symbol and color Render layers in the map Save a layer in the document to a layer file (*.lyr) Add layer files to ArcMap Experiment with scale dependent rendering

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

12-19

Exercise 12: Work with the display, symbols, and renderers In this exercise, you will: • Create a new fill symbol and color for rendering a layer. • Create a new UIButtonControl for saving the selected layer to a layer file. • Create a control for adding layer files to the focus map. • Experiment with ScaleDependentRenderers.

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

12-20

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements
Lesson overview 13-2 Object Model overview 13-3 Review: Elements 13-4 FrameElements 13-5 Example: Reference MapFrames on the layout 13-6 Review: Subclasses of Symbol 13-7 Review: Color classes 13-8 The StyleGallery 13-9 Getting style items from the gallery 13-10 Example: Referencing an individual style item 13-11 Getting the item 13-12 Basic steps: Adding a map surround 13-13 StyleSelector 13-14 Printing a layout 13-15 Exporting a layout 13-16

contents

Working with layout elements (Optional)

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements

13-1

Lesson overview
Adding frame elements to the PageLayout Using the graphics container Symbology review
Symbols Colors Elements

Accessing items from the StyleGallery Printing and exporting a layout

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-2

Working with Layout Elements This lesson will discuss many of the objects related to adding graphics to an ArcMap page layout or map. Graphics, whether they are things such as scalebars, north arrows, markers, lines, or text, are generically referred to as elements. Each of these elements may be added to a page layout, or possibly a map. When working with elements, you may also find it necessary to use related objects such as symbols, colors, and geometry (to define the elements position on the page or map), all of which will be covered in this lesson.

Lesson overview • Object model overview • Working with layout frame elements • Finding existing elements, creating new ones • Review: Symbols, Colors, Elements • Referencing elements in the ArcMap style gallery • Outputting a layout to a printer or file

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements

13-2

Object Model overview
ArcMap OMD ArcMap OMD
Geometry Element PageLayout M xDocument

*

*
GraphicElement FrameElement M ap

TextElement

M apFrame

*
MapSurround

LineElement

M apSurroundFrame ScaleBar

M arkerElement

TableFrame Legend

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-3

From the simple object model diagram above, you can tell that a PageLayout is composed of (potentially) several Element objects. Element is an abstract class that has several sub-types. On the IElement interface (implemented by every subclass of Element) there is a Geometry property. An element added to a layout or map uses this property to specify its location. An element’s geometry can be defined in map units or page units, whichever is appropriate. Graphic and Frame elements The two direct sub-types of Element are themselves abstract classes and represent the two fundamental types of elements: • GraphicElements—text, shape, and picture elements • FrameElements—MapFrames (i.e., data frames), TableFrames, OLEFrames, and MapSurroundFrames (e.g., north arrows, legends, and scalebars) Apart from a handful of abstract classes, all elements are creatable (coclasses). As a programmer, you can create new text, graphic, or map elements to add to your layout. Most graphic elements will have a Symbol property that allows you to control the color and style of the graphics you create. Frame elements are used as containers in the layout. MapFrames contain a collection of layers (in other words, a data frame), while a MapSurroundFrame element is used to contain objects that are related to a particular Map, such as a scalebar, north arrow, or legend. It is important to make a distinction between a MapSurroundFrame, and the object it contains, a MapSurround. MapSurrounds, such as a Legend, are related directly to a Map (data frame), and must be contained within a MapSurroundFrame in order to be represented on the layout. Other types of FrameElements include TableFrame, for containing a Table object, and an OLEFrame, for containing another application (such as a Microsoft Word document).

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Working with layout elements

13-3

Review: Elements
Several creatable classes Graphic elements
Line, polygon, marker Text and pictures
FrameElement GraphicElement
IElement

Element

Geometry

FrameElements
On the PageLayout Map frames Table frames

TextElement

LineElement

BmpPictureElement

M arkerElement

North arrows, legends, scale bars

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-4

Example: Count the types of elements on the layout
Public Sub CountElements () Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Dim pGC As IGraphicsContainer Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pGC = pMxDoc.PageLayout pGC.Reset Dim intMapFrames As Integer, intMSFrames As Integer Dim intTextElements As Integer, intOtherElements As Integer Dim pElement As IElement Set pElement = pGC.Next Do Until pElement Is Nothing If TypeOf pElement Is IMapFrame Then intMapFrames = intMapFrames + 1 ElseIf TypeOf pElement Is IMapSurroundFrame Then intMSFrames = intMSFrames + 1 ElseIf TypeOf pElement Is ITextElement Then intTextElements = intTextElements + 1 Else intOtherElements = intOtherElements + 1 End If Set pElement = pGC.Next Loop MsgBox "The layout has " & intMapFrames & " map frames, " & _ intMSFrames & " map surround frames, " & _ intTextElements & " text elements, and " & _ intOtherElements & " miscellaneous element types." End Sub
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Working with layout elements 13-4

FrameElements
Added to the PageLayout MapSurroundFrame elements
Container for MapSurrounds (e.g., Scalebars) Contents are dynamically updated
IElement

MapSurroundFrame MapSurroundFrame

Element

*

PageLayout

MapSurround MapSurround

GraphicElement

FrameElement

M ap

*
TextElement M apFrame M apSurround

M apSurroundFrame

ScaleBar

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-5

MapSurrounds and MapSurroundFrames The terms MapSurround and MapSurroundFrame can be a little confusing. To distinguish these objects, remember that a MapSurroundFrame is a type of Element, and can be added to a PageLayout. A MapSurround object, on the other hand, is always contained within a MapSurroundFrame and has a dynamic relationship with a Map (data frame).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements

13-5

Example: Reference MapFrames on the layout
Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Dim pGC As IGraphicsContainer Set pGC = pMxDoc.PageLayout pGC.Reset 'Like an enum, Reset moves above the 1st item Dim pElem As IElement Set pElem = pGC.Next 'Also like an enum, Next gets an element Do Until pElem Is Nothing If (TypeOf pElem Is IMapFrame) Then 'Many element types Dim pMapEnvelope As IEnvelope Dim intW As Integer, intH As Integer Set pMapEnvelope = pElem.Geometry.Envelope intW = pMapEnvelope.Width intH = pMapEnvelope.Height MsgBox "Map Frame = " & intW & " by " & intH End If Set pElem = pGC.Next 'Retrieve another element Loop
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-6

Retrieving an element from the GraphicsContainer Elements in a GraphicsContainer are organized like objects contained by an enum. Elements cannot be referenced directly by their index position inside the GraphicsContainer, but must be located within a looping routine. If searching for a particular type of element (text, picture, etc.), use the TypeOf statement to identify the element(s) you want to work with. The example above uses a Do While loop to iterate through each element in the GraphicsContainer. Inside the loop, a test is made to determine if the current element is a map frame (supports the IMapFrame interface). If it is, the element’s dimensions are stored, and then reported in a message box inside the loop. An ArcMap document always has at least one map frame, but could potentially have many more. The code above will report the dimensions of all map frames in the layout. Finding an element by name Elements added to the GraphicsContainer can be given a name by using the Name property on IElementProperties. By assigning a name to an element, it can be easily referenced later by using code such as that shown below:
Dim pElementProps As IElementProperties Set pElementProps = pGContainer.Next Do Until pElementProps Is Nothing '*Loop thru all elements If pElementProps.Name = "DougherNorth" Then '*Look for this one … Dim pLegendFrame As IMapSurroundFrame Set pLegendFrame = pElementProps '*QueryInterface (QI) Exit Do '*Exit the loop once it's found End If Set pElementProps = pGContainer.Next Loop

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements

13-6

Review: Subclasses of Symbol
ISymbol

Symbol *

MarkerSymbol

LineSymbol

FillSymbol

SimpleM arkerSymbol

SimpleLineSymbol

SimpleFillSymbol

CharacterM arkerSymbol

PictureLineSymbol

LineFillSymbol

PictureM arkerSymbol

Has hLineSymbol

M arkerFillSymbol

* Several additional types of symbols are listed on the Display OMD, including TextSymbols
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-7

Symbol You will find the Symbol abstract class and all of its subtypes listed on the Display object model diagram. Any item on the Map or PageLayout must have a symbol in order to be displayed. ArcMap uses MarkerSymbols, LineSymbols, or FillSymbols to display geometry, and TextSymbols to display text elements. There are also 3DChartSymbols for drawing charts (graphs). The ISymbol interface (supported by each subtype of Symbol) has methods for drawing a symbol directly to a device context (DC). A device context represents an acceptable output device, such as a printer or a window display (the ArcMap map display, for example). Each symbol subclass has methods and properties a programmer can use to define the symbol, such as Style, Line Width, Font, Size, Angle, and Color. Choose the appropriate subclass of symbol according to how you would like to define it: a PictureMarkerSymbol to define a marker from a bitmap or GIF image, a CharacterMaker to define a marker from a specific font and character, for example. Example: Creating a bold Arial text symbol
'*Make a new Font … Dim pArialFont As New stdole.StdFont pArialFont.Name = "Arial" pArialFont.Bold = True '*Make a new TextSymbol, set its properties (including the font) … Set pTextSym = New TextSymbol pTextSym.Angle = 45 pTextSym.Font = pArialFont pTextSym.Size = 28 '*Assign the TextSymbol to a TextElement … pTextElem.Symbol = pTextSym

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements

13-7

Review: Color classes
Five creatable subclasses
RgbColor CmykColor HsvColor HlsColor GrayColor
CmykColor Hs vColor RgbColor Hls Color
IColor

Color

GrayColor

ColorSelector object
Allow the user to choose a color Same dialog available from the user interface

Use a color object to assign a symbol’s color property

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-8

Add some color to your code Because the five subclasses of color are coclasses, they can each be created with the New keyword. As a programmer, you can choose Color objects and interfaces according to how you would like to define a particular color. To specify individual values for red, green, and blue for example, you would use the IRgbColor interface on the RgbColor class. Let the user decide … Instead of “hard-coding” the value of colors in your program, you may want to let the user choose a color interactively. ArcObjects gives you access to the same color selection dialog you find from the ArcGIS user interface. The code below will display the color selection dialog (shown above), then return the color selected.
Public Function GetUserColor() As IColor Dim pColorDlg As IColorSelector Set pColorDlg = New ColorSelector dialog Dim bMadeChoice As Boolean bMadeChoice = pColorDlg.DoModal(Application.hWnd) '*Show the dialog If Not bMadeChoice Then Exit Function '*If user hit "Cancel", exit Set GetUserColor = pColorDlg.Color '*Return the selected color End Function '*Make a new color selection

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements

13-8

The StyleGallery
MxDocument is composed of a single StyleGallery
Can also be created new (e.g., for stand-alone applications) Contains style classes and style items
M xDocument StyleGallery

* StyleGalleryClas s

'Get the style gallery 'Get the style gallery Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Dim pGallery As IStyleGallery Dim pGallery As IStyleGallery Set pGallery = pMxDoc.StyleGallery Set pGallery = pMxDoc.StyleGallery '—OR -- make a new style gallery '—OR -- make a new style gallery Set pGallery = New StyleGallery Set pGallery = New StyleGallery
StyleGalleryItem

EnumStyleGalleryItem

ColorStyleGalleryClas s

FillSymbolStyleGalleryClas s

NorthArrowStyleGalleryClas s

TextSymbolStyleGalleryClas s

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-9

Why reinvent the wheel? ArcMap comes with an extensive set of symbols and map elements that you can access through the StyleGallery. The StyleGallery object contains StyleGalleryClasses, such as north arrows, marker symbols, color ramps, colors, and scale bars (to name but a few). Within each StyleGalleryClass, you can reference individual StyleGalleryItems. StyleGalleryItems are objects that represent particular north arrows, marker symbols, colors, or anything else you might find in the StyleGallery (the “Open Pasture” fill pattern, for example). By referencing items that are already defined in the StyleGallery, a programmer does not need to explicitly build each element “from the ground up”. Each MxDocument is composed of a single StyleGallery object. The StyleGallery can be accessed by using the StyleGallery property on IMxDocument. From the StyleGallery, a programmer can access enums of all StyleGalleryItems contained by a particular StyleGalleryClass (an enum of all color ramps, for example). Instances of the StyleGallery class can also be created new. This can be useful when building stand-alone applications (in Visual Basic, for example) that need to reference items stored in an ArcGIS style.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements

13-9

Getting style items from the gallery
IStyleGallery :: Items
Specify the style class (type) Returns an enum of style items
'Get the North 'Get the North Dim pEnumNorth Dim pEnumNorth Set pEnumNorth Set pEnumNorth ("North ("North Arrows in the ESRI.style style set Arrows in the ESRI.style style set As IEnumStyleGalleryItem As IEnumStyleGalleryItem = pGallery.Items _ = pGallery.Items _ Arrows", "ESRI.style", "Default") Arrows", "ESRI.style", "Default")

