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# THEORY OF STRUCTURES

UNIT –V
5.1 MASONRY DAMS

Definition: -
A massive concrete or masonry wall constructed across a canal, river
or a valley to retain water on one of its sides for irrigation or power
generation is called “Masonry Dam”

## DERIVATION FOR Max. & Min. STRESS: -

a
F.B

H h
X

P
.h/3
W R

A b/2 F O e E B
Z
B

σ min

σ max

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THEORY OF STRUCTURES

## a - Top Width of dam

b - Bottom width of dam
h - height of water in the dam
H - height of dam
γ m - Specific weight of dam material
γ w - Specific weight of water

## Water Pressure “P” acting horizontally at h/3 from the bottom

Lateral water Pressure “p” / unit length of wall
γ wh2
P=
2
Weight of dam “W” / unit length
( a + b)
W = γm H
2
This weight acts through the centroid of dam and cuts the base at F at a
distance “x”
a 2 + ab + b 2
X = AF = 3( a + b)
Let R be the Resultant of “P” & “W”
R= P 2 +W 2
The Resultant “R” cuts the base at “E” at an eccentricity “e”
.e = AE – b/2
Take Moment of Forces about E
W x EF – P x h/3 = 0
Ph
EF =
3W
AE = AF + EF
P h
AE = X +
W 3
e = AE – b/2
The Vertical Component “W” of the Resultant “R” acting at E produces
combined bending and direct stresses at the base of the dam.
Bending Moment , M = We
Moment of Inertia , Iyy = 1 x b3 / 12
M We b
σb = X = 3 x
I yy b  2
 
 12 
 
6We
σb =
b2
Area of base section = b x 1

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THEORY OF STRUCTURES

W W
Direct stress, σ a = =
A b
σ max at Toe “B” =σ a+σ b
W 6We
= +
b b2
W  6e 
1 + 
= b  b 
σ min at Heel “A” =σ a-σ b
W 6We
= -
b b2
W  6e 
1 − 
= b  b 
W 6e 
σ max (or )σ min = 1 ± 
b  b 

PROBLEMS:
1. A masonry Trapezoidal dam 4 m height, 1m wide at top and 3 m wide at
bottom retain water on its vertical face upto the top. Determine the
resultant force and its eccentricity at the base. Weight of the masonry =
20 KN/m3, Weight of water = 9.81 KN/m3. .(178.21KN,0.234 m,
78.28,28.37KN/m2)

## 2. A masonry trapezoidal dam 4 m high, 1m wide at its top and 3m wide at

its bottom retains water on its vertical face. Determine the maximum and
minimum stresses at the base (a) When the reservoir is Full (b) When the
reservoir is empty (78.28, 28.37KN/m2, 98.13,8.53KN/m2)

ASSIGNMENT

## 1. A Concrete dam of trapezoidal section of 15m height retains water on its

vertical face to its full height. The top width of the dam is 3m and its

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THEORY OF STRUCTURES

## bottom width is 8 m. Weight of concrete is 24 KN/m 3. Find (a) the

resultant thrust on the base per meter length of the dam (b) The point
where the resultant cuts the base (c) intensities of maximum and
minimum stresses at the base ((a) 2266.80 KN,(b) 5.73m,(c) 568.63,
-73.63 KN/m2

2. A Trapezoidal masonry dam is 1.5 m wide at top and 5m wide at the base.
It is 7.5m height with a vertical water face and retains water to a depth
of 7.2 m. Find the maximum and minimum normal stress intensities at the
base, if the specific weight of masonry and water are 22KN/m3 and
9.81KN/m3 (349.46,59.76 KN/m2)

## 3. A masonry dam has a total height of 20 m with a top width of 5m and a

free board of 2m. Its upstream face is vertical while the downstream
face has a batter of 0.6 horizontal to 1 vertical. The relative density of
masonry may be taken as 2.4. Calculate the extreme value of the normal
stresses on the foundation, when the reservoir is full.
(370.22,239.05KN/m2)

