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DICTIONARY
A
OF
RELIGION
AND

ETHICS

THE

MACMILLAN

NKW

COMPANY

YORK

BOSTON

CHICAGO

DALLAS

"
"

ATLANTA

SAN

"

FRANCISCO

"

MACMILLAN

"

LONDON

CO.,

Limited

BOMBAY

CALCUTTA

"

"

MELBOURNE

THE

MACMILLAN

CO.

TORONTO

OF

CANADA,

Ltd.

A

DICTIONARY
OF

RELIGION

ETHICS

AND

EDITED

Shailer

BY

D.D., LL.D.

Mathews,
!I

and Dean
Theology,
of Historicaland Comparative
Professor
School,University
of Chicago
ofthe Divinity

AND

Gerald

Smith, D.D.

Birney

Professor
of Christian

Theology,
University
of Chicago

NEW

THE

YORK

COMPANY

MACMILLAN
1923

31. 3/

Copyright, 1921
By

the

Set up and

PWNTEP

W

MACMILLAN

COMPANY

Published September,
electrotyped.
1921.

THE

UNITED

STATES

OF

AMERICA

Ph. Professor and Botany.D. Stanley of New History. Editor of various hymnals. Ph. Meadville.D. Baskervill. General Case. College. Comparative and Syriac. Allen. University of ChiInstructor cago. Edward Scribner.D. College. Ph. New York.D. Clarence Augustine. of Board Foreign Secretary of the American Commissioners for Foreign Missions. t Deceased. of the Department of Chicago.. Early Church History and NewTestInterpretation. Ames. Christian Professor of Theology.. Professor of Church Gardiner. John Professor of Wis. Beloit College. Professor D. West Quarterly. George.D. Coulter.D. Litt.and Midland. Frank Otis. Litt.D. Professor of English Literature.D. James Levi.Universityof Missouri.Chicago. Associate Editor Mid- Alexander. 111.D. D. Author of hymnology.D. of EvangeUsm. Editor Head University of The Gazette. Barton. Eugene.Chicago. James Spencer. Managing Editor Modern Beckwith. raska. Fisher. Scott. Y. Chicago. Professor of Chicago. Associate New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge.D. Beals. Cook. Ph.D. Chicago. University of Philology. Jackson. Christie.D. Quincy the of L. Professor of Missions. Chicago Editor The Theological Seminary.D. Lewis Dean of of School..A.W. College. Edward. LL... Hartley Burr. Lemuel Call. Ph..Y. University of Chicago. and standard books on the history of Arthur. A. Ph. George Aaron. of Baker.University of Chicago. 111..D. University Associate Professor Chicago. Theologian and Author. Forsyth. Barton. D. Cambridge. Erb. Sc. New Testament History and Interpretation. Ph.CONTRIBUTORS TO THE DICTIONARY AND fADENET. the (Universalist) Divinity Ryder Robert H. Dickinson.. D. Neb. D. Goodnow.D. Chicago. Fallows. Professor of Philosophy. Burton. Professor of Jewish History and Literature. Missionary in Korea.D..D. LL. Secretary of Haskell Oriental Museum. UniProfessor Anthropology. Barnes.D. of Charles Professor of Abram. Conference on Faith and Order. Benson. and Lecturer in the Rehgions and in Hebrew and Gaius College.D.. D.D. Samuel.D.D. Philosophy. Author. Sociology. Professor of Criticism History and Music. Professor '.University Theo- ClarKj Charles Clark. Providence. Editor Journal of American Folk-Lore. Burt. Walter Late Frederick. of Philosophy. New York. Pa. Archibald Assistant Gillies. Formerly Editor The Standard. Secretary World's A. of versity.Universityof Walter Ph.BrynMawr. BrynMawr Pa. of Sanskrit European Comparative of Chicago. England.CA. Ph. Ph. General Secretary of the Religious Education Association. Henry Frederick. Burton Management and Costs. General Theological Seminary. Ernest Professor Associate Ph. D. Theology. LL. Frank President H. Chicago.D. Sociology.. D. Ph. 463 131 . and Indo- Philology. Manchester. Ph.D.D. Dickerson. Professor Professor RELIGION ETHICS Testament Exegesis and pendent IndePrincipal of Lancaster Professor OF D.D. Cross. D.D. Watson.D.D. Meadville logicalSeminary.D. University of NebLincoln. Gotthard.D. George Holley.I. O. D. LL.Cincinnati.M. Shirley ament New York City. Rochester. Deutsch. Editor of Young American People's Publications. Litt. N. Rochester Theological Seminary.D. Franz. Professor of Philosophy and Natural Brown University. of Systematic Theology. R.D. Ph. Church D. in Egyptology. John Merle. D. Burgess.M. of I Albert. Boas.D. Cope. Hebrew Union College. Walter Assistant Ph. Ph. 111.D. England. Everett. Oberhn..D. History. Botanical Crawford.D. of Biblical Literature and Semitic Languages. Francis I Faris. LL.C.D. Editor Religious Education..Beloit. Oberlin College. University Gilbert. Ellsworth. LL.D. Professor Ellwood. of Sociology. Thomas George.D.D. Secretary of the Department Mission American Baptist Home Society. Columbia Baptist Pubhcation Society. Bishop of the Reformed Episcopal Church. Ph. DowD.D. Charles Read.. Margaret Secretary Y. Literature New Testament Chicago Theological Seminary.. Ph. Formerly Professor of and Interpretation. Ph. O. Funeral Easton. D. Ex-FeUow Study of Gk)nville Louis Fitzgerald.

Chicago. A. Cambridge. Hall.Rufus Matthew. Cambridge. Gordon Professor of Jennings.. University Haydon.WiUiamstown. Charles Bloomington. Kingston. Associate Professor of the Semitic Languages of Chicago.D. Pratt. Assistant Director of American Red Publicity.N. Paton.UniHarvey.. Mass.. Albert Edward. Professor of Intellectual and Moral Philosophy. Professor of Philosophy. Goodspeed. Ph.LouisNathan. Mass. BaptistTheological Seminary. Ph.Washington.D. School. Editor Classical Philology. Eustace. HoBEN. S.Waco. Eugene GiLMORE. LL.D. Kyoto.H. LL.Ph. Japan. Litt. Formerly Missionaryin China..New York.D.Universityof Moore. John Thomas.D. Professor of Latin.Baylor Formerly Professor of Church University. of Biblical and University of Chicago. Ph. TheologicalSeminary. HoLTOM.Rochester.D.D. Ph.D. George Associate OF Testament Literature and Mathews. Allan. Ph.D.D. fRAUSCHENBUSCH.Mass. Ph.Y.D. Edgar RELIGION Lyman. LL. Roscoe.D. LL. Gould. Ph.D. Professor of Indo-Iranian Languages. L. Ph. D. Gordon. Ph. D. Ph.. Committee Relations among Foreign Students. Clifford Herschel. Johnson. Queen's ColHastings Encyclopediaof Religionand Ethics. Professor of Historical and Comparative Theology. Adolph. Cross. Hartford. Harvard Saville.Director of History.Lutheran Church. Canada. Kantor..D. Dean of the DivinitySchool of the University of Chicago. D.Collegeof Missions. Southern ville. Ph. and Literatures. Odlin.D.NewYork. Shailer. Assistant Professor of the History of of Chicago.D. Ira Maurice.D. MuzzEY. D. Columbia Ethical Culture University. Doshisha University. Jones. formerlyProfessor of Church History. of Assistant Professor of Education. Professor of Psychology. Albert ReUgions. University Elliot. of Philosophy.D. University.D.D.D.D. Literature. York. Professor of Review. Ph. International New Editor clopedia.. Harry Secretary. Irving. Iowa City. lege. Lucia True Ames in Lecturer. Williams College. Myers. D.D.TO CONTRIBUTORS William Editor The New DICTIONARY THE clopedia EncySchaff-Herzog of Religious Knowledge. Merrill. Literature. Tex.Y.. College. MissionaryEducation the United Newman. LL. J. Editor The Homiletic Associate Patristic Greek. New Field Secretary of Laymen's Missionary Harada. President. University Professor of General Jurisprudence. A. of Chicago.and President.D. D. Gkiffis. W. Latin..Greenville. N. fKiNGMAN. LL. DaNIEL t Deceased.Cam- David Associate of Church HuRREY.D. Assistant Director of Haskell Oriental Museum. L.la. History.Rochester TheologicalSeminary. N.D.D. LL. McGlothlin.D.Ind.D. Kuring. Late Pastor. Union TheologicalSeminary. University. Friendly Valentine Williams. William Mead. Ph. of Indiana. Ph. Baptist TheoSeminary. King. Northfield.Pa.D. EncyDepartmental Herbert Mead. of the Faculty of Law. Author. Formerly Instructor in History. College. Henry Professor Ph. Presbyterian College.D. Congregational Church. Professor of the Old Testament Language and Universityof Chicago.Y.C.D.H. Abraham Litt. Universityof Chicago. S. Claremont. LL.Carleton Minn. Pastor. Assistant Editor Instructor in European History.D. Paul. of Professor Sociology. Gray.D. of Chicago. Alexander of Professor Old AND ETHICS William. University McNeill. President. William Joseph.Haverford Haverford. Pound. D. N.Canada. Clarence. Editor Mythology ofAll Races.D. Ph. Ph.and Dean Iowa. Late Professor WaLTER.D. O. George Professor of Philosophy.D. Tokyo. Former President. Mode. Professor bridge.D. States and Albert Movement of Canada. Japan. Daniel Professor Professor of Mass. of Old Testament Exegesis and Hartford Criticism. University of Nebraska. James Price. F. Harvard University. D. . Ph. Movement.. Lottis Herbert. Charles General on Secretary. Professor of Dogmatic Theology..D. Palmieri. University LUCKENBILL. Jackson. of Chicago. Columbia New York. Peter George. Ph. Universityof Chicago. of Church History. LL. Lewis Bayles. Professor of History. of Chicago.Calif. University Thomas. Tasuktt.D. Chicago. Philosophy of ReUgion. Professor Reid. Francis Joseph. Chester Ky. and formerly Educator National Secretaryof Woman's Peace Party. Henry. Andrew Cunningham.Furnam University.D.D.D..C. Elmer Truesdell. Latin.M. Conn. Michel.D. Bisset. Montreal. Jacob Robert. Laing.Indianapolis.D. Exegesis. S. Japan. and navian ScandiAssistant Professor of German McLaughlin. Professor of Historyand Head of the Department of History. General TheologicalSeminary.University DaVID.D.m. logical History.D. a. Assistant Professor of Church versity History. Ph.Y. D. Litt.

William Professor of Theological History.D. Executive of University LL. Ph.D. Chicago. Walker.D. Lancaster. Baton Rouge. tion. Systematic Professor Ph. N. Findlay. James Thompson. Languages Chicago. New Henry Walker. Ph. Christian Chicago.B. BibUcal Young Detroit. logical Theo- Pa.D.D. Ecclesiastical Benjamin Marietta Birney. D. Metropohtan Sheldon. Ph. D.D. Ph. The Lecturer.Y. Henry Editor Associate Pa. Head University Professor Seminary. and Language Chicago. Professor Theology. Late RowE. Center. the Languages Ph.T. of Chicago.Y. Testament Union of College. Professor of Ethical for Society Ecclesiastical of and History Ernest James Hayden. Vedder. Classical of of Professor Culture. fTARBELL. William Salter.D. Church of Theological Professor Providence. University. Professor Boston Didactic of Princeton Webster. Mackintire. Homiletics Head and Assistant Seminary. Medieval Seminary. Clay. Harold F. LiTT. Stewart. D. of University LL. Breckenridge. Princeton.D. Professor Chief New Old Librarian. Richards. Schley. of R. Greek. Anthropology. Ph. Pittsburgh. Theological Western Doctrine.D.. Ph. History Seminary.D. N.D. Sharpe.D. Theodore Professor Reformed the States.D. College. of tWABFiELD. Pa. Hutton.. of International VoTAW. Edu- Religious logical Theo- Union History. and New Charles New Journal York New of City of University. Professor United of Literatures. Journal Preserved. Nicholas. of Gerald Testament Hammersley. O. Semitic of Gerald. York. Warren. New Kalloch. and Education. College. YouTZ. Lincoln. Church of Newton and D. Polemic Marietta. Assistant the D. S. Professor Ph. Christian OberUn N. Professor D. Bonaventure's St.D. . Madras. Clyde Professor of Ph. WooDBURNE. York.D. Chicago. Smith. Scares. Clay. Theology. Secretary Mission Shapley.D.I.D.D. of University Professor of and Institution. Baptist Mich. Charles Chicago... Old University American Reinhart. of Department of D. Professor Watson. N.D. Henry N. Union Testament. Scott. Sears.. S. Seminary. of Professor Ph.D. logical Theo- Society.. Chicago DD. John. Editor D. Newton Mass. Theological of Professor Literatures. of Psychology. Social of of Religion. Seminary. Nebraska.J. OF RELIGION Smith.D.. Weber. Reformed Rockwell. Powis. Church of of Journal Church Church in the and Ph. Sprengling. O. and of Theology. Professor D. DICTIONARY THE TO John AND Merlin Professor Literature.Y. University Neb. Chester.D. Henry Professor Art. of Ethics.D. Theological Seminary.CONTRIBUTORS of Allegany. Angus Herbert Professor Theology. Chicago. D. Joseph Reagan.Y. Martin. Religion of and Theology. Frank Tufts. Hatch. of Literature. India. of Ethics.D. versity Uni- Archeology. Rabbi. Brown and Religious Christian Men's Studies. Associa- Theological Arthur of Editor Henry Smith. and Literature. College Dean. versity Uni- Ph. History. Science tical Prac- Ph. of Professor Ph. of Manford.D. York.D. Semitic the Bigelow. Social of of Department University cation.D. and Philosophy College.D. History. of Philosophy School Graduate Oberlin. t Deceased.D. the Review.D. Clinton. the of ETHICS Madras Christian Ph. Alden.T. George Seminary Testament La.D. Ph. Professor History. Westfall. Editor Crozer History. Philosophy. David BcHAFP.

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Particular of ail terms attention rehgions. bringing the treatment terms of means The within the limits of The 1. 9. Eustace Haydon. Lewis Reagan for valuable for reading proof. S. assistance in preparation of copy and E.compound words 8. Historical 5. persons are employ variants to the than Biographical articles 6. appear proper vu . A. Bibhographies in an appendix to the volume thus easilybe kept up to date. A. in primitive and used psychology and history of religion. No to rather to the and : a clear more discussion extended of the explanation of the important more terms important topics. of all topics. The of technical with terms which would not loosely connected religionand morals naturally be sought in such a dictionary. general plan of editing involves all terms discuss to of cross (not strictlybiblical) of importance in the field with references fullness some as a of primary value. For ease after the first compound arranged in sequence term. The definition 2. Especial regard 4.and general plan thus involves the at the is to same generous define time use a singlevolume. Woodburne. No ethnic Uving included. and J.PREFACE The of of this purpose rehgion and Dictionary ethics. Frank supervisingthe preparationof the bibliographies. different spelUngs of a word contributor are in common being left free use. N. attempt the to system in the standardize which he titles at the the transUteration prefers. 3. the places. apologeticor partisan treatment limited to persons especiallysignificantin rehgion and morals. While every article and definition has been independently " Wagnalls for their kind consent to the use of some produced their thanks are due to Funk especially admirable contained in copyright material in the Standard expressionsand arrangements Dictionary and New Schaff-HerzogEncyclopedia of ReligiousKnowledge. and to Dr. Where of each foreign words. omission 7. can The editors wish to express their gratitude to Drs. of consultation.

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c. Roman a without absolution grant bishop in in the Wm. by Jerusalem a. Egyptian. observed Long significance. or these hour WaLKEB even "reserved Catholic special from the cases" of death.). century head called of formerly institution female a abbess. Prag- Idealism. in the period of the and Inquisition a solemn public pronouncement." Matt. his method last formal a to Gerald in Catholic subsequently adopted and elaborated of his rationalistic dogmatics. 7th. absolute identification emotional the God. See " the Purification." which sentence the Christ of Jesus name to Priest remit theologians appeal Roman to Absolution John 20:21-23. in the Precatory forms were church till the middle century. Complete space be found only in spiritcan security of the human In the rehgion alliance with this perfect Absolute. so regard Jews Harold originally a is still day the already baptized." religious Ufe In in as desire is the natural their Hindus one's church of of heresy those. and his through In Realism the he romantic connection controversy between worked a out which promoted a more theology he opposed a authority. suspected are It has taken do An ABBESS. (1079-1142). Infinite. Bathing. above and of time and change. reqmred renunciation teaching Abraham.confession (q." French and in philosopher theologian. specialobservance. The chief opponent Bernard of Clairvaux.. which authority "being Converts doctrine Roman of the his of forms century a written statement. Westminster as. 16: 19. by day as and b. century form. mourning." ABRAHAM. are The of absolution for pardon." the RELIGION offences serious from the restrictions relaxed." and in other oriental communions In the Holy Orthodox by in and valid absolution the form a form of a prayer use common For ten of from of finite of the name free is which from the imperfections escape experience.v. who witnesses. beginning with the Nursia to (q. Latin in the is precatory. which The with Pachomius. to in sacred ABJURATION. That ABSOLUTE. the his Sic et Non In chiu-ch.g. Smith Birney chism According to the Larger Cateis prescribed by Pope Pius X.)." abbey was institution."I absolve thee. matters make opposed Nominalism submission mere : church. Religions is to lose aim OP.however. monastic Abbey.and in the pronounces the penitent'ssins. and in the Middle The corresponding Ages performed episcopal duties. to of anniversary holiday Jewish A OF. lastic SchoPETER ABELARD. Absolute. and vital mediating kind attempted explanation of church doctrines. RoCKWEUi .d. The over present form of absolution is declarative or indicative. 18: 18.. the promise of satis- be imparted only can has jurisdiction duly ordained priest who the penitent. by the " Roman A the last the of the among waters. The ultimate reahty the vicissitudes is pictured as eternally perfect. In of doctrine. comprising monastic or hgious belief. but from the "father. Monism.v. 1) the ultimate there priest 13th. pope. "Absolution ABSOLUTION. institutions. Reinhart for cloisters church. more recently a private profession before priestly ABLUTION. certain cannot authorization renunciation Cathohc of limitations. an Certain connected still retain the name. organization an Benedict of of monastic orders. matism. ideas. all philosophical thinking. and ABBOT ABBEY.OF DICTIONARY A ETHICS AND AB. contrition presupposes faction. Sec. traditional It is the Jewish August. the the An apocryphal OF. in Titus fasting and kept of destruction the the on corresponding year." He limited only began to be ordained. known Uterature in error growth out- (q. NINTH fifth month of approximately Nebuchadnezzar holy city as of one in 586 before 70 the not distinguish it with orthodox cathedral other The of all the abbey and monks the was a rules. silent submission ABHISEKA. but historic of solemn fall of the of the Reform Jews.TESTAMENT of Jewish origin describing the last days of astical ecclesi- to time.) contributed development. e.v. to personahty in the philosophical way finite provides a participate in IdeaUstic attempted has monism to Platonism in men of which may is Mysticism inner the in philosophy self with modern an the times doctrine of dynamic the Absolute concretely to finite through relate See existence. cathedrals. give power.)into development of monasticism began in the 4th. coenobitic means philologically various F. called The monk in charge was the abbot. he quotations collected debatable this Patristic positions in aroused distrust the at with of condemnation." Abbots were ruled paternally." India a His the to In rationaUstic a siides of both on While was used ceremony ceremonial bathing spent were years later for high state functionaries to applied by the Buddhists stages of perfection: used Vedic in reUgion of kings and emperors. (q. is nunnery or and churches with Heloise. book position logic. of the losophies PhiVedanta and (see India. who secured tendency was his re- in the 4th. by canonical originallylaymen.v. appurtenances.

early and Christianity. of distinctively A. prophetic books and in the New Testament." that the universe from the Absolute. and in which wherein the spirits Fathers Christ himself is said by the later church his death and his to have spent the days between resurrection." CHARAC- heredity. asserts acceptance. An accident upsets plans. has gained control of all the tribes surrounding the Christians. century and one prominent of the moderate opponents of the Nicene Creed in the Arian controversy. the theory of Duns Scotus (q. of essential not the existence to a property absolutely scholastic an object. with r eousnes . The term included also of the dead Uved. is to be confined Hades for a thousand years. requirements necessary some more primitiveand even Among some among highly developed religionsthe deity is beheved hence to be naturallyhostile. influence of Judaism is territory. this original substance From The created the imiverse. and hence demands special rehgiousor moral explanation. for a deep chasm.attempting to find in the Bible their own theology.. and sionaries of the concessions made by Jesuit mis- "accommodation ideas in India and China. accordingto the Apocalypse of John. Smith Birney Gerald edged acknowlA religioussect which authoritative head. century rationahstic theologians carried the principle to absurd lengths. simply as a synonym Shailer Mathews RELIGION OF. The Arabia. (2)of the control of through the agency of shamans who know the spirits is influence of early Arabia The magical forms.!ja . no ^An eastern order of ascetics of ACOEMETAE.and offeringsand with which God sacrifices are In the Hebrew considerednecessary to edged legalpracticein which a creditor acknowlof a debt though no payment had The term is looselyused in Christian been made. Mohammedanism forms is the nature-reUgionwhich basis of allmodern consists (1) of the tribal provisionfor the lifeneeds of the people when the chief performs reUgious ceremonies for crops and food.the abyss ceased to be thought of as filled with water and became identifiedwith the abode The that is." The reUgion of the peoplesof Abyssinia is a curious blend of primitivitywith the reUgious ideas of Judaism. Historical interpretationtoday repudiates this ings attitude. It is of the monophysite form generally." ACACIUS Bishop of Caesarea of the most in the 4th. acceptance is dependent on moral right- modification The ACCOMMODATION. The term is important in some of the doctrine of transubstantiation. system. statement a so as to meet or specific such as the immaturity of the taught. Roman payment ACCIDENT. as e." adjustment of ACQUIRED In AND the type of pantheism which has no real existence CONGENITAL study of apart TERISTICS. or Hell. Many types of theology ABYSS.-^-Originally a form of .g.). the or to current ACEPHALI. In bibUcal interpretationcertain apparently crude conceptionsfound in Scripture have been explained on the ground that God accommodated his revelation to the capacity of men to receive it.when 16th. .^The it dependent on belief in right doctrine. the 5th. two . centuries. though so elements are mingled in it as to give it almost many the character of a new religion. in the presence of the mother-goddess.A Abyss DICTIONARY OF RELIGION ETHICS AND filled boltoroless space (originally or faith in Jesus. (2)Philosophically. the' primevalchaos from which our universe and all God Ufe sprang. imder the earth. " of the highest of the A member ACOLYTE.and is penetratingtheir and. century. in anti(2) A congregationalresponse spontaneous phonal singing. events and ACCLAMATION. have made believed to be under the water) which was earths Bairyloniapthought tne abyss was possibly ACCEPTILATION.The source evidences stillobscure.and attempts to set forth the exact teachof the Bible as honest and straightforward of a rather than as accommodations convictions. of the departed spirits. pectedly (1) An event occurring unexand contrary to rational order. It is from the conceptionof Hades that the word came also to denote the imdergroundplace the time of Enoch From of punishment. it was apparentlyregardedas filledwith fire rather than water.and thus explaining all features which are unacceptableto modern thinking as instances of accommodation. " bishop mediaeval Flagellants." A world view which allows the possibility of tincaused and unpredictable and acts." (1) The uncanvassed election of a pope by the collegeof cardinals.AUat. rite especially That ACOSMISM.thus constituting Through usage which it is not possiblefullyto trace. OF CAESAREA. In the later cosmologiesdeveloped by gnosticism of the the abyss was as the firstprinciple personified evolved and infinite deity from which all aeons were created so the universe In modern thought these earlier conceptions is used and the word have entirelydisappeared. predeterminedtheological In the church Catholic Roman a so-called controversy" occurred in the disapproved the popes 17th. Eustace Haydon ABYSSINIA.v. '..according to Genesis." The attitude of satisfaction regards those who have met the for obtaining divine favor. latter place is said by Job 38 : 16 to be at the bottom of the sea. century probably from Syria is now and after long struggle finallyestabUshed as the official religionof the Abyssinian empire.Sheol or Hades. explanations " ACCIDENTALISM. ACCEPTANCE. e.though there are undoubted Jewish ideas and practices. Islam is making rapid progress. seen entered in and of the male Ashtar. so designatedfrom their custom of continuous prayer and praisenight and day. cosmology of the Bible represents the earth as extending resting on and surrounded by waters the abyss. The considered by some Jesus to demons theologians are to be instances of accommodation.. literature of the apocalyptic With the appearance the word is used in a more generalsense to represent the abyss of the underworld in which was lived and where fire in which the demons Satan. In the 18th. in theology to characterize theories of atonement which the efficacy of Christ's work depends upon its intrinsic acceptance by God rather than upon its own worth. needs person or conditions to be in the New Misquotationsof the Old Testament references of have been similarlyexplained.g." CathoUc church. whose minor orders in the Roman duties are attendance on a priestperformingsome the celebration of the mass. Christianity the middle of the 5th.

for example. For refusingto of clergymen lost their benefices conform. because they involve only body structures. fortifiedby such legislation and Corporation Acts (q.a secure of sin and salvation. undertook a mission to the Prussians." A collection of the biographies opposition. The account of tion crea- deals with according to the priestlydocument the making of man from who clay by God The account breathed into him the breath of God. ADALBERT. that some affect the acquired characters may tion organism so profoundlyas to influence the constituof the germ plasm. cannot plasm.)on the ground that the pair might by disGod ACTION moral SERMON. forced to flee his see by papal ACTA MARTYRUM. those determined by the constitution of the "germ plasm" and those acquired by the body during its development. used as an excuse theology. mon According to the first (1549) the Book of ComPrayer was to be used by all priestson penalty of losinga year's revenue from the benefice." Archbishop from 1043 or 1045 to 1072. Formerly it was supposed that acquired characters might be inherited and increased from generationto generation." Babylonian and other parallels to the Hebrew sets forth story of Adam. the members of of Adam and which laid claim to the innocence ordered their lives after their conception of Eden. Laymen disturbing worship or encouragingprieststo violate uniformity liable fines to and were imprisonment. Coulter AND ETHICS Adamites year'simprisonment for a second offense. 950.and six months' imprisonment for a first offense. Germ plasm gives rise to body plasm. From the body is simply a container of the germ plasm. The literaryremains to be included are so numerous and the questionsinvolved difficult that although the Bollandists so began publicationin 1643 the collection is'notyet complete. and no affects its constitution than does a more water bag affect the constitution of the contained It is beginning to be realized. etc. century. He is also known Rammon.a plan frustrated by Rome.how the two lived in a garden in innocence until sin came through temptation by the serpent obeying (q..). and disappearswith response the body. (1662)the use of a revised prayer book in every place of public worship was made bents compulsory. century. water.A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION generalkinds of characters are recognized." and the Estabhshed from Church forced^ her fellowship much of the The strongest religiousleadership of the age.)made tial substanmoderations. was and to show that germ and plasm body plasm are entirelydistinct. but none ACT OF GOD." A of the saints and information concerning festivals. A second Act (1552) legalizedthe ecclesiastical censure and excommunication of laymen. term and as a proper name. b. Man.v. hundreds in the "Great Eviction. The problem concerns ethics in so far as it is desirable to ascertain what be laid stress should the education of the individual in view of the on factors in his inheritance." Bishop of Prague. who failed to attend prayer on Sundays and holy days. some acquired characters may involve every regionof the organism.who appears as Hadad later as an important figure in the pantheon of Babylonia as god of storms and rain. but from plasm itself is continuous generation germ to generation. An ancient storm-god of the Amorites. then proceeds to treat the first created member of the human race as possessing the name Adam. Elizabeth's Act of the Edwardian statute. This precedingthe Lord's Supper in Scotch Presbyterian disobedience led to the exclusion of the pair from because the Supper was the garden and their being made churches. which in turn builds the body. Their value varies and "Apostle of the Prussians. known in Palestine and Syria. Universityteachers. The body is a physiological unity. made subsequently to the 4th. The word is used in Genesis. An acquired character is a of the body plasm. obscure An sect originatingin North Africa in the 2nd." of Bohemia" according to the degree of legendary material included.namely. The conclusion is that while in general acquired characters not are inherited.and life imprisonment for a third. Weismann the first to analyze the situation. school masters and private tutors were required to accept the Liturgy and the doctrine of nonresistance. century. remained in force until the Toleration Act (q. As the actual progenitorof a race for moral wrong and (legally) from civil liability begotten after the Fall he has been treated as the of original sin and his experienceand position damages in courts of law.v. known as the "Apostle is from the 4th.v. OF PRAGUE. passing on what it has received from previous generations.however. Mathews Shailer ADAMITES. The lives are arranged according to the months in which a saint's feast is celebrated. he was how from one of his given a mate made ribs. Germ plasm is the essential substance and determines of eggs and sperms. but to the penalty of ecclesiastical censure added fine levied by the church wardens for parish a With the restoration of Charles II revenue. ADAM. source been have determining factors in the orthodox " ACTS OF UNIFORMITY. John M. SAINT. Incumwere required to make declaration of their acceptance of the prayer book." Enactments to uniformity of worship in the churches of England. the problem of temptation and such An occurrence considered insin with evitably because due to the operation of beauty or psychologicalprecision.so that while such an acquired character as affect the germ a mutilation. 997. as " ADALBERT OF HAMBURG BREMEN. It has no influence upon more germ the spring from plasm than has a stream upon which it has issued. Acquired structure in response tions characters appear to the varyingcondithat obtain during development. necessary tian cosmic forces from which the human This Adam of Genesis became is a figurein Chrisagency both from entirelyabsent. the fundamental of the offspring.by of early Christian latest martyrs. Neo-Adamites in the Brethren and Sisters of arose treatment " . venticle the Conas statute. Mode much as Uniformity(1559) revived ADAD. or Adam a proper name." A sermon immediately get new knowledge.both as a generic " ACTA collection of lives SANCTORUM. any character which profoundly affects the include the germ physiology of the body may plasm in its effects. includingthe germ plasm. The whom he was murdered. associated with them. strove to unify the church of Northern Europe with himself as patriarch. nated desigThere are many "the Action. Peter G. A bishop'slicense was required of all schoolmasters and private tutors. this point of view.so named subjectto death.and imposed upon those attendingunauthorized forms of worshippenalties in the Act of 1549.

