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Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND Introduction Family Planning means deciding when is the best time to have children, and what is the appropriate number of children for a couple to have. The right time to have children is when a woman is between 20 and 35 years old, when a woman has not been pregnant for the last 2-3 years, when a woman has fewer than 4 children, when a woman has no illness that would place herself or her baby in danger and when the couple wants to have a baby. Always let the clients decide for themselves on the method that they will use, and help them choose the method that is most appropriate for them. Factors to consider include the age of the woman, woman's reproductive stage, the effectiveness of a method, the woman's health status and personal considerations. No method is best for all women, nor is any method best for a woman throughout her reproductive life. The researcher is concern with rapid growing population here in our country. He was motivated to pursue this investigation because of what he observed in his locality barangay since majority of the couples are using the method that for them is easy to avail.
The researcher wants to know the effects of the family planning methods on the conditions of the couples. This will help him gather relevant information that will be helpful to the community, especially Barangay Oogong which is the location of this study Background of the Study Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Province of Laguna, is one of the barrios chosen in the program of expansion by the Integrated Development approach for Nutrition Improvement of the rural poor Founded by UP College of Human Ecology Los Baňos, Laguna with the help of different private sectors in the Province of Laguna. Brgy. Oogong is estimated 8 kilometers away from town proper. With a land area of 800 areas, composed of 7 sitios. At the year of 2008, Brgy. Oogong is having a total number of 3, 023 people, averaging 1, 270 numbers of female and 1, 753 of male. At present , it has a total population of 3, 850 and divided into 911 groups of family. The researcher became curious as to the family planning methods that the couples are using and what are the effects of these methods on their health condition. Theoretical Framework The Integrative Theory. Here’s an example of how the model was used in the strategic planning document for the family planning program:
To improve the likelihood of engaging in family planning behaviors then, it must first look at what environmental constraints may be preventing women from engaging in them and act on those (or help people overcome them). Among the constraints identified in the audience research are the few facilities available in rural counties, busy clinic staff that makes local outreach and promotion efforts difficult, making time in their busy schedules for setting clinic appointments, and difficulties using the centralized referral service. Second, to assess if the person has the necessary skills to access and effectively use family planning methods over time. Last is you found that not understanding the eligibility criteria due to confusing messaging and low literacy skills and non-adherence with birth control methods over time such as discontinuing pills or missing doses or even a report of broken condoms leading to unwanted pregnancy.
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Independent Variables Dependent Variables
Profile of Couples: Age
Health Condition of the Couples: Physical Aspect
Gender Psychological Educational Attainment Family planning methods Natural Methods Artificial Methods Aspect Emotional Aspect
Frame 2 Figure 1: Research Paradigm of the Study
Frame 1. Shows the independent variables which consist of the profile of the couples and family planning methods that can be used by the respondents. Frame 2. Shows the dependent variables which consist of the health condition of the couples in terms of physical, psychological, and emotional aspect.
Statement of the Problem This study aimed to determine the Effects Of Family Planning Methods To The Health Condition Of The Selected Couples Of Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna, Furthermore, this study wants to find answers to the following questions: 1. What is the status of the couples in terms of: 1.1 Age 1.2 Gender 1.3 Educational Attainment? 2. What is the level of status of the family planning methods in terms of: 2.1 Natural Method 2.2 Artificial Method? 3. What is the status of the health conditions of the couples when using the family planning methods in terms of : 3.1 Physical aspect 3.2 Emotional aspect 3.3 Psychological aspect? 4. Is there a significant effect of family planning methods to the health condition of the couples in terms of: 4.1 Physical aspect 4.2 Emotional aspect
4.3 Psychological aspect? Hypothesis There is a significant effect of the family planning methods on the health condition of couples. Significance of the Study The purpose of this study is to assess the level of effects of the family planning methods on the health conditions of the selected couples in Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. This study was significant to the following target population: Selected Couples To provide a right information regarding family planning method. Future Researchers So that this study served as their reference and to the authority to help in there advocacy to control the increasing number of population here in our respective baranggay Community Health Nurse To provide a specific time for the community, for them to be able an effective nurse. And to have an a different experience and for their job to be able to diagnose well the community and to much prioritized the needs of community.