StyleSet Name Style Class Name Style Category Name

'Get ALL north arrows (from all loaded styles) … 'Get ALL north arrows (from all loaded styles) … Set pEnumNorth = pGallery.Items ("North Arrows", "", "" ) Set pEnumNorth = pGallery.Items ("North Arrows", "", "" )
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-10

Accessing StyleGalleryItems When accessing a particular StyleGalleryItem, the first step (after getting the StyleGallery object) is to retrieve an enum of all items of a particular StyleGalleryClass. Use the Items property (read-only) on IStyleGallery to return the enum, passing in three required arguments: the name of the StyleClass you want (Marker Symbols, Legend Items, Colors, etc.), the name of the style set (ESRI.style, Hazmat.style, Business.style, etc.), and the style category name (Default, Fire Incident, ESRI Human Use, etc.). Once you have an enum from a StyleGalleryClass, you can use a looping routine to locate a particular item. You may find it useful to browse the ArcGIS styles before referencing them with code to get a better idea of the objects you will use. To access the styles from ArcMap, click the Tools menu, then Styles, and then Style Manager. In the dialog that appears, you can access the various style sets (*.style) and all the style classes and style items they contain.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements 13-10

Example: Referencing an individual style item
'Get the 8th North Arrow gallery listing … Dim pNorthItem As IStyleGalleryItem Dim intIndex As Integer For intIndex = 0 To 7 Set pNorthItem = pEnumNorth.Next Next intIndex '—OR– get the arrow named "ESRI North 3" … Dim pNorthItem As IStyleGalleryItem Set pNorthItem = pEnumNorth.Next Do Until pNorthItem Is Nothing If pNorthItem.Name = "ESRI North 3" Then Exit Do End If Set pNorthItem = pEnumNorth.Next Loop

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-11

Find your Style To locate a particular StyleItem from an enum, use one of the familiar Visual Basic looping routines. To find an item according to its position (the 23rd color ramp, for example), an ArcObject programmer can use a For Next loop to call the Next method x number of times. To find an item by name, use a Do Until or Do While loop, as in the second example above.

Example: Saving an item to the style gallery
Public Sub SaveMarkerSym(aNewSymbol As IMarkerSymbol) '*Make a new StyleGalleryItem, set its properties ... Dim pSGItem As IStyleGalleryItem Set pSGItem = New StyleGalleryItem pSGItem.Item = aNewSymbol '*assign the marker symbol pSGItem.Name = "Chanda Marker" '*give it a name pSGItem.Category = "Custom" '*assign it to a category Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Dim pSGalleryStorage As IStyleGalleryStorage Set pSGalleryStorage = pMxDoc.StyleGallery '*get the style gallery '*Indicate the target style file for the new marker ... pSGalleryStorage.TargetFile = "ESRI.style" Dim pSGallery As IStyleGallery Set pSGallery = pSGalleryStorage 'QueryInterface pSGallery.AddItem pSGItem '*add item to the gallery (ESRI.style) End Sub

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements 13-11

Getting the item
A StyleGalleryItem is not the item itself Use the Item property to return the item
Color, North Arrow, Fill Symbol, Color Ramp, etc.
'Get the item (North Arrow) 'Get the item (North Arrow) Dim pArrow As INorthArrow 'This is a MapSurround Dim pArrow As INorthArrow 'This is a MapSurround Set pArrow = pNorthItem.Item Set pArrow = pNorthItem.Item Item Item

StyleGalleryItem StyleGalleryItem

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-12

The map is not the terrain, the StyleGalleryItem is not the Item When you reference a StyleGalleryItem from the StyleGallery, what you have is not the actual item (north arrow, color, symbol, etc.) but a listing for the item. Conceptually, it is like the difference between a listing for a text file in Windows Explorer versus the actual file opened in a text editor. A StyleGalleryItem represents an item in the StyleGallery, and to access the underlying item, a programmer must use the Item property on the IStyleGalleryItem interface. I am not anonymous, so why am IUnknown? The Style object model diagram indicates that the Item property on IStyleGalleryItem returns a pointer to the IUnknown interface. Why? You might expect it to return, for example, ISymbol, IMapSurround, or IColor. At first glance this might seem confusing, but when considering the nature of StyleGalleryItems, it becomes clearer. Because the style gallery contains a variety of objects, including colors, color ramps, north arrows, text symbols, and even reference systems, ArcMap cannot anticipate what exactly will be returned from a particular StyleGalleryItem. The one thing that each of these objects will have in common, however, is the IUnknown interface, which is implemented by all COM classes.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements 13-12

Basic steps: Adding a map surround
A MapSurround is contained by a MapSurroundFrame
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Create a MapSurround (or get it from the StyleGallery) Associate the MapSurround with a Map Create a MapSurroundFrame Add the MapSurround to the MapSurroundFrame Add the MapSurroundFrame to the layout (IGraphicsContainer)
MapSurround MapSurround

'Code on previous slide created pArrow —1'Code on previous slide created pArrow —1Set pArrow.Map = pMxDoc.FocusMap '—2Set pArrow.Map = pMxDoc.FocusMap '—2'Put the surround (North Arrow) in a 'Put the surround (North Arrow) in a Dim pMSFrame As IMapSurroundFrame Dim pMSFrame As IMapSurroundFrame Set pMSFrame = New MapSurroundFrame Set pMSFrame = New MapSurroundFrame Set pMSFrame.MapSurround = pArrow Set pMSFrame.MapSurround = pArrow pGContainer.AddElement pMSFrame, 0 pGContainer.AddElement pMSFrame, 0
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

frame frame '—3'—3'—4'—4'—5'—5-

MapSurroundFrame MapSurroundFrame
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-13

You are surrounded MapSurrounds are things such as north arrows, scale bars, and legends. MapSurrounds are not simple graphics that you add to a layout, but are directly and dynamically tied to a map (data frame). When a user zooms in or out on a map, for example, the scale bar that is associated with that map must dynamically alter itself to represent the new scale. Use the Map property on IMapSurround (which is a property put by reference) to tie a MapSurround to the appropriate Map. I was framed MapSurrounds are not added directly to a page layout, instead they are added to a special type of frame element, called a MapSurroundFrame. As the name indicates, a MapSurroundFrame is simply a container for MapSurrounds. Once a MapSurround has been added to a MapSurroundFrame element, it can be placed on the page (added to the PageLayout’s GraphicsContainer). Use the Geometry property on IElement to define the MapSurroundFrame’s position on the page.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements 13-13

StyleSelector
Let the user choose a style item for the PageLayout
GetStyle method returns the chosen item
IStyleSelector

StyleSelector

'Let the user 'Let the user Dim pNorthSel Dim pNorthSel Set pNorthSel Set pNorthSel

choose a north arrow choose a north arrow As IStyleSelector As IStyleSelector = New NorthArrowSelector = New NorthArrowSelector

BackgroundSelector

Dim bMadeChoice As Boolean Dim bMadeChoice As Boolean bMadeChoice = pNorthSel.DoModal _ bMadeChoice = pNorthSel.DoModal _ (Application.hWnd) (Application.hWnd) 'Was a choice made? 'Was a choice made? If Not bMadeChoice Then Exit Sub If Not bMadeChoice Then Exit Sub 'Get the user’s selection 'Get the user’s selection Dim pNArrow As INorthArrow Dim pNArrow As INorthArrow Set pNArrow = pNorthSel.GetStyle(0) Set pNArrow = pNorthSel.GetStyle(0)

LegendItemSelector

NorthArrowSelector

ScalebarSelector

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-14

Freedom of choice Rather than explicitly hard-coding the north arrow, scalebar, or label styles displayed on the layout, you may want to have your users select these styles for themselves. A variety of selector dialogs can be created and displayed for the user to make selections. The complete list of StyleSelector sub-classes is listed below. • BackgroundSelector: background symbol for map frame (fill) • BorderSelector: map frame border symbol (line) • LabelStyleSelector: text symbol (for layout text elements, etc.) • LegendItemSelector: legend item format • MapGridSelector: gradicule, grid, or index for map frame • NorthArrowSelector: north arrows • ScalebarSelector: scalebars • ScaleTextSelector: text symbol for representative scale • ShadowSelector: shadow symbol for map frame (fill) After displaying a style selector dialog, use the GetStyle method (on IStyleSelector) to reference the selected style. This method returns a pointer to IUnknown because this interface is the “lowest common denominator” for all the items listed above.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements 13-14

Printing a layout
Variety of subclasses
PsPrinter (postscript) ArcPressPrinter
EmfPrinter Ps Printer
IPrinter

Printer

EmfPrinter (enhanced meta-file)

Paper class
Manages printer page settings

ArcPres s Printer

Send to a printer or to a file
Application Paper

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-15

Example: Printing the layout to a postscript file
Private Sub PrintToPSFile(aLayout As IPageLayout, FileName As String) Dim pMxApp As IMxApplication, pPrinter As IPrinter Set pMxApp = Application Set pPrinter = New PsPrinter Set pPrinter.Paper = pMxApp.Paper pPrinter.PrintToFile = FileName Dim pPrintEnv As IEnvelope Set pPrintEnv = New Envelope aLayout.Page.GetDeviceBounds pPrinter, 0, 0, pPrinter.Resolution, pPrintEnv Dim rectOut As tagRECT rectOut.Left = pPrintEnv.xMin rectOut.Top = pPrintEnv.yMin rectOut.Right = pPrintEnv.xMax rectOut.bottom = pPrintEnv.yMax Dim pPageBounds As IEnvelope Set pPageBounds = New Envelope aLayout.Page.GetPageBounds pPrinter, 0, 0, pPageBounds Dim hDc As OLE_HANDLE hDc = pPrinter.StartPrinting(pPrintEnv, 0) Dim pActiveView As IActiveView Set pActiveView = aLayout pActiveView.Output hDc, pPrinter.Resolution, rectOut, pPageBounds, Nothing pPrinter.FinishPrinting MsgBox "Layout sent to " & FileName, vbInformation, "Printing complete!" End Sub
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Working with layout elements 13-15

Exporting a layout
Variety of export formats
Adobe Acrobat (*.pdf) JPEG ArcPress
IArcPressExporter IExporter

Exporter

JpegExporter

PdfExporter

TiffExporter

ArcPres s Exporter

Ps Exporter

ArcPres s ExporterJPEG

ArcPres s Exporter TIFF

IExporter::StartExporting
Export the FocusMap or the PageLayout

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-16

Example: Exporting the layout as a jpeg
Private Sub Export(aLayout As IActiveView, aPath As String, DPI As Integer) Dim rectOut As tagRECT rectOut = aLayout.exportFrame Dim pExporter As IExporter Set pExporter = New JpegExporter Dim pEnv As IEnvelope Set pEnv = New Envelope pEnv.PutCoords rectOut.Left, rectOut.Top, rectOut.Right, rectOut.bottom pExporter.ExportFileName = aPath pExporter.PixelBounds = pEnv pExporter.Resolution = DPI 'Recalc the export frame to handle the increased number of pixels Set pEnv = pExporter.PixelBounds Dim xMin As Double, yMin As Double, xMax As Double, yMax As Double pEnv.QueryCoords xMin, yMin, xMax, yMax rectOut.Left = xMin rectOut.Top = yMin rectOut.Right = xMax rectOut.bottom = yMax Dim hDc As Long hDc = pExporter.StartExporting aLayout.Output hDc, DPI, rectOut, Nothing, Nothing pExporter.FinishExporting MsgBox "Export complete!", vbInformation End Sub
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Working with layout elements 13-16

Exercise 13 overview
Write code that adds an element to the layout Create a simple text element Reference StyleGallery items Add a North Arrow to the layout Export the layout

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-17

Exercise 13: Work with layout elements In this exercise, you will write a sub procedure that adds an input element at a specified location on the page. You will also use a function (that has been written for you) to retrieve an item from the StyleGallery. You will call these functions to 1) reference a north arrow from the StyleGallery, then 2) add the north arrow and a new text element to the layout page. As a challenge step, you will work with some of the style and color selector dialogs.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements 13-17

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

13-18

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Working with layout elements 13-18

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using tools

Lesson overview Tool events Getting the user X and Y Display transformation Convert display coordinates to map units Example: Rubberbanding IGraphicsContainer Managing Graphics Refreshing the display Partially refresh the display Exercise 14 overview: Choose one

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Using tools

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using tools

14-1

Lesson overview
Tool events IDisplayTransformation Example tools: Display feedback and rubberbanding IGraphicsContainer Refreshing the display Exercise: Choose a tool to create

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Overview This lesson will discuss the use of UIToolControls in ArcMap. Tool controls differ from buttons in that they allow for user interaction with the display and therefore have many more events that can be coded, such as MouseUp, MouseDown, MouseMove, and so on. Mouse clicks from a tool are returned in display coordinates (pixels). Because ArcMap tools are generally designed to get user input on a map display, you will learn how to convert geometry returned from the mouse into map units. Some common examples of the use of tools in ArcMap will be illustrated in this lesson including panning and zooming, drawing, and providing a user with display feedback.