The physical changes are of opinion and action must ever be recognized. the skin becomes coarser. They consist in greatly accelerated bodily growth in both height and weight. The continued until the Formula of Concord (1577) decided in favor of the stricter view. century sect. In the former the impulse criminality and in the latter the to action breaks all bounds self-centered.loses all youth becomes of practical expression and develops some power form of dementia precox. Practical phases.however.the are voice changes. the heart enlargesrapidly. second A controversy called by this name occurred in the 17th. at others to be the pantheistic world-ground. molars lung capacity increases greatly." the Protestant Reformation an attempt was made Charles V. urgent entreaty or comre-enforced by coupling with it an oath. public or reinstatement or of the culpable. be grouped together for secular and religious instruction.) Necessarily cism this involved countenancing certain rites of CatholiLuther had repudiated (Latin Mass." The the whole central tendency of these changes appears to be near the fifteenthor sixteenth Ambition for the future. of home in the case of the less "storm intense natures. The earning instinct looms large in the boy and the homemaking instinct in the girl. century. tempestuous passions. who and offered the bread was of life by the gods but through a misunderwater standing refused it and forfeited immortality. new hkings. For its use in Scripturesee Matt. new companions are sought. A group of shining Vedic religion often identified with the " gods of the planets. An mand. Instrucin the hygiene of the sex life is coming to be hfe tends in many regarded as essential. favorite of Ea.hence liberty Mental changes. the five great come.who held that Christians should eat in secret.proper food and rest. The sexual ripening bringsan entirelynew outlook upon fife." discipline. either to a cynicalindifference to all higher values idealism and an enor to a lifepermeated by a lofty thusiasm to serve humanity in some far-reaching way. OF AND RELIGION Beghards associated with been physical and ADAPA. in more and more or stress. All authorities recomthat children of the same degrees of physical development. burg (See AugsInterim. and emotions make tendencies. developmentof social. of the adolescent often leads The exuberance him into clashes with the conventional restrictions and school. and depression."important as indicatingthe early drift from polytheism to an abstract unity in Indian theology. In the Roman ritual there are other forms of adjuration.among of antiquity and in practicallyall religioussects this period has received special attention as an important transition stage between childhood and adult life. In the later adolescent years philosophic speculationand This may lead rehgious doubts appear in some. " ADELOPHAGI.enthusiasms over life. which ship candles. under the leaderfavored of Melanchthon granting libertyof called versy contropractice were Adiaphorists. commanded nor positivelyforbidden. avoidance of overopportunity for normal social reactions. work than are the immature of the same than those whose physical development has been unduly deferred. Modern the youth. Wherassociated with a definitely rapid and striking the attempt is made to organize religionor enlargement of the mental life. used especiallyin the of baptism.subjective. the nations Among all primitivepeoples.. In Roman devils usage. ADOLESCENCE. and in the later teens a marked and ethical. to reunite the by the emperor. ing ADIAPHORA. A word of Greek origindenotactions or rites which neither positively especiallyin boys. He seems to have at times the character of a personalGod. century and the of the 14th." the Pietists contending for the more puritanicalpositionagainst the conventional Lutherans. On the side of generalhygiene. Physical changes. " ADITYAS.eternal ADITI.periods of elation year.A DICTIONARY Adapa the Free Spiritof the 13th.resulting." Inductive studies of youth lead.etc. exercise. that proper to the view guidance and a not too should result in a repressivesocial environment steady growth rather than in one marked by sudden and transitions. and emphasis upon service and work rather than a life of pleasure or of morbid introspectionare mend indispensablegeneralrules.his susceptibility social influences is especially marked. Unfavorable and tempestuous ties repressiveenvironments produce various abnormaliin adolescent such as are s"en characteristically and insanity. sacrament ADJURATION. A name Buddha used from to refer to the whose of acts meditation by emanation. " _ ADMONITION. social and religious. Various initiation ceremonies. special educational regimens and religious efforts have or changes. A figure of Babylonian mythology. Leipzig Interim. Buddhas and through them the lower orders of divine and earthly existence.supposedly in imitation of the prophets. " . A word used divine name in as a Vedic reUgion meaning "the Boundless. irrespectiveof chronological age. ETHICS it. century over the question of "doubtful amusements. See Adiaphokistic " " school Controversies. appear.fasts. reUgious impulses appear to be quite common. a method of private.plenty of physical exertion." A 4th. to occupy a Friendshipcomes large place in the to good or to bad youth's life. The reproductive mental " organs increase in size and come to functional the second maturity. The securing of normal sex tion development is the most vital problem. Gerald Birney Smith ADIBUDDHA.aiming at either the the eventual That excommunication period of human the development extending from beginning of pubertyto complete adult maturity. "The type of play age ADIAPHORISTIC ing DurCONTROVERSIES. 26:63 and Mark Catholic 5:7. " essential. These are more definitely determined than the mental.) Those who." Gentle reproof. Catholic and the Lutheran bodies. Children of normal ethics in terms of a complete legal system such the whole better on of perplexity pubertal development are morally indifferent items are a source successful in their developed mentally and more and give rise to controversy. Recent studies of the changes of this period have confirmed the commonly accepted view of its less a well marked or being more epoch in human development. and great great dreaminess in some exuberance of physical and mental activity in others. may be exorcized by adjuring them in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ. and common to overstimulate mercialized comways flourish through their amusements astrous exploitationof the normal sex interests with disresults.

In the ADONIS.while at the same small the elimination of Luther. This in 1816. the Bible. the former organizationsusuallycongregationalin goveriunent. or important teacher was applicable to God and to persons reverence. and have of six popes. A feast celebrated the first season of the church year as a preparation for Christmas.a figureoriginatingin the PauUne other Adventists literature. of whom one They have 3. although the word paracletein the ADVAITA.hold to the sleep of the ADORATION.Pope 772-795. ADVENT. A doctrine of the Vedanta losophy4th. Their organization is unlike other bodies in that it is presbyterianrather the host.. who endeavored to reunite Christendom The small are now a Evangelical Adventists the common by acknowledging the evils of papal rule and body holding to what are essentially time insisting positions of premillenarianChristiani"^y." to divide and legal procedure by (1) The tion which an adult person assumes to a minor the relaorganize independent bodies on the basis of some of parent to child.583 members.act or emoand awe of deep admiration Their leadingto special with the Lord's Supper. " ETHICS AND Advocate thought and being. November 30. in order that suitable ideals may Religiousconversions are more frequent in middle and than other time. (NicholasBreakspeare). One cause or a a aversion to adultery: (1) the desire to protect the person before a judicialtribunal. The most important of the bodies is the whereby God receives the behever into the relationSeventh Day Adventist. including the establishment ADULTERY... Church. appeared Spanish bodily return century The Adventists founded Miller officially were suppressed in 799. Ellen G." feet washing in connection tion dead. premillenarian. promising reforms. It began originallyin different months according to the practicesof the different churches. Unlike of child. Son of God. White. and resurrection. eschatological (2)Analogously. They have 1 college.Pope 867-872. property. regarding the extent of his temporal power. and immersion. and was by Wm..martyrs.and were (q. and the latter the adopted. Figuratively. but died before his ordination. defends two motives underlie the who ADVOCATE.g. John 14:16). The Churches on a believe in the restitution of Adventists who group tween of all things by God. along with other forms of unrestrained Advocate sexual indulgence. foreignmissions." the Incarnation (1)A theory current among (inthe Anglican Church). (2) the need of guarding the status of the familyor caste. Advent Christians separated from the EvanAdrian II.They have 7 colleges Adrian and I. the crucifix or prophecy. The of Jesus Advent. (1) An attitude. his pontificate marked and that all unregenerate are to be annihilated. at any later adolescence Many studies indicate that ideals and ambitions acquired in these years tend to become the permanent Irving Kino possessionsof the adult. Second 2. Pope July 12 to August 18. The former. the ceremony that there is no In the Roman dualism of spiritand matter. certain Christians of the second and third centuries Shailer Mathews in nature a man that Jesus Christ was who became ADVENTISTS. as appliedby the prophets to the nation Israel. wife as the husband's the penitentand believing In Christian doctrine. 1276." The general name for a number the Son of God only by adoption. (2)A heresywhich of religious bodies who believe in the imminent and Frankish in the 8th.1 school of theology. of God in Christ are 3. In the world religions.Pope 884-885. such as to whom of objects with specialrehgious significance they attribute inspirationand powers the Virgin Mary. the act ship 1. They are.597 members. the only English pope. saints. The name of sanitaria. judgment seat of God (I John 2:1). the return Christ from heaven to carry on his Messianic work." the The form Adventists of adoptianism distinguished between of are grouped in a number divine Christ and the human Christ. Adrian VI. and maintain Charlemagne with whom publisha number 1 hey have 87.. in of Jesus Christ to the earth. The Incarnation the coming of the Son as of God into the world through the Virgin birth. They have 30. Morally. gospelis often translated "comforter. and publish several papers. they observe the Seventh Day in place of Sunday. during the time of Luther. The interis condemned work of Christ has been thus interpreted. that the one indefinable reality miderlying all existence is Brahman. established a number ADRIAN.. a contemporary of he had several struggles seminaries.A 5 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION the youth and religiousphases. See Mother Goddesses. of beatification or of canonization requiresa '"devil's " " " " " " . A term used to describe: 1. Of these the Life and Advent Union and the Church being the real. Adrian IV. sexual intercourse beis married to a third of a Jewish state in Jerusalem. 2. Pope 1522-1523.v. Adventist (2) The worshipful recognition of a than congregational. most Mrs. Andrew's Day. being 1159. churches.the Ministry.especiallyas affected by food. detail. and four Sundays devoted contains fertility respectively to the Second and Coming. While Moral iadifferent to such matters. sinner finds in Jesus Christ an advocate before the cessory and adulteryinvolves a lack of sexual self-control. See Parousia. Special attention should education therefore be given to moral and religious be established. They are particularly careful newly elected pope by the cardinals. ADOPTIANISM. by a stormy conflict with Frederick BarAdvent Christian the as organized themselves Adrian V. and may be disregardedexcept as indicaof the tendency of the group ADOPTION. 3. The youth beloved by Aphrodite in church the Advent western begins on the season the Greek form of the mystery-symbolism of Sunday nearest to St. there is often seems evidence in the latter half of the adolescent period interest in the largerproblems of of a deep-seated hfe and of right living. Legally. Their ministry is composed of evangelists.Pope 1154holding that immortality is a result of regeneration. self and the world. of health. person. members.457 persons moral unfaithfulness to God. The Holy Spiritis also called an (e. of a difference in belief as to immortality of the soul. each numbers less than a thousand ofGod (Adventist) tive members. until 860. of papers." phiof India which maintains Catholic church.) though traces of it continued generallycalled "Millerites. gelical Adventists in 1855 because Adrian III. practicetithing.

EGIS. of philosophical analysis of tragedy. tions of Mycenaean or Minoan indicate that the central figuresof the rehgion unmarried an were goddess.) aether was described as creative fire and identified with God. and 16th. Egypt most and North Africa.whose epoch-making explorations.This latter aspect is what is called Einfuhlung or empathy." beauty in its sensuous subordination AND hand with problems of aesthetic appreciation. James H. fined deis commonly Aesthetics AESTHETICS. of art. or AETIOLOGY ETIOLOGY.we illustrate this attitude. centuries witnessed the ineffective attempts of the great Orders. Tufts AETHER ancient Greek ETHER. The name of the Teutonic pantheon under the leadershipof Odin. His arguments are answered by "God's advocate" (advocalusDei). Africa is and Spanish territories of North ItaUan I." (1) A term appearing ia hterature descriptive of cosmological theory. who reached South Africa in the 17th. ugly. and (2) an analysisof the characteristicsor essential qualities of the aesthetic as contrasted with the spheres of "Study of logic.so the held to be perfectionof sensuous knowledge was beauty. (SeeGnosticism.DICTIONARY A Advowson OF RELIGION advocate" {advocalusdiaboli) whose duty it is to serious consideration of all possible objections against the proposed action. lightwaves.studies. in contrast with explanations in terms of purpose. Smith Gerald Birney The ADVOWSON. Presbyterianshave a chain and Cairo Alexandria of stations extending from and Colportage Education to the Nile Cataracts. Originallyused by Baumgarten in his Aesthetica (1750-58) to signify the science of knowledge. and the French."^ 6 characteristicsall involved in varying degree in a heightened emotion and thrillwhich is contemplative rather than practical. century found the Moravians in South. the tendency is rather to recognizethe comof aesthetic feehng and to find its important MISSIONS TO.or the essential.Much to serve enhancement of emotion by re-echoing the individual's own feeling. tragic. They sionary also served as a powerful inspirationto the misfactor a impulse which was so significant in Livingstone himself. For the sake of convenience." The science of or efficient or physicalcauses. to win the Congo region for Rome. In Stoicism (q. comic.fire and water.or (c)shareableplexity ness. It is accepted as a legal equivalentof an oath.working in conjunctionwith the Portuguese. often referred to as the period Cretan excavaculture." In Greek AEGIS or shield given by Zeus to Apollo and influence. century made only a The the natives.""the tree is graceful.v. Plato's discussions of art were chieflyfrom a moral and educational point of view.. late feint at missions among 18th. supplementary and_parallel the science of clear thinkingor the intellect. The 15th. " of a group of gods AESIR (ASA). divine names The were probably Rhea and Zeus." AEGEAN reUgion of the in islands of the Mediterranean lands and coast the prehistoric age. and her son who dies and comes life. AEON. as.v. The problem in Egypt. hence. The most studies recent significant state of in the field of art are those which show hkewise its social origins and art seems significance. In Egypt the is that directed of the ancient toward the revitahzation Coptic The United Church. or any protectingpower mythology. Apart from edges and a limited penetrationof its southern both a "dark" portion Africa remained essentially outer and "closed" Continent till 1875. The heroic but fruitlessefforts of Raymond Lull to win the Moslems of Tunis to Christianity ended only with his death in 1315.penetrated the heart mately and ultiof Africa. Vischer and others. the Soudan. (2) the end of essential nature and (3)the relation of art to other activities and to the progress of civiUzation. science ether is a hypothetical (2) In modern physicalmedium pervading all space and servingto transmit energy. They led also to the mobilization of forces and the creation of new missionary agencies for the Christian conquest of the The Africa. etc.modern be grouped in the following missions in Africa may geographicalareas. logic.Hegel. and beauty played an important role in his metaphysical Aristotle's Poetics laid the found. as (6) perfectionfor contemplation. past half century has witnessed by well penetrationand occupation of vast areas steadily increasing missionary organized and organizations." legalright of naming an ecclesiastical vacant incumbent to a church or a benefice in England.). tion Devo- ESTHETICISM. implying the values to beauty. The Dutch. (1) A term used to describe a group from Absolute of successive emanations Being by to the which the spiritualor divine is mediated material world. Instead of settingup some one singlecharacteristic such as (a) unity and variety.ethics. final causes.symbol of fertihtyand to life again." etc. and modern treatment makes use to a considerable degree of experimental. Kant's Critiqueof the Aesthetic Judgment was the beginning of a treatment of art problems largelymetaphysical in interest and method which continued by was Schelling. missionary work significant " . cosmic cycleor epoch. the Athena. e.pathetic. " ' AESTHETICISM to or of moral forms. being a fifth element in addition to earth. See Mother Goddesses. As the excellence of clear thinking is truth.West nent Africa.suppleby those of Stanley.. difficult most are especiallyemphasized. the science of the beautiful. Under Art Production" fall (1)study of originand development of art. The actual opening of the African Contiwestern to the impact of Christianityand civiUzation was first accompHshed by Livingstone mented (q.) (2)The Greek word for an indefinite period of time constituting 0.ation system." The solemn declaration made before a magistrate or other official by persons having conscientious objectionsto taking a judicial oath. See Benefice. secure The RELIGION.""the mountain rises from say "the tower the plain. Under appreciationfalls (1) the study of the psychology of aesthetic feelingand imagination. and which regards its object as quasi-personal. sensuous to Modern aesthetics deals on the one ETHIC. The more of psychological.blazing the trail for commerce the suppressionof the slave traffic. and the substance of which stars are composed. beautiful as including the sublime.economics.g." its AFRICA. as be taken in the broad sense must however. such as Quakers. air. AFFIRMATION. Ecclesiastical connivance with the slave trafficserved as a serious handicap to these efforts.on the other aesthetic with those of artistic production. See Age. the All-Father. the or ence explanation of the phenomenal universe by referto a First Cause." In this case. etc. When we is strong.

The Universities' Mission.000. and Scandinavian Societies. The American labors among Board the Zulus in ruler is absolute. Its missionary force Missions predominate. and Portugal. West more Including in growth than that in Uganda. South The work of the German and while Christian missions are representedin all Africa. German 100 foreign. raid and the slave trade seem (Anglican). medical missions 121. In Angola and elsewhere both Romanists While and Protestants Mohammedanism has approached at some are employing industrial missions of propagandism. Britain. the is romantic entire coast in inception. residence stations ca. Slavery is all but universal. 729. as a means pointsto within a few hundred miles of the equator III. obstacles and contributes its graduates to. Mackay. and Mohammedanism To communicants ca. often ill-prepared especiallyindustrial education.Ger(Congregational). Belgium. possessions (Togoland.000. As nowhere 5.a sort of feudaUsm prevaihng no Natal to where superficially the despoticchief seems (1834). Missionary statistics (approximate) Of these the Moslem follows : Societies at work.the enforced the of most of her missionaries.and the winning of the Continent with the linguisticproblems herein involved. out of the Great War. In South Africa proper modern though as yet by either of the two militant rehgions. century missions in this region may 90.and bound education. Morocco). the liquortraffic. Of all the missions in Africa in evangelization(Cairo. teachers. 1861 to be both indigenous. after a consideration of the main features of their stamped on the missionary map of Scotland The United has made social and political Free Church and cannot prehended a life. Walker Henry Germany's loss of her African Colonies. followed as it was by grown H. Among conducts Protestant a dispensary. Missionary Societies. former d. This was followed by the the forces of natm'e children but their control over that involved significant progress " " " . hospital.yet it is possibleto make Missionary Society man out the outstanding characteristic features of the Board Wesleyan. 29." The native religions AFRICA.700.A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Africa. baptized nonstruggle for the conquest of a Continent. tradesmen. the work which has given them a positionof leaderand the Bushmen of sepacomprise a vast number rate tribes differing This has been in language.000. The exploranot pastoraltribes are wholly wanting and some tions of Livingstone (Nyasaland) and are Stanley found. by the most have faced peculiardifficulties: a deadly chmate.The compelling the employment of native leadership missions in Africa appears to lie in education. UnUke India named those of the Wesleyan. 1885.485.and retirement OF. South-West territory is occupied in response to Stanley's appeal.the Church (1875). sionariescommunicants this oncoming tide there are some 400 mismeet (including children) 503. II. greatly prized.and ably supplemented by the American and London the politicaldevelopment. centers for industrial training. etc. began a century ago when the Anglicans took up ship.770. etc. the Cameroons) 3. the largestChristian industrial isolated.365.Africa Board (Angola) emphasize Society and the American presents the problem of a vast congeriesof tribes on Christian missions in this region the lowest plane of culture. The political education Lovedale at for the most (1824) and Blythswood part small. of conflict between the zone Christianityand the recognizedthat the key to the future of Christianity from the Mohammedan tide sweeping southward in Africa lies in the conversion of certain particularly virile tribes (Hausas of Nigeria.the intricate complex of tribes (117 represented in Sierra Leone alone) Natal. be enrolhng over early 19th. 6. the Bantus.or phenomenal none Africa. yet for the most part they are settled warlike and the slave (Uganda) led to the opening of this territory and agricultural. 1. enrolled representing 15 in Sunday in the Congo region. It is generally today constitutingthe Equator as menace.and London (1877) found The latter have Catholics or Protestants. farmers. cultural level. the separate tribes are with the (1877). East and Central Africa. polygamy prevailsas a natural consequence. through them.000. these may be justlytermed. lem the Mosfor this responsibility.All are to missionary effort. South North and North-east Africa Among under the engaged in raisingup an adequate native leadership includingthe Sudan have largelycome be mentioned should Fourah and Christianity Bay College (Sierra influence of Mohammedanism has a hold in the two of the continent. has insuperable part of South Africa. to overcome. The latter serve as ministers. draws its students from genius of the able leaders. or China.Nyasaland.and But catechists. with their ancient Basel of the The missions and Basel Societies. every which cannot be denied. civilizations. Church Missionary. it has enrolled of the greatest names in the missionary some by France.and schools press. enrolled in schools of all grades 725. and hinterland from the Senegal River to German Beginning in 1875 This Africa. and the raisingup of a trained Christian leadership. extremes Leone).and ca. of the West Coast and the Bantus of Central and the institutions Africa. The LivingstoniaInstitution effective instrument is of most missions their the chief one medical (1875). Lovedale. 1890). The best understood The names of Livingstoneand Moffat are indelibly religiouspractices are of South Africa. Scottish. Zulus of Soudan. School is aided by substantial government esteemed and the art of oratory is cultivated and grants. else in the world. future of success degrading superstition. No either by has as yet been made (1875-76). reallybe comnotable contribution units are to the problem of industrial apart from it. Christianity staff.000.).was organized in direct response to They have a very high degree of control over their Livmgstone'sappeal.Khartum.West Africa has been seriously the pohtical divisions of the land. and the Church in the vast Moslem of Scotland Missions population. In British and of ca.over thirty religionsof the primitiveraces of Africa as all of organizations in all now laboring in this field. In Catholic Continent and Portugese possessionsRoman French history of the Dark (Hannington. as even illustrated in Amanzimtote dustrial Inhave absolute Seminary and Diplomatic skill is highly power. RELIGIONS of their work of Africa are found chiefly the Negroes consequent redistribution among among and missionary societies. organizedchurches ca. A more recent Schools problem has 338. While wandering hunting tribes IV. total foreign are as problem is by far the most serious. societies others under Protestant Christian instruction 543. missions in South. of Britain and France. Religions of United Free. Althe Negroes.there is a total lack of literacy. in South center result that the political Africa.000 native workers work is in the ascendancy. the vast bulk curtailed in the territorial readjustments following of the Negroes and Bantus but littleinfluenced are missions the War.000. 119. the Hottentots. here meet in a lifeand death native staff ca. philosophiesand religious. Its extensive educational work.Catholic Protestant. d. ca.

marriage.and relations. Almost everywhere there is an orderlyprocedure before constituted tribunals. Of the same generalnature are the ceremonies surrounding the inauguration of a chief with its precautions " tabu is treated with the greatest reverence and It is not easy to make out any moral quality and there is no connection between the tabu and the sacred or morally holy such as can be made out in the Greek and Hebrew aries reUgions. There no are there are no sects. while chiefs and their relatives receive the greatest care. no negations. But if we try to think of the preparatory certain effort to as a secure practical ceremony and then of the subsequent ceremony results.death. encountered hand. But there is also the feehng of fear and the desire for caution Another universal phenomenon is the fetish or It appears both as an amulet to keep off evil and as a taUsman to bring desirable results. the crises of their life. Other types of ceremonial besides the dances in the initiation of adolescent to be found are boys into the tribe and corresponding formaUties of puberty in girls. There is also the fishing. The question of the ordeal is not so easy. Tabu in the birth.Religions of DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS 8 is slight. for the "witch-doctor" is very different from a Within this procedure the ordeal is often a merely minister of religion. is difficult to Irace in the African culture. Thus far nothing has been said of the beliefs of There is the very greatest confusion the Africans. If we define rehgion as that Indian life.and individuals have Ufe-longinjunctions it has case a preparatory ceremonial. harmful. and in fact all conception of tabu as belonging to a specific owner. and finally there are no "idols. The amount prominence of strangers being often vary on the secures the friendlinessof the charm. or a third stage in which the dances _ become celebrations entertainment. Funeral attention customs depends greatly.A Africa.000. as the dance it is possibleto isolate a state of feelingand a type of behavior in which the ideal interests of the tribe will receive definition and emotional emphasis in the exalted moments of such a social celebration. and mere The religious becomes trations the festival. manifold.and the wizard. each narrator art which There is a universal belief in ghosts. Their main dependence is on very magic. of the left deceased. Doubtless motive is that of one ostentation and pride.the institution of totemism plays no manifestations of ceremonials religion. every and peace. The missionusually find the word for tabu unsuitable for reUgious ideas they wish to impart to their any awe. others are very old. dance. aries One result of this situation is that the missionwhether Mohanaof the developed religions.analogous to the "third degree Nevertheless. It was to speak of the fetishes as gods or idols and to speak of fetishism as if it were a system or a reUgion. slaves and unburied. which characterizes Australian and North American the reUgious life.articles. feared or both. them prized. This may be one of three forms: tabus of diet. of being forbidden. with which all parties to the transaction regard the whole procedure and the high emotional tone which makes it characterizes the community necessary to include this also as religious. as well as persons. connected with the advent It is too much perhaps to identifythis with the conversion experienceof some Protestant churches the confirmation or but the seriousness ceremony. and for the most tribe there will be tabus for the men. crime and punishment. Mackay records how he made coffin for the an enormous mother of Mutesa into whose there went grave trade cloth to the value of $75. in which concerning food. fetishes Here again the variation is great. In some and greatly esteemed or parts of the continent the fetish is in the form of a human being but this is not essential and is thethis fact that led early writers exception.or definite doctrines about the fate of the good realized and the bad in the next world. But when for God and the attempts to get specificnames devil. these is the cerewhile special families will have monial family women. or Christian.tabud or a subsequent celebration in which the natural places. the eating of which wiU be or magical influence such as a hunting dance which perhaps fatal. Some are private. emotions following a successful enterprise are rulers. war on making and rain prevention. and securitywhich medan and solemnity.never encounter any systematic . These importantpart either in the reUgious or social Ufe. tabud clothing. Each tribe has social certain food ceremonials The animals that the and within are are characteristically tabu. others for the part public in nature and appear Chief among in many forms. be called spiritof the departed. temporary tabus of food.some facts type of behavior in which the ideals and ultimate which defined and made ends of the group to indicate seem that they have are real.it is soon men that the search is vain. T|ie primitive man definite religiousdoctrines which are in any sense theologiesbecause and systematic. indeed. Their cosmologies stillin the stage of folk-lore and folk-lore is stiU are feels free to embelUsh. there is a religion.hunting. unclean.and a sort of one primitive mysticism is imiversal. There is of course there are no temples or sacred meeting places. They concern are Quite otherwise is it with tabu. and observances which to be identified with are Totemism. rainpuberty and initiation.then passed it is in the ceremonials that are so frequent a phase form of totemic organization. (such of victory)as a spontaneous expression." technical device. harvest. This also can rehgious.no parties. Or rather the different peoples have each a group of practices of the modern police. no worship as civilized no prayer people define worship. There are. The rehgion of such a people impresses the civihzed observer on first contact mainly by its sacred literature.as should look for the typical now of African hfe that we existing. Illusceremony ance of this tendency may be found in the observin America of Hallowe'en no longer a serious reUgiousfestival but in some respects like a carnival. and the in the writingsof the earlier investigators has no is now reason plain. of a formal sort. The social attitudes toward the tabus vary greatlybut in some instances the given vent. and superstitiontakes the place of science. is sense seedtime.and seasons. such as the chief. It is universallypracticed but usually as an integral part of a formal judicialprocedure. of the many It is better to regard the fetish as one and varying devices for controlUng the environment from triviallymagical to profoundly all the way emotional and sociallyimportant devices. for a costlyfuneral testifies not only to the affection for the deceased but also to the power and wealth of the survivors. converts. It is not easy to make a clear distinction between magic and religionand the questionis one on which the experts in the field are at present not in agreement. There are also very harmful the game more actually makes easily caught. no prieststrictlyspeaking. very powerful. Africans are trials and among them very fond of court judicial procedure has developed farther than among any other primitive people.and untried with little to make new. through some but.no debates or arguments about such conceptions.