Scope and Limitation of the Study The study was limited only or the effects of the family planning methods on the health conditions of the couples. The variables included in this investigation are be the following: age, occupation, educational attainments, and religious belief. It also includes the level of awareness and their own management on how they can the methods and the effects of these methods on their health conditions Definition of Terms The following terms are defined operationally to serve as a guide for the readers to have a better understanding of the terms used in the research: Artificial Family Planning. Refers to the process used to prevent pregnancy and plan for the birth of children at the most optimum time. Commonly referred to as birth control, family planning can be accomplished using a variety of methods. Family Planning Methods. Refers to the control of the number of children in a family and of the intervals between them, especially by the use of contraceptives Natural Family Planning. Refers to general term that applies to various methods that have been developed to help women and men determine the fertile and infertile times of a woman's menstrual cycle. These methods can be used to achieve or avoid pregnancy. All of the methods rely on the interpretation of natural biological signs or indicators of fertility. Implicit
in these methods are that couples abstain from intercourse and genital contact during the fertile time of the woman's cycle if they are avoiding pregnancy. Use of any artificial means to interfere with fertility is not natural family planning. Emotional Aspects. Refers to another factor that had the most influential to the couples. Physical Aspects. Refers as the contributing factor that affects the couples in their health condition. Psychological Aspects. Refers to the factor that has great effects to the couples in terms of choosing their methods to use and satisfaction.
Chapter 2 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES This chapter presents some literatures and studies that are useful in the construction of the research framework and in drawing inferences of this study. Related Literature Physical Aspect Copper-bearing IUDs increase blood flow volumes by 20% to 50% above levels before IUD insertion. Increased menstrual bleeding, often with pain, is the problem that women most often report while using copper-bearing IUD. Many women who have these complaints keep their IUDs nonetheless. Overall rates of removal because of bleeding and pain at 12 months of use range from 1 to 17 per 100 women in major clinical trials (www.populationreports.org/b7). Psychological Aspect WHO recommends that women use levonorgestrel-only ECPs because they cause less nausea and vomiting than combined estrogen-levonorgestrel ECPs. Nausea and vomiting are common side effects associated with ECP use. WHO does not recommend routine use of antiemetics before taking ECPs. Predicting which women will experience side effects usually is difficulty
and many women taking ECP do not experience nausea and vomiting. Expert working group advises that clinicians offer anti emetics on a case by case basis according to their medical judgment. Clinicians should take should take account that anti emetics themselves may cause other side effects, such as drowsiness and dizziness (Yuzpe 2003). Emotional Aspect Hormonal methods appropriate for women with depression. A single study reported that taking fluoxetine for depression did not reduce the effectiveness of combined or progestin-only oral contraceptives. Conclusion cannot be reached concerning postpartum depression or bipolar disorder because current evidence is inadequate ( WHO 2003). Family Planning Methods Family planning users and providers have been calling for more choices. They want contraceptive methods that provide highly effective protection and at the same time causes fewer side effects, cost less and are easier to use. In response, researchers are improving existing contraceptives and developing new ways to deliver hormones. Offering wide range of safe, effective and convenient family planning methods encourage more people to use contraception (Upadhyay,MPH, Adhikary, MPH and Richey 2005).
Natural and Artificial Method Virtually all married women know about and many are using family planning. 98% also know of a place offering family planning services. 25% are currently using family planning. Female sterilization relied on by 13% of married women is the most widely used method. Withdrawal and natural family planning are used by 13% of married women (Philippine National Statistic Office 2003). Related Studies Physical A study was made by David, et al (2001), entitled “Family Planning: Its Economic and Psychosocial Influences on the Lives of Women in Western Visayas”. The main concern of this study was rapid population growth of and inadequate maternal and child rearing. The study wants to improve the family planning program, including an effort to provide integrated reproductive health. Special attention needs to be given to helping women deal with side effects such as both physically, psychologically and emotional discomfort. Psychological Dorado, et, al (2006) on their study entitled “Survey of Family Planning Methods Preferred by Couples In Selected in Barangay Sto. Angel, San Pablo City”, in terms of awareness and responsibility of each person in the community, duly authorized personnel affect the couples regarding what
natural or artificial methods they will use, also to determine if the method selected meets the safety of the patient, suitable to patient’s life style and compatible to patient’s religion or moral convictions. Their study wants to know the advantages and disadvantages of the natural and artificial protective use by the respondents. Specifically, what are the assurance of couple regarding the accuracy of method contraception chosen in terms of desired birth spacing and prevention of unwanted pregnancy. Emotional Study was based on Daughtry, et al (2002) entitled “Marital Satisfaction and Family Planning Practices“. The specific objectives of his study is just to describe and compared natural and artificial family planning couples on the following dimensions: overall relationship satisfaction measured by the Dynamic Adjustment Scale; communication effectiveness measured by the Marital Communication Inventory; satisfaction with their chosen method of family planning measured by the family planning questionnaire. Family Planning Methods The National Statistic Office (2003), made a study entitled “Use Of Modern Family Planning Methods Up In Rural Areas”, the study aims to collect data on fertility levels; fertility preferences; marriage and sexual activities; knowledge and use of family planning methods, breastfeeding
practices; childhood mortality; and, maternal and child health. The study also included questions that seek to determine the level of awareness and behavior of the respondents on AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections as well as their knowledge, attitude and health-seeking behavior on tube
Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY This chapter presented the research design, population and sampling, research procedure, research instrument to be used in gathering the data and statistical treatment of data. Research Design The study used the descriptive method of research in gathering the data needed to answer the problems. A descriptive method of research includes all the studies which aim to present facts concerning the nature and status of anything a group of person, a number of objects, a set of condition, a class or events, a system of thoughts or any kind of phenomena which one may wish to study. In particular, the research utilizes the descriptive survey method. The word survey indicates the gathering of data regarding the present conditions. Descriptive survey was the general procedure employed in studies that have for their chief purpose the description of phenomena. In order to obtain adequate survey, the questionnaire was carefully evaluated.