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Using tools

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Tool events
Tools have several event procedures Events for user interaction
Mouse events: MouseUp, MouseMove, MouseDown, DblClick Keyboard events: KeyUp, KeyDown

Events for controlling tool behavior
Enabled CursorID ToolTip Message

Close Visual Basic Editor window
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Built-In Cursors Built-In Cursors

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Because tools are designed to deal with a variety of sources of user input, they have many more event procedures that can be coded. As a programmer, you have a lot of control over obtaining user input. From the mouse, you can provide code for when the mouse moves, when the mouse button is pressed, when it is released, and when it is double-clicked. You can see if the right or left mouse button is clicked, whether or not the Shift key is held when it is clicked, as well as the location of the mouse cursor. From the keyboard, you can provide code that executes when a key is pressed and when it is released. You can also write logic based on which key is pressed. In addition to the events related to mouse and keyboard input, tools also provide some of the same button events that control appearance, such as Enabled, ToolTip, and Message. The CursorID event can be used to provide a different mouse cursor when your tool is active. Use one of the built-in CursorIDs shown above, or use your own cursor using one of the methods illustrated below. Tools are in design mode while the Visual Basic Editor window is open. Make sure the window is closed (not minimized) to ensure that all tool events are fired properly.
'Use an image on a UserForm in the project … Private Function UIToolControl1_CursorID() As Variant Set UIToolControl1_CursorID = UserForm1.Image1.Picture End Function 'Load a file from disk (*.ico or *.cur) Private Function UIToolControl1_CursorID() As Variant Set UIToolControl1_CursorID = LoadPicture("c:\cursors\magnify.cur") End Function

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Using tools

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Getting the user X and Y
Coordinates are passed into a Tool’s mouse events
MouseUp, MouseDown, MouseMove

Returns display units (pixels)
Private Sub UIToolControl1_MouseDown(ByVal button As Long, _ Private Sub UIToolControl1_MouseDown(ByVal button As Long, _ ByVal shift As Long, ByVal x As Long, ByVal y As Long) ByVal shift As Long, ByVal x As Long, ByVal y As Long) MsgBox "X = " & x MsgBox "X = " & x MsgBox "Y = " & y MsgBox "Y = " & y End Sub End Sub

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

14-4

Returning the current mouse position When a user interacts with your tool, the location of their mouse cursor is passed into several of the tool’s event procedures, such as MouseDown, MouseUp, and MouseMove. These coordinates are called x and y in the parameter list (see the example above), and indicate the location of the cursor in display units, called pixels (short for picture elements). Display coordinates are radically different from the map coordinates used to measure geographic data. The size of a pixel will vary with the resolution of your monitor, and the value of y increases as you move down from the origin (0,0), which is in the upper-left of the display.

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Using tools

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Display transformation
Transform coordinates between map and display units
ToMapPoint: Convert a display point (pixels) to a map point FromMapPoint: Convert a map point to a display point TransformCoords: Return map coordinates from a set of display coordinates or vice versa

Using mouse input
Mouse clicks are captured in pixels GIS works in map coordinates

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

14-5

Because you will most often need the location of mouse interaction in map units as opposed to display units, there are methods on the ArcMap display for creating geometry in map coordinates from pixel locations. Use the DisplayTransformation property on the IDisplay interface to access these methods. When converting coordinates from the display, the output map point will be in the current spatial reference defined for your map.

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Convert display coordinates to map units
Use IDisplayTransformation::ToMapPoint Returns a point in map units
Dim pMxApp As IMxApplication Set pMxApp = Application Dim pPnt As IPoint Set pPnt = pMxApp.Display.DisplayTransformation.ToMapPoint(x, y) MsgBox "Longitude = " & pPnt.x MsgBox "Latitude = " & pPnt.y

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

14-6

DisplayTransformation The DisplayTransformation object, which can be accessed from the AppDisplay object, allows the conversion between display and map coordinates. The example above is typical for tool mouse event procedures that require map coordinates. After using QueryInterface to access the IMxApplication interface on the ArcMap Application object, code is chained together to first access the AppDisplay (IMxApplication :: Display), then the DisplayTransformation (IDisplay :: DisplayTransformation). The ToMapPoint method is called on the IDisplayTransformation interface, and the required x and y pixel coordinate arguments are passed in. A Point object is returned as a result of calling the method (IPoint).

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Using tools

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Example: Rubberbanding
Declare module-level variable in General Declaration
Private m_pRubberBand As IRubberBand

Initialize in tool’s Select event
Set m_pRubberBand = New RubberLine 'or RubberPolygon or RubberEnvelope

Implement in tool’s MouseDown event Store returned geometry in an Object variable
Set pLine = m_pRubberBand.TrackNew (pDisplay, pSymbol) 'or TrackExisting

IDisplayFeedback shows user interaction with geometry (Moving, resizing)
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

14-7

Working with tools Tool controls can implement several event procedures. To share variables between these procedures, use module-level variables. Most often, module-level variables are initialized when the tool is initially selected, the Select event procedure. While the Visual Basic Editor is open, tool controls are in design time mode. To properly capture your events and resolve run time errors, completely close the Visual Basic Editor window and reselect your tool (fire the Select event to re-initialize module-level variables). IRubberBand properties and methods The IRubberBand interface is implemented by several sub-classes of the abstract RubberBand class, such as: RubberEnvelope, RubberLine, RubberPoint, and RubberPolygon. This common interface has the following methods for working with a RubberBand object: • TrackExisting: Call to move or reshape an existing shape • TrackNew: Call to rubberband a new shape When tracking a RubberBand object, the geometry corresponding to the particular RubberBand coclass is returned (a Line from a RubberLine, a Polygon from a RubberPolygon, etc.). Display Feedback The DisplayFeedback objects are used to give users an interactive representation of changes they are making on the display (before changes are actually made). There are objects that can be used in this manner depending on the geometry and functionality. All objects will implement IDisplayFeedback. See the ArcGIS Developer Help for more information on Display Feedback.

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IGraphicsContainer
Supported by Map and PageLayout
Also returned by IActiveView :: GraphicsContainer

Manage elements
AddElement, AddElements, DeleteElement, DeleteAllElements
IGraphicsContainer

MxDo c ume nt

Pag e Layo ut

Change display order
BringToFront, BringForward SendToBack, SendBackward PutElementOrder
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

IGraphicsContainer

Map

*

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IGraphicsContainer interface The IGraphicsContainer interface has methods for working with elements in ArcMap. This is where you will find familiar graphic management methods such as SendToBack, BringToFront, AddElement, DeleteElement, and so on. Remember that elements can be simple graphic elements such as text, shapes, or pictures, and can also be frame elements that contain legends, scalebars, or entire maps. IGraphicsContainer is supported by both the PageLayout and the Map class, which means you can work with map or layout elements by simply QI-ing to IGraphicsContainer on either object. The code below shows an example of adding an element to the map.
DIM pGContainer As IGraphicsContainer Set pGContainer = pMxDoc.FocusMap pGContainer.AddElement pCompanyLogo

The GraphicsContainer can also be accessed as a property on the IActiveView interface, which is also supported by both the Map and the PageLayout class. Use this property to work with elements in whichever view your user has active. The code below shows an example of adding an element to the Map or the PageLayout, depending on which is currently being viewed.
pMxDoc.ActiveView.GraphicsContainer.AddElement pNewText

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Using tools

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Managing graphics
'Remove all elements from the Map –or- Layout 'Remove all elements from the Map –or- Layout Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument pMxDoc.ActiveView.GraphicsContainer.DeleteAllElements pMxDoc.ActiveView.GraphicsContainer.DeleteAllElements pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh 'Add an element to the Layout 'Add an element to the Layout Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Dim pGC As IGraphicsContainer Dim pGC As IGraphicsContainer Set pGC = pMxDoc.PageLayout Set pGC = pMxDoc.PageLayout pGC.AddElement pElemArea, 0 pGC.AddElement pElemArea, 0 pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh 'Send selected graphics to the back on Layout 'Send selected graphics to the back on Layout Dim pGCSelect As IGraphicsContainerSelect Dim pGCSelect As IGraphicsContainerSelect Set pGCSelect = pGC ‘QI Set pGCSelect = pGC ‘QI pGC.SendToBack pGCSelect.SelectedElements pGC.SendToBack pGCSelect.SelectedElements pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh pMxDoc.ActiveView.Refresh
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

14-9

Adding graphics to a map The IGraphicsContainer interface adds elements (i.e., graphics) to a PageLayout. The Map class also supports the IGraphicsContainer interface. Many of the same graphic elements that you add to a layout (text, markers, polygons, etc.) can also be added directly to a Map. Adding an element to a Map is the same as adding one to a layout, except the geometry defining the element’s position should be in map units rather than page units (e.g., inches).

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Using tools

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Refreshing the display
IActiveView::Refresh
Redraws entire display (not the Table of Contents)

IScreenDisplay::Invalidate
Redraws a specified rectangle (envelope)

IMxDocument::UpdateContents
Notifies the document that its contents have changed Refreshes the Table of Contents

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

14-10

Refreshing methods After modifying the ArcMap display, it may be necessary to refresh (redraw) the contents of the display or the document. In ArcObjects, you will find a variety of ways to refresh; choose the method that is most appropriate for the situation. • IActiveView :: Refresh—call to redraw the entire display area while in data (Map) or layout (PageLayout) view • IScreenDisplay :: Invalidate—call to redraw all layers and elements within a specified area (defined by passing in an Envelope object) • IMxDocument :: UpdateContents—call to redraw the legends in the ArcMap Table of Contents

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Partially refresh the display
You may need to refresh only a portion of the display
Area covered by a new graphic element More efficient than refreshing entire display

IActiveView::PartialRefresh
Use in Layout or Data view Specify what needs to be refreshed (e.g., graphics) Specify where to refresh (an envelope)

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

14-11

PartialRefresh PartialRefresh is a method on the IActiveView interface and can therefore be called on a Map or a PageLayout object. PartialRefresh is very similar to IScreenDisplay::Invalidate in that it can be used to redraw only a specified area (envelope) of the display. PartialRefresh gives you more control, however, as it allows you to also specify what you want refreshed (geography, graphics, selection, etc.). Using PartialRefresh is more efficient than redrawing everything on the entire display, especially for maps that contain a lot of data and graphics.

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Using tools 14-11

Exercise 14 overview: Choose one
14A – Create a tool to draw simple graphics
Transform a display point to a map point Add a new point graphic to the display Change symbol color with a keystroke

14B – Make a Parcel Proximity tool to make a selection
Transform a display point to a map point Buffer the point (ITopologicalOperator) Make a selection using spatial criteria (SpatialFilter) Display the selected parcels

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Exercise 14: Create a tool to draw point graphics In this exercise, you will have a choice of creating one of two tools that allow the user to interact with the map display. 14A—This exercise has you create a tool for interactively adding point graphics to the display. You will allow the user to change the color of point symbols by pressing a key on the keyboard while the tool is active. You will write code for the following UIToolControl event procedures: • Select • MouseUp • MouseDown • MouseMove • KeyUp • KeyDown 14B—This exercise will have you create a tool for making an interactive selection. You will buffer the user’s mouse click by a specified distance, then use the buffer polygon to select surrounding features (parcels). Although this exercise does not expose you to as many tool event procedures, it does get your hands on some new interfaces and objects, such as: • ITopologicalOperator • SpatialReference • ISelectionEnvironment • ILinearUnit

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management

Lesson overview Name objects Object Model overview: Name classes Creating a DatasetName Data manipulation objects Converting feature classes Exercise 15A overview Editing with a cursor Editing cursors Example: Updating misspelled attributes Adding a field Creating a domain Adding a domain to a database Assigning a domain to a field Exercise 15B overview

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Data management

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management

15-1

Lesson overview
Using Name objects Converting data formats Editing with cursors
Update Insert

Adding fields to an existing dataset Creating and applying domains

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-2

Overview There are a variety of ways to manipulate existing data using ArcObjects. In this lesson, you will learn … • How to use Name objects WorkspaceNames DatasetNames • How to convert feature classes and tables FeatureDataConverter ObjectLoader • How to edit using a cursor Update Insert • How to add fields and domains

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Name objects
Names are placeholders for the objects they represent
A lightweight version Limited number of methods and properties available Use IName::Open to instantiate the object represented

Use to represent new or existing datasets, workspaces, relationship classes, etc. Used …
For quickly browsing workspace contents As input arguments for data conversion

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Name dropping An ArcObject Name object is a lightweight representation of an object. By working with Name objects, you have access to some of the basic properties of the represented object, without having to carry the overhead of having the entire object in memory. If you eventually need the actual object represented by a Name object, you can use the Name to obtain it. As an analogy, your business card is like a Name object that represents you; someone who has your business card can obtain basic information about you, such as your e-mail address and phone number. If that person needs you, he or she can e-mail or call you to obtain the actual object represented by your card (you). If your application needs to search the contents of an entire workspace to find a particular dataset, for example, it is much more efficient to search the dataset Names. Once the desired dataset Name is located, the dataset itself can be hydrated from the Name. Obviously, for superficial tasks, it is more efficient to work with a Name in your code as opposed to the full object. You can use Name objects for things such as Tables, FeatureClasses, and Workspaces.