" fixed by the canons decisions of the church for or the ordinationof an officialor for the execution of The specificact." martyrdom in the persecutionsof Diocletian.' agnosticism Rehgiousty. chiefly noted for his rigorous defence of orthodoxy. the Present and the Coming.363) forbade holding the Agape in churches. cience (2) A 6th. 535-536. there were two Ages or Aeons. This meal seems unsuccessful attempts ETHICS AND active in duration of time. He is AGNI. either in the physical of God. Herbert Spencer'sdefinition of the ultimate those who alive at its coming share in the were Energy from which all realityas the Unknowable the great at judgments and blessings accorded things proceed. CANONICAL. Faris Ellsworth The name of a social reUgious meal AGAPE. the AGNOSTICISM. Usually agnosticism here involves the restriction of inquiry to the observable One of the elemental divisions into which divided by the Jews." church Sicily. and by the Greek church on January July 5. The Present Age was regarded as under the control of its prince. time was " . but of the custom have no certain this point in subsequent times we early writers knowledge.particularly back of these processes." The name of two popes..evil doers. Its association with the Lord's Supper was probably due to the fact that the First Supper had been to have connected with a feast. used in the plural. The age for the observance of fasts is 21-60.. Patron ST.at the Agape. of consciousness. who were sequences with the Jews.946-955. states formerly fixed the age at 12 years for girls. the Coming Age would to either reUgiousdogmatism or aggressivematerialbe introduced of transcendent in questions as to the nature miraculously. who lived in Sicily saint of Catania. of the three most important gods of the priestly reUgion because of his essential relation to the magical ritual of sacrifice. widely and variouslycelebrated in the early church. and usually expressing disapproval of any attempts to make afl"rmations as to reaUty beyond these limits. 21).to the separation of the Agape from the of the Lord's Supper. 678-681. Virgin and martyr listed in calendar. Patron saint of young maidens. It appsars from some (e. age for ordination of a priestat 24. century sect which denied the omnisof Jesus. more or AGAPETUS.perhaps as early as Justin Martyr. Agapelus II. assize with which the Coming Age was but Spencer contended that men to be estaba assume may AGE. The practise was suppressedby the Lateran Council. correspondingto Jesus' entry upon his pubhc ministry. and a bishop at 30. Their adherents are quick to accept a better way. Rowe or 18 years (inWyoming. According to Jewish speculation... AGATHA. controversy.and the age of to 16 has been raised in a majority of cases consent K. and abounded in evils inflicted on the servants world or identified of events.Tertullian and the Apostohc Constitutions) in remembered that. nate Huxley brought the word into currency to desigattitude of ignorance as morallypreferable According to the eschatological conception (see an ism Eschatology) of the time. the people were to be kept from far as possible.Primitive religions and to the meet " Jerusalem (Acts 2:42. ills of life. as an It was brotherliness. a deacon cal The canoniat 22. If a be contracted by common be prosecuted that age. blessingsattendant upon righteousnessand loyalty cannot be known to Yahweh. 1139.Satan.without entering in the processes In the Coming Age the sovereign authority into speculationconcerning the hidden causes lying of God would be established. but moral education has stimulated pubUc opinion to demand greater legalprotection.A 9 DICTIONARY RELIGION OF representcrude opposition. SAINT. a man may to intercourse." AGAPETI while professing of the early Middle Ages who celibacydwelt together in holy love. Between the two were the Days of the Messiah. for the purpose lished. The American it ranges from 12 to 18 for females. and the Council of Carthage (419) declared that. we person on brought food as he was able.with certain exceptions. tha needy were practical ways.involves a degree of agnosticism. people. But here and there the custom See also Eucharist. expression of Christian easilytransferred to the Gentile churches because originatedat similar meals world. and as a saint by the Latin church on ary Janu- 28. Shailer Mathews The age which has been AGE. century. Agapelus I. or punished and the people of God be given the td^exist. The final decisions of the Roman Catholic church those of the were Council of Trent (1563) which fixed the canonical at 23.as the The word is sometimes of expressingendless Ages of Ages. CONSENT. the Gentile converts less pronounced pagan the church's supreme Among Agape took on a This character. The dead (at least the righteous)would be raised from Sheol and with reality. venerated 21 and 14. century sect which limited the omniscience of God to present time.in 304. as still these feasts. Agnosticism After the Judgment Day the final or Age-status of sufferingfor the evil and happiness for the good would begin.subsequently carried over into Christianity. persisted George Gilbert Holley Monks and nuns and AGAPETAE." The which at age law." (1) A 4th. for rape. 46). (of Synod of Neocaesarea any tion 314 or 325) firstfixed the canonical age for ordinaof a priest at 30. Roman If it is the common were in the Greek and Agape which is mentioned in I Cor. even though she consents In Europe The age varies in different countries." A philosophicalattitude asserting the impossibiUtyof knowledge beyond the limits of verifiable experience. would fife after death. " one AGNOETAE. and then to its sacrament Synod of Laodicea gradual suppression. a subdeacon of discretion for children is 7 when they age The under the disciplineof the church.21. the In science or philosophy agnosticism means or refusal to discuss metaphysical substances of causes. fact and regard for the Eucharist led. come canonical age for marriage is 14 in boys and 12 in girls. conclude that each should 11:20-34. the Western in the 3rd. incorporealspirits. Henry AGE OF marriage may girl is below A Christian girlwho suffered AGNES. such as God. thus limitinginvestigationto the realm verifiable experience." Monothelite Pope. for centuries. his festival occurringSeptember 20. AGATHO. the oppressors be of the Jewish declares that the supersensibleobjects of faith.g. The fire-godof Vedi'creUgion. first.The (ca.canonized by the church.

reform of India begun in German the Moslems JOHANN. A certain degree of agnosticism therefore is not incompatiblewith a positiveinterpretationof religiousexperience. exhorts us: the Aramaeans Several us deities are mentioned in it.America). The crop is made safe to eat y offeringthe first fruits to the god. by firebrands sent across dwindlingrace five in Siberia. on thou doest.at seed-time. blood mingled with the first cakes baked from the and eaten in a sacred meal (S.in times of drought. The northern in which primitive first furrow is often turned by the chief or king example of the manner interesting with the environthe season to open auspiciously(Siam.).' AND RELIGION ETHICS 10 At the time of sowing." theologian. church a cloth marked the elements of the Eucharist. Eustace Haydon heaven. The first tion grain is cut with great caution." AGRAPHA. protectingthe crop and The principleunderlying the ceremonies He is a creative arvest." Mathews The name of a modern Shailer AHMADIYA. in the Zoroastrian of sin. Romanes. or by someone a or magician. "Jesus said to his disciples. religion. noted chieflyas the originatorof the the German formers expected Madhi Reof Islam." In the narrow AGRICULTURE.derived from Syrian Christian litera- and probably a part of the lost literature of 3.by cursing(Greece). by a sacred meal shared in comThe last sheaf of the year embodies the cornspirit. Gerald Birney Smith of God. but carried along by oral tradition until were in some writing. (5) A section of the and of the Gloria beginningwith these words. among claimed Ahmad who to be the 1891 by Ghulam 1494-1566." The survivors of this to the field (America). the source sowing. AGNUS DEI. air. by carryingthe image of the deity around the fields (Germany. Typical examples only may be given here. and especiallyin the autumn the one object upon of securing prosperityby control of the powers of A.v. finallyembodied of canonical variations If misquotations or not counted.by incantation formulae which command the gods of food (Japan). peoplebuild up social relationships " " Ereparing . but is is that of the use of a magical power controlled by power annihilation at the end of doomed to overcome influences hostile to the to defeat and the group the world. All over the world the first-fruits call for special ceremonies. or remnants by snakes as in the Greek Thesmophoria (q. he said to him." "the maiden.). by victim whose ashes are sprinkled burning a human OF. There are nomianism.agnosticism tends to give the right of way to unquestionable physical facts.but retainingwhat is good. coeval with the good God. and death. The movement formalism.contended that an impartial agnostibeliefs are preferable would show that religious alternatives. the seed is stimulated by phallicprocessions. givingpracticalassurance of the veto Because placed on metaphysical discussion. Ormazd. Sayings attributed to Jesus Christ which are not to be found in our canonical literature. found in some ture. It is called by such names as "cornmother." "the old woman. Their religionis an fields tied to the tails of foxes (Roman). Recent to any logical psychonon-religious indicate and epistemologicalinvestigations is so complex relation to environment that our between be drawn that no sharp dividing Une can and vaguer knowledge in the strict sense sensory apprehensions of reality. as with the Jains. is chieflya rehgious Melanchthon See Antiof Krishna. or mon. the returning Spiritof antinomian controversy among of the Jews and an which avatar brought him into conflict with Christ. to the king.."the Lamb name applied to Jesus. The rites deal with the technique of AHRIMAN. THE STORY OF. and ask and the small shall be added unto you.sometimes. skilful money-changers. The great time of the year is the harvest. by sprinkling with human blood. protest against Moslem at the present time. A principlecommon of the to many ascetic sects of India which forbids injury to any form of sentient life.Saghalin and the islands of Japan. the Messiah and later with Luther. "On the sapie day. by mixing it with material of great potency such as the seed of the last sheaf of the previousharvest. disease. There is evidence center that at this time human victims were their killed. and One Nights.by the use of obscene language (India. the Scripture in its of the pre-Christianera.000 members RITES OF. movement AGRICOLA. processionsaround the boundary and sacrifices (Roman). new corn At this point the harvest festival merges in the great cult of vegetation at the autumnal equinox when the waning life of the year is stimulated by special rites from which arise the great fertihty and the goddesses (see Mother-Goddesses) Eriest Mysteries (q. The growing crops are protectedby recitation of magical rituals (Japan).often with lamentawho possesses specialpowers." and becomes the of dancing and feasting.usuallybearing a banner and a Catholic church a wax cross. in his Thoughts cism on Religion.by the sacrifice of cows AINUS.holding that the objectsof rehgiousbelief not are scientifically demonstrable.disorder." A story of the versions of the Thousand sage Ahiqar. and easilypasses over into avowed skepticismso far as religionis concerned. emblem (4)In the Greek used to cover with this figure. "Rightly.v. RELIGION on the Earth and to Ceres. The Ritschlian theology. crops.' rejecting some Aramaean 'Be ye things. thou knovvest what but if thou knowest not. The elaborate development of the agricultural most rites is seen in the state rehgion of China where the whole splendor of the state ritual is concentrated in spring. AHIMSA. heavenly things and the earthly shall be added " unto " you.A Agnus Dei DICTIONARY OF positivereligiousattitude toward this Unknowable in the form of cosmic mysticism. There are many magical arts for securing rain and for making the stalks grow long. having seen working one if indeed the Sabbath. 70. is to a certain extent agnostic. sense principleof evil agricultural personified the soil." a (1)Lat. these sayings of Jesus are utterances not numerous are and.Greece). faith alone of their reality. China). carried to the extreme of toleratingvermin. human of pigs devoured or blood." See Ormazd. with the exceptionof possibly a dozen importance. following Kant.'" 'Ask great things. (2) The figureof a lamb symboUzing Jesus. thou are accursed and a trangressor of the law. mass. desire to make such dialecticians. 2. Peru). of no particular the most interestingare: 1. Possibly cases. chief or priests. 'O man. thou art blessed. (3) In the Roman cake or medallion bearing the impression of the and blessed by the pope. borders.and earth. therefore. The ground is prepared by dabces around the AHURA MAZDA. " AHIQAR. France.

although this adherence Stock Harry Thomas nominal.and in China (Master of Rain).free-thinkers and atheist? were to present their views at his coai't. and tradition. This service was almost entirely to the white population. function of the sky gods but where agricultureis important a specialrain god usuallydevelops as in Vedic India (Parjana. Vritra (Semitic).A 11 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION their life. to gnosticismand tion to mysticism.g. Creoles and Eskimos. Catholics have 16 churches with The Roman resident priests. begun in 1915 had eight stations serving in 1877. the unknown potencies of the outer storms. This name refers strictly AIR to that pheric class of supernatural beings belonging to atmosentiated and meteorologicalphenomena as differboth from the gods of the sky and from and ghosts dwelUng in the air or demons spirits. Egypt alone has a The gift of rain is often a god of the air. especiallyfrom Islam and Parsism.) supportedthe Jewish Messiah Bar Kokhbar before the revolt headed and suffered martyrdom by the latter was crushed by the Romans.a and contemporary of the founders of the Buddhist Jain communities. Missionaries from the have found that there is better response is natives than from the white populationwhich and is interested chiefly in getting temporary ents gold.d. Elector of BRANDENBERG. OF a Counter-Reformation. (2) the impossibilityof free-will or responsibilitysince man's life is fixed by fate. Aleutians.and central ceremonies those The most world. He was strongly opposed to the Christian schism. Eustace Haydon war gods. is the "snatchers" and which comes to refer largelyto the pestilential winds. leader (India). Boreas.by his own inherited nature. diseases. Moravian work was begun in 1855 and sixtyyears later this church counted 1. He of was vision to see that the good life calm sufficiently for man and the security of the empire did not of the battle of creeds. the slayer of the drought-demon. spirits. 2.see Eskimos. Representatives of all the great welcomed rehgions." practical philosopher. The in called simply the Thunderer as god is sometimes China.. sea. No clear ideas of gods or of have developed of the soul. in the various storm and lightningis seen gods Indra. as of the Babylonian Enhl. An earlier name or Harpies Greece.c. dangerous presence There is nothing correspondingto the organization. pation Immediately after Russian occuchurch Orthodox of Alaska. GODS. fire. Rammon of the Wild Hunt of Souls and Thor (Teutonic). protection They secure from evil forces such as diseases and the danger of magic spells. TO. wind gods are Vata and Vayu while the destructive and troublesome winds are represented in Rudra and the Maruts. Diocese of the Aleutian Islands and North America 10.vegetation. temples or priesthoodof developed religion. trees. the nearest approach to spiritis the concept of the in the disease-givingswamp. Missionary^ The Protestant in 1915 had Episcopal church twenty churches with twelve clergymen and six lay readers. thunder and lightning. century a. animals. The early of Yahweh.000 Indians." vigorous and influential leader of the V. thunder A combination Wind.in fire. To these should be added the gods of the four quarters symbohzed in ancient Ancient America by the cross. it may fairlybe said that his faith centered in a God whose for the belief in one agent he was administration of the empire. 1490-1545. Missions.Indra).50-132(-5). he helpedto modify Jewish ture. Their customs forces affecting of control of the favorable and consist of methods dangerous things in nature sun. of the Protestant the most Among prosp)erous missions is that of the Presbyterianchurch.Shu.winds. China has her Prince of the maleficent of the rain. " " AjrVlKAS. The PresbyterianBoard four thousand at the Congregationalwork in 1920 took over Wales. Wind gods are very prominent in the They are usuallyassociated rehgions of America. worn by the newly baptized in the early church. Almost all of the natives (1920) are adheris often of some sect. North Indians. He is best known for his easy tolerance of all religiousfaiths and for his attempt to estabhsh a religion for his empire by selection from several faiths. (1)A linen robe. amulets and fetish-sticks. work. AND AKBAR.Adad." American 1. (q. ing nature " mountains. most religious of the denominations carry on educational activities industrial which include training. swamps. century b.reaching to the feet and by Roman having closely fittingsleeves. Religions. descriptions suggest a connection with storm. by Gosala.of after-life. storm. wind and clouds. His real greatness lay in his abilityas an administrator and in his powers of concihation.that they rarely remain separated but either and mingle their functions with ascend to heaven descend those of the sky-gods or to earth and take on the characteristics of fertility or powers A. It should be said. at first tolerant toward the Reformers. Suso-no-wo. " _ ALB. The Methodists had but four churches of adherents in 1919. depend upon the outcome not He was a religiousenthusiast or a skeptic.v).The dead go underground. In cosmogony and psychology their behef was practicallyidentical with that of the Jains (q. BAVARIA. Their chief distinctive beUefs were (1) a thorough-going determinism. the number being but 98. however. which Christians. Duke of Bavaria.in regard to these gods of the air. for the winds of the north wind.400 baptized Indians. which since 1890 had been under the supervision of the American Association. who disputesthe region of the sky with his sister the sun-goddess (Japan). the religious in the bear. thought by his Uteralistic interpretationof Scripof Pharisaic by his systematization^ he One of the greatest of Jewish teachers. (3) the universal salvation of all souls after the lapseof vast ages of transmigration. objectsare the potenciesin grain. In the period followingthe destrucof Jerusalem. of the forsst and swamp by means charms. Greece and Rome picture anthropomorphic gods of the wind. " ALBERT 1528-1579.Woden.wind. " An ascetic community of India led at the close of the 6th. the Russian in the In 1915 there were began its mission. The powers themselves sufficiently important in the hfe of early to attain divine rank are man rain. " Jewish rabbi and AKIBA BEN JOSEPH." OF CathoUc cardinal of the Roman church. ALBERT and Mainz . second half ETHICS Albert of Brandenberg Emperor of all North India in the of the 16th. and by his environment.20 mission chapels and several In addition to strictly schools. e. or the lightningstands out as an individual thing as in the Dragon-Sword of Shinto. of the air which have shown clouds.worn Catholic priests (2) A robe when celebratingmass. are which deal with food in the forms of vegetationand of the eating of the bear. with the cardinal points of the sky and function as In India the good fertiUtyand creative powers. MISSIONS RELIGIONS OF AND ALASKA.v.

literature and the Epistle to the The Johannine influenced by Alexandrian Hebrews are thought. in the middle of the i4th. a man unusual acter. of Pope. 1655-1667. Pope. the latter of whom is frequentlyregarded as the " " " rightfulpope. Gnostic and which poured over Italy and France in the earUer Christian centuries and held their ground Manichaean were They against Catholicism.). ALBERT 1490-1568. 1061-1073. As examples of the former meaning of the word.and served and defender of orthodoxy. -Bishop of Rome in the first quarter of the 2nd. Alexander VI.v. 1689-1691. and a supporter of the Reformation foimder of the Prussian national church. to positionsof wealth and influence. His claim Pope. Lollards and Nollards.C. the Summa Theologiae. of Venus. order in Germany.) God. First duke of Prussia. Its purpose to bury the dead and care for the sick. Alexander I. " 222-235. and Gregory XII. a 12 OF a MAGNUS ALBERTU" (ca. and eating of meat. It is written in the form of question and answer. the act of going up to the reading-desk to take part in the reading of the Scroll of the Five Books of Moses. a of wide learning in science. " 'ALIYAH. ownership of property. This method of expression was with church teachers common like Origen and is still in vogue bibUcal among students who hold that Scripturehas other meanings than those reached by historical and critical process methods." Al"bxandrinus. See Codex CODEX." Name derived from ALEXANDER. 1193-1280). and one in the substitution was Aquinas. 1409-1410. (Arab. ALBIGENSES. of noble character. " The also is used word to express the reverse by which personal narratives are explained as representingabstract ideas.philosophyand man of the teachers of Thomas theology. An elaborated metaphor in which conceptions of one class are expressed in forms of another. the pope siding with the latter. Alexander IV. Alexander III..v.). The Gnostic schools of Basilides and Valentinus The originatedin Alexandria.T. practiseof perpetratingpracticaljokes on that day at the expense of the victim's creduhty. the counterpart the ALEXANDER OF HALES. Shailer Mathews as ALL (q.) as patron.but charged with immoral and the ambition his alleged to elevate children." The name of eight popes. Pope. "going up". Alexander V." Englsh scholastic theologian of the 13th. rejected the Old Testament the work of an evil deity. Alexander VIII. great catechetical school of Alexandria numbered its heads among Pantaenus. called Doctor He entered the Franciscan order Irrefragabilis. contests with Frederick of Germany Barbarossa and Henry II.science and theology. Alexander //. His significance of Aristotelian for Platonic logicand metaphysics.organized The membership is comin London in 1875. the two best known works in English are Spenser's "Fairie Queene" and Bunyan's "Pilgrim'sProgress.) In the services of the Synagog." Pope. Other for the order are names Celhtes. OF THE REFORMED A fraternal alhance of all churches. called also New Manichaeans. His assertion of a higher sphere of authority for the revelation beyond the limits of reason was beginning of the long conflict between naturalism and supernaturalism. Athanasius (q. The as the formulater theology of the Cappadocians is an Alexandrian doxy.A Albert of Prussia but later a RELIGION OF DICTIONARY supporter of the Catholic reaction in Germany. Alexius (5th. of ETHICS AND ALEXANDRINUS.Manichaean. Clement and Origen (q. posed in of churches of Presbyterian principles. Pope. at the time of the Black Death."the father of orthowas bishop of Alexandria. influential figurein the conwas an troversies the person of Christ. Cell-brethren. the Mohammedans Qu'ran and among Being." named from FOOL'S Aprilthe first. as when abstract ideas are personifiedand given relations involved in such personification.v. The teachingin the Bible was elaboratelydevelopedby Philo of Alexandria with the purpose of giving universal validityto the O. fered Italy sufmuch during his reignby the conflict between the GhibelUnes and the Guelphs. They was chose St. was of the church in France known ALEXANDRIAN SCHOOL. PRUSSIA.the saints going at once eternal happiness. ApoUonius of Tyana and Orpheus. Cyril (q. the expressionof the Among Christians they were ences influArian oriental. (q. was disputedby Benedict XIII. ALEXANDER SEVERUS. Thus a character be said to representa virtue or a vice.). century." can Schoolman and a leaderin the Dominiiieologian. narratives. especiallyin Cologne." A theological school of great influence in the early Greek church. throughout the world of presbyterial polity. " used in the for the Supreme name ALLEGORY.v. A in R.v. and his work."Pope.v." (Hebrew. particularlyCaesar and Lucretia Borgia.France) .)in theology. over Albi (S." Roman emperor." the latter being a pictorial expositionof the author's method of finding allegorical theology. Cathari.). Alexander VII. who was the leader of the Alexandrian school in his day in oppositionto the theologiansof the Antiochan school (q. and for the vigorous opponent of the movement " greater freedom GaUicanism and tolerant. ALLAH. originated in the Celtic cult of Arianrhod. cent. a friend of the Jesuits and an ally of Spain on whom he was " " partlydependent. ALLIANCE CHURCHES. one of the successful in his pohtical was greatest popes. See Mohammedanism.is the first important contribution from the Franciscans. 1159-1181. ALEXIANS.). in 1222.and his may actions may be regarded as symbohcal of the effects of such virtue or vice in society. 1254-1261.his religious policy harmony with the Reformed churches who hold . 1492-1503. chartalents." product. They were scattered and almost exterminated by the Crusades and Inquisition. of England. century. century.the image of Jesus syncretistic being placedin his domestic chapel besides those of Abraham. taught transmigration of souls of the unto a state of perfected. a supporter learningand of civic improvements in Rome. and is typicallyscholastic in method and content. DAY." and Melanchthon friend of Luther in Germany. forbade marriage. substituted the as of laying consolamentum (an elaborate ceremony of hands and on fasting)for baptism. order which arose the Netherlands.

meaning an attitude having of benefitinga social other. consistingof a raised structure on which burnt. when in prayer. ALTAR-BREAD." of the church in the Lord's communion the outward altar-fellowship being equivalent Supper. the temple at Jerusalem there was a small golden altar for incense as well as the largeone of stone for " animal sacrifice. churches. the as It is popularlyknown not legislative.C. ALMSGIVING.in protest of against the formaUty and lack of spirituality sanctuary. As the ritual became refined more shows common. There are purpose The successful communism." Ethics ALTRUISM. Gospel and of the Apocalypse.enabling AMBROSE. incense brought " fruit. (1) In psychology. also called All-Hallows. its functions being advisory. The sun-goddess. and at the latest stage metal altars were persecution in Germany they finallymoved Since food was America. is hardly accurate.chief of the divine figuresof the native Japanese rehgion and of the ruUng line of Mikados. 1st." church festival in SAINTS' ALL and unknown. send their children to Lutheran Suffering to introduced. known observed Nov." See Altruism for an earher use of the word. wafer. Since the intention of the offerer annually by all the people from among on and the community is entirelymodern to give this part of the sacrifice to the god it was Industrially clear that he was seems provides for every need of its 1800 people.meaning an excavation into which victims are thrown. memory observed A R. and later suppressed In Social Psychology Lat.grain. The pouring of the blood upon the altar is preciselyparallelto the anointing of the sacred stone at Bethel. are remembered ALMARICIANS. and 3rd.A 13 authorityof the Bible in Alliance The morals. later superseded by the pulpit and the " lectern. speak of a depressed altar. The fire incorporatedas the Amana Society in 1859." Bishop of of the four Latin doctors of the educated church. N. but RELIGION of faith and matters holds its General Councils every 3 or 4 years. 2nd. the altar and Later the sacred stone were the former differentiated. the of rehgion at which fire was not used.). to the once OF DICTIONARY ETHICS AND Saint is regarded as a the Christian Eucharist Where sacrificethe table at which it is celebrated is properly H. " An American tic communis- in Germany in 1714. ALOGL cards portions of the liturgyof the Mass in R. AMATERASU. and placed on the altar to assist the A sect of ascetic mystics. or and In the altar became smaller. and on the Church after Pentecost by the Eastern church. usually in the form of an unleavened the host (q. Milan. also designated Eucharist A DAY. The story of the sacrifice of Isaac specialty under that in one form of the ritual the victim bound and laid on the wood of the altar and its throat was then cut so that the blood would the altar. main purpose the means which by was kept burning on it was the soul in preparation for the future Ufe. schools. the specificpurpose (2) In ethics an attitude of moral interest in others to the and activity on their behalf. Founded offerings as the Community of True Inspiration.Allhallowmas. There thought to reside in the The is no emphasis upon altar then was stone. See Charity A heretical sect of the 2nd. SOULS' DAY. to the deity are of be a mound In its simplestform the altar may To earth. SAINT (ca. He was as a lawyer and called from a magisterial post to be bishop of Milan in 374. unmixed to and mixed altar-fellowship to close communion communion. 340-397). "PresbyterianAUiance. and one . " Three Their of the celebrant. members The banded themselves dren together to live in brotherly relations as the chilof God They refused to seeking salvation. " by the Inquisition. festival. On this basis the but upon the spirituality stone. " A piece of furniture for a SOCIETY. the altar. of episcopalfaithfula model property. " " (or ALUMBRADOS).000 acres. 44:16). religiousdogma or ceremony originallythe sacred and piety.Y. Out of sublimated and carried to the which the food was has developed a remarkably the religious of a stage however traces divinity. On accepting the office he divested himself of his ness.v. known centuries only through references in Irenaeus. presentedon it the altar was thought called the where They were of as a table and is in fact sometimes own they now 26." Ambrose. open and Almsgiving.. In the more ornate templesthe stone might be carved. table of the god (Ezek. " See Brothers of the Free Spirit. religious society. An official reading desk in the early church. " bread The used in the by both the Western and Eastern CathoUc churches." the "other" of the social environment. and ALTER. P. century. according to which they rejectedthe applicationof the Logos doctrine to Jesus. a term correlative to egoism. in contrast seeking of selfish satisfaction. Lutheranism. the 16th." ALOMBRADOS tain containingcer- use dates from for term A Lutheran ALTAR-FELLOWSHIP. arising in . in 1842 and to Iowa in 1855. becoming the table of the divinity. century. the gift confirm this was placed and consumed share in central direction and impression. ancestress " AMBO.a heap of stones or a singlelarge stone. Hippolytus and Epiphanius. church and the first Sunday of England.C. honor of all saints and martyrs. conditioningthe experienceof the personal "ego. state. AMANA ALTAR. to take the oath of allegiance or to serve as soldiers." ALL the souls of all the faithful dead Nov. and became His power and influence were great. Smith called an altar. was unbloody offeringswere . ALTAR-CARDS. 41:22. divinity was people are graded in three ranks and advanced fire broke out from the stone on which the offering reduced according to the judgment of the Great All work at their chosen Council of Trustees.and the Johannine authorship of the 4th. by the R. the Bethel (house of God) in which or Stories which relate that at home. The to train of the community is religious. and Society is governed blood of the victim was by a central board of thirteen trustees elected simply poured or smeared the elders. This as well as the flow directlyonto Arab custom of pouring the blood into an excavation at the foot of the altar points in the same direction.C.Spain in the first quarter of the 16th. "other.

" A union of Greek tribal usage with a common Christianity. Doctrinally the Ambrosians belonged to the branch of the Anabaptists (q. for an and prescribepenance accepted the ascetic ideal of and his day. and was due to pursuits.wine LECTURES HISTORY OF See RELIGIONS.v. Jesus' usage as in John 16:23. It has been used in A M O R A Muhammadan and liturgies. "interpreter. and stillused on the left arm as or a badge by some chant.viz. even though "Holy Harmony. AMERICANISM. Neverth"" " . AMPULLA. writings wrongly ascribed to Ambrose the most a commentary important of which was the epistles of Paul." AMBROSIASTER." A parchment manuand furnishes due opportunity for initiative. condemn them as essentially Thought. the meaning of which is to confirm or strengthen.g. AMICE. priestsin celebrating of the time It dominated church music from close mass. or means time when cannot in of whiling away one figuresof the Zoroastrian reUgion acting as the engage attendants immediate and executives of Ormazd.v. century in the north of England and sent in a." the foreignmissionarysocietyof the Congregational Pylae). used in baptism. on AMITABHA.. (2) A 16th. century Christian of Milan."plural: Jewish. but now Florence.e. have a positiveand valuable function in "Immortality. end Modernism They have." All forms of pleasantoccupations. condemned the movement. promulgating a high standard of Christian ethics even emperor.) for the normal individual. The association of amusements their relativelyslight Their names with idle enjoyment and suggest that they are attributes of the to demand on personified as high God energetic action has led many archangels "Good sinful. Christian One of the Jewish masters Sometime its use is with reference to the words of anof Babylonia other Amoraim.. AMIATINUS. to 6th. are (q. 14 : 16 gies. AMBROSIAN CHANT.""Desired Kingdom. The same frivolous than recreation." "Perfect Righteousness. emphasizing the virtue of virginity. removed from the eternal Buddha He is the merciful (see Adibuddha).involving less expendieral libture ideals later found expressionin of energy. (1) A fur fur-lined hood or cloak. " " . the same (q.v.g.C. " A name used AMULETS.) used by the speaker to strengthen his own words.and traconsistingof a around the accredited to Ambrose of Milan (q.which are associated with by Father Isaac Thomas Hecker. Religions. who rose " to AMEN. ETHICS AND rebuke Ambrose to in both individual and social relations. if it is wholeCODEX. in America mental or physical. e. for which it is the best authority. as well as a great pulpit orator." See Amon. AMBROSIANS.)and whose teachings it is contained in the Gemara Sometimes the R. The two chief amphictyonic unions were AMERICAN BOARD OF COMMISSIONERS those centered and FOR of at Delos The legalname Delphi (earlierprobably at FpREIGN MISSIONS. and American In a narrower sense. or in the doxoloI Cor." "Saving Health. 22:20. be considered in amusements Catholic officials gave evidence that they were hghter or more may accord with the pope's declaration. (2) A vestment French of Greek ditionally music with the church psalter. or the response of the congregationto the prayer offered by the priestin expounded the Mishna (q.v. AMON. and AngUcan churches. centuries.d. Lectures History on of or water. A Hebrew word. written early in the 8th. unction. It is true that one's dailywork. of the term. step a AMMON. vowed not into complete to enter figure who until assured that all who Buddhahood trust his would find eternal salvation in the happy grace western Paradise over which he presides. and who claimed immerevelation from God. however. AMIDA.extreme and the consecration of kings. script does afford much containingthe Old and New Testaments in the genuinesatisfaction. to indicate and the Uberal tendencies of a type of Catholic preaching and teaching alleged to have been practiced AMUSEMENTS. Re. growing out of a combination song clerics." One of the five Buddhas of contemplation." A AMERICAN ON church as a container for the consecrated oil. Ambrose till the Gregorian reaction at the of the 6th.)called Pneumatics. taking their name Milan.especiallyof older children and adults are referred to." some Ufe." See Canaanites.C. century. confirmation.the recuperation SPENTAS.v." Positive significance. the of the Pauhsts. in America. Denomination.C. He was the coupled with the sun-god. He was one of the foremost exegetes and hymn-writers of the early church." and abused. See Amitabha.mass " " . "useful" pursuits. relaxation from vocational activities or other serious founder The controversy arose several years after Hecker's death. (1) Name congregationsoriginatingin or near Milan since the of from Ambrose 14th. XIII.). See Music. AMORITES. century. rectangularpiece of white hnen worn neck or shoulders by R. Rev. See Charms Amulets.. God of the nome of Thebes in Egypt the importance when Thebes became of the later politicalcenter empire.Amusements. flask employed in the R.or as the final word of a prayer." A " formerly worn spiritedcongregational " of certain R. rehgious interest meeting groups under a "truce of God" at the temple of the deity. 716 as a present to the Amiata Pope. and assumed character of a solar deity as Amon-Re. (Aramaic.who speaker." The used to designame nate the author of certain 4th. in is cited as the firstevidence of its liturgical AMPHICTYONY.Ambrosian him A Chant OF DICTIONARY RELIGION 14 Latin Vulgate. all kinds of French In the broadest sense advocacy of liberahsm based on a French translation of a life of Hecker." AMESHA A group of six divine of wearied bodily and mental capacities.C.) and Palestine in the 3rd. or in cold weather by priests and monks. afterward given to Monte (whence in the Laurentian Library at its name). In 1899 Pope Leo play and recreation. century Anabaptist sect whose diate leader was named Ambrose.

