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Toyota Environmental Challenge 2050

Ever-better Cars

Ever-better
Manufacturing

Enriching Lives
of Communities

Challenge 1,2

Challenge 1:

New Vehicle Zero CO2


Emissions Challenge

Forecast international climate change


Annual greenhouse gas emissions
(1,000 Tg CO2 Eq./year)

Baseline scenario
(+3.7~4.8)
(RPC8.5)

140
120
100

80
60

Below 2 scenario
(RPC2.6)

40
20
0
20

2000

2020

2040

2060

Full-scale initiatives to reduce CO2 emissions

2080

2100

Zero or less

Source: From the IPCC Working Group III 5th Assessment Report (2014)

Regarding GHG emissions, there is no time to lose

Challenge 1: New Vehicle Zero CO2 Emissions Challenge

Average new vehicle CO2 (TtW)

90 reduction
2010

2050

90% reduction of new vehicle CO 2 emissions by 2050


compared to 2010

Development of next generation vehicles

Sales Volume

HV

Engine

PHV
FCV

2010

2020

EV

2050

Next generation vehicles to accelerate technological


development to follow market expansion of HV

Cooperation with stakeholders

Governments

Energy
suppliers

New Vehicle
Zero CO2
Challenge

Customers

Automotive
companies

New Vehicle Zero CO 2 Challenge in cooperation


with stakeholders

CO2 reduction initiatives

Energy saving
Reduced use of fossil fuels

Engine

HV

PHV

Energy diversity

Renewable energy
CO2-free hydrogen

CO2
reduction

EV
FCV

Short-mid term to promote energy saving

Powertrain with improved efficiency


Improved
thermal
efficiency

()

Engine thermal efficiency


1995

Diesel
Hybrid

Gasoline

2000

2005

2010

2015

2050

Aiming for further engine improvement in thermal

HV: Lineup

Compact

Medium

Large/
Premium

SUV
Minivan
Commercial

HV lineups for all categories

HV: Sales
Per year (million)

Cumulative (million)

8 million

Sales (per year)

Sales (cumulative)

1.8
1.6

1.4

1.2
5M

1.0
0.8

4
3M

3
2

0.6
0.4

1M

0.2

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

2007

2009

2011

2013

2015

(January to July)

More than 8 million HVs


in world wide cumulative sales in 2015

HV: Sales
Per year (million)

Cumulative (million)

8 million 1.8

9
8
7
6

Sales (per year)

1.6

Sales (cumulative)

1.2

1.4

5M

5
4

0.6

1M

2
1
0

0.8

3M

1.0

1997

1999

2001

2003

2005

0.4
0.2
2007

2009

2011

2013

2015

(January to July)

0
0

10

20

30

40

CO2 reduction amount (per year)

50

CO2 reduction amount (cumulative)

10

60

Cumulative (million t)

58 million t

12

(million t/year

58 million tons of cumulative CO2 reduction compared


to same class gasoline vehicles

HV technology evolution
(Target:40)
Fuel efficiency (km/L)

29.6
35.5

32.6
38.0

10-15 cycle Japanese test cycle


JC08 cycle

28.0

HV system cost

First-generation Prius Second-generation Prius

Current Prius

Next-generation Prius

HV technology significantly evolved


in fuel efficiency with reduced cost

Advanced fuel efficiency technology of nextgeneration Prius


1. High efficiency/low fuel
consumption engine
40% of maximum
thermal efficiency

2. Hybrid system

Downsized/light weight, reduced loss

High rotation motor


Stator

Rotor

2ZR-FXE

3. Improved aerodynamics
Aerodynamic coefficient (in Cd): 0.24

Battery
Lithium ion battery

Nickel metal
hydride battery

Transaxle
PCU
Transaxle

PCU

Next generation Prius is a compilation of world top


fuel efficiency technologies

Cumulative sales of HV

million

2020 target

15

Cumulative
15 million HVs
8

1
0

1997

2000

2005

2010

2015

2020

2050

HV target cumulative 15 millions in 2020,


to lead next generation vehicles

CO2 reduction initiatives

Energy saving
Reduced use of fossil fuels

Engine

HV

PHV

Energy diversity

Renewable energy
CO2-free hydrogen

CO2
reduction

EV
FCV

Renewable energy, CO2 free hydrogen for further reduction

Application of hybrid technology


PHV

HV
EV

FCV

HV technology is a core technology included


in next generation vehicles

Fuel diversity and uses


FCV

Vehicle size

HV/PHV
Passenger car

EV

FCVBUS)
Home delivery
truck

EV

Personal mobility

Fuel

Full-size truck

HV
Short-distance
commuter vehicle

Delivery vehicle

Route bus

Electricity

PHV

FCV

Gasoline, diesel, biofuels, CNG, synthetic fuels, etc.