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Object Model overview: Name classes
Name Not all Name subtypes Not all Name subtypes are shown here are shown here

WorkspaceName

DatasetName

FeatureDatasetName RelationshipClassName

TinName

TableName

RasterDatasetName

FeatureClassName

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-4

Name is an abstract class that has several creatable subtypes. There are Name objects used to represent workspaces, IMS services, or any of the various types of datasets. Names can be created to represent workspaces or datasets that you are creating, or may be instantiated from other objects to represent existing objects. A Workspace, for example, can be used to access an enum of DatasetNames for all the data that it contains. An important aspect of working with Name objects is the fact that they can be used to obtain the actual object represented. To access the object from any subtype of Name, use the Open method, which is defined on the IName interface. Example: Searching for a particular DatasetName, then opening its dataset
Public Sub OpenCities() Dim pWSFactory As IWorkspaceFactory Dim pWS As IWorkspace Dim pEnumDSNames As IEnumDatasetName Dim pDSName As IDatasetName Dim pCities As IFeatureClass Set pWSFactory = New ShapefileWorkspaceFactory Set pWS = pWSFactory.OpenFromFile("C:\Student\IPAO\Data\Africa", Application.hWnd) Set pEnumDSNames = pWS.DatasetNames(esriDTFeatureClass) Set pDSName = pEnumDSNames.Next Do Until pDSName Is Nothing If pDSName.Name = "AfricanCities" Then Dim pName As IName Set pName = pDSName ' --- QueryInterface Set pCities = pName.Open Exit Do End If Set pDSName = pEnumDSNames.Next Loop End Sub Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Data management 15-4

Creating a DatasetName
Many creatable CoClasses Specify the workspace
Use a WorkspaceName object

Specify the filename
New or existing
'Create a new FeatureClassName 'Create a new FeatureClassName Dim pFCName As IDataSetName Dim pFCName As IDataSetName Set pFCName = New FeatureClassName Set pFCName = New FeatureClassName 'Identify its workspace 'Identify its workspace Set pFCName.WorkspaceName = pWSName Set pFCName.WorkspaceName = pWSName 'Identify its filename 'Identify its filename pFCName.Name = "States.shp" pFCName.Name = "States.shp"
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-5

Working with DatasetNames A common use of Name objects is to specify that a new dataset be created on disk. The required input and output dataset arguments for data conversion, for example, are satisfied using DatasetName objects rather than full Dataset objects. Because each of the subtypes of DatasetName are coclasses, they can be created using the New keyword. Once created, properties of the Name can be set in order to represent a dataset on disk. Example If writing code to create a new table called PoisonFrogs.dbf in the (new) folder C:\Madagascar\Data, you would write code such as the following:
Dim pShapeWSFactory As IWorkspaceFactory Dim pWorkName As IWorkspaceName ' Dim pTableName As IDatasetName ' a Name to represent the workspace a Name to represent the table

'** The code below returns a WorkspaceName, not a Workspace Set pShapeWSFactory = New ShapefileWorkspaceFactory Set pWorkName = pShapeWSFactory.Create ("C:\Madagascar", "Data",_ Nothing, Application.hWnd) '** co-create a new TableName, set its properties Set pTableName = New TableName Set pTableName.WorkspaceName = pWorkName pTableName.Name = "PoisonFrogs.dbf"

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Data manipulation objects
FeatureDataConverter, ExportOperation
Convert between coverage, shapefile, and geodatabase

ObjectLoader
Appends data to an existing feature class or table

Related objects
FieldChecker: Identifies problems with field names EnumInvalidObject: An enum of features that were invalid during conversion or loading

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

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15-6

Convert, export, load FeatureDataConverter is a coclass that can convert feature classes, feature datasets, or tables to new output datasets. Use a FeatureDataConverter object to convert individual feature classes and tables, or even entire feature datasets (e.g., ArcInfo coverages). The FeatureDataConverter object lets you convert data between geodatabases, shapefiles, and coverages. Most types of feature data are currently supported (except for annotation). FeatureDataConverter is suitable for loading large amounts of data. When importing to a geodatabase, you can specify an interval for committing data; you can also specify an ArcSDE configuration keyword to control specific storage parameters for an ArcSDE geodatabase. ExportOperation is a coclass that can be used to export a feature class or a table. The ExportOperation coclass offers similar functionality to the feature data converter but in a simplified form. It corresponds to the export data function available in ArcMap by right-clicking on a layer in the Table of Contents. ObjectLoader is used to append records from one table (or feature class) to another. The IObjectLoader interface contains a single method, LoadObjects. Validating fields and records A FieldChecker object can be used to validate a fields collection. This can be especially useful when converting data between formats, as some datasets might contain field names that are illegal in other formats. A FieldChecker will produce a new fields collection with standard fixes for invalid fields it encounters (by adding an underscore to the field name, for example, UID_). The FieldChecker will provide standard names for geometry and OID fields when converting to geodatabase format (Shape and OBJECTID). When loading or converting features using the ObjectLoader or FeatureDataConverter, an enum of invalid objects is returned (IEnumInvalidObject). Using this enum, a programmer can easily see which objects (rows or features) could not be loaded or converted.

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Converting feature classes
IFeatureDataConverter::ConvertFeatureClass
Converts an input feature class to a new output

Required arguments
Input and output FeatureClassNames Output FeatureDatasetName A QueryFilter
'Create a new FeatureDataConverter object Several Others … 'Create a new FeatureDataConverter object Dim Dim Set Set pFDConvert pFDConvert pFDConvert pFDConvert As IFeatureDataConverter As IFeatureDataConverter = New FeatureDataConverter = New FeatureDataConverter

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-7

Using the FeatureDataConverter The FeatureDataConverter object allows a programmer to export feature classes, tables, or feature datasets to a new output (of the same or different format). FeatureDataConverter is a coclass, so it can be created with the new keyword. Using the IFeatureDataConverter interface, you can call one of three methods to convert data: ConvertFeatureClass, ConvertFeatureDataset, or ConvertTable. Use the IFeatureProgress interface to track the progress of a conversion. Below is a description of the required arguments for IFeatureDataConverter :: ConvertFeatureClass. • InputDatasetName: IFeatureClassName—a Name object that specifies the feature class to be converted. • InputQueryFilter: IQueryFilter—a QueryFilter object used to define a subset of features to be converted. • outputFDatasetName: IFeatureDatasetName—a Name object that defines the (new or existing) feature dataset into which the converted feature class will be written. • outputFClassName: IFeatureClassName—a Name object that defines the new output feature class. • OutputGeometryDef: IGeometryDef—a GeometryDef object that defines the spatial reference for the output feature class. If Nothing is used for this argument, the spatial reference of the output feature dataset or the input feature class will be used. • OutputFields: IFields—a fields collection for the output feature class. If simply exporting a feature class to the same format, the fields collection from the input feature class can be used. If exporting between formats, it is a good idea to use a FieldChecker object to make sure the fields are valid for the output format. • configKey: String—a string that specifies an ArcSDE configuration keyword. • FlushInterval: Long—an integer that specifies the interval for committing features to the new feature class (when exporting to geodatabase). • parentHWnd: Long—an integer specifying the application’s window handle (you will usually use Application.hWnd to satisfy this argument). IFeatureDataConverter :: ConvertFeatureClass returns IEnumInvalidObject, which is an enum of all features that could not be converted.
Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA Data management 15-7

Exercise 15A overview
Convert an ArcInfo coverage to a Personal Geodatabase
IFeatureDataConversion :: ConvertFeatureClass

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management

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Editing with a cursor
Update and Insert Cursors Faster than using ITable::CreateRow, ITable::Store
Much more efficient for large datasets

Use to add, delete, or modify rows or features
ICursor::InsertRow (IFeatureCursor::InsertFeature) ICursor::DeleteRow (IFeatureCursor::DeleteFeature) ICursor::UpdateRow (IFeatureCursor::UpdateFeature)

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-9

Using a cursor to edit records You have already learned to create records (rows or features) using methods such as CreateRow and CreateFeature. You have learned to change field values by setting properties such as Value and Shape, and to commit your edits by calling the Store method. Although the above steps work fine for editing a table or feature class, you may find it much more efficient to use a cursor or feature cursor, particularly when editing a large number of records; you can expect a cursor to perform the edits as much as 2,000 times faster.

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Editing cursors
Determined by the method used to return the cursor Update cursor
Update method
Dim pCursor As IFeatureCursor Dim pCursor As IFeatureCursor Set pCursor = pFClass.Update(pQFilter, False) Set pCursor = pFClass.Update(pQFilter, False)

Use to update or delete records in the database

Insert cursor
Insert method

Dim pCursor As IFeatureCursor Dim pCursor As IFeatureCursor Set pCursor = pFClass.Insert(True) Set pCursor = pFClass.Insert(True)

Use to insert new records into the database

Search cursor
Search method

Dim pCursor As IFeatureCursor Dim pCursor As IFeatureCursor Set pCursor = pFClass.Search(pQFilter, True) Set pCursor = pFClass.Search(pQFilter, True)

Use for read-only analysis of a record subset

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

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Types of cursors There are three types of cursor objects that can be obtained from a Table or FeatureClass. The type of cursor returned depends solely on the method that was used to create it. As a programmer using one of these cursors, you need to be mindful of the type of cursor you create and make sure that it is suited to your purpose. Each cursor type will have the same available interfaces (e.g., ICursor, IFeatureCursor) with the same methods and properties available. Calling some of these methods with the wrong type of cursor, however, will return an error. Update cursor Update cursors are created by calling the Update method on a Table or FeatureClass. An Update cursor is used to update or delete records in the database from which the cursor was created (Table or FeatureClass). Like Search cursors, Update cursors are created with a QueryFilter object, giving you the ability to store a subset of records in the returned cursor (or all records by using the Nothing keyword). If you create a cursor as an Update cursor, you should not try to call the InsertRow (InsertFeature) method. This method only works on an Insert cursor. Insert cursor Insert cursors are created by (you guessed it) using the Insert method on a Table or a FeatureClass. Use an Insert cursor to insert new records into the database from which the cursor was created (Rows in a Table or Features in a FeatureClass). Unlike Search and Update cursors, the Insert method does not take a QueryFilter as a parameter. Insert cursors do not support the NextRow (NextFeature) method, nor the UpdateRow method.

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Search cursor Search cursors have already been described. These cursors are created by calling the Search method on a Table or FeatureClass and are used to carry out operations that do not require write access to the records. Search cursors are generally used for tasks such as calculating a statistic for a subset of records (e.g, find the average value for commercially zoned lots), obtaining a count (e.g., the number of records with a value greater than 1,000), or for display (e.g., drawing temporary buffers around all vacant lots). Search cursors are created with a QueryFilter, giving you the ability to store a subset of records in the cursor (or all records by using the Nothing keyword). If you create a cursor as a Search cursor, you will not be able to call methods such as InsertRow, DeleteRow, or UpdateRow (they will be available but will return an automation/unspecified error). The only method you will use on a Search cursor is NextRow (NextFeature) to access each record in the cursor.