A

15

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

is in definite
absorbed worker
relaxation and lighterpleasure.
take the
amusements
Specificvalues. When
to health,
of active play, they contribute
form
of furnishingdiversions but also
not merely by way
by bringing into action those parts of the body
exercised by work.
They restore
not sufficiently
ments
mental poise and spontaneityby furnishingemploythe higher and
which are less exacting upon
wholesome
Most
unstable mental processes.
more
values upon
amusements
depend for their specific
for the free
the extent
to which
they are avenues
ties
expressionof various instincts. Instinctive activiare
generallysatisfyingand hence amusing by
with serious pursuits.
contrast
There
The appeal of low types of amusements.
has always been a distinct tendency for commercial
individual
the over-worked
interests to debauch
in his normal quest for amusement
by appealing to
or
exciting these impulses in their least desirable
forms, as in various kinds of staged fights,the
theatrical performance, the lewd dance,
immoral
and more
recentlyby the indecent motion picture.
and filthy
that the coarse
It is a mistake to assume
is naturally more
amusing than the clean and
It is often lack of opportunity for the
beautiful.
latter that leads many
people to turn to and acquire
a taste for the former.
The social and
religiousproblem,. Social and
workers cannot
afford to ignore the normal
religious
If religionis to
human
craving for amusements.
include pleasurable
include the whole life it must
serious
diversions as well as emphasize the more
of life. There is no more
important
responsibilities
service to be rendered to any community than the
careful planning and organizationof lighterforms
of diversions.
This service is increasingly
necessary
of the high tension under which
account
on
many
of the monotonous
live and on account
grind that
communities
fillsthe lives of many
others.
Most
will rise to higher levels in their tastes for amusements
if the latter are
intelligently
planned and
A standard
thus be set
can
properly carried out.
will gradually affect for the better the
up which
commercialized
social and
forms.
The
religious
be appreciated
importance of all such efforts may
ideals
of our
of life are
when
reflect that many
we
most
effectivelybuilt up in connection with the
occupations of leisure. Training in the rightuse of
of the necessary
leisure is regarded today as one
ends of education.
Irving
King

theless,the

need

of

most

periodsof

"

"

AND

ETHICS

Anabaptists

The
a
Anabaptist ideal was
church, a
pure
community of saints or believers within the social
order,in the world but not of the world,possessedof
for scripturala passion for personalrighteousness,
in fife and church
and for the
ness
institutions,
of

imitation

Christ.

To

reaUze

this

ideal

the

Anabaptists apphed Sci'ipturein the most literal
to all phases of their Uves; rejected infant
way
of
baptism as contrary to Scripture,and the source
all kinds of evil;exercised a very rigiddiscipline
as
of keeping the church pure ; asserted
the only means
of the soul under
the complete freedom
Christ,
the
persecution;demanded
repudiatingall religious
and
entire separation of church
state, leaving
each free to perform its appointed functions without
interference from the other; and they refused to
take an oath, hold civiloffice or bear arms.

much
difference of
this there was
Some
them.
professed to have a
direct and specialillumination of the Spiritwhich
refused to pay war
constituted a new
prophecy ;some
stillfurther
went
taxes or interest on money;
some
ing
and favored community of goods,actuallyestablishhouses; objectionto the death
great communal
were
urged to
penalty was common
; their members
in productiveemployments only, refraining
engage
from
keeping public houses or engaging in the
liquorbusiness. Radical millenarianism was widely
held and ultimatelywrecked
the movement.
Anabaptist views appeared in the circles around
Luther and Zwingli and spread from these centers
of Europe. The influence of the party
much
over
is seen
in the fact that every
important reformer
wrote
against them, every creed drawn up in that
and almost every
period condemns
government at
time or another persecuted them.
For a time
one
the movement
threatened
into its folds a
to sweep
goodly share of all the reformed peoples of Europe,
but the dihgent polemic of the theologiansand the
drastic persecutions inflicted by the church
and
and
the state speedilyreduced it to insignificance
teen
in some
placessuppressed it altogether. Within fifand then
years it passed the zenith of its power,
gradually died away almost to the vanishing point.
be treated in four groups
Anabaptists may
Dutch.
German, Swiss-Moravian, Italian and
Radical
views
first appeared at Wittenberg in
while
Luther
the Wartburg.
He
1522
at
was
returned to Wittenberg and in a few powerfulsermons
succeeded
in turning the tide against them.
versity
of the ablest professorsin the Unione
Carlstadt,
of Wittenberg, was
forced to leave and
henceforth Anabaptism was
outlawed
in Germany.
ANABAPTISTS."
(From the Greek through the
well organized and was
ruined in the
Latin, "those who baptizeagain," "rebaptizers.") It was never
of the 16th. and
Peasants' War in 1525. Feeble I'emnants
of radical reformers
A group
continued,
because they baptized but it was never
subsequent centuries,so named
again a force in Germany.
The Swiss group
their opponents charged) those
was
as
decidedly the ablest and
{rebaptized
of
moderate
of all,having a number
of men
most
who had been christened.
due to dissatisfaction culture and marked
The rise of the party was
ability. Conrad Grebel and
Felix Manz
with the compromising and opportunistpohcies of
were
universitymen, the latter a Hebrew
scholar
of distinction.
the leadingreformers.
These leaders acknowledged
Closely associated with
several men
of learning and abilityin
that the scripturalconception of a church was
them
were
a
southern Germany, the most notable of whom
were
community of believers or saints walking in the
Hiibfaith and fellowshipof the gospel; but regardingthe
and Balthaser
Ludwig Hatzer, John Denck
of this ideal as impossiblethey lowered
attainment
maier.
Hatzer
assisted in translating the Old
text
their standards
in practice to a point where substantially
from
the Hebrew
Testament
into German
Hiibthe whole of societycould live comfortably
some
years before Luther took up this task.
within the ample bosom
for some
of the church.
While they
maier was
was
a great preacher and
years
rejected the Catholic conception of a universal
a professorin the University of Ingolstadt. When
land
Switzerchurch they set up national churches in which conditions
persecution drove the Anabaptists from
he proof membership were
where
to Moravia
not materiallydifferent
he followed them
duced
from those of the Catholic
of tracts settingforth their peculiar
church.
Infant bapa number
tism
views very ably.
was
continued, church disciplineremained in
Socinian in their
church
and state
The Italian group
abeyance, the alliance between
were
largely
was
not dissolved and
moral conditions were
not
Christology.Driven out of the country by persecution
but never
in Poland
greatly improved,especiallyin the earlier years of
they reassembled
pered
prostlie reform.
again.

Beyond

opinion

among

"

"

A

AnacletuS

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

The
Dutch
strongly tinged
Anabaptists were
introduced among
with radical millenariauism
them
After his imprisonment
Hoffman.
by Melchior
this tendency burst into a fanatical flame in the
city of Miinster in Westphalia where a kingdom
of this kingdom,
The excesses
set up in 1534.
was
of religion,
fixed a lasting
committed
in the name
stigma on the Anabaptist cause, thoughthe party
taken as a whole had desired nothing but a quiet
of this catastrophe
inoffensive hfe. The remnants
Mennonwere
gathered up and organized as
ites (q.v.).
pendents
Early in the 17th. century some
Enghsh Indewho
were
refugees in Holland accepted
and
thus founded
certain Anabaptist views
the
as
Enghsh Anabaptists, later known
Baptists

(q.v.).
Anabaptists
and

were

never

entirely suppressed

existence
under
various
formed
names.
a
They never
complete church
unified movement.
even
or
a
denomination, nor
crude and dangerous while
Some of their views were
others were
centuries ahead
of that day, and are
the pricelesstreasures
modern
of our
now
among
hfe.
W. J. McGlothlin
still maintain

an

AND

"

The

name

of

one

pope

and

one

antipope.

16

coveringallfieldsof human activityand co-operating
in the satisfaction of social needs.
Anarchism hke
Sociahsm
(q.v.)opposes
privateownership of land,
but
capitahstic production, the wage-system,
unhke
Sociahsm it would ehminate
state control of
economic
factors.
Modern
anarchism
began in
France
with Pierre Joseph Proudhon
(1809-1865)
who
advocated
mutualism
or
an
exchange of
services,maintaining that "property is theft."
Individualistic anarchism
found
its ablest expression
in Germany, Max Stirner advocating the liberation
of the individual from all social bonds.
Michael
Backunin
the
(1814-1876), a Russian, advocated
annihilation of the existingorder,and in that way
has fathered revolutionary
anarchism.
AnarchistCommunism, as advocated by Prince Peter Kropotkin
vidual's
proposed a civic agreement by which the indineeds would all be guaranteed, education,
art and
recreation as well as food, clothing and
shelter. Count Leo Tolstoi representeda Christian
anarchism, seeking a basis for the anarchist theory
of state and property in the teachingsof Jesus.
ANASTASIUS."
one

The

name

of four

popes

and

antipope:
Anastasiusl.

ANACLETUS.

ETHICS

398^01, who condemned

"

Origen-

ism.
AnastasiusII.
496-498,opposed Traducianism
and sought to reunite the Eastern
church
with
Rome.
Anastasius III.
911-913, active in determining
the ecclesiastical divisions of Germany.
Anastasius
IV.
in
1153-1154, instrumental
the restoration of the Roman
pantheon.
Anastasius,antipope,855,
"

Anacletus
I. Roman
presbyter of the latter
part of the 1st. century, asserted to be the 2nd. pope
in succession to St. Peter.
Anacletus 11. Antipope, 1130-1138.
"

"

"

"

ANAHITA.
waters, of
Goddesses.

Persian
goddess of
See
fertilityand of war.
A

"

fertilizing
Mother

ANATHEMA.
A word
occurring in Gr. and
Lat., literally
meaning a thing set apart. (1) In
Gr, religionit signifieda gift of gratitude or of
a
propitiationto the deity,such as portions of the
similar.
The custom
to fasten such gifts
spoilsof war.
was
In cases
where direct observation
is impossible, to trees or pillars. From
that anathema
to
came
form
of reasoning from
some
designateGod's absolute property to be dealt with
analogy is almost
inevitable.
In the formation
of religiousideas
according to his justice. (2) In the Septuagint,
the New
Testament
and in later church historythe
analogy has played a largepart, the characteristics
of invisible reahties being determined
word
ferring
signifies"accursed," e.g., in I Cor. 16:22.
by transIn the R.C. discipline
the word is officially
used as
to the unseen
realm certain qualities
found
"

ANALOGY.
affirmations

A form

reasoning which makes
concerning an object on the basis of
other object more
less
or
comparison with some
"

of

of excommunication.
in the visible world.
Thus
the character of God
a formula
has been pictured after the analogy of an earthly
future
hfe
ANCESTOR
WORSHIP,"
is represented in
The rehgious placasovereign. The
tion of spirits
of deceased ancestors.
images drawn from present experience. The most
famous
instance in Protestant
The
belief in the survival of the immaterial
theology is Bishop
Butler's "Analogy of Religion Natural and Revealed
almost universal at the earlier
seems
part of men
to the Constitution
and Course of Nature."
And
disembodied
since
stages of civiUzation.
The
have power
term
to work
logically spiritsmay
good or evil they
"analogy of faith" is used theoto indicate the principlethat all portions
feared and courted much
the divinities are.
are
as
of revealed truth ought to be consistent,and to
Various funeral ceremonies
be explained only
can
the ground that they are intended to prevent the
should
on
suggest that obscure
always be
passages
understood
in the light of fundamental
doctrines.
departed from infhctinginjury on those they have
In Roman
CathoUc
To conciliate the spirita littlehouse
theologythe unanimous
teaching left behind.
of the fathers of the church constitutes the standard
erected for him at the place where
sometimes
was
from which inferences may
he was
be derived by analogy,
was
buried, and the tombstone
originally
while Protestants
insist on
the unquestioned doctrines identical with the sacred stone in which a divinity
of Scriptureas the norm.
dwelt.
Offeringsof food and drink at the grave
The danger attending use of analogy is evident.
would nourish the spiritand secure
his favor,just
It should always be employed with caution, and
the sacrifices at the sanctuary secured the favor
as
of the divinity. No clear line can
be drawn
fore
theremust
always be estimated by or made to give way
to the results of direct observation.
the attitude of men
towards the spirits
between
and their attitude towards the gods.
Gerald
Smith
Birney
ANAPHORA."
that of the father
In
the
Greek
Among the spiritshowever
hturgies, the
most
hallowed
receive
special attention
part of the Eucharistic
service, of the family would
because he had been honored
includingthe kiss of peace, prayers and gifts.
during his lifetime.
also that his interest in
It was
natural to suppose
ANARCHISM."
The
would continue in the other world.
if
his descendants
theory that
men,
unfettered
Moreover
since the fine between
by external control, will obtain the
gods and men
it was
not sharply marked
was
largest development of their faculties and that
customary to assert
in fact divine.
In such
of voluntary groups
that the clan-ancestor was
society would be a network

A

17

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

a human
it,is impossibleto discover whether
descent
deified or
whether
been
has
ancestor
from an already existingdivinityhas been claimed
father is one
The worship of the common
by men.
the clan a unit.
Traces
of the bonds which make
of ancestor
worship are therefore found in almost
societies. Among the nations which
all patriarchal
it a prominent part of their rehgion we
have made
the Romans, the Egyptians and the
mention
may
In China
and Japan in fact it may
be
Chinese.
observed
Since the worship
at the present day.
be performed by a male
descendant
the
must
is emphasized in all
importance of having sons
societies where ancestor
worship is in vogue.
H. P. Smith
ANCHOR.
On accoimt
of its use in navigation,
See
6:19.
a
symbol for security, as in Heb.
Symbols.

cases

AND

ETHICS

Anglo-Catholic

faiths made

no
sharp distinction between
spiritsof varying gradations,but where
monotheistic
tendencies
became
operative the
deitywas differentiated from his associates,
supreme
who
to
the
subordinate
were
assigned
position of
this classification of superangels. Sometimes
natural
also apphed to the world of
was
powers
demons
(q.v.),thus giving rise to belief in both evil
and good angels.
In
Zoroastriunism
the supreme
god, Ahura
Mazda, surrounded himself with seven
good angehc
to assist in his benevolent
powers
designs,while
the prince of evil powers,
Ahriman, filledthe world

theisti

"

gods and

with his malevolent
agents.
In the earlier stages of Hebrew
religionangels
did not figureprominently, but during and subsequent

exile speculation regarding superhuman
subordinate
to Yahweh
underwent
a very pronounced development as
a result of contact
ANCHORET
ANCHORITE."
with
or
(From a Or.
Babylonia and Persia. Ezekiel's portrait
word
of the cherubim
meaning to withdraw). The
designation
(1:5-14; 10:1-8) is typical
of a class of early ascetics who withdrew
of this tendency within
from the
Judaism.
Later
Jewish
world holding that through isolation from its allurements
imagery,particularlyas it appears in the apocalyptic
the flesh and
the devil;
they overcame
writings,is rich in its display of angelic
with
hermit
The
and
Certain
hierarchies.
of
these
held
(q.v.).
caves
beings
synonymous
positions
tombs
of the deserts of Egypt and Syria afforded
of pre-eminence and received the name
of archangels.
seclusion for numbers
of anchorets.
Others
See Asceticism.
who were
supposed to have fallen from their
the demons,
high estate were assigneda placeamong
where
they were
punished with especialseverity.
ANDOVER
CONTROVERSY."
But those whom
A
term
dicating
inthis fate had overtaken
tively
relawere
the legal action brought 1888 ff.to secure
few in number.
The faithful stillconstituted
the dismissal of five professorson
the ground that
innumerable
an
heavenly host whose duties were
to assist God, particularly
in his deahngs with men.
they were
bodied
violatingthe theologicalprinciplesemin the charter of Andover
viduals,
They served as guardians of both nations and indiSeminary. The
without
formal
case
was
ultimately dismissed
they conveyed revelations and visions to
favored
decision. It is also used to indicate a controversy
sometimes
they were
persons,
agents of
about
the same
time
concerning the possibility punishment, and they interceded with God
on
of a
"second
behalf of the righteousor against the wicked.
probation" after death for those
who
had
had
The
in this hfetime
never
into
an
angelology of Judaism
passed over
tunity
opporthe gospel. The
to hear
officials of the
the Son of
to attend
Christianity.
Angels were
American
Board
of Commissioners
Man
at his appearing (Mark
for Foreign
8:38), they were
Missions (Congregational)objected to this doctrine
guardians of mortals (Matt. 18:10), they rejoiced
of the "larger hope," and sought to prevent the
the repentance of the wicked
over
(Luke 15:10),
missionaryappointment of anyone
they revealed the law to Moses
holding it.
(Gal. 3:19), and
Andover
constant
attendants upon the seer of the
seminary championed the Uberal view.
they were
Book of Revelation.
In later Christianity
tinued
they conANDREW
AND
to occupy
PHILIP, BROTHERHOOD
a positionof even
greater prominence
OF.
for which Judaism
An interdenominational
association of men,
furnished the precedent.
The
elaborate angelology of Mohammedanism
organized in 1888 in Reading, Pa., U.S.A., the sole
is also largelyJewish in character.
S. J. Case
object, according to the constitution,being the
of the kingdom of Christ among
It
men.
spreaa
ANGELUS."
emphasizes personal work, the two rules of membership
(1) A R.C. devotion in honor of
and service.
Each
the Annunciation
to the Virgin Mary, recited thrice
being prayer
chapter
is connected with a local church which the members
daily,at 6 a.m., 12 m., and 6 p.m.
(2) The ringing
in various
serve
rehgious and social capacities. of the bell in R.C. churches for the recitation of the
The order has extended
to many
countries.
devotion
of the same
of a
name.
(3) The name
famous
painting by J. F. Millet.
ANDREW
OF
CRETE."
Archbishop of Crete
in the 8th. century; famous
ANGER
OF GOD.
as
a
tion
Anger is a primitive emopreacher and
of hymns.
He is honored
associated with the instinct of
saint in
of resentment
as
a
composer
the Greek
church.
self-preservation.In the historyof rehgions,anger
is frequentlyattributed to God.
Primitive peoples
ANDREW
THE
APOSTLE."
One of the twelve
think of their gods as subject to anger and revenge
in naive
O.T.
apostlesof Jesus,and brother of Peter.
anthropomorphic fashion. The
writers freely referred to the anger
of Yahweh,
ANGEL
DANCERS."
A rehgioussect of Methodist
opposed his will. The N.T.
against those who
origin,founded in 1890 in New Jersey,so called
writers spoke of the wrath of God coming on those
from a dance of religious
Christian theology has regularly
who rejectChrist.
come
frenzypracticedto overthe devil.
against sin,
experiences anger
taught that God
but that His anger is not inconsistent with His love.
FRA."
Florentine
ANGELICO,
monk
and
See
painter, 1387-1455; renowned
in the history of
ANGLICAN
C H U R C H.
Enqi^nd,
Christian art.
Church
op.
to

the

powers

"

"

"

ANGELS."
is

known

to

The
term
ANGLO-CATHOLIC"
senger")
angel (Greek, "mesappUed to a class of superhuman beings to the established church
differentmonotheistic
rehgions. Polycatholicity.

Belonging to or relating
England which claims

of

A

Anglo-Israelism

DICTIONARY

OP

RELIGION

ANGLO-ISRAELISM."
The
theory that the
Anglo-Saxon peoples,as found in the British empire
and
in the U.S.A., are
the descendants
of the
"lost ten tribes,"which
comprised the kingdom
of Israel. The modern
founded
movement
was
by
Richard

Brothers
about
the close of the 18th.
claims to have two milhon adherents
in the
The
nations.
two
hypothesis, though
to be impossible from
ingenious,has been shown
the standpoint of O.T. exegesisand anthropology.

century, and

AND

ETHICS

and itis probable that
from this idea.

one

18

form of sacrificedeveloped
II. P. Smith

ANIMATISM.
A modified form of animism
in
which plants,animals and other objects of nature
are
personifiedbut are not believed to possess
individual souls. Such beliefs are
panied
usually accomby magical practices,which
later
may
into a cult as the objectsare deified.
grow
"

ANIMISM.
(Latin anima, "soul") Behef in
spiritual
beings. This was the definition formulated
by Tylor, the anthropologist. He found the beUef
in different stages from the lowest tribes to high
modern
culture.
"Animism in its full development,
"

OF THE."
CONVERSION
ANGLO-SAXONS,
The Anglo-Saxons who
to England from the
came
continent were
devotees of Woden.
They ejected
the Celts who were
Christians,but did not accept
of Christianity
their reUgion. The
introduction
came
through the marriage of King Ethelbert
(560-616) to Bertha, a Frankish Christian princess.
in
The first serious effort for their conversion
was
596 when
Gregory the Great, who had become
interested in some
boys on the slave market, sent
Augustine of Canterbury at the head of a mission.
anity,
By Augustine's death Kent had accepted Christimade
in Essex.
Northand a beginning was
umbria
was
brought under Christian influence by
the marriage (625) of King Edwin
to a Christian
princess who took with her a missionary bishop.
Wessex
Christianized by missionaries of the
was
Northumbria
old Celtic church.
introduced the
new
rehgion to Mercia and Essex, and Kent took
Sussex was
it into East Angha.
won
through the
labors of Wilfrid of York between
681 and 686.
ANGRA

See Ahbiman.

MAINYU."

ANICETUS."
Pope, 154-165; bishop of Rome
when
Polycarp was
put to death; also said to
have been a martyr.
ANICONISM."
to the use

The
of

attitude effective in opposition

images in religiouscult.

ANIMAL
MAGNETISM."
ence,
SciIn
Christian^
"Animal
untary
magnetism is the voluntary or involaction of error
i;x all its forms; it is the
human
antipode of divine Science."
(Mary Baker
Eddy in Science and Health With Key to the Scriptures,
p.

484.)

WORSHIP
OF."
In what
call
we
ANIMALS,
the lower stages of civilization men
draw
a
very
faint hne of demarkation
between
gods, animals,
human
and
beings. Since the animals in many
manifest
cases
superior intelligence,
strength, or
are.
cunning,they are reverenced much as the spirits
of the clan in what is called
They become members
Totemisra
(q.v.) and the myths relate that an
animal
is ancestor
of the
Individual
group.
animals are provided with temples, are approached
with prayer
and offerings,
have priestsappointed
to wait upon
them, and are treated with funeral
honors when
dead.
celebrated of these
The most
divine animals
the bull Apis in Egypt, but
was
and various
Egypt also had sacred rams, crocodiles,
kinds of birds.
The
deification of serpents has
left traces in many
mythologies and is still a part
of African
advanced
religion. At a more
stage
of thought the gods receive human
form
but
reveal their originalanimal
incarnation
by having
animal associates
riding animals or pets, like the
eagle of Zeus or the owl of Athene.
Mythological
for this association by relating
theory accounted
that the divinitytook the animal form for purposes
of his own, like Zeus who became
a bull in order to
off Europa.
This
of course
the
reverses
carry
actual historical process.
Eating the flesh of the divine animal would be
of partaking of the divine power or grace,
one
way
"

includes

the

belief in souls and in a future state,
subordinate
spirits."
Two
of biological
groups
problems it is thought
influenced men
of low levels of culture to this belief.
One was
the difference between
a livingbody and
a
dead
and
the phenomena
one
of waking, sleep,
death.
The
other group
trance, disease,
sprang
from
questions concerning those human
shapes
in dreams
which appear
and visions. To every
thus
man
was
probably attributed a life and a
Both were
phantom.
regarded as separable from
the body, the life at death and the phantom
as
appearing to people at a distance. The ghostsoul was
the combination
of the life and
the
phantom and constituted the soul or spiritamong
primitivepeople. This spirit
Tylor defines as a ' 'thin,
unsubstantial human
image, in its nature a sort of
film or
shadow."
It was
the cause
of
vapour,
hfe in the individual,was
capable of leaving the
body and flashingswiftlyfrom place to place,continued
to exist after death, stillbearing the likeness
of the body and was
able to enter and act in the
bodies of other men
and animals.
Herbert Spencer held a similar view and regarded
animism
the core
of a variety of behefs and
as
customs, such as ancestor
worship, transmigration
of souls,witchcraft and other superstitions.
of
The
later students
tendency among
some
primitive rehgion is to limit the phenomena of
animism
but not to regard it as the
to early man
earliest stage. Thus
holds
Marett
to
a
very
tinction
disno
"pre-animistic"level,in which there was
between
the object and the spiritin it.
In this pre-animism awe
is felt for unusual
nomena
phesimply because
they are
unusual, not
because they are signs of ghosts or spirits.Thus,
ever
the Malagasy
"Whatever
is great, whatamong
exceeds the capacity of their understandings,
they designateby the one convenient and comprehensive
is
Whatever
appelation, andriamanitra.
and
and
is
useful
called
god."
new
extraordinary
Similarlythe bull-roarer excites awe for the natives
It posof AustraUa
by its noise and weirdness.
sesses
be called an
intrinsic source
of
what
may
the rightto be regarded with
awe, while in animism
is derivatory. That
is,in the latter case, it
awe
of a spirit. The phenomena
is due to the presence
that have to do with dream and trance, disease and
of animism, according
death, are the proper source
to Marett.
Other scholars,like Durkheim, regard animism
of historic interest
doctrine
which
is now
as
a
and
significanceonly and is identified especially
lated
with the work and period of Tylor who firstformuit. See Primitive
of.
Peoples, Religions
been used
animism
has sometimes
In philosophy
synonymously with the ancient doctrine of hylozoism and with the modern
conception of vitalism.
the term tends to become
But
exclusivelyemployed
possession
to designatethe primitivenotion of spirit
directed to
of sacred objects and the ceremonies
S. Ames
of such spirits. Edward
the placation

ia controUing deities and

"

A

19

ANNATES

RELIGION

OF

DICTIONARY

first fruits or
The
ANNATS."
of a benefice,
paid to the pope,
Ages claimed by bishops also.

or

first year'srevenue
and in the Middle

AND

ETHICS

Anthropopathism

A February festival of the
ANTHESTERIA."
mony
originallya social cerereligionof Greece; it was
for the regulationof the underground souls
but later was
obscured
a primitiveAll-Souls' ritual
by absorption in the cult of Dionysius.
"

"

The
doctrine of the
wicked
or
impenitent
It arose
as a protest againstthe teaching
at death.
of the eternal punishment of the unregenerate.
in England vigorously defended
White
Edward
the doctrine in the last half of the 19th. century.

ANNIHILATIONISM."

complete extinction

of the

The oldest
OF."
SAINT, ORDERS
of St.
orders adopted the name
CathoUc
monasticism.
of
They
Anthony, the fomider
founded
at the time of the firstcrusade (1095were
1099) as the Hospitalers of St. Anthony. The
order was
for a time subject to the Benedictines.
From
1284-1774
independent. In 1774
they were
united with the Knights of Malta.
they were

ANTHONY,

Life.

See Future

SAINT."
The firstChristian monk
ANTHONY,
and father of monasticism; b. in Egypt about 250;
said to have lived 105 years.

of the
used
to
term
ANNUNCIATION."
(1) The
of the birth of Jesus
designate the announcement
(2) The
by the angel Gabriel to the Virgin Mary.
festival celebrating this, occurring on
church
25th.

March

for

OF

ORDERS

ANNUNCIATION,

orders,three for

of five R.C.

name

women

The
THE."
and two

The appUcation of an unguent
ANOINTING.
for personal,social,medicinal, or
religioususe.
The use of oil or fat for anointing is universal and
of immemorial
antiquity; it was believed to be
for nullifying
efficacious both
personal evils of
of demons
sickness and the power
various kinds
virtue
and for conferringmysterious sacramental
the subjects of it. It has been employed in
on
consecratingsacred objectsas stones and temples,
and kings,as preparaas
prophets,priests,
tion
persons
for death
extreme
unction,and in completing
oil acquires its
the efficacy of baptism. The
ous
potency by originfrom animals possessingmysteriwith sacred objects,by
by contact
powers,
magical formulas,by blessingor later by prayer.
C. A. Beckwith
The strict Arian party in the
ANOMOIANS.
adhered
to the essential
Arian controversy, which
and
the
the Son
between
difference in essence
"

"

"

"

"

Father.

scription
THEOLOGICAL."
A deand characteristics of man.
In systematic theology anthropology is the
section containing the doctrines of man's
original
and its
the fall of man
creation and constitution,
between
the soul
and the relationship
consequences,
Traditional
and the body.
theology taught that
thus
created in the image of God and was
was
man
endowed
with
original righteousness. By the
rebelled against God,
exercise of his free will,man
thereby losing his originalrighteousness,and in
addition incurringphysical and moral disabiUties.
that
nature
made human
so
The sin of Adam
sinful,
born in a state of original
all his descendants
sin,
are
and
under divine condemnation
which placesthem
brings death as its penalty. Only through the
logians
Theobe saved.
exercise of divine grace can
man
have held divergent views as to just what
is included in the original"image of God," and
of Adam's
fall.
to the precise consequences
as
The originof the soul and its relation to the body

ANTHROPOLOGY,

of the nature

men.