Population and Sampling Techniques The questionnaire was distributed to the 25 selected couples of Brgy.Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. Purposive sampling was used in data gathering. Research Procedure The questionnaires were handed out personally and the respondents were requested to answer the questions on the spot. If however, they were be busy, the questionnaires were left with the respondents for them to answer at the convenient time. Questionnaires were collected as soon as possible. Other records and documents were requested from the office of Brgy. Captain and Brgy. Health Center. Research Instrument The most commonly used and frequently self devised measuring instrument, the questionnaire was used simply to obtain information directly from subject as to make a standardized list of factual information or elicited opinions that was generalized to a larger population. Both open and closed ended type was to put a check to the appropriate or chosen answer provided according to their perception. Analysis and interpretation of data obtain was the researcher’s step.
A questionnaire was designed to elicit answer pertaining to the effects of the Family Planning methods used by the selected couples at the Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. The questionnaires were prepared in Tagalog. The questionnaire was composed of two (2) parts, Part I presents the demographic information of the respondents. Part II includes the main objective of our survey by selecting there own answers. The data derived from the answers of the selected respondents were the basis in the assessment of the effectiveness of family planning methods at Brgy. Oogong, Sta.Cruz, Laguna. A sample questionnaire was presented in Appendix C. Statistical Treatment After the collection of the answered questionnaire, the data were tallied, tabulated and analyzed using the following formula: The researcher used weighted mean and standard deviation as the statistical tools for it reveals the overall average responses of the respondents on the factors given. Formula: WM = ∑wf N Wherein: WM = weighted mean ∑wf = sum of the products of the frequency and the weight
N = number of respondents
Formula: S= √ ∑fm² n-1 (fm)²
- n (n -1)
Wherein: S= standard deviation f= corresponding frequency m= class mark or midpoint of each class interval n= sample s
The formula for percentage is:
P = _f_ x N Where: P f N = = = percentage
Frequency of response total number of cases
The T- test for correlated mean was used to find out the difference of pre- test and post- test.
Formula: ∑D t= Wherein: t= t- value ∑D= the difference n= number of cases n∑D - (∑D) / (n-1)
Chapter 4 PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS, AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter deals with the presentation, analysis and interpretation of data gathered. The data gathered from the respondents are presented in tables, analyzed and interpreted based on the data and information gathered by the researcher with the aid of the questionnaire. The tables and figures are useful in describing the research result and in showing the trends that emerge in the analysis. The status profile of the health condition of the couples was described in terms of age, civil status and educational attainment. As to the health condition of family planning of the couples in terms of natural and artificial family planning methods. As to the significant effect related to the health condition of the couples in terms of physical, emotional and psychological aspects. A descriptive statistics through computation mean and standard deviation were used to determine the respondent’s health condition at Brgy. Oogoong Sta. Cruz, Laguna. Profile of the Couples in Terms of Age Figure 2 presents the profile of the couples in terms of age The figure revealed that out of 25 couples, theses are 6 or 24 percent belongs to age bracket of 30-32, 5 or 20% of them belongs to the age of
Figure 2: The Profile of the Couples in Terms of Age 27-29 and 24-26, next by 4 or 16% of the respondent from ages 21-23, 3 or 12% of them have an age from 18-20 years of age and 2 or 8 percent under 33 and above year of age. The study agree with the study of Dorado, et al (2006) which found out that the age of the couples may be considering factors that affecting the effects of family planning method. Profile of the Couples in Terms of Civil Status Figure 3 presents the profile of the couples in terms of civil status The figure revealed that, majority of the respondents are married with an percentage of 40.8% followed by single parents with an percentage of
Figure 3: The Profile of the Couples in Terms of Civil Status 31.2% and the least is widow with a percentage of 28%. The findings agree with the study of Philippine National Statistics Office (2003), married woman are all know the family planning method and many are using family planning method to prevent the rapid population growth Profile of the couples in terms of Educational Attainment Figure 4 presents the profile of the couples in terms of educational attainment. The figure revealed that majority of the respondents are high school graduate with an percentage of 62.4% followed by college graduate with an
Figure 4: The Profile of the Couples in terms of Educational Attainment percentage of 41.6% and the least is elementary graduate with an average percentage of 26%. The findings agree with the study of Dorado, et al (2006) which found out that another factor to consider is the educational attainment of the couples, whether it is a elementary, high school and college graduated or undergraduate it is very important to know the limitation of health care provider to deliver the information clear and concise.