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Example: Updating misspelled attributes
Dim pQFilt As IQueryFilter Set pQFilt = New QueryFilter pQFilt.WhereClause = "StateName = ‘newmexico’" Dim pUpCursor As IFeatureCursor Set pUpCursor = pFClass.Update(pQFilt, False)'Only "newmexico" Dim pFeature As IFeature Set pFeature = pUpCursor.NextFeature Do Until pFeature Is Nothing pFeature.Value(3) = "New Mexico" 'Fix misspelling pUpCursor.UpdateFeature pFeature 'Update the record Set pFeature = pUpCursor.NextFeature 'Move to the next Loop MsgBox "Features have been updated"

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-12

Example: Updating records with a cursor When producing an update cursor, you can specify a query filter to restrict the records returned. In the example, the query filter is used to make a subset of misspelled records. Remember: to access all records inside a cursor, you need to use a Do While or a Do Until loop. Before entering the loop, the first feature is pulled out of the FeatureCursor (pFCursor.NextFeature) and stored in a variable (pFeature). The loop will then check to see if pFeature is Nothing, and until it is, the loop will continue to execute. If, at this point, your FeatureCursor had no records (i.e., nothing met the search criteria) the first object retrieved from the cursor would be Nothing, and therefore the body of the loop would never be executed. Inside the loop, a new value is written to the feature’s fourth field (presumably, the StateName field). The dataset is then updated by calling the UpdateFeature method on the cursor. The next feature is again pulled from the cursor by calling the NextFeature method. Once the loop is complete, a message box is displayed telling the user that features were successfully updated.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management 15-12

Adding a field
ITable::AddField to add a field to an existing dataset
Do not add a field to the Fields collection

Use an Update Cursor to calculate values for the field
Dim pAverageFld As IFieldEdit Dim pAverageFld As IFieldEdit Set pAverageFld = New Field Set pAverageFld = New Field With pAverageFld With pAverageFld .Name = "Average" .Name = "Average" .Type = esriFieldTypeInteger .Type = esriFieldTypeInteger .AliasName = "Average Income" .AliasName = "Average Income" .Length = 16 .Length = 16 End With End With pTable.AddField pAverageFld pTable.AddField pAverageFld

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-13

Adding a new field to an existing table or feature class When producing fields for a new table or feature class, a programmer can simply make a new field, set its properties, then add it to the Fields collection. The process for creating a new field in an existing dataset is similar, except there is no need to deal with the Fields collection. After making a new field (using the New keyword) and setting its properties, simply call the AddField method on ITable or IFeatureClass, passing in the new Field object as the required argument. After adding a field to an existing dataset, the most efficient way to calculate its values is by using an update cursor.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management 15-13

Creating a domain
Domain is an abstract class with two creatable subtypes
RangeDomain: Minimum and maximum values CodedValueDomain: List of appropriate values
Dim pRDomain As IRangeDomain Dim pRDomain As IRangeDomain Dim pDomain As IDomain Dim pDomain As IDomain Set pRDomain = New RangeDomain 'CoClass Set pRDomain = New RangeDomain 'CoClass Set pDomain = pRDomain 'QueryInterface Set pDomain = pRDomain 'QueryInterface pRDomain.MinValue = 0 pRDomain.MinValue = 0 pRDomain.MaxValue = 200 pRDomain.MaxValue = 200 pDomain.Name = "Diameter" pDomain.Name = "Diameter" pDomain.FieldType = esriFieldTypeInteger pDomain.FieldType = esriFieldTypeInteger

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-14

Making a new range or coded value domain In ArcGIS, attribute domains can be used with geodatabase tables or feature classes to enforce appropriate values for an attribute. Domains are defined at the geodatabase level, and can be applied to any number of fields in any of that geodatabase’s tables. Domain is an abstract class that has two creatable subtypes: RangeDomain and CodedValueDomain. Use the RangeDomain object to define a range of acceptable values (minimum and maximum) for a numeric attribute, and a CodedValueDomain object to define a finite list of acceptable (string or numeric) values. For any Domain that you create, you will need to specify the type of field it is designed for. If, for example, you create a domain for integer fields (esriFieldTypeInteger), it will not be available for use with a field defined as double data type.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management 15-14

Adding a domain to a database
Domains must live in a geodatabase
Add to the database before assigning it to a field IWorkspaceDomains::AddDomain
Dim pAccessFact As IWorkspaceFactory Dim pAccessFact As IWorkspaceFactory Dim pGDBWorkspace As IWorkspace Dim pGDBWorkspace As IWorkspace Set pAccessFact = New AccessWorkspaceFactory Set pAccessFact = New AccessWorkspaceFactory Set pGDBWorkspace = pAccessFact.OpenFromFile("C:\City.mdb", 0) Set pGDBWorkspace = pAccessFact.OpenFromFile("C:\City.mdb", 0) Dim pWSDomains As IWorkspaceDomains Dim pWSDomains As IWorkspaceDomains Set pWSDomains = pGDBWorkspace Set pWSDomains = pGDBWorkspace pWSDomains.AddDomain pRDomain pWSDomains.AddDomain pRDomain 'QueryInterface 'QueryInterface 'Add the range domain 'Add the range domain

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-15

Adding a domain to a geodatabase After creating a domain, you cannot simply apply it to a field. Domains must be associated with a geodatabase. After a domain is added to a geodatabase, it can then be applied to any number of fields that exist in any of the geodatabase’s tables or feature classes (assuming the field is of the right data type). To add a domain to a geodatabase, use the AddDomain method on the IWorkspaceDomains interface, as shown in the example above. Note: domains cannot be used for shapefile or ArcInfo coverage data.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management 15-15

Assigning a domain to a field
IFieldEdit::Domain property
Dim pAverageFld As IFieldEdit Dim pAverageFld As IFieldEdit Set pAverageFld = New Field Set pAverageFld = New Field With pAverageFld With pAverageFld .Name = "Average" .Name = "Average" .Type = esriFieldTypeInteger .Type = esriFieldTypeInteger .AliasName = "Average Income" .AliasName = "Average Income" .Length = 16 .Length = 16 Set .Domain = pRDomain 'Put by Ref Set .Domain = pRDomain 'Put by Ref End With End With pTable.AddField pAverageFld pTable.AddField pAverageFld

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-16

Use the Domain property on IFieldEdit to assign a Domain object to a particular field. Because this property is a property put by reference, (1) the use of the Set keyword is required, and (2) any change in the domain will be immediately reflected by the field to which it was assigned. A single domain can be reused by any number of fields in a geodatabase. Remember that a domain can only be used after it has been added to a geodatabase. If, in the example above, pRDomain was not first added to the appropriate geodatabase, the code would not return an error. Instead, the domain simply would not be enforced.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management 15-16

Exercise 15B overview
Load data using a cursor
IFeatureCursor :: InsertFeature

Add a new field to an existing table Calculate values for a field using a cursor
IFeatureCursor :: UpdateFeature

Create and apply an attribute domain

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-17

In this exercise, you will work with the ArcObjects discussed in this lesson related to data manipulation. You will write code to: • convert data from one format to another • add and edit features using a cursor • add a field to an existing dataset • create and apply an attribute domain for a geodatabase table

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management 15-17

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

15-18

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Data management 15-18

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and events
Lesson overview Customizing the user interface CommandBars class Types of CommandBar objects Components of CommandBar: CommandItems Finding a CommandItem Finding an ArcGIS toolbar or menu Document events Example: Displaying a different context menu Displaying a new shortcut menu Creating new menus Creating commands to execute macros Updating the ArcID module Lesson overview 16-6 16-7 16-8 16-9 16-10 16-11 16-12 16-13 16-14 16-15

contents

16-2 16-3 16-4 16-5

Inbound and outbound interfaces Finding outbound interfaces Using an outbound interface Events supported by Map Capturing object events Coding object events Exercise 16 overview

16-16 16-17 16-18 16-19 16-20 16-21 16-22

Application framework and events

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events

16-1

Lesson overview
Programming the user interface
Commandbars collection Displaying existing toolbars and menus Programmatically adding controls

Understanding Events
Inbound and outbound interfaces Finding outbound interfaces and events Capturing ArcObjects Events

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-2

Application framework and ArcObjects events One of the first things you learned in this course was how to modify the user interface using the VBA Customize dialog box. In this lesson, you will learn how to perform many of the Customize dialog tasks (adding and removing commands, creating new toolbars, changing command properties) using Visual Basic code. This section will cover: • The CommandBars collection • Creating new CommandBars (toolbars, menus, and context menus) • Creating new commands (CommandItems) • Creating and controlling the display of context menus In the later half, you will learn how to capture and code ArcObjects events. You have already written code for object events, such as events on forms and controls, and even some ArcObjects events such as the MxDocument events available in the ThisDocument module.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events

16-2

Customizing the user interface
Programmatically customize interface
This lesson Dynamically change the user interface with code Execute a series of existing commands in batch

Use drag-and-drop with Customize dialog box
Lesson 2 Static changes persisted in document Similar to Design mode in Visual Basic

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-3

The easiest way to modify the user interface is, of course, to use the Customize dialog box. There may be times, however, when you need to dynamically alter the user interface programmatically. Using code, you can add and remove controls, change their properties, and create your own toolbars, menus, and pop-ups. You can also run existing ArcGIS commands using a single line of code. Examples of when you might want to modify the interface with code: • Automatically add a control for calculating property values when a parcel layer is added to the map. • Show a custom pop-up menu that lists the attributes for the feature that was clicked on. If a feature was not clicked, show the default ArcMap pop-up. • Enable a set of editing tools only if the user provides the proper password. • Add and remove custom layout-related commands when the user switches between data and layout view.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events

16-3

CommandBars class
Collection of all CommandBars
ArcMap or ArcCatalog toolbars and menus Custom toolbars and menus

IDocument::CommandBars
Returns the CommandBars collection

Use to create a CommandBar
ICommandBars::Create

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-4

CommandBars The CommandBars object is a collection of all the command bars (toolbars, menus, and popups) available to a document. Use IDocument::CommandBars to get a reference to the CommandBars collection. The ICommandBars interface is the only interface supported by the CommandBars class. Use ICommandBars::Create to make a new command bar and ICommandBars::Find to locate a particular command (CommandItem) in the collection.

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Application framework and ArcObjects events

16-4

Types of CommandBar objects
Toolbar
Can be docked or undocked

Menu
Must be contained by another CommandBar

Pop-up menus
Free floating
Toolbar Toolbar Menus Menus Shortcut menu Shortcut menu

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-5

Types of CommandBars The CommandBars object is composed of ( ) several (*) CommandBar objects. New command bars can be created from the CommandBars object. There are three different types of CommanBars available on the ArcMap or ArcCatalog user interface: • Toolbars—a collection of/container for commands, such as buttons, tools, combo boxes, and so on. Toolbars can also contain menus, which are another type of CommandBar. • Menus—a collection of/container for commands. Menus cannot contain tools (which require mouse input), edit boxes, or combo boxes. Unlike toolbars and pop-up menus (context or shortcut menus), menus must be contained by a toolbar or by another menu (e.g., as a sub-menu). • Pop-up menus—identical to menus (described above), with the exception that they are free-floating (i.e., are not contained by another toolbar or menu). Pop-up menus are displayed when a user right-clicks his or her mouse.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events

16-5

Components of CommandBar: CommandItems
CommandItems
Commands, macros, UI controls

Command

MacroItem

UIControl

COM Command

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-6

Components of a CommandBar A CommandBar object is composed of CommandItems. CommandItems are things such as buttons, tools, combo boxes, and edit boxes that appear graphically on the user interface. Notice from the simplified diagram above that a CommandItem is composed of a single Command object. You can conceptualize a command as the actual code behind a CommandItem. The ICommandItem interface lets you get or set the properties such as Caption, Image, Message, ToolTip, Display Style, and Help Context ID. This interface also provides methods to execute, delete, refresh, or reset a particular CommandItem. Use either ICommandBars::Find or ICommandBar::Find to obtain a reference to a particular CommandItem.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events

16-6

Finding a CommandItem
ArcID module returns UID for all ESRI command items
Items are organized by Category_CommandName
Dim pCommandItem As ICommandItem Set pCommandItem = ThisDocument.CommandBars.Find _ (ArcID.File_AddData)

pCommandItem.Execute

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-7

Use the Find method on ICommandBars to return any CommandItem (or CommandBar) available in the current document. The Find method locates a CommandItem using a UID (Unique Identifier), which is a long alphanumeric string stored in your operating system’s registry. Here is the UID for the New Map command: {119591DB-0255-11D2-8D20080009EE4E51}. Once a CommandItem is located using Find, its code can be executed by calling the Execute method (on the ICommandItem interface). Using the ArcID module Rather than having to locate these unique identifiers, an ArcObject programmer can use the ArcID module (available in the Normal.mxt and Normal.gxt templates) to look up the required UID using a name that identifies a particular command. The names used by the ArcID module are generally the name of the command category, followed by the name of the command itself (e.g., File_AddData).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events

16-7

Finding an ArcGIS toolbar or menu
The CommandBar class implements ICommandItem
Use ArcID module to find a CommandBar