See Arianism.

SAINT
(ca. 1033-1109)." Mediaeval
ANSELM,
archbishop of Canterbury. At
theologian and

twenty-seven,

he

entered

the

of

monastery

Bee

Normandy, three years later succeedingLanfranc
abbot and under
made
as
prior. In 1078 he was
seat of learning
the foremost
liisrule Bee became
consecrated archbishop
in Europe. In 1093 he was
of office being marked
of Canterbury, his tenure
Rufus over
property
by strugglewith King Wilham
investiture.
and privilegesand with Henry I. over
in

Anselm
the
canonized
in 1494.
was
of mediaeval
scholasticism,his attenapt
with
behef
Christian
consonant
being to make
He stated the ontological
argument (q.v.)
reason.
which affirms that the reaUty of God is involved in
In his greatest
the necessityof the concept of God.
Homo, he attempted a rational
work, Cur Deus
(q.v.)in terms of the
explanationof the atonement
prevalent feudalistic social structure, the death of
Christ,the God-man, being a satisfaction to the
for this uncomIn return
injuredhonor of God.
pelledsatisfaction God granted Christ the reward
of releasingthe believer from the penalty of sin.
He
was
founder

The
designation applied
livingbeings, human, lower animal or plant,
which existed priorto the flood ascribed to the time
ANTEDILUVIANS."

to

of Noah.

before civilization had conSee Fall
of
Man; Sin.
Gerald
Smith
Birney
The
ANTHROPOMORPHISM."
tendency to
to
functions
characteristics and
ascribe human
inevitable
As
an
forces of nature.
deities or
thinking,
of the limitations of human
consequence
his own
from
ence
experiuses
analogies drawn
man
natural forces. In
to describe the gods or

essential nature

ventionahzed

of

man

humanity.

development of reUgions,anthropomorphism
as a phase of nature-worship. In Christian
historythe Audians of the 4th. century furnished a
type of excessive anthropomorphism (q.v.) In
soften
modern
theology the attempt is made_to
the

appears

of anthropomorphism_bythe
cruder
forms
of abstract
philosophicterms, often_at the
and intimacy.
of rehgious warmth
expense

the

FATHERS."
ANTE-NICENE
Designation of
antedated
the Council of
the Church
Fathers who
Nicaea, a.d. 325. See Fathers, Church.
ANTERUS."
Bishop of Rome, from
to Jan. 236, honored
by the R.C. church

been
variously interpreted,pre-existence,
creationism,and traducianism (qq.v.) being the
tion
important theories. Recently the doctrine of evoluhas been influential in modifying the conception
of man's originand development, and the traditional
sin are disappearand of original
doctrines of Adam
ing
historical
critical theology. Inductive
from
and of his
of man,
nature
study of the psychological
religiousaptitudes is increasinglysupplying the
material for theology. The term "anthropology" is
cal
now
more
generallyappliedto that branch of historiwhich by a study of the remains of
investigation
such as bones, tools,habitations,
pre-historic
men,
of the habits of
etc., and by careful observation
extant
tribes,attempts to
primitive and savage
throw
lighton the originsof the race and on the
have

Nov.
as

235

Pope.

use

ANTHROPOPATHISM."
human
feelingsto
considered
by some

attribution of

The

the non-human
writers to be

environment;
a

factor in the

A

Anti-Christ

DICTIONARY

demons
development of ideas of spirits,
gods.

and

OF

RELIGION

nature-

ANTINOMIANISM."
A word coined by Luther
in his controversy with Agricola,designating the
doctrine that the gospel or faith does entirelyaway
with the old law, so that the Christian is in no
sense
subject to it. It originated as a protest
againstthe elevation of an external regulationof hf e

superior to inwardly inspired spiritualUving.

There are evidences of an antinomian
interpretation
of Paulinism in N.T. times (II Pet. 3 : 16). Certain
Gnostic sects interpretedtheir doctrine of the evil
ing
Durcharacter of matter
in an antinomian
way.
in England antinomian
the Civil War
teaching
The Antinomian
developed in such sects as the Ranters.
was
a
controversey of the Reformation
Johann
Agricola opposed
controversy in which
and Luther, the former claiming that
Melanchthon
the gospel and not the law is what
inspiresmen
of the more
obscure sects
to repentance.
In some
Antinomianism
has led to charges of immorality
and
sensuous
indulgence, e.g., Adamites, New

Manichaeans, Beghards,

etc.

of

opponent

ETHICS

20

Arianism,ApoUinarianism

physitism (qq.v.) an
Augustinianism, and

ANTI-CHRIST."
In Jewish and Christian religious
thought the chief opponent of the Christ and,
in consequence,
of the Kingdom
The
of God.
in the Jewish Apocalypses and
figurefirst appears
was
appropriated by early Christianity. He was
the same
not
as
a
Satan, but, though sometimes
historical character
often an
supernatural being, was
like some
Roman
Emperor who persecutedthe
church.
His downfall
of the first
to be one
was
results of the
Messianic
triumph. Until thus
possessedof
supernaturally defeated he seemed
and capable of withstanding
unconquerable power
temporarily the Christ.

as

AND

and Monoof freewill against
champion of historical

advocate
a

criticism.
ANTIPHON.
A song or chant, sung
responvoice or chorus alternating
with the other
the chorus answering the precentor.
"

one
sively,
or

ANTIPHONARY."

antiphons for
ANTIPOPE.
who
was

A
book
in the Roman

use

or

of

collection

liturgy.

A claimant
of the papal chair
elected canonically,and whose
claim
not officially
ties
recognized. The Catholic authori"

not

was

twenty-nine antipopes.

enumerate

ANTISEMITISM."
Antipathy to and persecution
of Jewish peoples by Aryans, whether
socially
called since the appearance
of a
or economically,so
pubhcation in Germany in 1880. Opposition to
Jews dates from pre-Christiantimes,the beginning
being the persecutionsunder Antiochus Epiphanes.
When
the Roman
Christian
an
empire became
attitude of opposition toward
Jews was
istic
characterof many
of the rulers and ecclesiastics,
and
of various
accused
crimes.
In many
they were
civihzed
countries
deprived of civil
they were
in France
rights,such disabilities being removed
in 1791, in Great Britain in 1830 and in Germany
in 1869.
The
modern
the
tendency to oppose
Jews has taken the form of massacres
in Russia
and of social and civic ostracism in Austria and
The
has been
marked
movement
Germany.
by
unjust accusations on the part of Anti-Semites and
sometimes
unreasonable
the
apologies on
part of
Jewish writers.

(qq.v.)

ANTINOMY.
clusions,
Mutually
contradictory conbe rationallyproved;
both of which
may
but which cannot
both be true.
introduced
Kant
the term into philosophy,showing how the attempt
to apply the categoriesof experience to transcendental
reality involves antinomis, and thus precludes
absolute demonstration.
"

ANTIOCH.
Cityin Asia Minor on the Orontes,
founded
by Seleucus Nicator about 300 B.C., which
became
the third largestcity in the Roman
empire.
first evangehzed, according to the N.T. by
It was
Jerusalem
later led by
and
was
fugitives from
Paul and Barnabas.
first
Here the behevers
were
called Christians (Acts 11 : 26). Christianityspread
rapidly,and Chrysostom estimated the Christian
population in his day at 100,000. It later was
so-caUed
Antiochian
the seat of the
school of

ANTITRINITARIANISM."
Opposition to, or
denial of,the doctrine of the trinity.
The doctrine of three persons
in the godhead has
irrational.
frequentlybeen so interpretedas to seem
the assumption that
on
Against such irrationality,
it inheres inevitablyin the doctrine of the trinity,
and
have
various men
protested. Most
groups
the Socinians, the
these are
important among
Deists,and the Unitarians.

"

theology (q.v.).
SYNOD
OF."
A
ANTIOCH,
synod
convened
in 341, and set forth an orthodox
but
of the
Most
deposed Athanasius.
dealt with ecclesiastical matters.
ANTIOCHIAN
or

SCHOOL."

which

creed,
canons

theologicalschool
tendency, represented by prominent teachers,
A

the center of whose influence was
The
at Antioch.
first noted scholar was
Lucian
(see Ltjcian the
historical treatment
an
Martyr) who advocated
of scripture as
opposed to Origen's allegorical
method.
Lucian's
Arius
followers were
Among
defenders
and
Eusebius
of Nicomedia, the
of
Arianism
(q.v.). Other
representatives of the
school, Eustathius, Diodorus, Chrysostom and
Theodore
of Mopsuestia were
opponents of the
doctrine.
Arian
Theodore
became
the
great
representative of Antiochan
theology, being an

ANTONINUS

PIUS."

Roman

138-

emperor,

161; under his pohcy of toleration the Christians
enjoyed a considerable respite from persecution;
during his reign the Gnostic controversy became
The Apology of Justin Martyr (q.v.)was
acute.
addressed
to him; possibly also that of Aristides.
heaven
ANU.
The
god of ancient
triad with
associated
in the supreme
Ea (qq.v.).
"

APATHY.
or

Stoicism

"

Indifference

or

passionate feeUng;
(q.v.).

Babylonia

insensibiUtyto
a

and

EnUl

tion
emo-

characteristic

of

APHRAATES."
A "Persian sage" who flourished
throughout the 4th. century; the first strong writer
attributed ten
of the Syrian church to whom
are
homihes.
of
LITERATURE."
A
APOCALYPTIC
group
endeavor
Christian
Jewish
and
writings which
of symbols and revelations
to set forth by the use
of his people from the oppression
God's dehverance
of their enemies, the certain triumph and joy of the
righteous,and the general conditions of life after
death.
of this literature were
Elements
probably derived
of early Semitic religious
from the general stream

A

21

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

however, to have developed
seems,
It does
the influence of Hellenistic culture.
in the Old Testament
not appear
except in such
as
Zech.,chapters 9 to 14, and the book
passages
This latter is commonly
of Daniel.
regarded as
the parent of the Uterature and sets forth God's
certain deliverance
of the Jews
from
the Syrian
thought. It

under

oppression.
Apocalypticism differs from prophetism in that
it purports to be written by men
long since dead,
and
it therefore
(pesudonymously) represents
in symbols. It does not
coming events indistinctly
attempt explicitmoral and rehgiousinterpretation
of current
history,and is therefore of an esoteric
character.
Its claim to acceptance hes in its symbolical
expositionof historyas seen in visions by its
authors.
It served
to express
the enmity and
hopes of persecuted groups without exposing them
to charges of disloyaltyto the government.
In a
it portrayed revolution
in the disguiseof
sense
for Christian
favorite medium
a
religion.It was
writers in the second
Christian
century. The
embodied
material
from
apocalypses doubtless
Jewish sources.
Unlike those however, they do not
look to political
revolution.
There
is no standardization
of symbol beyond
the conventional
separation of animals into those
that do harm, like wolves, and
those that are
like sheep. The
former, together
serviceable,
with birds of prey, are symbols of the oppressors,
and the latter are symbols of the saints. The visions
are
usuallyattributed to angelsor to the "unveiling"
of the divine plans to the author who
represents
himself as having been caught up into heaven, there
to be given superhuman
knowledge of the future.
The
imagination of the writers was
strained
quiteunreand the literature as a whole is confused
and, with the exceptionof certain writingshke the
Apocalypse of Baruch and the canonical Apocalypse
of John, is without hterarydistinction.
See EschaBook
Enoch.
op
tology;
The
have
chief Apocalyptic writings which
been preserved to us outside the Bible are:
The
Shepherd of Hernias (about 125 a.d.);the Book of
Enoch
(100 B.C.-64 B.C.); the Slavonic Secrets of
Enoch
of Jubilees (about
(4 B.C.-70 a.d.); Book
100 B.C.); the Assumption of Moses (about 100 b.c.);
the Testament
of the Twelve
Patriarchs
(before
200 A.D.); the Ascension of Isaiah (about 200 a.d.);
the Apocalypse of Ezra
(about 70 a.d.); the
(50-100 a.d.); the Sibylline
Apocalypse of Baruch
Oracles (infinal form about 150 a.d.).
Shailer
Mathews
APOCRYPHA.
A term
apphed to a group of
religious
writingsof the Hebrews
which, while not
regarded by the Jews as being fullyinspired,were
yet held in high esteem.
These works are ascribed in many
to well
cases
known characters in Hebrew
history. They were
literature written
in the
part of a considerable
centuries immediately before or after Christ, and
served to supplement the history and teaching of
the Old Testament.
They were
incorporatedin the
Septuagint and later in the Old Latin and the
Vulgate editions of the Scripture. The Council
of Trent (1546) recognizedas canonical the following:
I and
II Maccabees; Additions
to Esther;
History of Suzanna; Song of the Three
Holy
Children; Bel and the Dragon; Tobit; Judith;
of Jesus,
Apocalypse of Baruch; the Wisdom
the son
of Sirach, or
dom
Ecclesiasticus;the Wisof Solomon; but omitted
1st and 2nd
Ezras
(3rd and 4th in the Vulgate) and the Prayer of
^

"

Manasses.
These
used
by

eleven are
included
in the Bible
now
the Roman
CathoUc
church.
In
the
Protestant editions of the Bible all fourteen are

AND

ETHICS

ApoUinaris of Laodicea

sometimes
included as a separate group between the
Old Testament
and
the New
Testament.
They

however^not

regarded as possessed of the
the
canonical
books.
authority as
See
Canon.
The Anghcan church uses
the ApocrjTjha
are,
same

in its lessons for edification but does not treat them
as
possessedof the same
authorityas the canonical
books.
the
Of
Apocrypha the most
important are
Ecclesiasticus and the Wisdom
of Solomon
among
the religious
the
writings; 1st Maccabees
among
historical. The
other material
is mostly of the
character
of haggadoth or
stories organized for
homiletic purposes.
In the New
Testament
church there grew
up a
the
very extensive literature which dealt with much
same
subjectsas those treated by the books which
Testament
gradually were
shaped into the New
See Canon.
These books, however, never
canon.
have gained anything like the respect accorded
to
the Apocrypha of the Old Testament.
The term
"
"
is sometimes
Apocrypha of the New Testament
applied to them, but such use of the term is hardly
and may
to give a false impression
justifiable
serve
that there was
of the New
a sort of second
canon
Testament, correspondingto the Apocrypha of the
Old.
This apocryphal material of the New
Tes("Bment
followed the same
general classes as the New
Testament.
Thus we have (1) the various Gospels
(ofPilate,of the Hebrews, Egyptians,Peter,James,
Thomas, Arabic Gospel of the Childhood, of Joseph
the Carpenter, of Jesus, Philip, of the Twelve
others known
Apostles,togetherwith fifteen or more
to us
only in fragments and mostly written to
estabhsh
heretical doctrine);(2) the Acts
some
(ofPaul and Thekla); (3) the Epistles(of Paul to
the Laodiceans
and the Corinthians); (4) Apocalypses
(the most important being the Apocalypse
of Peter); (5) Teachings (of Peter and of Paul).
A vast hterature of the same
general nature as the
books of the New
Testament
canon
appearedduring
the first four Christian centuries.
Shailer
Mathews
the
APOCTASTASIS."
A term
derived
from
Gr. of Acts 3:21, meaning the final "restitution
of all things." The
is used as a basis for
verse
belief in the ultimate
universalityof salvation.
Sin is explained as ignorance or delinquency, and
has
correction.
The
doctrine
punishment as
found its chief exponents in Clement
of Alexandria,
Origen, Gregory of Nazianzen, Gregory of Nyssa,
of
Confessor
Maximus
and Scotus
Erigena, some
the mystics of the Middle
Ages, certain sections of
the Anabaptists,18th. century German
rationalists,
denomination.
and
in the modern
Universalist
and orthodox
It has been opposed by the R.C. Church
Protestantism.
trine
docThe Christological
taught by ApoUinaris the Younger, bishop of

APOLLINARIANISM."

said
He
Laodicea.
hved
about
He
310-390.
ideal humanity
that it is impossible to combine
and perfect deity in one
personahty, and hence
denied
the complete humanity of Christ, saying
that the Logos took the placeof the rational human
soul in the historic Jesus.
ApoUinarianismwas
condemned
by several local councils,and finally
council
of Constantinople,
by the ecumenical381 a.d.
of
The name
APOLLINARIS
OF LAODICEA."
father and son, both of whom
taught
men,
rhetoric in Laodicea.
ApoUinaris the Younger
who hved about 310-390 was
a friend of Athanasius
of
and a great theologian and writer, but most
his peculiar
lost. For
been
his writings have
views see Apollinarianism.
Christological
two

Apollonius of Tyana

A

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

OF

APOLLONIUS

A Neo-PythagoOF
TYANA."
philosopher and rehgious reformer of Tyana
in Cappadocia, whose
hfe approximately spanned
rean

the first Christian
ascetic and
was

century.

In

manner

of life he

vegetarian, wandering through

lands, teaching and
being taught. He
many
studied medicine
and his biographer,Philostratus,
credits him
with miraculous
heahngs. Probably
He
he possessed psychotherapeutic power.
shipped
worin
moral
reform
and advocated
the sun
social customs.
His miracles and teaching have
been compared by Hierocles (305 a.d.)and Voltaire
with those of Christ with whom
he was
neous.
contemporadivine
been accorded
He
to have
seems
honors during the first three Christian centuries.

of

an

sense.

AND

ETHICS

22

appeal to supernaturalrevelation in a distinct
is thus adapted to a monistic
Christianity

world- view.
Stress is laid on
reasonableness
of
rather than
content
miraculousness
of origin.
on
Conservative
often feel that this may
theologians
involve a betrayal of essential Christianity
rather
than its defense.
4. The vindication of Christianity
in the lightof
historical criticism. Modern
critical examination
of
the sources
and
the history of Christianityhas
shown
that biblical behefs are
conditioned,
historically
and that Christianity
is constantly in the
of development. The
idea of a static
process
for all
religion authoritativelyorganized once
to the conception of a growing and
gives way
"

changing rehgion.
To meet
this situation,two
distinct types of
A
systematic defense of
modern
apologeticexist. The one seeks to conserve
Christianity
against all important objections.
the authenticityand supernaturalauthority of the
Apologeticsdefends the content of faith rather
Bible in the face of criticism,
than expounds the full rehgiousimport of doctrines.
sometimes, however,
luteness distinctly
An ideallyperfectdefense would estabhsh the absomodifying traditional conceptions. The
and conclusions,
of Christianity;but an apologistusually other type accepts critical methods
is seeking to give to Christian behefs a positive and exhibits the vital function of Christianity
in
the historyof which it is a part, so as to show its
ing
place in the culture dominating the age.
By relatChristian doctrines to accepted philosophical
or
indispensable contribution to the welfare and
scientific theories,
of humanity.
The first type makes
more
apologeticsprepares the way for
progress
the positiveuse of such theories in the construction
sweeping claims,but frequentlyfails to apprehend
the full import of historical criticism.
of theology. The
trine
The second
development of Christian docdominated
tions.
is largely
by apologeticconsideratype is calculated to win the approval of critical
what
Apologetics thus not only defends existing minds, but the conclusions reached have a somein
tentative character not conducive
to dogmatic
behefs,but also aids a developingChristianity
its task of leaveningand interpretingculture.
assurance.
1. The
Great
Christian
Apologetics
II. The Problems
Modern
Apologetics.
of
in
1. The
History.
defense of early Christianity Any defense of Christianitymust
give primary
The
consideration to the doctrines
which
occasion
stantly
against Judaism.
earlyChristians were conrepresentation.
compelled to argue against skepticalmisImportant examples of such doctrines
difficulty.
The
of Evil,the
the Existence of God, the Problem
written
as
a
are
Gospels were
historical argument
for the divine power
and prerogativeSupernatural,the Divinity of Christ,and the Life
of Jesus.
The
christology of the early after Death.
church Was
In deahng with the difficulties which
arise in
shaped under the pressure of apologetic
ing
is a strikconnection
with
these doctrines,modern
necessity. The Epistle to the Hebrews
getics
apolomust
example of earlyapologetics.
giveespecialattention to certain aspects
2. The vindication of Christianity
of modern
in the Grecothinking in order to satisfyinquiring
Roman
minds.
three of these may
be mentioned.
Two
or
Empire. Persecution of Christians by the
Roman
and popular prejudiceagainst
1. Justice
be done
science.
must
to modern
government
them
called forth defensive
Justin
On the one
statements.
hand, the assured results of scientific
be frankly recognized, even
Martyr and other Apologists (q.v.)of the 2nd.
investigationmust
if such recognitioninvolves a revision of doctrine.
tians,
century vindicated the purity of the hves of Chrisand
in addition
commend
of science must
undertook
On the other hand, the hmitations
to
anti-rehgious dogmatism
Christianityas the absolutely true philosophy. be understood, and
Origen (q.v.) in the 3rd. century elaborated a
masquerading under scientific garb must be exposed.
Christian
In general,it may
be said that science is a foe to
philosophy consciously
superior to any
non-Christian
unwarranted
system.
Augustine (q.v.)produced
pretensions of theology rather than
the most
elaborate apologetic
ful
fruitwork conditioned
to the verifiablefacts of Christianity. The
by
Greco-Roman
culture in his City of God, which
investigationsof recent years in the fields of
nish
of history so as to
interpretedthe entire course
psychology of rehgion and history of religionfurshow the culmination
in the
material for a scientifically
of the divine purpose
much
satisfactory
over
triumph of Cathohc
paganism.
Christianity
apologetic.
3. The
rational vindication
2. A new
interpretationof the supernatural is
of Christianity.
After
western
of the tension between
civilization became
some
theology and
nominally
relieving
the main task of apologeticswas
critical science.
to
Christianized,
Rehgious experience is psychologically
establish harmonious
behefs are historicaUy
Christian
relations between
natural,and religious
doctrines
and
rational
to be natural
was
thinking.
seen
products of human
philosophy. This
undertaken
in the natural as
is found
of God
The
elaborate scale by the represenan
on
tatives
presence
of Scholasticism
positivelyas in the supernatural. Rehgiously an
(q.v.). Revealed doctrine
rather
shown
for its spiritualcontent
to be a necessary
is valuable
was
event
supplement to natural
is a
This type of apologetichas been continued
than
for its metaphysical origin. There
reason.
in both Cathohcism
and Protestantism
to this day.
general tendency to regard miracles as unusual
such
violation of
It seeks to retain unimpaired the appeal to an
events
exphcable without
any
scientific protest.
authoritative revelation.
natural
would
tant
ProtesThe best known
laws as
arouse
rather than on
treatise of this kind is Bishop Butler's famous
Stress is laid on
spiritualcontent
theories of origin. The Bible is vindicated by the
Analogy of Religion Natural and Revealed to the
rather than
Constitution and Course of Nature
(1736).
God-reveahng quahty of its message
In the
19th. century, Schleiermacher
composition. The
(q.v.) by a theory of miraculous
of his
the power
and Hegel (q.v.),followed by numerous
of Jesus is based
on
scholars, supremacy
tian
of Chrislife to compel worshipful adoration rather than on
a completely rational interpretation
gave
thus virtually
origin. There is a growing
a doctrine of physical
doctrines,
ehminatingthe need
APOLOGETICS."

"

"

"

"

-

"

A

23

DICTIONARY

OF

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

ApostolicCanons

theology recognizes only the apostasy of faith.
regarded apostasy
early Christian emperors
criminal act, involving civil disabilities. In
a
as
unity.
3. The
primary emphasis in apologetics is
post-Roman times apostates have been dealt with
moral
being the
being laid on
questions. Is Christianity by ecclesiastical law, excommunication
demands
of modern
usual punishment.
adequate to the enormous
social
and
industrial
full
development? The
An
official of the early church
of Christianityin this respect has not
APOSTLE."
significance
Christian apologistsare bringing
yet been reahzed.
appointed and "sent forth" by Christ to be an
with power
to work
of Christian ideaUsm, showing
to lightthe resources
eyewitness to his resurrection,
that Christianity
is superior not
only to other
miracles,make converts, and organize churches.
ethical programs,
but also to the currentlyaccepted
The word
was
applied originallyto the Twelve
standards
of nominally Christian
chosen
Paul,
by Jesus to be his messengers.
people. The
basis as
here is not so much
to vindicate the ideals
difficulty
however, claimed apostleshipon the same
of Jesus as to prove
that modern
it was
claimed by the Twelve, although his position
Christianityhas
the will and the power
to embody
in life.
rested in appointment by the risen Christ and
them
In conclusion,it should be said that while the
been universallyacknowledged
not to have
seems
This more
in the non-PauUne
churches.
apologeticof our day with its critical understanding
general
in the
of current
social
of the term seems
to have been extended
use
scientific,
philosophical, and
ideals is inevitably somewhat
New
Testament
disturbing to those
period to such persons as Matthias,
who wish a complacent faith,this very disturbance
the
Barnabas, and others who
apparently met
of conventional
attitudes is stimulating a more
ship
requirements of the title. Paul holds that apostleserious study of Christianityand is contributing
the offices of the church
was
primary among
to the vitaUzing of its doctrines and its ethics.
and was
the result of a charism.
Gerald
Smith
The preciserelationshipof the apostlesto the
Birney
churches
APOLOGIST."
which
be best seen
can
(1) One who writes in defense
they founded
of Christianity. (2) A designation of certain of
at
through the letters of Paul to the churches
the Fathers of the church in the 2nd. century, chief
Corinth
and Phihppi. Their duties seem
to have
whom
Justin Martyr, Aristides,
were
Melito, been largelythose of oversightand generaldirection,
among
and the author of the Epistle to Diognetus. See
rather than that of authoritative
interference in
reluctance to draw a sharp line between
the natural
and the supernatural. The world is regarded as a

Apologists.

APOLOGISTS."
This word is usuallyemployed
in a special sense
to designate certain
Christian
leaders of the 2nd. century who
wrote
various
treatises in defense of their religion. The
earUest
of the group
addressed
was
an
Quadratus, who
Hadrian
about
at Athens
apology to the emperor
the year
Another
defensive
125
treatise
a.d.
from the pen of Aristides,
Christian philosopher
a
of Athens, seems
been
written
to have
shortly
before 150 a.d.
At Rome
Christianityfound a
vigorous champion in Justin, frequently called
Justin Martyr, whose
be
literaryactivity may
to
150
165 a.d.
roughly assigned to the years
His so-called First Apology made
behalf
of
on
to the Roman
and his Dialogue
Christianity
emperor
with Trypho defending the new
religionagainst
Jewish critics are
His
especiallyworthy of note.
the
to
pupil, Tatian, also addressed an Oration
Greeks
allegingthe superior truth and antiquity
of Christianity
all Greek
culture.
Athenaover
perhaps was
an
Athenian, directed an
goras, who
Marcus
Aurelius and Comappeal to the emperors
rnodus
probably in the year 177 a.d.
During the
ninth
decade
of the 2nd. century Theophilus of
Antioch
behalf
composed a vigorous apolgy on
of Christians in three books addressed to a heathen
called Autolychus. Minucius
temporary
conFelix,a Roman
of Theophilus, set forth the superior
merits of Christianity
in a work modeled
after the
quent
Subsedialogueform of Cicero's De natura deorum.
writers
such
Irenaeus
and
Tertullian
as
are
but they
apologeticin their interests,
similarly
not usuallyclassed in this group.
are
See Apologetics.
S. J. Case

The

church
to
affairs. At the same
time Paul seems
have beUeved
that he had power
to act in questions
of discipline
wherever
faith itself was
not involved.
sador
The fact that the apostleas a witnessingambaswas

or

the renunciation of faith under pressure
of persecution.
The R.C. church recognizestwo specialsorts
of apostasy:
of the monastic
(a) abandonment
life without
of
permission; and (6) abandonment
clerical orders
in the
Protestant
same
way.

to

APOSTOLIC
AGE."
The
designation of that
period of the history of the Christian religion
beginning with the death of Christ and ending with
of
the close of the 1st. century.
The
sources
information
Testament
for the period are the New
writings(exceptingII Peter and Jude), and certain
extant
non-canonical
writings written about the
close of the period but reflecting
its conditions,as
of Barnabas, Clement
e.g., the Didache, the epistles
of Rome, and Ignatius. For the functions of the
officers of

the period see
Apostle;
Bishop; Presbyter; Pastor; Deacon.

APOSTASY."
defection
(1) In Greek literature,
from a miUtary officer. (2) Hence
used in Christian
of the faith,
terminology for the abandonment
disobedience to the recognizedauthority. Sometimes
it took the form of heresy (q.v.); sometimes

constantlytravelingapparently seems

have resulted in the 2nd. centuryin the apphcation
of the name
apostleto a group of itinerant preachers,
the preciseduties of whom
not clearlyknown,
are
but whose status is sketched in The Teachingsof the
Twelve Apostles.
The Cathohc
churches teach that there has been
of bishops to whom
and through whom
a succession
transmitted
were
by the laying on of hands the
and authority of the early apostles which
power
of the
give sole vahdity to the administration
sacraments.
See Apostolic
Succession.
Shailer
Mathews
APOSTLES'
CREED."
shortest and the
The
best known
of the creeds, dating in its official
form from about 500 a.d., but traceable in variant
phrasing back to the so-called Roman
Symbol
in the 2nd. century. The
tradition of apostolic
be traced back of the 4th. century.
origincannot
See Crhbds
and Articles
op Faith.