The Health Conditions of the Couples using the Family Planning Methods Figure 5 presents the health conditions of the couples using the Family Planning Methods.
Figure 5: The Health Conditions of the Couples using the Family Planning Methods Above the figure showed that majority of the respondents are using natural method with an average percentage of 68% and the least is artificial method with 42%. The findings agree with the study of David, et al (2001) which found out that many couples were tried the new artificial methods, but the
satisfaction level are didn’t met, as of their investigation they found out that majority of the couples are using natural family planning method. And they provide right information to lessen the incident of unwanted pregnancy. Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Physical Aspect Table 1 presents the status of the health conditions of the couples in terms of physical aspect. Table 1 Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Physical Aspect Physical Aspect 1.Experience decrease in Libido 2. Able to maintain bodyweight 3. Experience dizziness/drowsiness When using contraceptive method 4. Feeling of Nausea & Vomiting 5. Feeling of light headache Average Mean = 3.19
Legend: 4.50 – 5.00 - Strongly Agree 3.50 – 4.49 - Agree 2.50 – 3.49 - Moderately Agree 1.50 – 2.49 - Disagree 1.00 – 1.49 - Strongly Disagree
Mean 5.00 3.72 2.80
SD .00 .94 1.08
Remarks Strongly Agree Agree Moderately Agree Disagree Moderately Agree Moderately Agree
2.24 .72 2.52 .77 SD= 1.18
As can be seen from the table above, it indicates that the respondents are “moderately agree” on the following items such as 3. Experience dizziness/drowsiness when using contraceptive method 5. Feeling of light headache with the mean score of 2.80, SD= 1.08, and 2.52 and .77 as
standard deviation respectively. Likewise, the respondents are “ strongly agree” in items no 1 experience decrease in libido with the mean score of 5.00 and .00 as standard deviation respectively, and “agree” on item no. 2. Able to maintain body weight with the mean score of 3.72 and .94 as standard deviation respectively. And given “disagree” on item no. 4 which states feeling of nausea and vomiting with a mean score of 2.24 and .72 as standard deviation respectively. The low standard deviation of 1.18 reveals that the ratings given by the respondents are homogenous. The average mean of 3.19 reveals that the respondents are “moderately agree” on the evaluated health conditions of the couples in terms of physical aspect. The findings agree with the study of David, et al (2001) which found out that they needs to be given to helping a women deal with side effect such as both physically, mentally and emotional discomfort. Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Emotional Aspect Table 2 presents the Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Emotional Aspect. As can be seen from the table, it indicates that the respondents are “moderately agree” on the following items 1. With episodes of depressions 5. Episode of anger outburst with the mean score of 3.16, SD= .62, and 2.60
and .58 as standard deviation respectively. Likewise, the respondents are “agree” in items no. 4. Mood swing with the mean score of 4.52 and .77
Table 2 Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Emotional Aspect Emotional Aspect Mean SD Remarks Moderately Agree 3.16 .62 1.With episodes of depressions Disagree 1.80 .41 2. Relationship of satisfaction Disagree 3.Experienced nervousness 2.0 .00 when contraceptive was used Agree 4.52 .77 4. Mood Swing Moderately Agree 2.60 .58 5. Episode of anger outburst Average Mean = 2.82 SD= 1.15 Moderately Agree
Legend: 4.50 – 5.00 - Strongly Agree 3.50 – 4.49 - Agree 2.50 – 3.49 - Moderately Agree 1.50 – 2.49 - Disagree 1.00 – 1.49 - Strongly Disagree
standard deviation respectively. And “disagree” on items 2. Relationship satisfaction and 4. Experienced nervousness when contraceptive was used with the mean score of 1.80, SD= .41 and 2.0 and .00 as standard deviation respectively.