ICommandBar::Dock (dockflags, [referenceBar])
Dockflags: Floating, docked, hidden, etc. [referenceBar]: (optional) Place relative to another bar

Dim pTools As ICommandItem Dim pTools As ICommandItem Set pTools = ThisDocument.CommandBars.Find _ Set pTools = ThisDocument.CommandBars.Find _ (ArcID.Tools_Toolbar) (ArcID.Tools_Toolbar) Dim pToolBar As ICommandBar Dim pToolBar As ICommandBar Set pToolBar = pTools 'QI Set pToolBar = pTools 'QI pToolBar.Dock esriDockHide pToolBar.Dock esriDockHide 'Others: esriDockShow, esriDockToggle, esriDockFloat 'Others: esriDockShow, esriDockToggle, esriDockFloat 'ReferenceBar locations: Left, Right, Top, Bottom 'ReferenceBar locations: Left, Right, Top, Bottom
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-8

Finding a CommandBar Because the CommandBar class implements the ICommandItem interface, an ArcObjects programmer can use the Find method (described earlier for locating individual commands) to return entire toolbars, menus, or pop-ups. Use the ArcID module to locate the unique identifier (UID) for a particular toolbar, as shown in the example above. Controlling toolbar display Call the Dock method on the ICommandBar interface to place a command bar in a specified location, or have it be free-floating. The esriDockFlags constants specify whether a command bar is visible or floating and where it should be docked on the application window. Optionally, you can specify another toolbar relative to which the toolbar should be docked. Example: open the Tools toolbar, dock it next to the Editor toolbar
Public Sub DockToolsToolbar () Dim pToolsBar As ICommandBar Dim pEditBar As ICommadBar Set pToolsBar = ThisDocument.CommandBars.Find(ArcID.Tools_Toolbar) Set pEditBar = _ ThisDocument.CommandBars.Find(ArcID.Editor_EditorToolbar) pToolsBar.Dock esriDockShow, pEditBar End Sub

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events

16-8

Document events
Use to dynamically alter the interface
Add or remove toolbars according to map contents ActiveViewChanged, MapsChanged, OpenDocument, etc.

OnContextMenu
Fires when the user right-clicks on screen display Code can display a different context (popup) menu

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-9

Document events may be used to trigger changes to the user interface. For example, perhaps you want to add or remove controls when your user switches between data and layout view, or maybe add a particular toolbar when a specific data frame is activated. In addition to the document events you are already familiar with, such as Open, Close, and New, there is a document event that fires when a user right-clicks on the display. The OnContextMenu event procedure can be used to provide logic that dictates which context (popup) menu should be displayed.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events

16-9

Example: Displaying a different context menu
The location clicked (in pixels) The location clicked (in pixels)

Private Function MxDocument_OnContextMenu _ Private Function MxDocument_OnContextMenu _ (ByVal X As Long, ByVal Y As Long) As Boolean (ByVal X As Long, ByVal Y As Long) As Boolean Dim pMenu As ICommandBar Dim pMenu As ICommandBar Set pMenu = ThisDocument _ Set pMenu = ThisDocument _ CommandBars.Find(ArcID.View_Menu) CommandBars.Find(ArcID.View_Menu) If (m_pMxDoc.FocusMap.Name = "Logan") Then If (m_pMxDoc.FocusMap.Name = "Logan") Then pMenu.Popup 'Use Popup to show the context menu pMenu.Popup 'Use Popup to show the context menu MxDocument_OnContextMenu = True MxDocument_OnContextMenu = True Else Else MxDocument_OnContextMenu = False MxDocument_OnContextMenu = False End If True = the event was handled here End If True = the event was handled here End Function End Function
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

False = let ArcMap display its menu False = let ArcMap display its menu

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-10

Dynamically changing the pop-up menu To control which pop-up (i.e., context) menu is displayed when a user right-clicks on the map display, you must add logic to the MxDocument_OnContextMenu event procedure. This event fires when the display is right-clicked with the mouse and before a menu is displayed. The OnContextMenu event has two parameters that are passed in: the x- and y-coordinates (in display units) where the mouse was right-clicked. As a programmer, you could use these coordinates to see where (or what) the user clicked. Using this information, you might choose to display different menus according to the type of feature that was clicked. The event procedure returns a Boolean result. If you handle the event (display a different popup), you must return True to prevent ArcMap from also trying to display a pop-up. Returning False signals ArcMap to display the standard context menu. The example The code above will fire when the map is right-clicked by the user. The ArcMap View menu will be popped up when the name of the activated data frame is ‘Logan’; otherwise, the default pop-up menu will be displayed.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-10

Displaying a new shortcut menu
CommandBars object can create a new CommandBar
Set aNewCBar = aCommandBars.Create (aNameString, aTypeConstant) Set aNewCBar = aCommandBars.Create (aNameString, aTypeConstant)

Use CommandBar::Add to add menu choices
Dim Dim Set Set pMnu As ICommandBar pMnu As ICommandBar pMnu = ThisDocument _ pMnu = ThisDocument _ CommandBars.Create("New",esriCmdBarTypeShortcutMenu) CommandBars.Create("New",esriCmdBarTypeShortcutMenu)

pMnu.Add ArcID.File_AddData 'Add the ArcMap "Add Data" command pMnu.Add ArcID.File_AddData 'Add the ArcMap "Add Data" command pMnu.Popup 'Display the new context menu pMnu.Popup 'Display the new context menu MxDocument_OnContextMenu = True 'Tell ArcMap not to popup a MxDocument_OnContextMenu = True 'Tell ArcMap not to popup a menu menu

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-11

Creating new shortcut menus The CommandBars collection can be used to produce new CommandBar objects by calling the Create method. The Create method has two arguments: the name of the new CommandBar, and the type (toolbar, menu, or shortcut menu). The example above creates a new shortcut menu called New. Although the name for a shortcut menu will never be seen by the user (as it will for a toolbar or menu), it is still a required parameter for the sake of consistency. Adding CommandItems to a CommandBar The ICommandBar interface uses the Add method to place CommandItems on a CommandBar. The Add method has one required argument: a UID that identifies the CommandItem to add. Optionally, an index indicating the position of the command can also be specified. If no index is given, the new command will be added to the end (or bottom) of the CommandBar. In the example above, the ArcID module is used to reference the Add Data command. This item is then added to the shortcut menu. Notice that the properties (such as the icon and label) are already set for this command.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-11

Creating new menus
Menus are created by a CommandBar
Menus must reside on an existing CommandBar

Dim pSubMenu Dim pSubMenu Set pSubMenu Set pSubMenu pSubMenu.Add pSubMenu.Add pMnu.Popup pMnu.Popup

As ICommandBar As ICommandBar = pMnu.CreateMenu("Sub") = pMnu.CreateMenu("Sub") ArcID.Help_About ArcID.Help_About 'Display the new context menu 'Display the new context menu

MxDocument_OnContextMenu = True 'Tell ArcMap not to popup a MxDocument_OnContextMenu = True 'Tell ArcMap not to popup a menu menu

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-12

The ICommandBar interface supports the CreateMenu method, which is used to create a new (empty) menu on a toolbar, menu, or shortcut menu. Remember that unlike toolbars and shortcut menus, a menu must always exist on another command bar. For this reason, you should always call the CreateMenu method on a particular CommandBar object to create new menus, rather than calling Create on the CommandBars collection. Optionally, the position of the new menu on the command bar can be specified with an index argument. The example above adds a new sub-menu (called Sub) to the shortcut menu created earlier. Because no index argument was specified to define the position of the new menu, it was placed at the bottom of the shortcut menu. The About ArcMap command was added to the sub-menu by referencing its UID from the ArcID module.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-12

Creating commands to execute macros
ICommandBar::CreateMacroItem
aMenu.CreateMacroItem aNameString, anIconID, aMacroNameString aMenu.CreateMacroItem aNameString, anIconID, aMacroNameString

'Add a macro to the context menu 'Add a macro to the context menu pMnu.CreateMacroItem "myMacro", 0, "Normal.ThisDocument.Calc" pMnu.CreateMacroItem "myMacro", 0, "Normal.ThisDocument.Calc" pMnu.Popup 'Display the new context menu pMnu.Popup 'Display the new context menu MxDocument_OnContextMenu = True 'Tell ArcMap not to popup a MxDocument_OnContextMenu = True 'Tell ArcMap not to popup a menu menu

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-13

Creating commands that execute existing macros Use the CreateMacroItem method on the ICommandBar interface to add a macro from your map to a toolbar, menu, or shortcut menu. The required arguments for the CreateMacroItem methods are: • Name—a string to appear with the command item (‘myMacro’ in the example above). • FaceID—an integer that specifies a standard ArcGIS icon for the command item. • Macro—a string that identifies the procedure to execute when the command item is clicked.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-13

Updating the ArcID module
Allows imported tools to be identified in ArcID
ICommandBars::Find

Customize dialog box
Options tab Update ArcID module

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-14

Updating ArcID module Update the ArcID module by using the Customize dialog box (Options tab). By updating the ArcID module, you are adding the UID that identify any COM classes that have been added to ArcMap such as custom controls and toolbars. After updating the ArcID module, you can programmatically access these custom controls as you do the existing ArcMap controls (ICommandBars::Find).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-14

Lesson overview
Customizing the user interface
Commandbars collection Displaying existing toolbars and menus Programmatically adding controls

Understanding Events
Inbound and outbound interfaces Finding outbound interfaces and events Capturing ArcObjects Events

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-15

Just like the MxDocument, other ArcObjects have events available, ready to code. In this section, you will learn where to find events on the Object Model Diagrams and how to capture their occurrence. Topics for this lesson are: • Outbound versus inbound interfaces • Finding outbound interfaces and events on the diagrams and using the Help tools • Declaring variables using the WithEvents keyword • Writing event code • A survey of ArcObjects outbound interfaces and events

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-15

Inbound and outbound interfaces
Inbound
Client code makes calls to methods and properties on a server

Outbound
The server class makes calls to client code
Server Server Client Client

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-16

Interfaces can be either inbound or outbound. An inbound interface is the most common kind and the one you have worked with almost exclusively in this course. On an inbound interface, client code makes calls to functions within the interface contained on an object. An outbound interface is one where the object makes calls to client code—a technique analogous to the traditional callback mechanism. Outbound interfaces do not contain methods and properties, only events. Events are actions that cause the server class to look for client code to execute.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-16

Finding outbound interfaces
Solid pushpins (lollypop) on the OMDs ( Outbound interfaces have events only
Some events Some events have parameters have parameters

)

Search Object Browser with class name to find events

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-17

Finding outbound interfaces and events The object model diagrams list outbound interfaces with a solid (black) pushpin symbol, as opposed to the familiar hollow (white) pushpin used for the inbound interfaces. Outbound interfaces are generally named with the word Events in the interface name and contain nothing but events (no methods and properties). Some events will have parameters that are passed into the event procedure. The OnContextMenu event listed above, for example, will pass in the x- and ycoordinates where the user clicked (in pixels). As a programmer writing code for this event, you could use these parameters. When searching for events for a coclass in the object browser, search for the class itself, not for the interface name. The object model might show an interface called IMapEvents, for example. To find the events for this interface in the object browser, you would search for MapEvents. Every ArcObjects coclass that implements more than one outbound interface will have a default. When examining a coclass in the object browser, events for the default outbound interface will be listed.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-17

Using an outbound interface
Declare an object variable using WithEvents
Module-level variable
Private WithEvents m_pMapEvents As Map Private WithEvents m_pMapEvents As Map

Declare as the object, not an interface
Declare with an interface only for an inbound interface

Some classes support more than one outbound interface
Declare as interface name minus the ‘I’
Private WithEvents m_pAVEvents As MapEvents Private WithEvents m_pAVEvents As MapEvents

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-18

Visual Basic and outbound interfaces Visual Basic only supports one outbound interface (marked as the default outbound interface) per coclass. To get around this limitation, the coclasses that implement more than one outbound interface have an associated dummy coclass that allows access to events on a secondary outbound interface. These coclasses have the same name as the outbound interface they contain, minus the I. For example, by checking the OMD, you will notice that the Map coclass implements two outbound interfaces: IActiveViewEvents and IMapEvents. Because IActiveViewEvents is the default outbound interface for the Map coclass, you would capture these events like this:
Private WithEvents m_pAVEvents As Map

To capture the events on the secondary outbound interface (IMapEvents), you would declare your variable like this:
Private WithEvents m_pMapEvents as MapEvents

Determining whether an outbound interface is outbound or not The Object Model Diagrams will indicate in parentheses whether or not an outbound interface is the default not. You may also want to use the ESRI Object Browser to determine whether an outbound interface is default or not. You can use the ESRI Object Browser by going to Start > Programs > ArcGIS > Developer Tools > Object Browser. You will use the ESRI Object Browser in the exercise.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-18