APOSTOLIC

BRETHREN."

An

Prophet;

ics
order of ascet-

They
arising in northern Italy about 1260.
purported to five in apostolicpurity, emphasized
held
to
apocalyptic ideas. They
poverty and
into conflict with the church and were
forcibly
came
suppressed.

of

APOSTOLIC
the 4th.

CANONS."

A

century of unknown

Christian

writing
authorship. It

Apostolic Church

A

OF

DICTIONARY

reproduces the catechetical teaching preservedin
the Didache
(q.v.)and also reproducesthe ApostoUc
Constitutions (q.v.). It contains also decrees of
various
synods and
councils, notably that of
Antioch
The
341.
number
85.
They
canons
include a list of O.T. and N.T. books, but omit
Revelation

and

add

I and

II

Clement

and

the

ApostoUc Constitutions.
A
APOSTOLIC
DIRECTORY."
CHURCH
work
purporting to be of apostolic origin, but
coming from Egypt and dating from about the
3rd. century.
It contains
legal precepts, both
ethical and ecclesiastical.
APOSTOLIC
A collection
CONSTITUTIONS."
of church
teachings and decrees dating from the
3rd. century but attributed to Clement
of Rome.
They are arranged in eight books and are 85 in
number.
Although not widely accepted they have
historical
had a considerable
influence and
have
value because preservinga pictureof the Christian
life in the 3rd. century.
They draw largely on
the Didache
(q.v.),and
(q.v.),the Didascalia
Hippolytus of Rome.
APOSTOLIC
DELEGATE."
the Roman
curia,delegatedas

of
A representative
presidentof a national
in
or provincial
council,or having papal jurisdiction
ecclesiastical. Called also papal delegate.
matters
See Legate.
APOSTOLIC
church who were

Writers of the early
with the apostles
term
of Rome, Barnabas,
a
applied to Clement
Hermas, Ignatius,Polycarp and Papias.

FATHERS."

contemporaneous

"

APOSTOLIC
SEE."
A church
founded by an
apostle and thus claiming apostoUc authority;
used to designatethe Church
of Rome, and formerly
used of the churches at Antioch,Ephesus, Alexandria
and

Jerusalem.

APOSTOLIC
SUCCESSION."
The
doctrine
the uninterrupted line of succession
in the
episcopacy from the apostlesto the present. The
doctrine is maintained
by the Roman, Greek and
Anglican churches, the former two and the High
Anglican church
counting it essential to the
vahdity of the ministry. See Order, Holy.
of

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

24

of appetite.
exaggerated protest against the power
Antinomianism
(q.v.)is an exaggerated neglect of
their influence.

See Ethics.

APSE.
semicircular
or
(1) Architecturally,
a
semioctagonal enclosure,with a domed
covering,
which
the aisles or
choir of
usually terminated
ancient basilicas,
and which
contained
the altar
and
the bishop's seat.
the
(2) Ecclesiastically,
end of the church containing the altar,no
eastern
"

matter

what

the architectural

form

may

be.

ST. THOMAS
(1227-74)." Count of
of Monte
by the Benedictines
Dominican
in Naples (1243),
a
studied
with
Albertus
in Cologne and
Magnus
Paris and
himself
became
teacher
dominant
a
(Cologne 1248, Paris 1252, Italy 1261, Paris 1269,
Naples 1271). Blending church dogma with the
AristoteUan
science newly brought from
Spain,
Aquinas was
opposed as a "modernist," but his
cans
profound theology became
obhgatory for Dominiand Jesuits and in 1879 was
for
made normative
the Church.
Prolific with commentaries
ture
Scripon
and Aristotle,
he furnished encyclopedic constructions
of aU knowledge in harmony with dogma
in his Summa
Catholicae fideicontra Gentiles (after
1261) and the Summa
Theologiae (after 1265).
mental
fundaNatural
he argues,
demonstrates
reason,
man's
like God's
and
truths
existence
ethical duty, but requires to complete and
fect
pertruth the revelation of Trinity, Incarnation,
these
Sacraments, Eschatology. Dealing with
cannot
higher truths, reason
give demonstration
but can
be persuasive by showing the absence of
contradiction.
Aquinas broke with Augustinian
intellectualism
tradition and
restored the Greek
which gave primacy to the intellect. By his social
ethics he retains a modern
interest. He views the
which is due to a social instinct
state
sary
as a necescompletion in
stage of Hfe leading to its own
the church, the realm of grace.
F. A. Christie

AQUINAS,

Aquino, educated
Cassino, became

"

ARABIA,

"

RELIGIONS

OF."

in extent, too

Arabia

variegatedin character
unit.
lastingreligious

to

is too

vast

produce
informed.

a

well
not
For ancient times we
are
Our earliest sources
South Arabic inscriptions.
are
is published,
Of these a fair number
more
many
of those
stiU unpubUshed.
The interpretation
are
serious differenceshas given rise to many
at hand
APOTHEOSIS."
Deification:
the practise of
of opinion. They exhibit in general a fairlyhigh
state of culture and
to the rank
exaltingrulers,heroes, or conquerors
religion. Most of them are
number
of gods
of gods, and offeringto them
divine honors, e.g..
a
rehgious in character and name
but do not present a system
in various capacities,
Emperor-worship (q.v.).
of reUgion. The features exhibited are not unlike
APOTROPAISM."
A technique of riddance for
those of other Semitic religions
(q.v.)in a similarly
deities are
of civihzation.
The
state
averting or overcoming evil. Among
primitive advanced
peoples apotropaic ceremonies are those m which
( Ishtar, the planet
largely astral. 'Athtar
under various
unites to exorcize demons
the group
by such pracVenus) is masculine, as is the moon
tises
as
or
beating, carting away,
Shams, the sun, is a goddess. El occurs
boating away,
names;
Incense and
shedding the blood of a victim, as in the case of
frequently,mostly in proper names.
Azazel (cf.Lev. 16th chapter).
its use in the cult has its home, probably its origin,
in South Arabia.
tus
APPETITE.
The native sense
of need in the
For North Arabic peoples we have from Herodoscattered
and
physical organism, expressed in a craving for
(111:8) down
fragmentary
Nowhere
does their religionappear
the satisfaction of corporeal wants
ing
information.
and stimulatbest
effort to procure
satisfaction.
primitive. At
only fragmentary
Appetites are
whoUy
directed either toward
remnants
of rudimentary totemistic,animistic,
as
self-preservation
hunger,
discernible,but no
etc., concepts are
thirst,etc., or toward propagation of the species fetishistic,
other ism.
sexual desire.
clear-cut system or phase of totemism
or
as
Appetites are in themselves nonCrude
rites are
found, worship of stones, trees;
moral, but their connection with pleasureand pain
givesthem ethical significance.Where the behavior
repugnant forms of sacrifice (human; animal by
of a person
is dominated
by appetites the person
drinking the blood and consuming, raw and fresh,
unsocial and
hence
becomes
immoral.
possibleshred). Progress is observable,e.g.,
Morality
every
in rites of affiliation or treaty: contractingparties
involves control of appetitesin subordination
to a
actually lick each other's blood; mingle it on
approved end. Asceticism (q.v.)is an
rationally
=

"

as early as 2000 B. century b. very different from the morning star is. antique world of Aristotle.first a male deity. those who would make all Arabic philosophy but a just before they appear in historical notices. they trouble merchants held. Near East. LANARAMAIC Alfarabius. al-Farabt. pressing outward from desert Arabia toward through which it had to pass before reachingEurope. than to two rivers. narrowest sense. they are the rationaUsts (but not freethinkers)of shadowy.ill.c. and is nearer to Hume Kant than these are of the Eastern half of the Moslem world: anything in themselves). as penetrating the peninsulafrom the north and from the South. for long and until recentlyvery generally and farmers earher.better ARAMAEANS. The formulated the the polytheistic the problems that This that are means stage for engross well above Arabia is passing. the Yemen. but a large section. Spain and North Africa: Ibn Bajja. The scented water.but enjoys in many curious. These "truce of God. the By 600 A. on.. of Allah) Mohammedan and of revelational traditional and Manat.v. documents in written Their language appears and a few others to mediaeval give through these men from the 8th. Thenoe.view and Arabic in its language.especially only to settle back to the broad level of orthodox it all its limitations Ash'arite Aristotle with a neoplatonicvarnish.it of the "phiin its world. are translation. the scheme of the writingsof these phiand thrusts out the older forms.as in the south. the latinized forms of their names (Alkindius GUAGE.at of Arabic statement or near philosophy be complete Bagdad. revealed religionwhich is the chief characteristic M. died M. selves. between the developmentof theological and philo. as used by writers in Arabic themand finds its apex in the genialGhazalt (1058-1111). with the conception and understanding of a world given and the Hidjaz and Mecca.died at Aleppo 950. Of the great layers offset by the fact that the selection of material are or they are the third.The mediaeval world substitute animal blood.C. This latter consideration in the nomad should give pause to The home of the Aramaeans stage. 26:5). constructed nondescriptadmixtures. al-'Uzzah. Sphbnglikg 1185 at Morocco.the only pure Arab of the lot (ca. any without mention of Ibn Khaldun and Ibn Stna. and in manuals hauer) problemof causation (where it foreshadows Schopenand in Ghazalis keen critiqueof the function articles under the heading Arabic Arabian or brain (which of sense of Three perceptionand of the human Philosophy or Philosophy of Islam. Where originalforms.which prefiguresmodern West. that the Arabs handle of monotheism suitable for itself and him.the problem of the attributes of God. mediaeval world generally. it wrestles with the problems of monotheism. Averroes). perThis view." shrewdly developed by the miUionwere formulated aires of Mecca. death desuetude. finally was a theologicalworld. known Occidentals even Aram is the name of a people. al-'Uzzah.D.perhaps the foremost ing Now. The other trio is of the (1332-1406) and his philosophy of history. orthodoxyof the Nejd.850). Avempace. Pushed too by difficulties on world's thought. Aram of Damascus Had Arabic philosophydone nothing more etc. give some applied to a localityit is usually of the they exerted on the thought of the Schoolmen joinedto a place name. the Greeks. Mohammedan problems thus philosophy. and finallyIbn Rushd. died hammedan 1138 at Fez in Morocco. haps Syrian desert. PresentlyArabia is again divided againstitself." The thought throughout Europe and philosophical of mediaeval Western endeavor of the mediaeval Asia. century. theology. The Five of 1126 in Cordova. Judaism and Christianityare as "philosophers"par excellence named the theologians. ARAM. the Shi^te-colored South. They are theologicalproblems. dip fingerstogether.is the passing phase in the history of AristoteUanism. there is no theology in the 8th.instead of the mere ance acceptgoddesses. as far as history reaches.MoJean Jacques Rousseau of mediaeval mysticism demands separate treatment. who understanding in the Mediterranean world than the originalwould have been. 980-1037. hold the field to the present. old worshipersfear after their formulae. Sprenglinq ARABIC PHILOSOPHY. From this largerpoint of view Arabic philosophy Karmatian Kharigiterebels seize and hold Oman. The problems of its thinkers are not the main problems of Aristotle and later under foreigninfluence a goddess. losophers or framework is constructed wholly upon these problems. is not a mere schismatics overspread Bahrein. The fourth great layer are the Arabs.--Sufism. Arabia creates Then with Mohammed not for mere historic or abstract scientific interest. stones sophica " the dead in ancient Babylonia. to the joyof expandsection in that chapter of human the thought. especiallyin festivals connected with fairs and a problem of creation. somewhat minds no a cult. it would still deserve to be held by us in which marks them as one of the great groups chiefly.) i.being preceded by groups and the manner of presentationwere better adapted the Assyro-Babylonians and the Amorites (Canaanto mediaeval ites). In its losophers" develops in the divergent currents and the kaldm theology of the Ash'arites. it is for the solution of these. Sunnite with cosmopolitan for it by that monotheistic to it.but with sovereignmastery. the problem of free will.are fightingeach other. more Europe a much complete Aristotle than it had. crude altars.. thinking in the Mohammedan or mementos. gratefulmemory. with them begins the history of Arabic or defined supremacy. these were " " .and Jacob they appear in Palestine (Deut. With of the in the formulation half dozen names An even of outstanding "philosophers" goes beyond the Greeks of this type are stressed. died 1198 at Morocco. a form more go to Aristotle and for a large part of Asia and Africa (see Mohammedanism) reverentlyindeed. AUat ("the goddess. and early in the 9th. within and behind their land they drift and press permanent place in the modern It does not take into account With Abraham the close relationship into the fertile lands roundabout. ism. and chapter in the historyof Aristotelianfor a space hold Mecca.Avicenna. Islam. Greek to Syriac to Arabic to Latin. is too narrow and unfair to retain a the lower Euphrates. the surroundingfertile lands.not of a to most today than their hint of the profound influenceplace. Even thinking. (q.Islam. It is their language.A 25 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Aram and in the set up as symbols. well known in Europe in late mediaeval times. These Mu'tazilites introduced into favored the use of reason worth for the more the najne. wherein straightlaced Wahhabite Christianity.e. The drawbacks of a threefold of Semitic peoples which. born of dismal under-world abode ARALU. the cult of a number of gods is stillahve.in all such rites disappear. The are by the Mu'tazilites late gods themselves given scientifically little thought or reverence. a sort of evolutionary thought.Mohanunedan Beginning with the Mu'tazihtes. the name philosopheris appliedto those men only who expounded Greek philosophy. ." fem. Ibn Tufail. has Allah. Nor would Europe before these men al-Kindt.

In the Anglican ARCANI DISCIPLINA. became the dominant form of Christianity in Sassanian Persia and carried its religionand the Syriac tongue as far East as the heart of China. In the among the life and reconstruct Middle of to exercise concame siderable thought of the men Ages archdeacons former times.sculpture. Officials in the early and mediaeval ARCHAEOLOGY.the oversight. Canaanites.givingway usually times an to the office of vicar-general.with ARANYAKAS. and the title is more common. which ARCHBISHOP. territory under Where existed the animistic theory of an archbishop. At Harran of paganism survived to a curious form Moslem In days. In the Magdalenian epoch (ca.these people have clung to their own AND ETHICS 26 In the Neolithic age archaeologyshows that men held a polydaemonistic system of beliefs similar to the rehgions of existing savages. Megalithic throughout Europe. See Baal.C.thrust out of the Graeco-Roman world. PRIEST. ARCHPRESBYTER. century. Religion of. on largecommunity in the Greek church. used Eastern church the archbishop has not always Brahmanas. well into the 8th.are clamoring for recogname nition with a voice. of.sometimes with strange tenacity.callingthemselves by the unforof Assyrians.In modern regard to the religionof mankind.000 head of several ARCHIMANDRITE. hieroglyphicwriting was as invented in Babyloniaand in Egypt. Religiously they do creative. early records of him written in that tongue. dignitaries. detached of the great push are absorbed by the earlier van settlers and adopt their language and as letters.d. Monophysitism gained one of its chief strongholds in the Syriac-speaking churches.C. as early 5000 B.some with non-Semitic to changing from Canaanite names.Aranyakas A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION By the 13th.C. In the classical civilizations and in the Christian civilizations of Europe archaeology is an important aid in the study of the history of religionby ideas discoveringthe artistic expressionof religious in architecture.in Assyrian and Achaemenid-Persian becomes times. ing presidover provincialcouncils. " . stone mark the sanctuaries of this period. Speengling own. uses.See Assyria and Babylonia. In the Age of Bronze. They fallin with and foster the tendency toward syncretism." The secret instruction church there are the archbishopricsof Canterbury and of York. century the power. painting." The class the of a of the assent of the council. Archaeologythrows much lighton the popular religionof ancient Israel.c?) no evidences of religious Episcopal churches is an official charged with part ideas have yet been discovered. Adaptabilityto new surroundings and great and traders are abilityas merchants outstanding characteristics. It shows that the early histories of the Old Testament correct in accusare ing the Hebrews of adopting the high places of the Canaanites. Religion of. Presently. Ceremonial of the bishop's administration of a diocese. a belief in spirits jurisdiction of the universe held by modern savages probably also existed. But though severely circumscribed buffeted a millennium and and more by adverse with fortune.of his suffragans. Then they cling.See Bishop. century a. It also confirms modern criticism of the Old Testament by showing that there was a gressive prodevelopment of religiousideas during the centuries that followed the conquest. and Persia. name and the sacred books of India later than the Vedas and In the hearing of appeals from episcopalcourts. Asia tunate Minor. difficultto name Christian times not appear Aramaean specifically Aramaean came though Jesus spoke Aramaic. In the 8th. The practicedated from the later 2nd. literary Nestorianism. find kings in northern Syria. and from that time onward down to the beginning of the Christian era copious records were written in both scripts. magical or other religious . Asia. and the jurisdiction regardingbaptism and the Lord's Supper which in is similar to that the early centuries of Christianity of the R. stone monuments tables (dolmens) and circles (cromlechs). Lewis B. Arabic Islam presently reduced the sphere of Christian Syriac materially. The office dates from the 5th. were Despite this. and so remains in some measure. The discovery of these documents and of numerous sacred objects excavators has made by modern struction possiblethe reconof the Babylonian and of the Egyptian religions." The the possibly worship of their spirits. ARCHARCHDEACON. For the ages prior to the invention but since the 16th. consisting of standing stones (menhirs). These existence of suggest belief in the continued and the dead ARCHDIOCESE. meditation and study. It is seen to have been a primitive form of polydaemonism combined with the beginnings of polytheism. Paton the tenacity of old Harran. Religion The religion of Canaan quest conpriorto the Hebrew has recently become known through the excavation of a number of the mounds of Palestine. its chief literary dialect) became for centuries the chief spoken tongue and vehicle of eastern Judaism and Christianity. In the period subsequent to the invention of writingarchaeologyfurnishes additional material in the knowledge derived from inscriptionsand from documents. Aramaic in their inscriptions. by hermits who have given up the fife of householder and retired to the forest for metropolitan rank. serving their gods. In the Lutheran church the metropoUtans of Sweden and Finland bear the title. until Arabic Islam thrusts it into the century we background.25. Aramaic the linguafranca of the Levant.to their syncreticformations.." The science which from church. practices. century. Aramaic (or Syriac. and sacrificing children. or someThese may of one have served stone and ivory appear. in Abraham- Jacob-Israel did in Canaan.000b. the units in Small. of writing it is the only source of information in officehas declined in importance. Deacon." The models and of men of animals and drawings monasteries of the same times B. and minor sacred objects. powers. Egypt. and Africa." In the Roman Catholic church only adverse political constellations and the Armenian and massacres an archbishop is a bishop who has oversight of inaudible Christian Western several other bishopricsas well as charge of his to appeals make His duties include the callingand M.) congregation. See Sacred Literatures. so called because of their superiorpositions the remains of human the groups to which industry and art seeks to they belonged. See burials are first found in the Acheulian epoch. Priest. Presbyter. Aramaic And now Christians the borders m of Mesopotamia. it is gods. and to mean pagan. century they are thoroughly at home Mesopotamia. was given only to those who were baptized.beliefs. the EoUthic From and from archdeacon in the earlier the Protestant Anglican and age Paleolithic age (500.

Universals views concerning the substance of the Son. the subject-matter of which is God. appearing in Justin Martyr and Origen. the Jewish first the the movement.and subsequentlycondemned . the orthodox party defended the consubstantiability{homoousios)of the Son with the Father in oppositionto the Arian positionthat the created by and essentially Son was different from human The soul stands between the the Father animal and (heteroousios or anomoios) though God. A heresy. man. The Arabians to orthodoxy eventually triumphed at the council of notably appearedAvicenna and revived Aristotle in the Averroes Constantinople. in the Roman catacombs " being used one by The ARHAT of (ARAHAT). possessing who was as a attributes distributable into categories. continued ARISTOTLE AND ARISTOTELIANISM." He was for that attitude to persist. the former and ecclesiastical pronouncements. and a that he was of similar rather than the same an andria is purposive.and between rationalism. These condemned final cause which four are he was by the Synod of Alexreduced to two by combining the last three into at (320-321)..ascribed to one who has gained enlightenment and become perfect in the eight-fold path. in " the interests of monotheism.perception and memory of the animal.384-322 B.A 27 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION ECCLESIASTICAL. The Supreme Being is an exceptionto the rule. and is Himself the subject of his contemplation." The most whom Albertus Magnus (q. but version of a part of the Organon. partaking in the sensibility. and thus embraces all other principlesand first cause." ignoredhis works. also apphed to the documents themselves.and with Alexander Aquinas (q. 325. His epistemology represented the human mind as a recipientbut not a creator of ideas. and God. a mean of the Arian between two totle In poHtical theory Arisextremes. prime Mover. emphasizing the natural and substantial as against the tendency of A. of the teaching reverts to the tendency. and virtue consists in an equiUbrium period between In the post-Nicene period the watchbetween word and the animal reason elements.e. matter and idea the dynamic. possessing the faculty for shaping ideas. the standpoint of literary form Aristotle's From dualism of Aristotle was carried over as a dualism works may be classified as dialogues. At writer."Presbyter of Alexandria of his substances heretic because concrete condemned comprise reahty. At the council of one. These ARIUS (256-336). ARCOSOLIUM. introduced Aristotle over the western church." A tory deposiof historical value of records and documents church relative to any or religiouscommunity.whose watch by some.v. through his Latin another their metaphysicaldifferences. from that of subject-matter as church and the world." church condemned Aristotle's physics (1209) and his metaphysics (1215). century. Aristotle's psychology was a theoretical duahsm of body (matter) and soul (essence). ness. the Vatican archives.).natural science. Moses Maimonides.381. Athens 367-347 the pupil of Plato. of the Son to the Father and maintaining cause which stance subefficient cause is active. The generative ordination four: a material of real being are After having preached and taught the subcauses which is passive.didactic. Albertus was the teacher of Thomas possiblehis philosophicallabor.chieflyassociated with ARIANISM. the orthodox umphed.) followed Avicenna teaching in the Lyceum. history.v. The we libraryand data for his scientific work.). Knowledge is therefore con- Nicaea. nature. In him have Aristotehanism ecclesiasticized.primary philosophy or thethrough classHis erudiand miscellaneous. form of the tombs early Christians. while others word was But the Alexandrians. The specialsciences deal with groups of specific facts. Philosophyis a science of universals. S.especially homoiousios. to call the Logos "a second God.Though party trithe strugglewas still more bitter in the of God. The hierarchical system ology." Christ being given a representative argued that monarchical government of both genuine toward the maximum of virtue and happiness. and again in Athens for 12 years of grace. or firstscience. The deductive method of his substances as opposed to the Platonic philosophy logicis the method of Catholicism in its theological of universal forms. and deprived at once In the Patristic period." highest rank sainthood in early Buddhism.g. ARCHIVES. in Mitylene declared "precursor of Christ in as By 1300 he was tutor to Alexander 343-335 in the latter part of as things natural as John the Baptist was in matters the reign of Phihp. A mediating party also appeared. An arched recess. Hence reason morality is a characteristic the councils of Nicaea and Constantinople. born in fitted to Catholicism at Stagira. Christology. is a philosophy of individual Aristotelianism Church's knowledge.v. Aristotle was attacked deity and humanity. tion ethics. and Arianism gradually disfrom the East.Greek philosopher. concepts to particulars provided Aquinas with and literary the tools for vindicatingthe divine authorityof the production were encyclopaedic.meaning of "similar essence. See Christology." subordinate to the divine Father. and in the pre-existent. thinkers. essence or form-giving idea. called Semi-Arians (q. himself unmovable. He is the consistingof pure form without matter. hailed him as a forerunner of Christ to the Hellenic world. During this period about eighteen councils were Clement.a formal cause which is ideational. Through their influence the Teutonic barbarians Latin translations of and commentaries totle's ArisChristianity to which on and it persistedamong converted them until works were tian were introduced to Jewish and Christhe 7th. He is pure thought. significant facts were his relationship with Plato. and 12th.which made he regarded as the best interpreterof Aristotle.v.and is supernaturalsubstance. as Irenaeus and TertulUan.C. ceptual. The origin a presbyterof Alexandria.and the latter funcor actuality. As a man he was of good character and earnestare reallypredicatesof the particulars. convened.the former tion being capacity or potentiaUty. of his concepts from universals logic.but his system was too well Aristotle.deduced from primary principles. WoODBtrRNB the latter to the supernaturaland abstract. It was that form of 11th. party was homoios. AND Thus ETHICS Arius there are two ultimate principlesin material substratum and the differentiating the substances. of humanity. the necessary result of the principleof causahty.hence called "the Stagirite. Substances of are three kinds.so designated from its chief exponent.. It is a blank page. centuries.). In man the is soul and the body is the differentiating essence material element. the various partiesanathematizing one Boethius. which enabled him for his to collect materials the greatest of the Catholic theologians. the supernaturalism and rhetorical works. meaning tends "similar. Arius (q. while being the potentiality the combination is actuaUty. function.

" " The immediate followers of Arminius in the whom Uytenbogaert. in and and Mahabharata Bhagavata Purana). adopted by the AngUcan faith law stood in 1905. i. until of A confession Church in 1552. (1822-1888). indeed granted toleraIt was tion after the brief period of proscriptionwhich followed its condemnation by the Synod of Dort (1618-19 q. warm a evangehcal faith. revelation. literature. (5) In the Ethiopian church. the term besides the formally expressed tenets of Arminius. The breach with the Greek church was brought about by the opposition of the Armenians to the decision of Chalcedon (a.) In the latter part of his lifeArius was recalled banishment from and would have been received back with honor into the church had he not died the day preceding that set for the service. at Brescia in Italy. (1) According to Hebrew of largefloatingvessel built by Noah by command Yahweh. Limborch Episcopius. took the ark with two The Hebrews them in their travels. introduced by Napoleon. is Babylonian hterature where the part of Noah assigned to Xisuthrus {Gilgamesh). by the daughter of Pharaoh (Deut. and exercised considerable a Literature and Dogma. earUest Turkish invasions the Armenian Christians have suffered cruel persecution. SYNOD in S. it acquired specially effective means of dissemination. into conflict be saved. In the year 535 the separation made final by the Council of Tiben. ORGANIC" A law regulating ARTICLES. Arnold was in 1155.culminating in the of recent times. See Donatism. Tradition traces back the introduction of Christianity into Armenia to a legendary mission of the to King Abgar. See also Monophysites.A Ark DICTIONARY the the Council and banished. put to death at Rome Netherlands " among " MATTHEW ARNOLD. together with Apostle Thaddaeus supposed visits of Bartholomew. b.33 bishops being present.and differingfrom the "orthodoxy" of the main bodies of the Eastern and Western churches in rejectingthe decrees of the Council of Chalcedon. liberal and on religionwere ethical character. but it was to find its most fruitful fields in other regions.rly with much later legendary matter. bishops who hold fiefs. and became a pupil of Abelard. and finally called to the chair of theology in the in 1603 was after his day University of Leyden soon very Arminianism. as a refuge from the deluge (Gen.inwhich he had been reared scarcely went beyond the rejectionof unconditional election and irresistible In place of these features of the reigning grace.). Under his influence Christianity to be formally even came adopted as the national religionof Armenia. began to be termed Frequently." A Synod caUed at Aries. Sheldon Henry ARNOLD OF BRESCIA. as an (6) Metaphorically used for the institution of church the divinely authorized as salvation. and speak of the doctrine of certain perseverance to inquiry." English educator. and were prominent of Remonstrants from the titleof acquired the name the document which they put forth in 1610. while giving not a little emphasis to man's spiritual dependence." He came property. however.poet and author. and combined opposition of Frederick Adrian.E. He was educated for the priesthood. the after the death of Arminius. C. a sacred chest made with overlaid and lined with gold. which has been decorated ea. doctrinal from conceptions logically deducible His departures from the Reformed them. Holy. but independent in organization. furthermore. (See ArianISM." Ascetic and reformer. his works of a critical. Arminianism after the to its best very came soon death of the founder. Three bishops must be present for an The episcopal ordination. Grotius. It was thoroughly representativeof the Western provinces. massacres F. majority of the 22 concerned the discipUne of clergy and laity.d. century. and Leyden. Calvinism he affirmed conditional election and man's freedom to accept or to reject divine overtures. date unknown. 25:16). CHURCH OF.e. None of Nicaea less his view found followers and at times many gained control of the imperial court.(2) The " " _ hidden basket in the bulrushes in which Moses was until found (Exod." etc. and irresistible grace." The type of doctrine Arminius who taught by James studied at Geneva.v. Adeney Walter ARMENIA. Emperor Frederick BarAs a result of the barossa. predestination. 10:8). . books of his deaUng with Bible are two well-known religion. His maxims "Clerks who have were: who possess monks estates. canons and were called forth by the necessityfelt by the church define its position since its imperial to recognition. a chest which has been dedicated to serve altar. (4) The ark of the law is a chest used in Jewish synagogues as a repository for the scrolls of the Torah. Basle. dered Support is renit. the separationof church and The state FORTY-TWO. they rule out unconditional limited atonement. France Constantino in 314 by Emperor and to settle the dispute between the Catholics Donatists. which they held to favour Nestorianism. as open Later the positiveaffirmation of the possibility of strant falUng from grace became characteristic of Remonor Arminian tion teaching. teaching .and surmounted cherubim. and Pope Adrian IV. In the five year articles of this manifesto. He was of worldly a vigorous opponent of corruption in the clergy and of temporal power the Curia. OF. literary critic. There is no historical authority for this." ARTICLES. comprising 44 articles relatingto Protestantism and 77 relative to Catholicism.as did also the repudiaof the notion of imputed or hereditaryguilt. ARLES. or ark of the of acacia wood.451). the ARK. was anathematised which the Orthodox church and added "who crucified a monosophysite clause" was for us" to the Trisagion. Through the Methoit made alliance with wherein movement.. has been made to connote. The prohibition of the rebaptisra of apostates with the Trinitarian formula was a decision against the Donatists." A church kindred church in form. (3) The ark of the covenant ark of the testimony (Exod. to the Greek " AND RELIGION OF ETHICS 28 ARMINIANISM AND ARMINIUS. cannot with Pope Eugenius III.to the doxology Frota the times of the "Holy. THE pubhc worship in France. Simon. and Jude.since it symboUzed for them in the presence of Yahweh. 3:12). Anglican high churchism it patronage in the time of Laud and again gave dist after the Stuart restoration. So far as Netherlands the are concerned. The real origin of the Armenian church is to be attributed to the mission of Gregory the Illuminator in the 4th. 6:5 9:17). Comparative mythology furnishes parallel traditions in Indian Hterature where Manu plays the role assigned to Noah (Catapatha Brahmana. by a consideration of the acterized extent its essential points of view charto which and the teaching of the early church later found lodgment in Lutheranism. and God and the influence. Holy.