Travel distance
Hydrogen

EV: Short-distance, HV & PHV: Wide-use,


FCV: Medium-to-long distance

Development of next generation batteries


Output density (W/L)
10000
8000

High capacity
Li-ion battery

6000

All solid battery

4000

200

400

Target

Target

Current
(Research)

2000

Innovative
battery

Sakichi
battery

(Metal air battery, etc)

600

800

1000

10000

Energy density (Wh/L)

Develop next generation battery


as a key for electrified vehicles to expand

Development of next generation power semiconductor


10% increase in fuel efficiency (Target)
Power semiconductor

Silicone (current)
SiCfuture

Transistor
Diode

Downsized PCU
Power module

(1/5 in volume (target)

Power control unit (PCU)

Aim 10% increase in fuel efficiency,


1/5 downsized in volume

Use of hydrogen: FCV

Volume production FCV MIRAI Japan launch in 2014


Europe, in September, US in October, 2015

Advantages of FCV

Energy diversity

Zero emissions

Hydrogen sourced from


a wide variety of
primary energy

Zero tailpipe CO2

Usage

Fun to drive
Electric motor enables
smooth, quiet driving
Excellent acceleration at
start to low/mid speed

Range (gasoline equivalent


Refueling (about 3 minutes)

Power supply
(emergency use)
High capacity

Development of MIRAI

High

pressure
hydrogen tank

FC stack
Innovative flow channel structure

The light weight structure of

and Electrodes of cells for higher output

carbon fiber reinforced plastic enabled

Output/volume; 3.1kW/L

Storage; 5.7 wt%*

world top level

Humidifier less
Internal circulation

world top level

FC boost converter
Reduced number of cells in FC stack
Common use of hybrid units
*Hydrogen mass/Tank mass

FC main components developed in-house


to achieve world leading performance

Cost reduction of FCV


FC technology
FC stack

FC system cost

FCHV-adv
(2008)

Limited introduction

1/20 or less
(2014)

Start
penetration

High-pressure hydrogen tanks

Further
Cost
reduction

Popularization

Power control unit

Motor

Battery

HV technology

Apply HV technology to accelerate cost reduction

FCV market penetration initiatives

About 5,680 FCV related Toyota patent


Item

Number of patents
to be free

FC stack

Approx. 1,970

High-pressure hydrogen tanks

Approx. 290

FC system control

Approx. 3,350

Hydrogen station

Approx. 70

Free use period

Until the end


of 2020

No expiration

Announcement at CES on January 6


by TMS SVP Bob Carter

Toyota share all patents for free


to accelerate the spread of FCV

FCV market penetration initiatives


3 automakers; Toyota, Nissan, Honda started cooperative promotion of
supporting hydrogen station operation until around 2020
1) Support operational cost
2) Refueling network
Customer services/Convenience
Communication for understanding of
FCV and hydrogen

Support to accelerate preparation of hydrogen stations

Various approaches of Toyota group

TOYOTA
FCV

Toyota Auto Loom


folk lift

HINO
FC bus

Aisin Seiki
Household fuel cell system

Not only FCV but also Toyota group activities


to promote hydrogen use

FCV market penetration initiatives

FCV sales volume


Global : More than 30,000/year around 2020 and later
Japan : Approx. 1,000/month around 2020
1X,000/year @2020 and later
FC bus introduction
to start in FY 2016 for Tokyo, etc
100 or more by 2020
for Tokyo Olympics/Paralympics

Future development of next generation vehicles

Sales Volume

HV

Engine

PHV
FCV

2010

2020

EV

2050

Accelerate next generation vehicle


development toward 90% CO 2 reduction

Challenge 2

Life Cycle Zero CO2

Challenge 2: Life Cycle Zero CO2


Disposal/recycling
Maintenance

Specific parts
for next generation
vehicles increase CO2
Driving

Fuel production
Parts/vehicle
production
Material
production

Gasoline
vehicles

HV

MIRAI

(New generation
Vehicles)

Zero
In the future

Next generation vehicle approaches zero CO2 during driving


however, steps back in material, parts/vehicle production

Challenge 2: Life Cycle Zero CO2

Material
production

Life cycle

Parts/Vehicle
production

CO2 emissions during material production


Vehicle
materials

Next
Generation
Vehicle
Specific
materials

Driving/
Fuel
production

CO2/Kg

Steel
Aluminum
PP
Carbon fiber
Platinum

Disposal/
Recycling

New materials and recycling materials


CO2 per mass
Kg-CO /Kg
2

Aluminum
(New)
0

10

2000

20

4000

30

6000

Develop and more use of low CO 2 material


Reduced material use
Reduced number of parts

Aluminum
(Recycled)
0

10

Recycle bio material


Better dismantle ability design

Enrich and accelerate environmental friendly design


considering materials

Challenge 2: Life Cycle Zero CO2

Current life cycle CO2


Maintenance Disposal
Parts/
Vehicle
production
Material
production

2050 life cycle CO2

Future life cycle CO2


to be Zero

Maintenance Disposal
Parts/
Vehicle
production

Driving/
Fuel production

Material
production

Driving/
Fuel production

Continuous challenge toward the future Zero life cycle CO2

Striving for Ever-better cars


Renewable energy
CO2 free hydrogen

Fossil fuels

High durability
vehicle

FCV
HV
FC bus

FC folk lift
Roomy/multipurpose
vehicle

PHV
EV

Zero for all vehicles used in all regions all over the world