The low standard deviation of 1.15 reveals that the ratings given by the respondents are homogenous. The average mean of 2.82 reveals that the respondents are “moderately agree” on the evaluated status of the health conditions of the couples in terms of emotional aspect. The study agree with the study of Daughtry, et al (2002) which found out that some of respondents are well known about family planning but they didn’t not aware of other methods, by means of effective communication by the Marital Communication Inventory. Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Psychological Aspect Table 3 Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Psychological Aspect. Table 3 Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Psychological Aspect Psychological Aspect Mean SD Remarks 1.Experience stress when family Disagree 2.0 .00 planning methods is unavailable 2. Feeling of guilt using contraceptive Strongly Agree 5.0 .00 methods 3.Dificulty in thinking of contraceptive. 4. Create positive outlook in life/inability to thinking positively 5. Change in Self perception Average mean = 3.35 3.0 3.68 .00 .47 Moderately Agree Agree
3.08 SD= 1.10
.28 Moderately Agree Moderately Agree
4.50 – 5.00 - Strongly Agree 3.50 – 4.49 - Agree 2.50 – 3.49 - Moderately Agree 1.50 – 2.49 - Disagree 1.00 – 1.49 - Strongly Disagree
As can be seen from the table above, it indicates that respondents are “moderately agree” on the following items such as 3.
Difficulty in thinking of contraceptive and 5. Change in self-perception with the mean score of 3.0, SD= .00 and .308 and .28 standard deviation respectively. Likewise, the respondents are “strongly agree” on items no. 2.Feeling of guilt using contraceptive methods with the mean score of 5.0 and .00 as standard deviation respectively. And “agree” on items no. 4. Create positive outlook in life/inability to think positively with the mean score of 3.68 and .47 on standard deviation. The respondents are “disagree” on items no. 1. Experience stress when family planning methods is unavailable with the mean score of 2.0 and .00 as standard deviation respectively. The low standard deviation of 1.10 reveals that the ratings given by the respondents are homogenous. The average mean of 3.35 reveals that the respondents are “moderately agree” on the evaluated status of health condition of the selected couples in terms of psychological aspect. The study agree with the study of David, et al (2001) which found out that some respondents are using the methods in a wrong way or they didn’t
consult in any medical services. And they had to pay attention to the woman which deals with emotional side effects. Significant Effect of Family Planning Methods to the Health Condition of the Couples Table 4 presents the significant effect of family planning methods to the health condition of the couples. Table 4 shows the significant effect of family planning methods on the health condition of the respondents in Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. It further notice that the computed t-values 4.17, 5.13 and 3.53 probability value Table 4 Significant Effect of Family Planning Methods to the Health Condition of the Couples PHealth Condition Comp. tDegrees of Verbal value Of Couples value Freedom Interpretation <(.05) Physical aspect 4.17 .000 24 Significant Emotional aspect 5.13 ..000 24 Significant Psychological 3.53 .002 24 Significant aspect Over all comp. t-value = 4.28 .000 24 Significant of .000 and .0002 is less than alpha .05 level of significance which indicate that physical, emotional and psychological aspect are all significant on the health condition of selected couples in Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. The overall computed t-value of 4.28has p-value .000 which is greater than alpha .05 level of significant on the health condition of selected couples in Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. From the above analysis, the findings revealed that the aspects of physical, emotional and psychological have no
significant effects on the health conditions of selected couples of Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna. The study agree with the study of Dorado, et al(2006) which found out some factors to consider is physical, emotional and psychological aspects of the couples which affecting the effects of family planning. Significant Effect of the Related Variables to the Health Condition of the Couples Table 5 presents the significant effect of the related variables to the health condition of the couples. Table 5 Significant Effect of the related Variables to the Health Condition of the Couples
Age Health Condition Physical Aspect Emotional Aspect Comp. t-value 1.19 PValu e .247 VI NS Educational Attainment Comp. Pt-value Value VI -7.39.000 Sig Civil Status Comp. t-value -8.90 PValue .000 VI Sig
Psychological 1.05 Aspect Over all Comp. t-value= 1.70
The overall computed t-value of 1.70 has p-value of .192 which greater than alpha .05, no significant in physical, emotional and
psychological aspects in terms of age. The overall computed t-values of -8.19 and -12.66 have p-values of .000 indicated that physical, emotional and psychological aspects have significant effect on health condition of the couples. The study agree with the study of National Statistics Office which found out that age, educational attainment, and civil status which contributing the effects of physical, emotional and psychological aspects of the couples.
Chapter 5 SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS
This chapter presents the summary, findings, conclusions, and recommendations of the study. The study aimed to assess the effects of family planning methods on the health conditions of the selected couples of Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna. Summary Specifically the study answered the following questions: 1. What is the status of the couples in terms of;1.1 Age, 1.2 Gender,1.3 Educational Attainment? 2. What is the level of status of the family planning methods in terms of; 2.1 Natural Method, 2.2 Artificial Method? 3. What is the status of
the health conditions of the couples when using the family planning methods in terms of ; 3.1 Physical aspect, 3.2 Emotional aspect, 3.3 Psychological aspect? 4. Is there a significant effect of family planning methods to the health condition of the couples in terms of; 4.1 Physical aspect, 4.2 Emotional aspect, 4.3 Psychological aspect? The descriptive approach of research was utilized with the used up to date information and studies about effectiveness of family planning in formulating the questionnaire checklist. The instrument had undergone validity and reliability of the instrument through a panel of experts.