the birthdayand in the family ceremonies. drink and in earliest times his wives and bitterly opposed to Christianity." ArchARUNDEL. The nature Aryans could stillbe called atheists in historic times by visitors who had a pantheon of personalgods with human characteristics.to keep it burning when Aryan groups. Such and the Greek forms as the Celtic Samhain eve branches of the old family. About the hearth grow up affections and customs which raise it into divine status in almost all the To feed it. the emperor secured election to the college and the functions of the Fratrea Arvales were larged enceremonies to include sacrificial on important household. There is sufficient evidence to held at and was suggest that a great public ceremony neighbors on a far-flungtract of woods as from the earth. to guard it from pollution becomes a reUgious duty. the "house-snake" them as a vigorous. Slav. rain welcome the dawning hght of heaven. to chief. fire is difficult to make.v. It is easy to understand is no abject fear of dread powers and no quest for a eagerlythe herders of cattle in a land where known heaven to compensate for a frustrated life on earth. earlygiven up. more was an " life to cattle and to men. here as elsethe stranger and the beggar were in 1875. It has been victims to the successful.an attempt to assist the powers of lightand warmth in their strugglewith cold and THOMAS bishop (1353-1414). a means mimetic when by a magic processionwith vessels 1531. life-loving. To write the story of their religiouslife in that prehistoric period when they dwelt together wretched existence. meant plentv under a Sky-God giving light. The Samaj is distinctlyIndian and meat. movement Hospitalitywas freelygiven. of a fate BROTHERS. Using which all the dead came pasture land is necessarily the knowledge of the elements to all the common placated. adopted in England. which are of the revelation of God the source at the or rough-hewn coffins at a "crossroads" as interpreted border of the common land. to those may groups of origin and There is no indication of a heavenly abode nearest to the pointy remembering of the dead. The representationof the especially attempt to picturethis may underworld powers in the form of a snake and the primitivereligion.are the only gods and they not are anthropomorphic but vaguely conceived forces. offered to them the Baltic as a under the name of "fathers" from the stone age in territorynear was or "grand-fathers. dead were The buried in monotheistic cult founded on the Vedas.drinking and games so common Aryan peoples that it probably deUghting in fighting. SAMAJ.)arranged ia 37 articles in gathered under the general title of* sky-father. the home fire and the of a confident.). of mead subsequentlyrevised Nine Articles into the so-called Thirty- (q. the place of burial. It is an more attempt to establish a purely feared than welcomed. also filled the offices of bered archbishop of York and lord chancellor. and the oak. The dead were used to refer to the Indo-European race posed supin the parent stock of the peoples known to dwell in the earth but at stated times.the lives of men given to revivifyana strengthen the sky powers.the other. The sky gods are generous. the and in relation to the life-values and life-security crossroads. at the grave.v. The family. After the burial came ARYAN purificationrites which in water and a solemn feast. perhaps. sky or water or moved around a great fire with spoken spellsand finallyextinguished the fire by emptying their vessels into it. though.was natural environment we dangerous." the rule. of securing that everywhere religionis man's way They belong to the underworld." A form of the ARTICLES. prehistoric in the form of ancestor idea of the return of an shows The early history of the various groups which coils by the hearth fire is fearless people. THIRTY-NINE. but the burial ceremonies of the historic Aryans show clearlythat it was once The word Aryan is here RELIGION. and Indian. the fives of for his severe Then persecution of the Lollards." An ancient Roman to twelve members charged with and blessing certain ceremonies for the protection revival under In the religious of fields and crops. favorite possessions. Augustus. ethical teaching is of a The With the dead man and of all science. common to many peoples. ARVAL limited priesthood which was nature.was the sacred tree. later historyas Teuton. on the anniversaryof death. high type. The early loyaltiesare An Indian religiousreformation Blood ARYA to kin and is essential. darkness at the autumn of the translation of the Bible into cattle and. how The Aryan took that into his own important things. There been to have two seem great public ceremonies: of securingrain in summer one.fed and dismissed by public rites. among Their religiouscult centers about the of chance. rememtime. revenge established by Dayanand Sarasvati where. that of the Aryans was On the whole the religion heavenly nature powers.weapons. These the powers. Greek. stillmore and prohibition were potent.v. belongsto the primitiveperiod. at formed the home. fife. There is littleevidence of a cult of motherearth common to agriculturalpeoples.were a precarioustask. The practiceof givinghuman numerically more dead was than the Brahma Samaj (q. its rain. See Church of ARTICLES. feasting.its lightare the with its warmth There hands." Such family rites were type fairlyhomogeneous people of cattle-raising very ing important not only to prevent the ghost from becomthey spread to form the cultural groups we know in it from a a danger to the family but to save history.A 29 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Aryan Religion THIRTY-SEVEN. That of cosmic a dawning sense order. EngUsh. 1571. The boisterous thunder-storm cleaving the oak with its lightning bolt is another power before which they must stand in awe. to land and herds developedthe race and fertility which was to historyof human factor in the the dominant become Haydon A. There is no divine sanction of sun.warmth. the presence of the emperors the nature of a select social club. .happy and successful people. and unknown enemies prowled in darkness would a lifeof vigorand The Well-knit family and clan loyalties." The officialconfession of faith of the Anglican Church.food on Emerging Celt. inevitable than the powers of element of their early world-view has been suggestedby Schrader and seems plausible in view of the development of several Aryan groups. Iranian Roman.). placable powers of light and for morality. were placedhis tools.and no organized priesthood. Belgic Confession (q.with specialattention become and developwhich have stabilized Anthesteria be its continuation ment.but less significant slaves. of Canterbury. There are no temples. Scandinavian. Eustace culture. occasions connected with the Imperial While performing important rehgious duties in the hood gave the prieststate. who know magic spells and incantations though men form the beginning of the later families of priests.

in Greek as Astarte. and in Phoenician ASHTORETH." of asceticism include the limitation Emperor of India (273-231 b. desire to Rehgious aspiration is the earnest system.pantheon representedby a solar disc with wings.). 51:7.ceUbacy ASHUR.v. probably a 3rd. while the Irish penitential than one's ordinary attainments.the Hebrew epithet applied first to the became Jews. or the practiceof some form of self-discipline. is the motive it cannot See Hinduism. Bengal and from " ." of the body of the The passage as 'Ashtart. In the O. in customs Hebrew of goddess of name origin. the leader of the stars. The most outstandin t he Palatine of sketch scratched stone representing ascetic religion is probably Hinduism a (q. The and other more means." The first day of the strugglebetween body and spirit. merit in heaven." of food. China. genuine moral is an intenselypersonalvaluation morally aspiration ested disinterASGARD. appearing in Babylonian as Ishtar.flogging. They differ in ritual and from the Sephardim. as well as to its introduction of ardent fasts for all members The monasASPIRATION.which sometimes in hysteria. For type is liable to he is perhaps the spread of Buddhism abnormal as a religion psychical conditions. when introduced upon the Continent. FEAST presentationto impress events of BibUcal history. N. his own as empire on the ethical basis they often tend to the suppression he estabhshed successful. Monasticism. in R. of kindlyrespect for the sanctityof all Uving things In consequence. oriental religions. Such methods service. An the great reKgionsof the ancient world. by system never ascetic. so called from the ritual use of ashes as a symbol of repentinitiation and ritual methods adopted ance." (From the Hebrew name in Gen. or favor. her cult meant than a body untouched a deificationof sensuousness. ASCETICISM." An of the church.It pre-supposes a more recognizing a organized philosophical dualism ASH WEDNESDAY. prayer. the author of a life of Buddha. Thibet.Greece. passed westward. a war-goddess. accompany The ashes So far as secured are by primitivepeoples to secure success.) A term used by the Jews to designate the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe and their descendants.g. The methods ASOKA. of the body as evil and opposed to spiritual welfare. and above all Egypt. ASSAM.poverty. It is therefore Lenten to be distinguished from the painful practiceswhich period. voluntary infliction of pain. Apologia ing the In 1856 a discovery was made on XVI). 1826-1895 a separateprovince.as contrasted with more Teutonic rehgion.d.visions. and often in specificreligiousdiscipUne. to realize ethical ideals.tolerant. priestsand nuns. asceticism. century a.). self-discipline of and control the cultivation of spiritual quahties ASHVAGHOSHA. Mathews the feminine as Shailer counterpart of the Canaanitic baals in which the sexual aspect predominated. resources By such means by missionary body to subservience to the spiritand to acquire teaching to Ceylon.C. other tender human emotions. by that experience.and properly be so termed. The rite of sprinklingthe congreA development of the ascetic practicesin gation with holy water before the celebration of the to pagan while due in large measure Christianity.E. tery longing for the influential realization of a kind of life much of Cluny (q.v. of spiritual The dwelling-place of the gods in ideals.. so given by the church to ceHbacy on the part of its first word of the verse.T.). gave it a new realities of the divine world. Both Buddhism. 10:3. devotees of which have from earHest days_ the victim having a man's body and an a crucifixion.forty days before Easter. the most themselves important figurein history. or to possess experience God's presence impulse.v. Syria and the devoted to human not West." A Buddhist the personality. ASPERGES. for the purpose specifically. highlydeveloped civih'zations.. such as Moral aspirationconsists in the desire however." treatment (1) A methodical Goddesses. She was rather also the goddess of fruitfulness and in that it was of the body of the resurrection. Alone among ASINARII. (qv. made Uke the Nazarites who of groups in more Ad Nationes to maintain customs (See Tertullian: simpler nomadic 1." Sumerian A mediaeval dramatic OF THE. 14. celibacyand austerities of various He is chieflyknown because of his use of the royal for the spread of Buddhism it is hoped to reduce the sorts. rather than to the discipline of natural impulses.). asceticism seems to have come palms used the previous year on Palm can Sunday. power Mathews to Shailek religiouslyand living. This although this was spiritualizedas the mainspring of the experience is referred to only in Acts 1:9. (2)Less or less disciplinary god of the Assyrian supreme of self. does not involve the premises of asceticism. of Bengal. by burning the from be traced.As such self-control. Generally of a burlesque character. risen Christ into heaven. particularly Anglican churches. the flightof the holy family into Egypt." ASS. See Mother involvingthe practiceof fasting. of the province of Eastern Part Assam in British India since 1895. influences and survivals. express other neurasthenic or experiences. ways " " " " " ASHKENAZIM. The discipline of one's self throughthe subjection inwardly the spiritual of physicalimpulses to moral control is the permaIt expresses itself in worship. nent value of ascetic practices. The day is observed Catholic It in the Roman and those of India.A Ascension DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS 30 As an astral deity Ishtar appeared as ASCENSION. such as the story of Balaam's ass.c. called the honor Mass the from furthered by the was High church. Asceticism is found in developed rather than the Buddha-chanla.unless exception be continued Tacitus because they were said to worship an ass. are always Merciful. less or primitive religions. sought ass's head.was particularly purer and higher in spreading ascetic practices. century travesty of the existences release from the cycle of successive of the crucifixion of Jesus.in Semitic and Greek cults.although it may be of Mithraic of the body by means through the purification origin. and afterwards to the Christians. writer of the 1st. she appears references being to his resurrection. assimilatinglocal practices in Persia.) Venus. being identified with the planet This ascension differs from assumption (q. consecration. of contemplating the good.as e. Ps. the rightof the meanest the ascetic of the extreme thing to a full life.

Old Man of the Mountains.borrowed largelyfrom General Babylonia. GENERAL.Ningishzida.v. some a land Babylonia was tory of city-states. The clergy refused to conform. Anu of Erech. 8:14). and a race of unknown Akkadians hair and Sumerians.^ Eridu (inAkkadian into dogma Ea). though in Babylonia it survived until the beginning " of the Christian Such writers as Herodotus era. beards. of course. the Semites from Arabia. ASSUMPTION. 15th to 23rd inclusive.). ASSYRIA AND BABYLONIA. were FEAST OF THE. country." OF THE ASSEMBLIES FRENCH The quinquennial gatherings of the French clergy for the from the 16th. details of merit about or doctrine of personal The assurance was emphasized in oppositionto rehgious formahsm by the leaders of Pietism (q. in their worship Sumerian elements.From long before the dawn of histhe articles in 1172.)and by John has Wesley (q.Religion of certaintyas to God's favor. and its power In principle their beliefs during the Crusades. Luther insisted strongly on the period to period. It is Virgin Mary subsequent to her death. The name from the derived from hashish.C. During by faith. The wore long shaved both head and face.he contended.but through the power of the cityin the case and Elijah). of Assamese predominant elements can Missionary work has been carried on by the Ameriand since 1891. apparently from the Dagan. RELIGION OF. of the 11th. congregation. which murderers originated in Persia at the close of the Shi'ites. The inner conviction that one in Babylonia) had its deity. ASSIZE OF CLARENDON. The two " races lished Akkadians first in the land and estabwere The their Semitic gods at various centers. the religionof Babylonia Strictlyspeaking. or after death. and for the transaction of other ecclesiastical business. know such by conversion though we Assam are which they were brought very littleof the process by and Sakti have been the cult of Vishnu in." The of the cortransference state often succeeded During the dominaporeal of each. A very popular vegetationdeity doctrine of inner assurance of salvation. See WESTMINSTER.originatingin France in 1845. Nannar of Ur (inAkkadian although never formally made is universallypreached.included the creation of a the dynasty of Agade (2800-2600 b.but the principal form of information sources concerning it are the cuneiinscriptionswhich have been found in such in Mesopotamia. Baptists since 1841 Pioneer Mission the Assam Frontier of a sect of secret A member ASSASSIN. gods were both the Roman trine and Greek This doc(calledin Akkadian Bel). renounce to the rise of Babylon. Each (and there ASSURANCE. through the whole course observed in the Roman Church Some other deities. The basis of assurance been variously defined. was sembly. Enki of churches.emphasis being laid sometimes of God the promise of the Word on (Luther). worship of a weather god. such as Ningirsuof Lagash and on Aug.C. of Kish Zamama were widely worshiped tiU the smaller town rise of Babylon. ASSUMPTION. and members in 1000 her Ishtar. or " CLERGY. The larger were many deities. By the Sumerians was ASSUMPTION. one citytion another. 15th.c. and Berosus tell us a httle about it. century as a branch The sect was operative in Persia and Syria for felt was nearly two hundred years. sometimes the direct inner testimony of the on the divine on Holy Spirit(Wesley). called called affinities.an intoxicant made juiceof hemp leaves which was given to the Assassins about to be sent on their mission when they were known of death.whereby a known ^Ashnan. beardless Sumerians coming later worshiped these bearded gods. also introduced. the In Christianity states the gods of a few places emerged from the only assumption that has of spirits and became into doctrine is that of Mary who after her the chief deities of great mass grown death was These Enlil of Nippur taken up into heaven bodily.this was and Assyria from the earliest times to the fall of the neo-Babylonian empire in 538 B. century to the Revolution appointment of the taxes exacted by the kings of France from the church. ASSEMBLY. and of a corn god. and the Akkadian Sumerian Utu). called the Akkadians generally A R. of ecclesiastical affairs from Rome to England. of Clarendon designed to transfer the control (q. Shamash Sin). Akkadians.v." A festival The West. Adad.) certain The " " . of Enoch of polydemonism." See AND RELIGION ETHICS Assyria. was by various names last of these names believingChristian might know himself to be saved Dumuzi. is corresponded with the Isma'ilites." also worshiped. its deitysecured a degree of worship individual into heaven. They gods by means Catholic church. Babylonia.C. (in sun-god." A council vened con- Clarendon. having at present about During the pre-Babylonian periodthe various countries. the Sumerians 1. by God. body of some death Such translations are both without (as from subject cities. worship of these along with that of fixed that it persisted became celebratingthe bodily ascension to heaven of the so Nergal of Kutha of Babylonian history. developing later. were by differentiating In emancipating men from dependence on the varied from of epithets. To the Babylonians the world to must full of spiritswith which men was come according to Jewish Apocalyptic literature was true kind of Abraham. about 2100 B. AsAssyria. and sometimes election (Calvin). The Hinduisrn. and Henry had to at people and their gods. and who the English bishops compelled Thomas called the Constitutions to subscribe to 16 articles.v. a Fundamentally their rehgion was Isaiah. mingling. given many names. These subordinate had also many towns enjoys God's favor and has been forgivenand saved the principal often made through faith in Christ.according to the country. the Christian could Sure of acceptance state of cease to concern about himself petty ecclesiastical penance. 1^ millions Muslims of The Hindus and 1 million inhabitants animists. ASSEMBLY.A 31 OF DICTIONARY About Sh millions are Hindus. Moses)' instead of death (as terms. and in the Greek church from Aug.. The persisted and without Tammuz needing to consult a priest.). the large numbers mother the land of rehgious origins.. Justification was Hebraized as (Ezek. England in 1164 by Henry II. In Babylonia mingled. At times the emotional ence experiof assurance has been so overemphasized The real to lead to the danger of fanaticism. as of the doctrine is in its affirmation of a significance with genuine personal experience of communion God in contrast formal to a mere profession of Gerald Smith Birney religion. The leader was as Sheikh-al-Jabal. In all the cities a mother goddess she was AUGUSTINIANS OF THE." minster West- Assembly.

especially praised. They appear to have been regarded as food for the advanced elaborated of creation a was myth gods rather than as having atoningefficacyfor sin. an offshoot of the which reveal many of the features of the economic to be old mother goddess Ishtar. Connected male and female ministers of to Gilgamesh.C. to.she was often called by Sumerian names. lenient to men. the Babylonians and (2458-2341) were addressed to them. put in place of Ishtar. time immemorial sacrifices were In addition to those just alluded offered.and the same of the deity for whom it was is true of a few kings of the Kassite dynasty (1750contained minor built.and one were especially From myths that explained the originsof the world and god is often asked to intercede with another. while the deities in the cure one men represent the divine powers cross.eagles. usually upon ceded preEach terraces. The temples less owned whole of Babylonia. into an epic of seven Tammuz. and hymns taught.cranes. Ishtar of Nineveh was. myths of the creation and the flood were fish. however. to represent the ocean. to Enhl and Venus. temple. The Semitic background of Babylonian religionenabled her influence to Marduk. its institutions. 199). and the viands eaten by men. Liturgies and absorbed hymns. It accounted 5. nation. sporadically continued agriculture. the deification of certain kings. and water. Yahweh. and the appearance and movements of the moon He embodied dwelt upon the characteristics of the Assyrian in describing are him. both and irrigating water It is men conception of its inwardness is revealed. Anu we were been in the main to have Bel and Ea. now as gods. of sin or According to one cycle of myths. Closely upon the food that would make him connected wiljh the worship of the mother goddess immortal.C.and the anger and their relation to the world and that has caused his misfortune will pass away. formed.. and were enjoyed being thus flattered. nevertheless they They are recognized in the Code of Hammurapi.c. began to be worshiped over employed in the services copied. thoughts and conceptions of the worshipers.Religion of DICTIONARY A OP RELIGION AND ETHICS 32 another myth represents the mother goddess. also came power. The so-called penitentialpsalms were ployed emwarlike.as already noted. Here the art of writing was about 2100 B. temples there were While the line between gods and men not the goddess whose function appears to have been to was could not of sterility. and at Lagash Gudea regarded as god of heaven. who into Their might and greatness are patron of learning and eloquence. accordingly the moon..Assyria. Most of the kings of the dynasty of Ur rate deified in their hfetime and elabofriendly yet capricious. service of this goddess must In the Adapa myth as as Ea is said to have hed to Adapa lest he should eat influence Babylonian social fife. The kinship of gods and indicated in the myth of the begetting of with Sumerian it. and Ishtar. No deep sense to men. into the deep. In time he 4. the divine heart ideas of them will relent. god of Borsippa. The Babylonians assumed fond of cosmogonicmyths. find the Babylonian conception of sin his consort. regarded as god of formed thus a kind of epitome of the world. and Uturgies and hymns are of great interest since they reveal the myths in which they had been prominent were in their places. at least in the later periods. the its god. Enlil (Bel). The hymns Shamash. be very popular. Naraminstance " _ " " " . He 2. Ishtar and of Semitic religion the worship of the and for the earth was origin of the gods themselves and heavens mother by the conquest of a watery chaos by goddess Ishtar. Zarpanit. worshiped were attached a ziggurat.C. One of them speaks of the thunder as his word. and emphasized by goddesses. The belief generation from gods and goddesses. just Assyria emerged as a dependent state about the Hebrews 2100 B. About 2500 b. into relations.Nintu. in addition to the shrine by the determinative for deity. was In later times Adad. the other members of the first as were simply misfortune or triad. Relation of gods to men. with his somewhat large estates.representing disposedto be more sun. sheep. he continued lifeof Babylonia.c. Schools for the trainingof the lasted. and sometimes consorted with men. During the Kassite period a second triad consistingof Sin. Several of the From Assyrians sought to come hymns were before the dawn of of historytemples of brick were kings of Nisin and Larsa were deified. has learned of this. god of Babylon. infers that he must deity. although. Temples and priesthoods. sanctuaries for other deities. the head of In the hymns Nannar Its principaldeity was Ashur who was to (Sin) appears the Assyrian pantheon throughout the history.regarded as brazen sea. In later periods of the historyBabylonian the worshiper is wretched.earth. in which Gilgamesh and Engidu are defied. jealous lest men they are immortal have had a deleterious themselves. lambs. The worshipers believed that the gods prominence after the rise of Babylon.. The myths concernbe made assumes to ing that. the him with the (Bel) connect especially and the violent storms thunderbolt weather god.and in designed to secure (cf. 3.which was in times of trouble. three were especiallyhonored: stagedtower.the name erected to the great Hammurapi of Babylon is sometimes artificial brick them. he misery. or in the efficacyof intercession prevailed. I. and Enki (Ea).C. About and of agri2500 B. also in circulation time before 2000 As b. begotten by natural were that sufferingatones for sin. if the deity can wretched these gods reveal something of their worshipers' appreciate how he is. they were In the temples the gods were served by elaborate priesthoods. which a of which increased in complexity as continued to be reverenced as long as the religion organization time advanced. The temple was god of the land.goats. worshiped throughout the history.national or personal. which explain the origin of man culture. The qualitiesof both Bel (EnMl) and Ea. The for the universal characteristic cantos. Marduk. and deified kings were Sin is the best known during their lifetime. With such deities. Such rites were which the goddess Ishtar offers herself in marriage abundant with the an offspring. ruthless. In reshaped in order to put Marduk the these compositions the gods are depicted in all their later became Nabu. and their archives have in of account-tablets some cases yielded thousands prominent consort. was sometimes of Babylonia.especiallyNabu and Nergal.and the Uturgies city of Babylon became supreme. To each temple was While all these spirits 1175 B. Because have offended some gods were introduced.the triad representing air. The custom the secrets of jealous because man vowing that he shall not five forever. priests existed in many god of wisdom temples. dynasties. and became as regarded thunder as the voice of independent about 1600 b. by later was. further which were perpetuated until the time of Herodotus emphasized in the Gilgamesh Epic.c. men by a god and goddess. Enki (Ea) had also been regardedas the the When from time immemorial. blended permeate men. and cruel. to represent a mountain built a peak.is Connected with her cult were primitivesexual rites. they consisted of oxen. called by various The should become where wise and were as names. or Anu. In them and Adad also reverenced.Bk. and.

By the attractiveness of its rehgious of Fatalism.A 33 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Astrology was and of social justice. A science which pretended to foretellevents in the affairsof earth by a knowledge of the nature and of the heavenly movements bodies. Over the door and bolt the dust is spread.. his unsupported an word shall be regarded as truth.. vegetationno longerhves. The brother of the mother of the vine no longer lives. the ecstatic joy was correspondinglygreat.the pseudo-science quered completely conworld and maintained its sway the Roman side by side with the real science of astronomy into the Middle Ages. [repeatedsix times] husband no longerlives. Isthar. The lord of Eturra no longerlives. Where dust is their food. The spouse of the lady of heaven no longerlives. gods demanded on righteousness In the myths the gods might lie to men and to one another. The lord of the dweUing no longerlives.the dwellingof Irkalla the house whose enterer never out comes Along the way whose going has no return. In spiteof the limitations of their for such an religious conceptionsthe Babylonians. possibleto forecast the fate and future of any indithe science of casting a Astrology was consulted for horoscope and the astrologerwas infalUble guidance regardingany future event or ambition.used in the Greek church to protect the eucharistic bread from the coveringveil. The well as as fragmentsof earliercodes. Tammuz was mother goddess was thought to be in great sorrow An ancient myth of the loss of her son. to bring him up to hfe again. code of Hammurapi. read this To a cosmic mechanism the characteristics of the old gods and of mythicalpersonages were assignedto the stars and constellations bearing their names. the divisions of the zodiac allotted to various sections of the earth and intricate interpretations made of the arrangements of the heavenly bodies accordingto time.if a man oath in the presence of a god. radically idea was added that the unichanged. by the women. The observed places of the heavenly bodies in relation to the observed happenings earth were on organizedinto a system of prognostication of the good or evil chances in any projectedundertaking.developed a comparativelyhigh ethical standard. The on to goddess is said to have determined to go " Unto Unto the house of darkness. With such iteration the whole land was plunged into mourning. no doubt often employed. They are 'lothed like birds with a coveringof wings.Ninib. account on recounted how on one such occasion she had forsaken world. believed 6.shows that they had solved with a fair degree of success of the initial many L rulinggods. These demons haunted every they brought diseases. the Babylonianand the Roman. The significance of the system was that in it seemed such a universe of ordered movement vidual. The tweKth tablet of the Gilgamesh Epic tells how wistfully the Babylonians longed for a more cheerful hereafter and for reunion with loved ones.in accordance with psychological law. " The The . the science of Greece revealed to Babylonia and Assyria the futility of this childish science and destroyed astrologyin its home land. lord of lord of vegetationno longerlives. The new verse is a vast organism in which every particle is involved with every other in a constant interplay of influences under fixed law. problems of social organization muz). Unto the house whose enterer is deprivedof light. the underthe upper world and gone down to Arallu. Marduk. but nevertheless they punished human liars. my ASTROLOGY. Light they do not see. On the other hand.Sin. The to down each year.by its emphasis on order philosophy and destiny. all procreativeaction on the whole During the time of the death of Tammuz land was filledwith wailing. A utensil consisting of two crossed arches.and Nebo. and Ea. A. As vegetation dies beheved die. epic in lines sums two their attitude as they contemplated up this prospect : hope of no I will sit all day and I will sit all day and The many hostile weep! weep! Babylonians believed in the existence of spiritsbeside the gods spiritsthat were " to men. earlyfolk. especially Elaborate rituals for a worship of wailing in the It contains temples has been preserved to us. ^Althoughit was that the god Tammuz rose annually from the dead. Barton ASTERISK. Into this cheerless world the dead departed with a happy resurrection. identified with the moon. Probably its greatestservice was to prepare the of the stars. but that such hope was The no granted them. The chief gods. to have a new lifein the Roman with all the Empire to which it came But it was glamor of an oriental wisdom. In generalethics the Babylonians were fullyabreast of other nations of the period. Their conceptionof the under-world is graphically set forth in the poem Ishtar's descent the underworld. though in privateethics they may not have fallen behind the Babylonians.C. by knowledge of the movements for the genuine physicaland astronomical sciences. Nergal. the Babylonians had no faith that men could share his fortunate fate. Ethics. Life afterdeath. George A. way. The supposed science had its originin Babylon about 2400 B. ready to leap upon they could be controlled by certain formulae. It thus happens that Babylonian ceremonies merge off insensibly into magic. Anu. EnUl.. fulfil these functions long To incantation texts were compiled. The celebrated in festivals to these event was deities of fertilityfestivals that were not always " chaste. This that of her son (later husband) Dumuzi (Tama god of vegetation. It thus happens that in the Code of Hammurapi has taken provisionis made that. were assigneddivisions of the heavens . When itwas beUeved that Tammuz had risen again.especially cranny. It was based upon the idea of an inevitable between the movements of the stars and relationship the hfe of man. if these were uttered in connection with certain ceremonies. Eustace Haydon . the " The lord Tammuz no longerlives.Shamash.and. were and planets. At that time the earth had ceased.either silver or golden. such doleful repetitions as the following: was in part due to their conviction that the the part of men. religious 7.their sustenance clay. Their changes in relationship sun taken to be the result of a divine planand the were inference followed that one who could understand the will of these divine rulers whose action produced good or illon earth would be able to foretelland to The religion of Persia and prepare for the event. The less civilized Assyrians were more backward.they were ever believed that It was men. unusual happenings or arrangements in the heavens were to mean certain favorable or unfavorable interpreted events for the governments of the various divisions of the known world. in darkness they dwell. It was destined.however. Two main phases are to be distinguished.

