You are on page 1of 10

11PDHPE Preliminary Course

Core 2
Body in Motion

Focus Questions
1) How do the musculoskeletal and
cardiorespiratory systems of the body
influence and respond to movement?
2) What is the relationship between physical
fitness, training and movement efficiency?
3) How do biomechanical principles influence

11PDHPE Preliminary Course

Core 2: Focus Question 1
How do the musculoskeletal
and cardiorespiratory
systems of the body
influence and respond to

Tell me what are the four functions of the skeletal
1) It Supports the organs and tissues of the body. Without this support
they would collapse under their own weight.
2) It provides Protection for internal organs. For example, the cranium
protects the brain; the thorax protects the heart and lungs.
3) It provides a base for the attachment of muscles and so allows
Movement with the bones acting as levers.
4) The bones are a source of supply of blood cells and a store for
minerals required for the body to function. For example, red and white
blood cells are produced in the bone marrow, which is found in the middle
of bones.

What are the main types of bones?

1) Long bones are longer than they are wide, the function as levers. For
2) Short bones have a short axis and are found in small spaces such as
the wrist. They serve to transfer forces. For example
3) Flat bones have a broad surface and serve as places of attachment for
muscles and to protect vital organs. For example

What are the main types of bones?

4) Irregular bones do not fall into any category due to their non-uniform
shape. Primarily consist of cancellous bone, with a thin outer layer of
compact bone. For example

5) Sesamoid bones usually short and irregular bones, imbedded in a

tendon where it passes over a joint which serves to protect the tendon. For

Anatomical Reference: Directional Terms

When referencing the anatomy, directional terms are used to identify the
location of bones.
Anatomical position: a reference position where the subject is standing erect,
facing front on and with palms facing forward.
1. Superior towards the head; for example, the chest is superior
to the hips
2. Inferior towards the feet; for example, the foot is inferior to
the leg
3. Anterior towards the front; for example, the breast is on the
anterior chest wall
4. Posterior towards the back; for example, the backbone is
posterior to the heart
5. Medial towards the midline of the body; for example, the
big toe is on the medial side of the foot
6. Lateral towards the side of the body; for example, the little toe is on the
lateral side of the foot
7. Proximal towards the bodys mass; for example, the shoulder is proximal
to the elbow
8. Distal away from the bodys mass; for example, the elbow is distal to the

Joints occur where one or more bones meet. Joints can be fixed, such as the rib
cage, or they can be more moveable such as in the elbow. Joints are classified
according to their degree or movement. Joints may be classified as:
- Fibrous or immovable
- Cartilaginous or slightly moveable
- Synovial or freely moveable
Fibrous joints occur where bone ends are joined by strong, short bands or fibrous
tissue such as in the skull. This type of joint does not allow any movement to occur.
Cartilaginous joints is where the bones are separated by a disc or plate made up of
tough fibrous cartilage. For example the joints of the vertebrae or spine are
separated by this tissue thus causing limited movement.
Synovial joints allow for a range of movement. These include hinge joints (knee and
elbow) and ball and socket joints (hip and shoulders). Synovial joints are made
possible with the use of tendons, ligaments, cartilage, and synovial fluid.


What Connects these

Ligaments are fibrous bands that
connect bones to bones. These maintain
stability in the joint.
Tendons are tough inelastic cords that
attach muscles to bones. These further
strengthen the joint and allow the joint to
Cartilage is a smooth shiny surface on
the bones which allows them to glide
across each other freely.
Synovial Fluid is a lubricant that keeps
the joints moist and nourishes the
cartilage to enable easy movement
Hyaline cartilage while synovial fluid
acts as a cushion between articulating
surfaces of the bones, they are also
covered with a layer of smooth, shiny
cartilage that allows bones to move
freely over each other. Thicker in leg
joints, where there is greater weight