The subjects of this study were twenty five (25) selected couples of Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna. Appropriate statistical treatment such as weighted mean, standard deviation, percentage and t-test were used. Findings Based on the data gathered from the respondents, the following findings are: 1. Status of the Couples Majority of the respondents belong to ages 30-32 with an percentage of 24 percent, 40 or 80% of couples are married and 12 or 48% of the respondents are high school graduate. 2. Level Of Status Of The Family Planning Methods Out of 25 respondents, 17 or 68% are using the natural family planning methods while 8 or 42% of the respondents are using the artificial family planning methods. 3. Status of the Health Conditions of the Couples in Terms of Physical Aspect For physical aspect, most of the respondents are “moderately agree” with an average mean of 3.19, 2.82 and 3.35 and standard deviation of 1.18, 1.15 and 1.10: respectfully indicates that the status of the health condition of the couples in terms of physical aspects are “moderately agree”.
4. Significant Effect of Family Planning Methods to the Health Condition of the Couples The over-all computed t-value of 4.28 has p- value of .000 is greater than alpha 05 level of significance on health condition of the selected couples of Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna. From the above analysis, the findings revealed that the factors such as physical, emotional and psychological aspects have no significant effects on the health condition of the selected couples in Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna. 5. Significant Effect of the related Variables to the Health Condition of the Couples The overall computed t-value of 1.70 has p-value of .192 which greater than alpha .05, no significant in physical, emotional and psychological aspects in terms of age. The overall computed t-values of -8.19 and -12.66 have p-values of .000 indicated that physical, emotional and psychological aspects have significant effect on health condition of the couples. Conclusions The significant conclusion were making a smooth transition from statistical data to the conceptual framework, thus, the researcher end with the following conclusions: Natural method is the most common used by the respondents, and withdrawal method is the number one choice of the respondents. They were using the stated method because of some reasons like fear of surgical
intervention, maintenance, obligation to buy, fear on side effects and consultations. But there are couples that are capable to use artificial method, most of them are from ages 18-21. They stated that it is safe to use, easily to find and buy. Pills is their method of choice. In terms of physical health condition of the couples, majority of them are experiencing dizziness or drowsiness and feeling of light headache, but some couples are able to maintain their body figure when using the method as they stated. In emotional health condition of the respondents, majority of them were usually experiencing episodes of depressions and episodes of anger outburst because of they were trying to use the method without consultation in medical team. For the psychological health condition of the couples, some of them were feeling of guilt when using the contraceptive, difficulty in thinking of contraceptive and changing in self perception Recommendations This research terminal is allotted for the researchers urge to confine their words. 1. Act as an impetus that would break into the hindrance that post couples from inquiring assistance in managing their family scheme including the importance of utilizing the available health resources offered to them.
2. Create awareness among couples on how to manage their fertility for health reasons while providing information and services on all legally permissible and medically accepted family planning method. 3. After providing full information, help couples to arrive at an informed decision through counseling. 4. Respect the right of the couples to plan their family as they see-how many children to have and when to have them. Remember that the community health nurse should never impose decisions on them. 5. Stress the fact that condition such as maternal depletion brought by closely space pregnancy and having too many children takes atleast 2 years for the mother to recover, thus the importance of proper timing and birth spacing is inevitable. 6. Planning the family lessens the pressures on the family income, for there will be fewer children to feed, clothes, educate and provide other basic necessities for. 7. The husband and wife should be free to determine the size of their family according to their beliefs and their capabilities to ensure their children of basic needs. 8. Assumption of responsible parenthood can be achieved through responsible must be choice. Parents are the ones responsible for the life they bring into being and it is them who knew best to what extent they can carry out their responsibility.
BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Books Johnson, J. and Davis, E. Maternal and Child Nursing, 2008 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. Nursing 2008 Drug Handbook 28th Edition, 2008 Udan, J, (2009). Medical Surgical Nursing: Maternal and Child Nursing(2nd Edition) Educational Publishing House B. Journals And Magazines Bloomberg, (2004) WHO Updates Medical Eligibility Criteria For Contraceptives pp. 5 Ellerston, Evans, and Ferden (2003) Extending The Time Limit For Starting The Yuzpe Regimen Of Emergency Contraception To 120 Hour. Obstetrics And Gynecology Fulcheri, Di Capua and Ragni (2003) Pregnancy Despite IUD; Adverse Effect On Pregnancy Evolution And Fetus. Contraception Herzberg,Draper, Johnson and Nicol (2003) Oral Contraceptives, Depression And Libido, British Medical Journal Mati, Hunter, andMaggwa (2005) Contraceptive Use And The Risk Of HIV Infection In Nairobi, Kenya, International Journal Of Gynecology And Obstetrician Mothers and Children’s Health in Southern Tagalog (2001); Mother’s Health Journals of Philippine National Statistic Office pp.1 Salem, R, M, (2006) New Attention to the IUD Upadhyay, Adhikari, Richey, (2005) Population Report; New Contraceptive Choices
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION (WHO) In : Improving Access to quality care in family planning; Medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive used. [3rd edition] Geneva, Nov. 2004 Yuzpe, (2005) Journal of Reproductive Medicine and Ethinylestradiol and dlnorgestrel as a postcoital contraceptive, fertility and sterility C. Unpublished Materials Dorado, Fajardo, Glena, Guerrero, Jusay and Magcawas ( 2006) “Survey Of Family Planning Methods Preferred By Couples In A Selected Couples In A Selected Baranggay” San Pablo College School Year 2005-2006 D. Electronic Publication Bongaart, J, and Bologh, G, (2008) Studies in Family Planning; Used of modern Family planning methods up in rural areas http://www.census.gov.ph/data/pressrelease/2004/pr0414tx.html David F and Chin F. (2001) Family Planning: Its Economic and Psychosocial Influences on the Lives of Women in Western Visayas http://www.fhi.org/en/RH/Pubs/wsp/fctshts/Philippines3.htm Daughtry, D and Edgar, M, (2003) Marital Satisfaction and Family Planning Practices http://nfp.freehostia.com/marta.html Lo B. (2009 Philippine Family Planning Bill Nears a Vote http://www.womensenews.org/story/the-world/090125/philippinefamily-planning-bill-nears-vote Mostafavi, S, and Mehryar, A, (2006) Socio-Cultural Factors Affecting Men’s Use of Family Planning Methods in Ira http://www.sid.ir/En/VEWSSID/J_pdf/103120064702.pdf Qazilbash,A, and Sultana, A, (2003) Factors Associated With Failure Of Family Planning Methods In Pakistan: A Case Study http://www.sdpi.org/whats_new/seminar_conferences_FAILURE %20OF%20FAMILY%20PLANNING.htm
Appendix A Laguna State Polytechnic University MAIN CAMPUS Santa Cruz, Laguna
January 28, 2010 HON. RIZALDY KALAW Brgy. Captain Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna Dear Sir, Good Day! The undersigned a BSN IV-A Student of Laguna State Polytechnic University, Sta. Cruz Main Campus, College of Nursing, is presently working on his thesis entitled “EFFECTS OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS ON THE HEALTH CONDITIONS OF THE SELECTED COUPLES OF BRGY. OOGONG STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA” In relation to this yours truly is requesting permission from your good office to gather some information regarding the family planning or birth control methods that the couples of Brgy. Oogong, Sta. Cruz, Laguna are using. Hoping for your positive response on this matter. Thank you very much… Respectfully yours, (Sgd)________________ ERYL B. ESTRADA Noted: _____________________(Sgd) ELENITA S. CARANDANG RN, MSN, Thesis Adviser Approved: (Sgd)_________________ HON. RIZALDY KALAW Brgy. Captain
Appendix B QUESTIONNAIRE Title: EFFECTS OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS ON THE HEALTH CONDITIONS OF THE SELECTED COUPLES OF BRGY. OOGONG, STA. CRUZ, LAGUNA. Instruction: Please complete the data & put a check from the following options according to your choice. Assured that any information shared will only be utilized for the purpose of this investigation and your identity will be treated with outmost confidentiality. Thank you for your whole hearted cooperation. Age: [ ] 18 – 20 [ ] 21 – 23 [ ] 24 – 26 [ ] 27 – 29 [ ] 30 – 32 [ ] 33 and above
Educational Attainment: [ ] Elementary [ ] High School [ ] College
