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Bacterial Fermentation

ATP is produced only by substrate level


phosphorylation
Also ion gradient driven phosphorylation
Proton or sodium ion and is generated by

electron transport
Decarboxylation
Ion-coupled end product effux
substrate.-product antiport

Types of substrate used


Sugars

Polyols
Organic acids
Amino acids
Purines
Pyrimidines

ATP yield
0.3 4 mol ATP

Ethanol fermentation
Glucose

2CO2 + 2 ethanol

YEAST
2 mol ATP per mol substrate
Zymomonas
1 mol ATP per mol glucose

Lactic acid fermentation


Lactic acid bacteria
Homofermentative Heterofermentative
Glucose
2 lactate
2 mol ATP per mol glucose
glucose
CO2+lactate+ethanol
1 mol per mol glucose

Propionate fermentation
3 lactate
CO2

2 propionate + acetate +

Acrylate pathway
0.3 mol ATP per mol lactate
Methylmalonyl-CoA pathway

Mixed acid and butanediol


fermentation
Mixed acid fermentation
Ratio acid to neutral products 4:1
Ratio H to CO2 1:1
Butanediol fermentation
Ratio acid to neutral products 1:6
Ratio H to CO2 1:5

Butyrate and acetone-butanol


fermentation
Butyrate fermentation
Glucose
butyrate + 2CO2 + 2H2
3mol ATP
Butanol fermentation
2 glucose
butanol + acetone + 4H2
+ 5CO2
2.5mol ATP

Homoacetate fermentation
Moorella thermoacetica
Acetobacterium woodii
Glucose

3 acetate

Distribution of fermentation among


organism
Eukaryotes
Bacteria
Fungi
Worms (Ascaris lumbricoides)