## Failure of masonry dam may occur due to

1. Tension at the base section
3. Sliding along the base
4. Crushing of masonry at the base

## CONDITION FOR STABILITY OF MASONRY WALLS RETAINING

WATER:-
The masonry wall is checked for the following conditions
1. To avoid tension in the masonry at the base
2. To safe guard the wall from overturning
3. To prevent sliding of the wall along the base
4. To prevent crushing of masonry at the base

## CONDITION TO AVOID TENSION IN MASONRY AT THE BASE:-

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A F E B
R
b/3 b/3 b/3

For no tension,
W 6e 
σ MIN = 1 +  ≥ 0
b  b 
 6e 
1 +  ≥ 0
 b 
− 6e
≥1
b
6e
≤1
b
b
e≤
6
The resultant must cut the base within the middle third of the base width in
order to avoid tension

## CONDITION TO PREVENT OVERTURNING

Wall tends to overturn about B
Overturning moment is due to water Pressure “P” = P x h/3
From base B
Stabilising moment is provided by the weight of the Dam “W”
(
Wx b −x )
for stability
( )
Wx b − x > Px
h
3
Factor of safety against overturning
FOS = Stabilising moment = 1.5 to 2 (minimum)
Overturning moment

## CONDITION TO PREVENT SLIDING

The lateral Pressure “p” cause the wall to slide along the base of the
wall. The sliding force is resisted by the frictional force between the
bottom of masonry dam and the soil.
The frictional force between soil and bottom of masonry dam=µ W
P < µW

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µW
= 1.5(min imum )
FOS = P

## CONDITION TO PREVENT CRUSHING OF MASONRY AT THE BASE

The base section of the wall is subjected to combined direct and
bending stresses
The maximum compressive stress at the base should be less than the
permissible stress in the masonry.

## MINIMUM BASE WIDTH OF A MASONRY DAM

The minimum base width ‘b’ of the masonry dam is calculated by
applying the conditions of stability. The maximum of the ‘b’ value is
calculated is taken as the minimum base width of the dam.

## MAXIMUM HEIGHT OF A MASONRY DAM

The maximum height ‘h’ of the masonry dam is calculated by applying
the conditions of stability. The minimum of the ‘h’ value thus calculated is
taken as the maximum height of dam.

## ELEMENTARY PROFILE (OR BASIC CROSS SECTION) OF A MASONRY

DAM

C C

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THEORY OF STRUCTURES

P
G
h/3

A b/3 W B A W R
B

.b b/3
(a) Reservoir Empty (b) Reservoir Full

To avoid tension the resultant ‘R’ should cut the base within the
middle third of the base width i.e. the limiting eccentricity e = b/6. This
condition should be satisfied both when the reservoir is empty and reservoir
is full.
When reservoir is empty P = 0;’W’act through center of gravity of
cross section. “W” cuts v/3 from the heel (A). These conditions satisfied if
the cross section is of a height angled triangle with water face vertical.
When reservoir is full,
.h – height of dam (depth of water)
γ w – Specific gravity of water
γ m – Specific gravity of masonry
ρ - relative density of masonry = γ m/γ w
b – base width
1
γ mbh
W – weight of dam per unit length = 2
1
γ wh2
P – water Pressure per unit length = 2
Taking moments of “p” ,”W” &”R” about A.
For equilibrium condition,
h b 2
Px + Wx = Wx b
3 3 3
h 1
Px = Wx b
3 3

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P b
=
W h
 γ wh 2 
 
 2  b
 =
 γ mbh  h
 
 2 
b 2γ m h
= γ wh2
h
b 2γ m = γ w h 2
γ wh 2
b =
γm
γw
b =h
γm
h γm
b = ρ=
ρ where γw
The elementary Profile of a masonry dam is of right angled triangle with
h
b =
water face vertical having base width ρ where ρ is the relative
density of masonry & h is the height of the dam.

PROBLEMS
A trapezoidal masonry dam having 3m top widths, 8 m bottom width
and 12 m high retains water to a height of 11 m on its vertical face. Check
the stability of the dam, if the masonry weighs 20 KN/m3 and Co-efficient
of friction between the bottom of masonry and soil is 0.6. Take available
compressive stress as 100KN/m2.

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