Please indicate appropriate answer to the following questions; please put a check on the corresponding numbers: 5 – Strongly Agree 4 – Agree 3 – Neither Agree Nor Disagree 2 – Disagree 1 – Strongly Disagree 1. What is the status of the health conditions of the couples when using the family planning methods in terms of: 1. Physical Aspects 1.1 Experience decrease in libido 1.2 Able to maintain body weight 1.3 Experience dizziness / drowsiness 1.4 Feeling of nausea and vomiting 1.5 Feeling of light headache 5 4 3 2 1
2. Psychological Aspects 5 4 3 2 1 2.1 Experience stress when family planning method is un available 2.2 Feeling of guilt using contraceptive methods 2.3 Difficulty in thinking or concentrating 2.4 Cerate positive outlook in life / inability to thinking positively 2.5 Change in self perception
3. Emotional Aspects 3.1 With episodes of depressions 3.2 Relationship satisfaction 3.3 Experienced nervousness when contraceptive is used 3.4 Mood swing 3.5 Episode of anger out burst
5 4 3 2 1
Appendix C Data Matrix
PHYSICAL 1 NO. OGF RESPONDENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 AVERGE MEAN SD 1.1 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 2 2 3 3 3 2.56 0.506623
4 5 5 5 5 4 2 5 5 5 5 4 5 4 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 5 4.32 0.945163
1.3 3 3 5 3 4 3 4 3 5 3 5 3 5 3 3 4 4 4 3 5 4 4 4 4 4 3.8 0.763763
1.4 2 2 2 3 3 2 3 2 3 5 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2.6 0.707107
1.5 3 3 4 3 5 3 2 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 5 3 5 4 3 3.28 0.791623
3 3.2 3.8 3.4 3.8 3 2.6 3.2 3.6 3.8 4 2.8 3.6 2.8 3.4 2.8 3.4 2.8 3.4 3 3.8 2.8 4 3.2 3.6 3.312 0.424578
PSYCHOLOGICAL 2 NO. OGF RESPONDENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 AVERGE MEAN SD 2.1 3 3 4 3 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 4 4 3.32 0.476095 2.2 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 3 2 3 3 2 2 2 1 1.76 0.663325 2.3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 2 4 4 4 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 4 2 2 2.76 0.830662 2.4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 3 5 3 3 5 3 3 3 5 3 3 3 4 3 3 4.04 0.978093 2.5 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 2 1.96 0.840635 2.8 2.8 3 3 2.8 3 2.4 3.2 2.8 2.8 2.6 3.4 2.8 2.6 3.4 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.4 2.2 2.8 2.4 2.4 2.768 0.298217
3 NO. OGF RESPONDENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 AVERGE MEAN SD 3.1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2.08 0.276887 3.2 5 5 4 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 4 3 4.76 0.522813 3.3 2 2 2 2 1 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 1.88 0.439697 3.4 3 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 2 3 3 3 2 4 3 3 2 3 3 4 3 3 3 3 3 3 0.5 3.5 2 2 2 2 3 2 2 3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2.08 0.276887 2.8 2.8 2.6 3 2.6 2.8 3 3 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.6 3 3 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.8 2.8 2.8 2.6 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.76 0.163299
CURRICULUM VITAE ERYL B. ESTRADA
Sitio 2 Brgy. Oogong Sta. Cruz, Laguna Mobile No.: 09065497687 E- mail Add.: email@example.com
PERSONAL DATA Date of Birth: Place of Birth: Age: Civil Status: Gender: Religion: Citizenship: Height: Weight: Language Spoken: Mother: Father: June 5, 1989 Laguna Holy Family Clinic, Sta. Cruz, Laguna 20 Married Male Aglipayan Filipino 5’8” 60 kg Filipino and English Lydia Baltazar Estrada Arthur Sofer Estrada
EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND Tertiary: Degree: Laguna State Polytechnic University Sta. Cruz Campus, Sta. Cruz, Laguna S. Y. 2005- 2010 Bachelor of Science in Nursing Associate in Health Science Education S.Y. 2006- 2008 Secondary: Laguna State Polytechnic University Sta. Cruz Campus, Sta. Cruz, Laguna S. Y. 2000- 2004 Primary: Sta. Cruz Central Elementary School Sta. Cruz, Laguna S. Y. 1995- 2001
ORGANIZATIONAL/AFFILIATIONS Mousike Organization (LSPU-SCC Main Campus)
Sta. Cruz, Laguna National Center for Mental Health Mandaluyong City San Lazaro Hospital Metro Manila Philippine Orthopedic Center Banawe, Quezon City United Candelaria Doctors Hospital Candelaria, Quezon Calamba Medical Center Calamba, Laguna Laguna Provincial Hospital Sta. Cruz, Laguna Laguna Holy Family Hospital Sta. Cruz, Laguna Nagcarlan District Hospital Nagcarlan, Laguna Laguna Polymedic Hospital Sta. Cruz, Laguna SEMINARS ATTENDED Filipino Nurses, Patriots, Leaders for Change Cultural Center, Sta. Cruz Laguna September 11, 2009 Disaster Nursing Red Cross Laguna Chapter Sta. Cruz Laguna October 20-22, 2009
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