Events supported by Map
ActiveViewEvents (default)
AfterDraw ContentsChanged FocusMapChanged SelectionChanged SpatialReferenceChanged
Private WithEvents m_pMap As Map Private WithEvents m_pMap As Map

MapEvents
FeatureClassChanged

Private WithEvents m_pAVEvents As Private WithEvents m_pAVEvents As MapEvents MapEvents

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-19

Events on the Map class The Map class supports two outbound interfaces. ActiveViewEvents is the default outbound interface; access these events by declaring a variable (WithEvents) simply as Map. MapEvents is a secondary outbound interface that supports some additional events. To access these events, declare a variable (WithEvents) as MapEvents (do not declare it as IMapEvents). Map events allow you to respond to actions taken by a user interacting with the active data frame.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-19

Capturing object events
Initialize the variable declared WithEvents
Must initialize (set) or events will not be fired Commonly initialized when the document opens
Private WithEvents m_pAVEvents As Map Private WithEvents m_pAVEvents As Map Private Function MxDocument_OpenDocument() As Boolean Private Function MxDocument_OpenDocument() As Boolean Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Dim pMxDoc As IMxDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set pMxDoc = ThisDocument Set m_pAVEvents = pMxDoc.FocusMap 'Can now access events Set m_pAVEvents = pMxDoc.FocusMap 'Can now access events End Function End Function

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-20

The first step for tapping into an object’s events is to declare a variable using the WithEvents keyword. The next step is to initialize the variable as a specific object whose events you want to provide code for. The tricky part can be determining when to initialize the variable. For many applications, you will want to have access to object events as soon as the project is opened. In this case, you would initialize your outbound interface variables in the MxDocument_OpenDocument event procedure, as shown in the example above. You may also want to change the object that your variable is pointing to. When your user changed the focused map, for example, you might need to reinitialize the variable to point to the new map in order to respond to its events. Until the variable is initialized, code you have written for the object’s events will not fire.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-20

Coding object events
Navigate to event procedures in the code module
Object variable appears in the object list (left) Events appear in the procedure list (right)

Write code to respond to the event
Object Object Procedure Procedure

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-21

Writing event code After declaring a variable using the WithEvents keyword, you will have access to all events supported by that outbound interface. To code a specific event procedure, pull down the object list on the left-hand side of the code module and choose your WithEvents variable. You will then see each event supported by this object in the procedure list (right-hand side of the code module). By choosing an event, the stub code will automatically be provided for the procedure. Code you write inside the stubs will execute each time the corresponding object event fires. Unlike a COM developer implementing an inbound interface, a programmer implementing an outbound interface does not have to write code for every event procedure. When implementing an outbound interface, as in the example above, you can pick and choose which events you want to provide code for.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-21

Exercise 16 overview
Exercise 16A:
Add CommandItems to a context menu Add a sub-menu to a context menu Turn layers on/off from a context menu

Exercise 16B:
Declare a variable as an outbound interface Initialize a variable to code layer’s events Set the display extent according to layer visibility Explore selection and Catalog events

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

16-22

Exercise 16A: Programming the user interface In this exercise, you will create new context menus and menu choices programmatically. You will write logic to dynamically decide which context menu to display. You will also write code to add the names of all layers in the map to a context menu, then toggle their visibility by calling a macro in the project. Exercise 16B: Coding ArcObjects events In this exercise, you will write code to capture some ArcObjects events. You will write an application that automatically changes the extent of the map display according to whether a particular layer is visible or not. When the layer is turned on (i.e., visible), you will zoom the extent to the layer. When it is off, you will zoom back to the full extent. As a challenge, you may try to program selection events in ArcMap and ArcCatalog.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Application framework and ArcObjects events 16-22

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA ModuleTitle

ArcObjects beyond VBA
Lesson overview Visual Basic versus VBA Remember COM? Basic steps: Building a COM component 1) Create a new COM project 2) Create a COM class 3) Reference the appropriate libraries 4) Implement the required interface(s) Referencing the Application Example: Branching in a COM component 5) Compile your component DLL 6) Registering your COM component Where can COM components plug in? 17-17 17-5 17-6 17-7 17-8 17-9 17-11 17-12 17-13 17-14 17-15 17-18 17-19 17-20 17-21 17-22 17-23

17-24 17-25 17-26 17-27 17-28

contents

17-2 17-3 17-4

Resources for creating custom components Exercise 17 (Optional): Building a COM command Lesson overview ArcGIS Engine ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit Engine Runtime Why ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit? ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit resources Lesson overview ArcGIS Server Why ArcGIS Server? ArcGIS Server resources

ArcObjects beyond VBA

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA

17-1

Lesson overview
Creating COM classes with Visual Basic
Visual Basic versus VBA Building a COM class with Visual Basic
Referencing the ArcObjects libraries Implementing an interface Delivering your class

ArcObjects interfaces
Where can your component plug in?

ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit ArcGIS Server

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-2

Overview This optional lesson covers the use of standalone Visual Basic to produce COM components that work in ArcMap or ArcCatalog. It will provide the basic steps required to create a COM DLL, as well as a survey of some of the places where your component can plug in to the existing application’s architecture.

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ArcObjects Beyond VBA

17-2

Visual Basic versus VBA
Visual Basic Control Arrays Integrated Debugging Preset Variables Import VBA Forms Import VB Forms Ability to Compile Code Yes No No Yes __ Yes VBA No Yes Yes __ No No

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-3

Visual Basic versus Visual Basic for Applications From a syntactical standpoint, there is virtually no difference between programming in Visual Basic and programming in VBA. In fact, the code you have written during this course using VBA could be ported to Visual Basic with only minor modifications. The table above gives a basic overview of some of the differences between VB and VBA. The most important difference is standalone Visual Basic’s ability to compile code to disk as a dynamic-link library (DLL) or executable file (EXE). As you know, all code in VBA must be stored inside a document, such as a map file (mxd) or template (such as normal.mxt or normal.gxt). The advantage of having your code compiled (as a DLL, for example) is that it is easier to share with other users, and it is much more secure (those using your DLL or EXE cannot see or modify the actual code).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA

17-3

Remember COM?
COM is a standard for creating classes Classes can be reused between applications
Independent of programming language

Because of COM, you can design a component that plugs into ArcGIS ArcGIS Desktop can be extended with COM and .Net APIs
This lesson will focus on COM with Visual Basic

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-4

Remain COM Remember that the component object model (COM) is not a programming language in itself, but is rather a standard for how classes should be written. The primary advantage of COM is the ability to create your own components that can easily plug into and work inside an existing architecture. To make this work without COM, you would have to modify and recompile the original source code for ArcMap or ArcCatalog every time you wanted to add a component.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA

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Basic steps: Building a COM component
1. Create 2. Create

a new COM project a COM Class the ArcObjects libraries the required interface(s)

3. Reference 4. Implement 5. Compile 6. Register

the component as a DLL your component with ArcGIS

The steps are the same regardless of the language
This exercise and lecture shows Visual Basic 6.0

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-5

It’s as easy as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 OK, so it is not as easy as some of the other programming tasks you have tackled this week, but it is not that hard. 1. Create a new COM project—in order to create a custom COM component, you must use a standalone programming environment that is COM compliant. This lesson discusses the use of Visual Basic, but you could also use VC++, Delphi, .NET, or a similar programming environment. 2. Create a COM class- you will create a creatable COM class. This class will allow you to create objects from it and embed them into ArcMap or ArcCatalog. 3. Reference the ArcObject libraries—unlike programming in ArcMap or ArcCatalog, Visual Basic will not automatically know about the ArcObjects. 4. Implement the required interface(s)—as described earlier, to ensure that your component works with the existing architecture, you must implement the proper interface or interfaces that ArcGIS will expect. 5. Compile the component as a DLL—write your component out as a dynamic-link library. You may need to perform some debugging before your component compiles without an error. 6. Register your component with ArcGIS —ArcGIS ArcObjects are divided into what are called component categories, which help organize your components. The type of component you create will determine which category you need to register your component in. Lastly, you will simply want to test, debug and recompile the component. Test the component in ArcMap or ArcCatalog. If it does not work as expected, you may need to return to your VB project to fix bugs and recompile your DLL.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA

17-5

1) Create a new COM project
Create a new Visual Basic ActiveX DLL project Give project meaningful name

ActiveX DLL ActiveX DLL

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-6

Creating a new Visual Basic project To design new COM components, you need to make sure you create a new ActiveX DLL Visual Basic project, as opposed to a standard executable. When creating your new VB project, make sure you provide meaningful names for the project and for each class that you create. The name of the project will also be the default name of the DLL when it is compiled. Each class in your project will be an individual component in your DLL. If I create a class called Class1 that is going to be a custom control for example, my new control would also be called Class1 inside my DLL. A single DLL can contain several classes (i.e., components). It is not necessary, therefore, to create a new ActiveX DLL project for each component you want to create. If needed, you could deliver dozens of commands, toolbars, and other components in a single DLL.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA

17-6

2) Create a COM class
Class scope controlled by Instancing property
Use MultiUse to make a public creatable class

Each class module will Each class module will become a component become a component (e.g., Control) (e.g., Control)

MultiUse Instancing MultiUse Instancing (Creatable) (Creatable)

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-7

In Visual Basic ActiveX DLL projects, the only way to control the public interface of a new COM class is to set its name and Instancing property. The name controls the name assigned to the object and the name of the default interface. The Instancing property controls the scope of the class and determines whether or not other COM objects can create instances of the object. Instancing property settings • Private: Class is only visible to the Visual Basic project. • PublicNotCreatable: Interface and coclass defined; coclass is not creatable using the Visual Basic New keyword. • MultiUse: Interface and coclass defined; coclass is creatable. • GlobalMultiUse: Lets the developer use a reference without declaring it. Default interface When you implement a COM object using a class module in Visual Basic, the object will have a default interface that has the same name as the class. However, the class name also has an underscore as a prefix. The underscore indicates that this interface is hidden in the type library. The Visual Basic Object Browser and code completer do not display default interfaces. Don’t be fooled when you are writing code to declare variables for IApplication and IDocument. Although you will not see references to these interfaces in the VB Object Browser, IApplication and IDocument are default interfaces for ArcObjects.

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ArcObjects Beyond VBA

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3) Reference the appropriate libraries
Project > References > ESRI libraries
Referenced libraries depend on what you are implementing Also reference any other libraries required by your component

esriSystemUI.olb esriSystemUI.olb

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-8

Reference the ArcObject library Remember that when you are programming in ArcMap or ArcCatalog, you do not need to explicitly reference the ArcObject libraries. This is not the case when programming in a standalone programming environment such as Visual Basic. Any additional libraries that are required (apart from the Visual Basic library) need to be explicitly brought into your project. To reference additional class libraries, choose References from the Project menu. Each ArcObjects class that you work with is stored in a specific library. You can find out which library a class belongs in by looking at the help or Object Model Diagrams. You may also use the Library Locator, which is a utility that can be found in C:\<InstallDirectory>\ArcGIS\ DeveloperKit\Tools to find which library a class or interface belongs in. Place a check next to the library listings you will be using in this project to reference, then click OK.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA

17-8

4) Implement the required interface(s)
Give ArcGIS what it expects from Give ArcGIS what it expects from your component your component

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-9

Implement required ArcObject interfaces To make sure that your component will be understood by the ArcMap or ArcCatalog application, you need to implement an interface (or interfaces) appropriate for your component. In the example above, if ArcMap is to place a new control on its user interface, it needs to be able to ask the control for some basic properties, such as What image should be displayed on the control? (Bitmap property), What text should be displayed when a user hovers over the control with the mouse? (ToolTip), and most importantly, What should I do when the control is clicked? (OnClick event procedure). As a programmer, you answer these questions by writing code for the proper interface.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA

17-9

4) Implement the required interface(s)
Implements statement
First line of code in your class module A contract to code everything on the interface
Must stub out code for all Must stub out code for all methods and properties methods and properties

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-10

Write code to make your component work After deciding which interfaces your component needs to implement, the next step is to write code for every method and property on each interface. To satisfy the rules of COM, this simply means having all method and property procedure stubs in your class module. Upon entering the implements statement in the general declarations (top) portion of the class module, you will be able to choose the interface from the object list (upper-left), and then see all its methods and properties in the procedure list (upper-right). You may need to provide code for only a handful of these procedures in order to make your control function to your liking. You must, however, have stub code for at least each member on your implemented interfaces before your DLL will compile.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-10

Referencing the Application
OnCreate procedure passes in a reference (hook)
Cannot use Application or ThisDocument variables

