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UNIT –V

5.1 MASONRY DAMS

Definition: -

A massive concrete or masonry wall constructed across a canal, river

or a valley to retain water on one of its sides for irrigation or power

generation is called “Masonry Dam”

a

F.B

H h

X

P

.h/3

W R

A b/2 F O e E B

Z

B

σ min

σ max

-47-

THEORY OF STRUCTURES

b - Bottom width of dam

h - height of water in the dam

H - height of dam

γ m - Specific weight of dam material

γ w - Specific weight of water

Lateral water Pressure “p” / unit length of wall

γ wh2

P=

2

Weight of dam “W” / unit length

( a + b)

W = γm H

2

This weight acts through the centroid of dam and cuts the base at F at a

distance “x”

a 2 + ab + b 2

X = AF = 3( a + b)

Let R be the Resultant of “P” & “W”

R= P 2 +W 2

The Resultant “R” cuts the base at “E” at an eccentricity “e”

.e = AE – b/2

Take Moment of Forces about E

W x EF – P x h/3 = 0

Ph

EF =

3W

AE = AF + EF

P h

AE = X +

W 3

e = AE – b/2

The Vertical Component “W” of the Resultant “R” acting at E produces

combined bending and direct stresses at the base of the dam.

Bending Moment , M = We

Moment of Inertia , Iyy = 1 x b3 / 12

M We b

σb = X = 3 x

I yy b 2

12

6We

σb =

b2

Area of base section = b x 1

-48-

THEORY OF STRUCTURES

W W

Direct stress, σ a = =

A b

σ max at Toe “B” =σ a+σ b

W 6We

= +

b b2

W 6e

1 +

= b b

σ min at Heel “A” =σ a-σ b

W 6We

= -

b b2

W 6e

1 −

= b b

W 6e

σ max (or )σ min = 1 ±

b b

PROBLEMS:

1. A masonry Trapezoidal dam 4 m height, 1m wide at top and 3 m wide at

bottom retain water on its vertical face upto the top. Determine the

resultant force and its eccentricity at the base. Weight of the masonry =

20 KN/m3, Weight of water = 9.81 KN/m3. .(178.21KN,0.234 m,

78.28,28.37KN/m2)

its bottom retains water on its vertical face. Determine the maximum and

minimum stresses at the base (a) When the reservoir is Full (b) When the

reservoir is empty (78.28, 28.37KN/m2, 98.13,8.53KN/m2)

ASSIGNMENT

vertical face to its full height. The top width of the dam is 3m and its

-49-

THEORY OF STRUCTURES

resultant thrust on the base per meter length of the dam (b) The point

where the resultant cuts the base (c) intensities of maximum and

minimum stresses at the base ((a) 2266.80 KN,(b) 5.73m,(c) 568.63,

-73.63 KN/m2

2. A Trapezoidal masonry dam is 1.5 m wide at top and 5m wide at the base.

It is 7.5m height with a vertical water face and retains water to a depth

of 7.2 m. Find the maximum and minimum normal stress intensities at the

base, if the specific weight of masonry and water are 22KN/m3 and

9.81KN/m3 (349.46,59.76 KN/m2)

free board of 2m. Its upstream face is vertical while the downstream

face has a batter of 0.6 horizontal to 1 vertical. The relative density of

masonry may be taken as 2.4. Calculate the extreme value of the normal

stresses on the foundation, when the reservoir is full.

(370.22,239.05KN/m2)

1. Tension at the base section

2. Overturning about the heel

3. Sliding along the base

4. Crushing of masonry at the base

WATER:-

The masonry wall is checked for the following conditions

1. To avoid tension in the masonry at the base

2. To safe guard the wall from overturning

3. To prevent sliding of the wall along the base

4. To prevent crushing of masonry at the base

-50-

THEORY OF STRUCTURES

A F E B

R

b/3 b/3 b/3

For no tension,

W 6e

σ MIN = 1 + ≥ 0

b b

6e

1 + ≥ 0

b

− 6e

≥1

b

6e

≤1

b

b

e≤

6

The resultant must cut the base within the middle third of the base width in

order to avoid tension

Wall tends to overturn about B

Overturning moment is due to water Pressure “P” = P x h/3

From base B

Stabilising moment is provided by the weight of the Dam “W”

(

Wx b −x )

for stability

( )

Wx b − x > Px

h

3

Factor of safety against overturning

FOS = Stabilising moment = 1.5 to 2 (minimum)

Overturning moment

The lateral Pressure “p” cause the wall to slide along the base of the

wall. The sliding force is resisted by the frictional force between the

bottom of masonry dam and the soil.

The frictional force between soil and bottom of masonry dam=µ W

P < µW

-51-

THEORY OF STRUCTURES

µW

= 1.5(min imum )

FOS = P

The base section of the wall is subjected to combined direct and

bending stresses

The maximum compressive stress at the base should be less than the

permissible stress in the masonry.

The minimum base width ‘b’ of the masonry dam is calculated by

applying the conditions of stability. The maximum of the ‘b’ value is

calculated is taken as the minimum base width of the dam.

The maximum height ‘h’ of the masonry dam is calculated by applying

the conditions of stability. The minimum of the ‘h’ value thus calculated is

taken as the maximum height of dam.

DAM

C C

-52-

THEORY OF STRUCTURES

P

G

h/3

A b/3 W B A W R

B

.b b/3

(a) Reservoir Empty (b) Reservoir Full

To avoid tension the resultant ‘R’ should cut the base within the

middle third of the base width i.e. the limiting eccentricity e = b/6. This

condition should be satisfied both when the reservoir is empty and reservoir

is full.

When reservoir is empty P = 0;’W’act through center of gravity of

cross section. “W” cuts v/3 from the heel (A). These conditions satisfied if

the cross section is of a height angled triangle with water face vertical.

When reservoir is full,

.h – height of dam (depth of water)

γ w – Specific gravity of water

γ m – Specific gravity of masonry

ρ - relative density of masonry = γ m/γ w

b – base width

1

γ mbh

W – weight of dam per unit length = 2

1

γ wh2

P – water Pressure per unit length = 2

Taking moments of “p” ,”W” &”R” about A.

For equilibrium condition,

h b 2

Px + Wx = Wx b

3 3 3

h 1

Px = Wx b

3 3

-53-

THEORY OF STRUCTURES

P b

=

W h

γ wh 2

2 b

=

γ mbh h

2

b 2γ m h

= γ wh2

h

b 2γ m = γ w h 2

γ wh 2

b =

γm

γw

b =h

γm

h γm

b = ρ=

ρ where γw

The elementary Profile of a masonry dam is of right angled triangle with

h

b =

water face vertical having base width ρ where ρ is the relative

density of masonry & h is the height of the dam.

PROBLEMS

A trapezoidal masonry dam having 3m top widths, 8 m bottom width

and 12 m high retains water to a height of 11 m on its vertical face. Check

the stability of the dam, if the masonry weighs 20 KN/m3 and Co-efficient

of friction between the bottom of masonry and soil is 0.6. Take available

compressive stress as 100KN/m2.

-54-

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