Store hook in a module-level variable
Will be used throughout your component (e.g., OnClick)

Your way into the object model

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-11

Hooking into the ArcMap or ArcCatalog application A major difference that you will find when programming in a standalone environment such as Visual Basic as opposed to VBA is the lack of easily available preset variables. When programming in ArcMap or ArcCatalog, you can jump into your code by using the preset Application or ThisDocument variables. To get access to the current application or document from your COM component, you will need to use another technique. Most ArcObject interfaces that your custom components implement pass in a reference to the application object in one of their event procedures. On the ICommand interface, the OnCreate event passes in a parameter called hook that is mysteriously referred to as an Object (see the example above). This object is the equivalent of the Application preset variable. In order to use this object throughout your component, however, you will need to store it in a module-level variable as shown above (m_pMxApp). The OnCreate event fires when a user drags the command from the Customize dialog box to a toolbar or menu, or when a map containing the control is opened.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-11

Example: Branching in a COM component
Perform different tasks in Perform different tasks in ArcMap and ArcCatalog ArcMap and ArcCatalog

Use TypeOf to see if Use TypeOf to see if Control was added to Control was added to ArcMap or ArcCatalog ArcMap or ArcCatalog

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-12

Creating an all-purpose command The example above shows how to create a command that works in both ArcMap and ArcCatalog. This class implements the ICommand interface, which is required for all ArcMap and ArcCatalog commands. When the OnCreate event fires, the TypeOf statement is used to see if hook is the ArcMap or ArcCatalog application. A string variable is set to record which application the control is being used in. The OnClick event uses the string variable (m_strApp) to see if the control is being used in ArcMap or ArcCatalog. Depending on the application, the control will serve a different purpose: reporting the selected layer in ArcMap, and reporting the selected file in ArcCatalog.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-12

5) Compile your component DLL
File > Make DLL
Compiles your code and writes it to disk as a DLL Dynamic linked library

Common compile errors
ArcObjects library was not referenced Did not fully implement an interface The component is in use (ArcMap or ArcCatalog): only for recompile

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-13

Compiling the COM DLL Once you have written all the required code to make your control work inside of ArcGIS, you need to compile the project to a DLL on disk. Choose ‘Make <project name>’ to compile your DLL, specifying an output file location. If there are no syntax errors in your code, the DLL will compile, otherwise VB will report an error. Common errors encountered when compiling • ‘Object module needs to implement <member name> for interface <interface name>’— you did not at least stub out all of the methods and properties for an interface that you promised to implement. • ‘User-defined type not defined’—you probably forgot to reference a required library (esriSystemUI.olb, for example). If you forget this, you should be able to clue in quickly as you would not see code completion anyway. • ‘Permission denied: <DLL filename>’—the DLL is likely being used (by ArcMap or ArcCatalog, for example). This error might be encountered when you are in the testing/debugging phase of developing your component.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-13

6) Registering your COM component
Customize dialog box (Add from file)
ArcGIS will automatically register the component

Component category manager

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-14

Registering you COM DLL Before you can use your custom component in ArcMap or ArcCatalog, you need to make sure it is registered with your operating system. There are three ways in which you can register a component. • Customize dialog box—when you use the Add from file button to bring in a component, your component DLL is automatically registered. • Component category manager—the component category manager allows you to add and remove ArcGIS components. Components are organized into various categories. By adding your DLL to the proper category, your components will be incorporated into ArcGIS. To add a new edit task that you have created, for example, add your component to the ESRI Edit Tasks category (as in the example above).

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-14

Where can COM components plug in?
Edit Task Edit Task

Command Command Table of Contents Tab Table of Contents Tab

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-15

COM components on the ArcMap interface Here are some examples of components that can be added to ArcMap • Command—a button, tool, or menu choice. To create this component, you must implement ICommand, and may also need to implement ITool, IToolCommand, or both. • Edit task—a task that works with the ArcMap Editor in conjunction with the sketch tool. It must implement IEditTask. • Table of Contents tab—an additional tab on the ArcMap Table of Contents that implements the IContentsView interface.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-15

Where can COM components plug in?
ClassExtension ClassExtension (Geodatabase) (Geodatabase) ToolControl ToolControl

Network Trace Task Network Trace Task

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-16

More custom components for ArcMap … Some additional places to use custom COM components: • Class extension—a component that works with a dataset (feature class or table) to provide limited custom behavior (attribute calculation or validation, for example). A class extension must implement IClassExtension, and may also implement IPropertyInspector, IObjectClassValidation, or several others. • Tool control—a custom control that extends the abilities of simple buttons or tools. Must implement the ICommand and IToolCommand interfaces. • Network trace task—a task on the Utility Network toolbar for solving network problems. Implements the ITraceTask interface.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-16

Resources for creating custom components
Instructor-led course
Extending the ArcGIS Desktop Applications

http://arcgisdeveloperonline.esri.com
ArcGIS Desktop Developer’s Guide Samples Extending ArcObjects

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-17

Extending ArcGIS applications resources The Extending the ArcGIS Desktop Applications instructor-led course will supply a wealth of information to get you started extending ArcGIS applications. This course will cover a variety of COM APIs, including Visual Basic 6 and .NET languages. ArcGIS Developer Online also provides a developers guide, many samples and online books to help assist you in your development tasks.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-17

Exercise 17 (Optional): Building a COM command
Create a new Visual Basic project
ActiveX DLL

Add a new Class module Reference the appropriate ArcObjects libraries Implement the ICommand interface Compile the DLL Add the control to ArcMap

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-18

Exercise 17: creating a COM control in Visual Basic In this optional exercise, you will use (standalone) Visual Basic to create a new COM DLL. The COM class you create will implement the required interface for a command that works in ArcGIS, ICommand. After writing the required code to implement this interface, you will compile your DLL, and then test it in ArcMap.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-18

Lesson overview
Creating COM classes with Visual Basic
Visual Basic versus VBA Building a COM class with Visual Basic
Referencing the ArcObjects libraries Implementing an interface Delivering your class

ArcObjects interfaces
Where can your component plug in?

ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit ArcGIS Server

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-19

Overview This optional lesson covers the ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit, a new product at ArcGIS 9. This product allows you to use ArcObjects to build stand alone custom applications.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-19

ArcGIS Engine
There are two parts to ArcGIS Engine
(1) Engine Developer Kit
Used by developers

(2) Engine Runtime
What the end user needs to run the developer product

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-20

ArcGIS Engine is a complete library of embeddable GIS components for developers to build custom applications. Using ArcGIS Engine, developers can embed GIS functions into existing applications such as Microsoft Word and Excel, as well as build focused custom applications for delivering a focused GIS task to many users in their organizations without having an ArcGIS license on the client machine. The ArcGIS Engine consists of a software development kit and a re-distributable runtime required for all ArcGIS applications. The ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit is a component-based software development product for building and deploying custom GIS and mapping applications. The ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit is not an end user product, but a toolkit for application developers. It allows developers to build either simple mapping applications or comprehensive GIS applications for Windows, UNIX or Linux users.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-20

ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit
New developer product that creates standalone desktop applications A toolkit for developers (not an end user application) Cross Platform COM, .Net, C++(new), Java(new) APIs Development tools
ArcObjects and Controls
Map, PageLayout, Toolbar, TOC, Reader, Scene, Globe controls

Documentation Sample code Help and tutorials

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-21

The ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit provides the developer with many resources to complete their development task. The ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit is not a product for end users. It is strictly for people who are developing applications. As a developer, you can build applications based on ArcGIS Engine and deliver those programs to end users. The ArcGIS Engine supports a variety of developer languages for its use including, COM, .NET, JAVA, and C++ for the applications to be used in different platforms. This also allows the objects to be programmed using a wide range of tools, and should not require you to learn a proprietary language. Developers will also be provided with a common set of developer controls that allow them to easily deploy well-crafted applications with a common look and feel when they get the ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit. An extensive help system along with object model diagrams and sample code to help developers get started is also included.

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ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-21

Engine Runtime
Runtime license needed for all custom applications built with Engine Developer Kit Licensing:
Standard Engine Runtime View and author maps, query, analysis, simple editing Engine Runtime Options GeoDatabase Update Spatial 3D StreetMap

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-22

ArcGIS Engine Runtime All applications built with the Engine Developer Kit will need the ArcGIS Engine Runtime or ArcGIS Desktop with the appropriate level of license to execute successfully. There are different license levels for the Engine Runtime. The standard Engine Runtime provides core functionality of all ArcGIS applications. This standard Engine Runtime can be enhanced with options for full read-write access of the enterprise Geodatabase supports, as well as advanced functionality for 3D visualization and spatial analysis. Visit the ArcGIS Engine Developer Guide for a complete listing of functionality for the different runtime options. To obtain the ArcGIS Engine Runtime, users can contact ESRI for CDs to install the Engine Runtime for internal use. Business partners that develop applications may also purchase runtime licenses and incorporate them into the setup program for installing the custom built application.

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ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-22

Why ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit?
So end users don’t need a full ArcGIS Desktop license on their machine to use a developer’s standalone application Designed for focused applications that don’t need everything ArcGIS Desktop offers
Java Example

Windows Example
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-23

All over the world people are constantly taking advantage of GIS functionality. Whether it be creating a simple map, performing a query, or doing some type of advanced overlay analysis, people are using this functionality. This does not necessarily mean everyone performing GIS tasks are GIS experts and need a full fledged GIS on their machine. If someone only needs to perform a specific task over and over, it is much easier for them to use an application suited towards their needs. For example, a utility company may have many employees that make daily edits to their database for where new power lines have been created, making updates and performing network traces if a power line is affected. If this will be the only tasks they need to do, it will be much easier and efficient for them to use a custom application designed specifically to perform these tasks.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-23

ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit resources
Instructor-led course
Developing Applications with ArcGIS Engine

http://arcgisdeveloperonline.esri.com
ArcGIS Engine Developer Guide Samples Extending ArcObjects

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-24

The Developing Applications with ArcGIS Engine instructor-led course will supply a wealth of information to get you started building and deploying ArcGIS Engine applications. ArcGIS Developer Online also provides developer guides and samples that are specific to building ArcGIS Engine applications.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-24

Lesson overview
Creating COM classes with Visual Basic
Visual Basic versus VBA Building a COM class with Visual Basic
Referencing the ArcObjects libraries Implementing an interface Delivering your class

ArcObjects interfaces
Where can your component plug in?

ArcGIS Engine Developer Kit ArcGIS Server

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-25

Overview This optional lesson covers ArcGIS Server, a new product at ArcGIS 9. ArcGIS Server provides a framework for using ArcObjects through an Internet or local area connection through Web browsers or other client applications for an enterprise GIS.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-25

ArcGIS Server
A Web developer framework that makes it easy to build GIS Web applications and enterprise GIS applications Supports Client-Server, GIS Web Services, and GIS Web Applications Cross platform Multiple APIs
.Net, Java

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-26

ArcGIS Server is a GIS enterprise application server that provides complete GIS capabilities throughout an organization while maintaining a centrally managed database. Mapping, geocoding, spatial queries, editing, tracing and linear referencing are all examples of applications that developers can build using ArcGIS Server. These applications can be consumed by browser-based clients, custom applications built with ArcGIS Engine, and ArcGIS Desktop. ArcGIS Server will support all common development environments (Java, .NET, C++, COM) and all major server platforms. The initial release of ArcGIS 9 will support Microsoft Windows, while other platforms will be supported in subsequent releases.

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ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-26

Why ArcGIS Server?
So users can perform more advanced analysis over a LAN/Internet (take advantage of the ArcObjects) So users can interact with an enterprise system

Geodatabase Editing

Network Tracing
Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved. Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-27

ArcGIS Server allows GIS functionality to take place over the Internet or LAN, without a user having any GIS installed on their machine. All the end user will need is a Web browser. This allows developers to build very focused applications that people can access at any time. The end users do not need to worry about any processing occurring on their machine or having unnecessary software installed. Through Web applications, a developer can make a very intuitive application that end users can operate without having much GIS knowledge. ArcGIS Server also allows users to interact with an enterprise system for everyday editing tasks without dealing with the administration of the system and data.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-27

ArcGIS Server resources
Instructor-led course
Developing Applications with ArcGIS Server

http://arcgisdeveloperonline.esri.com
ArcGIS Server Developer Guide Samples

Copyright © 2001–2004 ESRI. All rights reserved.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

17-28

ArcGIS Server resources The Developing Applications with ArcGIS Server instructor-led course will supply a wealth of information to get you started building and deploying ArcGIS Server applications. ArcGIS Developer Online also provides developer guides and samples that are specific to building ArcGIS Server applications.

Introduction to Programming ArcObjects with VBA

ArcObjects Beyond VBA 17-28

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