This study led him to a critical investigation which resulted in an analysisof the Pentateuch into two documents the basis of the two divine on and Elohim. Nicene Christologyled to his being honored the as "father of orthodoxy. used goddess of fertihty. " divine figuresin early Vedic ASVINS. century.v. Lat. and five times was expelledfrom his office.).)against homoios homoiousios or (qq. scholar. derived from the or great-great-great-grandfather. The fire god of early Iranian religion: ATAR. Jean DICTIONARY RELIGION OF ASTRUC. On the conversion of some the right of asylum continued people to Christianity.an. His tenure of office was of storm and stress owing one succeeded to the Arian controversy. criminals primitive peoples totem centers. meaning "breath." ATHOS. In reconciliation between Christian theology it has reference chieflyto the work of Christ as accomplishingthis reconciUation. would be a giftto the god as sacrireconciUation intended to all sacrifices were While not .A Astruc. a great center of Greek monasticism. the sanctuary or temple was regardedas of these an asylum." The word acquired the meaning of of soul." of the Christian writer last quarter of the 2nd. Atheism arises out of an adverse criticism of crude or anthropomorphic ideas in theology.as well as among and those of the Greeks. century. But Agnosticism is more the spirit of science than is a developed atheism." The act or means God and man. though always permitted to His zeal and persuasiveexpositionof the return. and in Jainism (qq. probably in the 6th. to signify reversion to traits or characteristics of a grandparent or more remote ancestor which " A have not appeared in the parent. Hindus as Romans. Mother ATAVISM. officially Greek and Anglican churches. Hebrews. although it bears of Athanasius. in developed Zoroassymbol of the purityof Ormazd " ATHARVAVEDA. ATARGATIS. The word is often looselyemployed as a term of who opprobrium to designate any one adversely criticizes current rates theologicaldoctrines.or it find expressionin some antitheistic philosophy. In Iran it retained its meaning.v. " = of establishing ATONEMENT. trianism. Alexandria. Thus Socmodern was charged with atheism. many eastern See 34 influence of Eusebius of Nicomedia and other Arians. specificplaces whole villages and sometimes (O. found in the Rig Veda as tmdn. and some thinkers who have repudiated the conceptions of theologicalanthropomorphism have been called atheists. Westermarck suggests the hypothesis that the deity like the man was under obhgation to shelter the one who had taken from being refuge in his home to avert the curse transferred to him. As to the genesis of the idea.T. biological term." One of the four divisions of the Vedic scriptures. The most important organized development of atheism occurred in India. Scriptures. JEAN. His interest in the reahty of salvation own led him to insist on the divinityof Christ. century and in Spain until the 19th. and hence is a secondary rather than a primary religious attitude. Articles op AND SAINT ATHANASIUS.). forming Mazda part of the title of the great God.C.)religionwas interpretedin terms of selfrather than of dependence on salvation discipline from the gods.v. Yahweh names. it may be associated with agnosticism (q. wrote Greek two and of an the treatises. persons ^An " inviolable fleeing from place of refuge pursuit. such developed reUgions Teutonic. Among or slaves. In the more primitive types of religionthis estrangement is due to some neglect or insult which has been offered by some of the tribe to its deity.v. and in 326 succeeded him as bishop. may such as materialism or pancosmism."Bishop of Alexandria and theologian.. incantation and Sacred See magic formulae. hterature of the religionsof India. century.the indisoul is identified with the world soul. Two religioncalled "lords of the horses" and identified with the morning and evening stars. The hbraries contain of its monasteries valuable manuscripts. Ahura to mean (Ormazd) while in India the word came demon in the later rehgion. 1. Athanasius Alexander as the defender of orthodoxy against and SabeUianism.Athanasius was exposed to the vascillations of the emperors' opinions.e. cities of refuge.). took orders when very archdeacon He under Alexander of was young. Owing to the " personalGod Peninsula and mountain the on of the Chalcidian peninsula on the by Aegean Sea. ASURA. for god used An early Aryan name originallyby the Indian and Iranian branches of this race. an eminent physician whose studies in eases of the of the skin led him to an examination Levitical legislation regarding the clean and the unclean. where in the Sankya system in Buddhism. Arianism declaringthat Arianism would lead to polytheism and that SabeUianism made impossible the unity of the Father and his Son. In 'pre-Christian religionthe reconciliation conditioned between was largely gods and man of the estrangement estimate of the cause an upon to the and the habilityof man between the two effects of divine displeasure. disobedience of the god's representamethod of the usual In such cases etc.1684dis1766. See Creeds (wrongly) the name Faith. derived from the Skt. in connection with the church." A Syrian Goddesses. the neglect of some tive. ATHEISM." One of the elements "the individual trine docthe teaching of the Upanishads is the Advaita that atman brahman vidual (q. consistinglargelyof charm. A disbelief in the existence of a in control of the universe. used in the Roman.. Since atheism denotes a negativeattitude. ETHICS AND " side A term occurring frequently in the ATMAN.one apologetic nature other on the resurrection. Thus the use of homoousios he defended (q." One eccumenical creeds emphasizing details of the doctrine of the trinity." French R. designated "the Holy Mount" orthodox Greeks. " ASYLUM. It thus continued in England and France till the 16th. In modern times the development of modern science has led to attempts to explain the entire universe without reference to any divine in harmony with Being. (293-373). lands tombs serve as asylums. performance.v. It is of Latin origin. Gerald Smith Birney ATHENAGORAS. ATHANASIAN of the three CREED. meaning ancestor. This might be a member ritual breaking of the taboo.i. fice. In Muhammadan of saints and are so regarded. such as for run-away defeated soldiers. Among mosques such as the Slavonic and some primitivereligions.

and The The reconciliation accomplished sacrificewhich developed in the Hebrew by the death of Christ is within the divine nature rehgionwere concerned itself as a prequisiteof reconciliation between God in the removal of hindrances to the to his people. upon The Aijselmic theorywas in Christian religion. absence of sacrifice in the new The religion lATION. A substitutionary in the Bible. to make satisfaction Atonement. caused the break in The death of Christ he held made satisfaction of that which as to the nature the worshiper and to the divine honor the friendlyrelation between for the debt which humanity otherwise could never his god. well as the as offeringof material for a feast in which the god of both the Father and the Son in the to the sacrifice of a human being. after its separation from The the temple worship at extra-scriptural conception of satisfaction fitted in so admirably with the contemporary Jerusalem led to the rise of sacrificialterms as tices pracThus he of the European civilization that it continued of evaluating the death of Jesus. Father. in Jesus was reconciliation of Yahweh Humanity as represented enabled these infractions of divine law were ritual cases by the incarnate Son to pay not only and ceremonial. utilized the practicesof a feudal state as extent Anselm were adapted to sorts. Augustine.although it graduallyfound favor.that of men. The that Christ's life was prevailingtheory was a ransom given to Satan in return for the souls of the patriarchsand other religious he persons whom England theology. in expiationof the national sin for the purpose entitled for service on the part of Christ he was re-establishing friendlyrelations between Yahweh from and the nation. the sacrifices were of In return for this uncalled to the divine honor. to either the honor or the justiceof God.was (1033-1099) in by Anselm These of different his famous treatise Cur Deus Homo. these difficulties An undertakes to the Hebrews to meet interestingvariant from this generalfine in the theory of of development is to be seen a by showing that Jesus offered himself. and its doctrine of forgiveness and salvation included no effort to expand the thought of the New Testament beyond the simple analogy of sacrifice. have paid. In most and man. the Divinity of Christ.and not by man.since aU Christians believed that chose to regard it among tives See Acceptireconciliation had been accomplishedby faith in as possessed of such worth. was ingly easilyunderstood because varied. lifein the different communities deceptionof Satan regarding As the religious The theory. not offered on the altar and there was was no priest opened the way to receive the gift. however. In the case of the Reformers the death of Christ came 3:21). to Aaronic order. and the reconciliation which as was had of experience because men penal value was also discovered by which Christ already a matter cried "Abba. not change the attitude of God. the very number numerous " " made httle systematic use of the death of Christ. The aspersionwhich standardized with a subsequent Uabilityto increase in violations of the ritual. but served The writers do not elaborate indicate that law could not be violated without some New Testament the sacrificial analogy in their exposition of the form of suffering. As a matter of fact. him.however. Anselm educes In the Hebrew of the sacrifices no scripturalauthority for this satisfaction.the requirementsof the gods became increasof the practiceof the time. means hold to is representedby Paul as the sacrificial gift(Rom.and the sacrificeswere the debt which ingly correspondhumanity owed God. and Epiphanius. by given to neglectsof this character. Gregory. being killed was driven into the wilderness." was declared to have been the punishment due to beUeved to endure was made this point of view From possiblebecause of the death of Jesus Christ. In this work giftswere worehiper and the God. In the penito tential it cast upon the morality of God does not seem have occurred even to such outstanding leaders as of Babylon particularweight is prayers Origen. as well system.A 35 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Atonement held in bondage in Sheol. the Father the right to exThe sins of the nation were tend posedly to ask a boon supbeUeved who forgivenessto certain persons placed on a scapegoat. with that of the Trinity and the person yet within orthodoxy the satisfaction theory in one from or another and the imputation of Christ's righteousness have remained dominant. and to some well as the concepts of the growing penitential the economic capacity of the worshiper. At the same time . Christianitytook its rise was everywhere A more marked by the practiceof sacrifice as a part of the pressingquestion was whether the death of Christ was in itself possessed of such worth as to between of establishing reconciliation process it the only conceivable grounds for God's forGod and make giveness It was man.the church of the firstmillennium theory was subsequentlydeveloped in the New expiate the character were fault. form of sacrificialvalue should be given to the whether some or (Duns Scotus) God several conceivable alternadeath of Christ. but religionmany partook of the nature of confession of ritual sin both simply refers to what were evidently current ideas individual national. Atonement adopted in which by the Schoolmen. to be regarded as a satisfaction to the justiceof This analogy of sacrifice became frequently used God well as to his dignity. would Jesus actually bore the punishment which Strictlyspeaking. elaborate codes of in his social order. This of those of this involved an elaborate expositionof the descent of Christ into and varied from the the abode of the departed spirits. the death of Jesus does not he the requirements of actual sacrifice. but since of ritual character. i believers individually. there an offeringof his also increasingly developed nor was conception of debt was and Jesus was the life by any regarded as having actually paid worshiper since his death was outgrowth of enmity rather than faith. The Epistle the debt which otherwise humanity must have paid. has Although the doctrine of the Atonement been never organized into a dogma comparable of Christ. natural. The gods were regarded as reconciled by presenting The first attempt at systematizing the signifiwhich the priestaccepted in behalf of the a gift cance of the death of Christ with other Christian mark deity. The world not universally 2. otherwise have been borne by the elect and thus meet as The for God to forgive them. Jesus himself was sin and so was In the great Day of the not guiltyof any established not under obUgation to die. which instead of him. therefore. and this fact has given rise to a very considerable Kterature law without emphasizing the thought of satisfaction This in which effort is made to find a unifyingconception. By this view the death of Christ and majesty of divine testified to the supremacy effect of the death of Christ on God. The acceptance of this gift would made the the completion of the reconciliation between doctrines. presented. participation might participate. the theory was whom held. by God himself. increasingsway for a very long period.and was to the effect that the death of Christ did high priestsuperiorin importance to those of the GxQl-ius.

AU other beings derive whatever reahty they have from God. AUFKLAERUNG.. to be less opposed to Calvinso as The two forms have been a source of division Lutherans. The council decreed that all who adhered to the Augsburg whatever be the edition. of a council held in Augsburg. See Penance. ATRIUM. An " open court AND ETHICS 36 submitted to the Pope. calUng for fasting and Its Uturgy is a sunset to sunset." AUGSBURG. as a sensuaUty teacher of literature in Milan in 384. or repentance AUBURN DECLARATION. a student in the higher schools of Carthage. his wavering felt the spell of the authoritative nature church administered At this as by the great Ambrose. He was at last by their capriciousspeculations repelled and reduced baffled to a skepticism which his mind divided Made his wiU. of existence is To be deprived of this divine source evil. F. Evil is thus defined as privationof good.Y. 23:26-32). The controversy with Pelagius (412 ff. and was carried over experience as a profound mysticism. the cessation development and wasting away of an organ analogously. The influence of Neoplatonism in Augustine's religiousdevelopment into his Christian was strong. Translated into Christian doctrine. of the Jewish calendar. too. Baptized (387) in Milan he returned to Africa. deep and pleading for forgiveness and repentance. biology. The doctrine of the Atonement has been organized for the purpose of making it appear that such reconciliation is consonant with what to a seems given period fundamental justiceboth in theory and of these practice.)sharpened his formulation of this and the conflict with schismatic tative Donatists intensified his conception of the authorichurch. " In of the or parts ^A male Asiatic deityand counterpart ATTIS." trition imperfectcontheology." INTERIM OF." See Interim. and the Auditor of the Rota. The various views of this type have in common the belief that the reconcihation between and God man does not involve any propitiation of God or expiation of sin on the part of Christ. According to McLeod Campbell and other Scotch theologians. he and his clergylivinga common life of voluntary poverty after the monastic ideal. adhered to the Manichaean sect. " In R. attracted by their intellectual freedom and the simphcity of their explanationof evil from a warfare of two principles. The consequent crudities in some explanations are not their essential quaUty: viz. His hfe and death are examples calculated to stimulate and guide the beUever to the love of God and he died vicariously but not as a substitute. and presented to the Imperial diet at Augsburg in 1530 by a number of Protestant references the to princes." prayer "from soul-stirringconfession before God. It is necessary to speak of the moral influence theory.was ordained presbyter (390) and from 395 to his death was Bishop of Hippo. The Cybele-Atti: cult belongsto the group of Mystery Rehgions (q. lations time. Marking the conclusion of "the ten penitentialdays" of it is the most solenan day earnest self-examination. Numidia. springing from imperfect The highest motive is the love of God. AUGSBURG of CONFESSION. such as the juridicalcases Auditor Papae." A declaration of at Auburn.and that in the act of forgiveness he does not violate the moral order which he Shailer has established.spiritual stagnation.). God is the only Being with independent existence. AUGUSTINE (354-430). Auditor Carrier ae." A Jewish hohday. motives. In this period under the influence of Paul's Epistles rehgionbecame for him the problem of reconciliation of the sinful heart and a merciful God. A. 1555 to outcome settle a religiouscontroversy in Germany." A statement behef drawn up by Melanchthon. AUGURY. N. . early found in himself the conflict between his philosophic ideals and the For nine years he passion of his sensual nature. be included as Protestants. OF RELIGIOUS The PEACE OF.v. Reinhart before the entrance to were penitents who early churches. See Divination. Harold F. Augustine is in fact the first theologian to develop Paul's conception of ethical redemption as the work of irresistible grace an transforming the will. Neo-platonism known through the transof Victorinus aided the solution of his from the spiritualproblem. It left to secular rulers the matter of control over rehgion in their own territory. Christie Augustine's theology.A Atonement. DAY the tenth day of the month of Tishri ATONEMENT. Their tion champions have always started with the convicof the reconciliation as a matter of experience. which first especially gained position by its formulation by Abelard. so to speak. It is to be noticed that all these theories of the Atonement are. of Cybele. Mathews OF. THE. The name AUDITOR. the great mother. faith made by representativesof School party in the controversy between the New Schools New of the Presbyterian the Old and declaration included mentals fundaThe the church. emancipating him materiaUstic Neotheology of the Manichaeans. taught that the death of Christ and' vicarious but not substitutionary was was a revelation of the divine love calculated to deepen faith and repentance. See Creeds Confessions and among Faith.this mysti-^ cism emphasized the inherent inabilityof sinful one ^ ATROPHY. Contrition. of the most influential men in Christian history born in Tagaste. observed on manded (corresponding approximately to October) comin the Bible (Lev. AUGSBURG. Christ sympathetically gathered an erringrace to his heart and died because of the for that race repentance which he made on^e Bushnell cross." See Enlightenmbnt. and Divine aid in strivingfor better things. and received the endorseof Calvinism ment General of the Assembly in 1868. See Presbyterianism.were to Confession. Subdued also by the new ideal of monasticism he resolved to end his irregular marital ties and hve a cehbate life. ex 'post facto. and repentance springing therefrom is contrition. The Lord's Supper were subsequently modified by Melanchthon ism. of the Vatican court " to certain dignitaries hear and investigate appUed who " . resolution which later in his a Confessionswas idealized as a conversion. where denied admission gathered to invoke the prayers of the faithful. Day of there have been other DICTIONARY RELIGION OF theories for the purpose of showing how the roconcihation or the at-one-ment has been accomphshed.C." Aurelius Augustinus. platonism and Christian truth were for him blended in one. ATTRITION. the unconquerable conviction that the God of law is also the God of love.

gave mental capacity intermediate between the highest ments identifyingtlie channels of grace with the sacraand ministrations of the Cathohc but a closer acquaintance Church.000 aborigineshave thus far been won Catholic be maintained and by combined Protestant effort. Each behef of has his own man principleAugustinian order is the "hermits about any St.000whites." The is in the hands of the old men. in teasing statements the natives but the statements for the most or were theology of Augustine (q. The Roman have missions in West and North-West Austraha. for the reason that they do not have any AURICULAR CONFESSION. The their rehgious life." Acts of rigorousself-disciplineinitiation ceremonies which. specific problem that is presented. The an dead baby .000. Presbyterians perpetuate the exact system then prevailing. In a world where every object to respond with a definite attitude acknowledgement of sin into the ear of a priest.000 to 74. apes and civihzed man. the Anglicans in the Torres Straits tribes ceremonies the different Austrahan a populationmade (Moalsland Mission. on pain of the loss belief in immortality for there is nofdeath. and even years. are constantlyreferringto the unsystematic charof their legends.gods. characteristics of their culture are in the AUSTERITIES. it acts as A century a result of the impact of civihzation. and must by God's in man. The barefooted to their problems have not come Augusmany attention and hence they lack our doctrinal systems. 604 or 605. and are instructed as to its use. They were formerlyhela to be the most and thus in But primitiveof peoples and to have a inspirationto Luther. no to secure so as recognized history.which desire for salvation)and coin man there were some a to create operating ago 200. occur ever}'in the interests of rehgiousor moral purity such as where but are developed more where. created by prevenient grace). Lateran Council Fourth under (440-461). As in all primitivereligions. Since the work of RELIGIONS be initiated by God. lastingfor 5. Auricular confession Austrahan mother is said to carry the her back tillit decomposes and then on to carry the bones in her sleepingbag. Austrahan Missions combine The result of such a system is not difficultto see.two German by a woman Societies in South Australia. ca. indeed. of the privileges of membership in the church and times Someman to do any man Christian burial. entrance Australia. ous lessons and is treated to very strenutransplanted thither from Austraha. in 1215 decreed that every Most of the features which characterize primitive Innocent confess at least once the rehgions in general are to be found among annually. Into the company AUSTRALIA. See Asceticism. These This creative divine sustaining power aboriginalpeoples are rapidly disappearing is prevenient (i.but the most remarkable ing distinguishyears. Walker (i.e. was first proposed in lieu of public confession by Leo I. The With the power entirelyin the hands of one has aided group government of public in the support of schools and the estabhshment of and with an elaborate and effective method reservations. sent by Gregory the Great in on the firstarchbishopof Canterbury He became acter 596. primitive peoples the hunting tribes of Australia lated Augustine vigorouslyopposed all conceptions form the most considerable illustrationof an isoof salvation by human merit (see Pelagianism). with the extinction of the tribes served. grace must the real ground of individual salvation. highly here than elseThe key to the ceremonies is to be found to involve serious hardships. evangelism with industrial training. the New South Wales even puni-shableby death to look upon the sacred made to wooden a Aboriginal Mission (interdenominational)in New bull-roarer. spirits. AUGUSTINIAN. ended through with. tinians are reformed a congregation of the same order. surgicaloperations.indeed. 32. more skillfully Missionary Writers the mythology of the Australians to the Anglo-Saxons. and ceremonies ca." out of the (1) Pertaining to the life resulted. Goodness must be created in 6. Anglithis ceremony is ever no woman cans. Moravians. paddle which was South sound by being swung at the end of a string." founded in 1256.C. But all this is as we of missionarymonks. Catholic III. was very successful in making should now formed transconverts.no cycle of divine legends. and many expect from the condition under which they have temples were pagan into Christian churches. activityis grrace." Of all the AUSTRALIA. church. Augustine" or "Austin friars.1907) among among not uniform but in all of them the initiate is given the latter are up of aboriginesand South Sea Islanders. The earlier attempts to more and the supplanting of the old British church. exponent of the doctrines of Augustine. They have no fixed genealogy where he died. AngUcans." A private idea of mortality.v. in nature seems toward the people in it. very solemn times rites. divine election is OF. Sometimes out.000 aboriginesin Queensland it strengthens the good purposes alone. Gerald Birney Smith Living in a dry country. he gave a to jjowerful rehgious reinforcement Catholicism. It has been said that they do not beheve in immortality. tion populaconsists of from 50. Natives are encouraged to own it is possibleto have a society that is education their be entirely ever static. Henry H. what the people believed about the future set down the creation of the world and life. Into and Lutherans initiated and have work in Queensland. They could not produce a theologyany of Roman CathoUcism the estabhshment in England than the Africans.they have met AUGUSTINE OF CANTERBURY. His work. organized the co-operationof a large number of the heavens.Presbyteriansin Victoria. by God. dependent on game. (3) Any ceremonies of the monastic orders and congregationsliving customs and and not to intellectual one formulations that we must turn for an explanationof according to the so-called Augustinian rule.Religions of told some good. somea tooth is knocked Presbyteriansand Wesleyans carry on work among other ceremonial the Chinese Cathohcs there is circumcision or immigrants. with them has led to a revision of this opinion. of the old men the boys are brought with great and mystery.000 aborigines.. (2) An part it is to misleading.. the net result of which is to gone 1861. From him dates developed. homogeneous group. in the fact that the control of the life of the tribe MISSIONS TO.there is no rrieaning to a prescribedby the R.and ca.A 37 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Australia. The canonical age of confession is seven Australians. No All almost own society can land.e.).500 orientals. The Wales. The secrecy London weeks or are Missionary Society'sefforts near Sydney carefully months. needing their problems far to hold together." than was at first supposed.but of our to which Luther belonged. accidental in Northern North-West death is or the penalty for an was Territorj^ and It was into the company. Anghcans.

) with the rational order of "heaven. but the constant appeal to principles of justiceindicates that real authorityis conceived stable than as consistingin something more the will of an accidental majority. PolitiGerald Birney Justice. The bishops. Oracles and words of inspiredprophets are regarded as of divine origin. 1. they are participated Where the totem is an animal the magical increase in the supply of the animals is obtained by moulding a heap of sand into the form of the animal and various parts are thrown into the air by the participants. purpose Besides the usual dances which are common to primitivepeople in general. This is pre-eminently true of court and Mohammedanism.the Australians have an institutional dance called Corroboree. where Judaism. In the more utterances highly collected in are organizedrehgionssuch utterances the form of sacred scriptureswhich the final are of appeal. . against poUticalarbitrariness appealed to certain divinely " willed functions which the ruler was to fulfil." The of the ceremony in which cessor name (1870) the pope as the sucof Peter has authority to speak ex cathedra of the Inquisitionin Spain against the sentences the mouthpiece of the church. The authority of a priorirational principles. assertingthe his behavior is non-moral. The emperor of Japan is the "Son of Heaven.) attempted to reduce rehgion to certain universal rational doctrines which all men must accept just because they are rational. mind. Protestantism (1) In ethics.DICTIONARY Authority A stable." cism Stoi(q. are principles The authority of such fundamental ideas has been supported by appeal to a doctrine of innate ideas. If he failed to fulfilthem. Authority in sponding politicalgovernment.v. The Roman Catholic church tative adds to the authori- ETHICS 38 Holy Spiritto interpretscripturearight. The authorityof inspiredscriptures. As of fact the creeds and confessions of the branches of Protestantism guide the interpretation of scripture to a large extent. Deism (q. as Cathohcism heretics were pubhcly announced. See Biblical Criticism. recognizedno ecclesiastical superior. cases Historical critical study of the biblical writings introduces radical modifications in the traditional theories of inspirationand inevitably affects the notion of authority. as creator of the has authority to declare what is world and of men rightand to enforce obedience to his decrees. there is another Besides the initiation ceremony. and the condemned insists that authoritative executed by secular authority. he forfeited the authoritj^ which belonged to these functions.and according to the decision of AUTO DA FE.but the Australian approached OF very RELIGION closely to it. connected with for commemorative propitiatory rites or At times the women joinin these dances purposes. which may be a very solemn and serious ceremony. more are These ceremonies include dances and. A criticalexamination of the processes of reasoning reveals the weakness of too extensive an appeal to a prioriprinciples.Confucius ance emphasized the necessityof livingin accord(q. 2. an the church and AUTOMATISM." Portuguese for "Act of the the Vatican Council Faith. the abihty of a person to give expert judgment: the authority of a historian or a scientist in a as field where he has specialknowledge. his blood mingling with the fish and causing abundant an supply. Ellsworth Faris AUTHORITY.) is pictured as receivinghis code of laws directly from the hands of the god Shamash. AUTOCEPHALI.v. Thus learned to endure the monotony it arises that the people who have best succeeded in stabiUzingtheir social structure are most tolerant of new inventions in the form of the ritual of control. The arms of the clan are pierced body of one of the members with bone daggers after which he descends into the water. feature of Australian religionthat is noteworthy. democracy poUtical authority is regarded as power delegated by the people to elected agents to be exercised for the common good. unhke the in by the women. Kant's divinelyimplanted in the human critical philosophy made certain a prioriprinciples regulative. Any law or utterance which can be proved to come from God is therefore authoritative. See Law cal. Modern and more thinkingis thus more appealingto experimental testing rather than to "authoritative" a An out the AND matter various " dogmas. 3. The tion Declaraof Independence vindicates the revolt of the American colonies against England by an appeal and of Nature's God" to "the laws of Nature (see Law In modern of Nature).v. Grass seeds scattered into the same the air serve for the grass totem." provides this. that therefore rejectedthe authority of the church." Of According to this doctrine Christ officially a name self-headship. Corredoctrine of authoritycomto the religious ing from divine pronouncements is the theory of the "divine right" of kings. abihty of every individual under the guidance of (2) In psychology.as successors of the apostles. estabhshing the apostlesas apphed to bishops in early Christian times who authoritative interpreters of Christian truth. There are certain fundamental principles axioms or to which all thinkingmust conform. the theory that man and acts involuntarily. of consider that Austraha is the originalhome this be true or not. and occasionallythey are characterized by license. ties Some authorinamely the development of totemism.v. A rehgious philosophy may be organized on the basis of such rational principles. Christianity. the authorityof scriptureis based on a doctrine of " specific inspiration. but whether ceremonies which are engaged in for the multiplication of the totem elaborate than elsewhere. is more celebration of the fish totem The other parts of the and compUcated. initiations. Hammurabi (q. Novelty in the initiation is at a premium and nmch ingenuity is expended in the embellishment of the ceremonies. organized his church. Smith scripturesthe dogma of the authoritative church. an were scripture requires persons authoritative interpreter in order to avoid error. continue their authority. Different theories of authorityarise from different conceptionsof the agenciesthrough which God speaks. In a looser sense. Mathematical relations and logical not to be evaded.Our convictions are formed of experienceto so great an by the circumstances extent. the totemism. and in of church discipHnethese are authoritative.and he attempted to expound ethics and religion in terms of conformity to the dictates of these a prioricategories. not and and of stimulations excitements has of drudgery. feature of the lifehas been pointed interesting A hunting people lives by means by Dewey. that it has been found necessary to test ideas by critical examination rather than by reference to an underived a prioriauthority.God." Mediaeval that rulers politicaltheory generally assumed Protests were divinely commissioned.)urged a life of rational unity with the divine order in the cosmos." The right to declare what is obUgatory in beUef and practice and to enforce obedience to such declarations. In the realm of rehgion.

Hail Mary. is to us. " Freedom of action from external AND ETHICS Aztecs. AUTONOMY. of the active and the maize-god. or three centuries before the advent thought and he may be said to h ave introduced the of the Middle It is this fact of a relatively schoolmen recent acculturation Christian Ages to the which alone can which so characterized the theology for the paradoxicalAztec account AristoteUanism in its combination of savagery and refinement. and a conception The most (with of the devotional life.Whitefield.1126-1198. immediately known. Only a fragment has been preserved. in consequence. bishop who auxiliaryto the diocesan in cases one bishop is required.. of the most hideous Externally it is one collection of texts AVESTA. Mohammedan. that a few choice souls enjoy fellowshipwith the Universal the giftof prophecy. in which thousands professed conversion. See Zoroculture.and theologicalcontroversy provoked.versed in sciences. in not a few of its ceremonies. much emotionalism Vices. presidingover that through the contact the noon hour.physicalforce. astrology of the Old World and Uke this was emon Aztec deities of divination. century. passive inteUect the mind acquiredideas. The rest and Internally. the moral tone of the A Hindu word for divine incarnaAVATAR.holding under learned their sway matics. (2) In epistemology.however. authorized expanded into a formal prayer officially by Pius v. and hence available for further deductions.C. titlan.A 39 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION action that is mentally determined where the subject is not conscious of the mental process. RELIGION OF. tion: nation uplifted.not more of the Spaniards.already and in Yucatan neighboring decadent. central Mexico." The Aztec were last of the great Arabic an imperialpeople.two commentaries on Aristotle.France. 1791. dwelt regionsat the time of the discovery." tion the Virgin Mary founded Luke on 1:28. brief time. others. the greater portion of the population of in mathephilosophers. foremost among many ployed medical science. Kant AVIGNON. hymns of praise and more astrianism." A R.and corporeal emanations matter from God. medicine. and of two anti-popes.a term employed by earlywriters for political but from the 17th. THE GREAT. developing in the third and fourth decades 18th. and a couple of encyclopedias. that it " . AVALOKITESVARA. (1) In logic and mathematics. of the Iranian cannibalism. are control. a the propositionaccepted as self-evident without necessity of demonstration. the Vendidad. having been attended sacrifice upon the preservedsacred Uterature of the Zoroastrians. of the period. (2) The appointed time for the when the Ave bell is rung.and and See Virtues and hoarding of wealth. of the Ave Maria use the Aves (3) The rosary beads used to enumerate recited." An important divine the merciful savior of the present age he is closelyassociated with Amitabha he is generallygiven (q. accordingto a trulyremarkable resembles the which were calendric scheme which in many a Canon ways works. ceremonial this situation is that the more refined phases of sacred texts) . As AXIOM. the Yashts. a sary propositionor principlethat is regarded as necesThe truth. promoted by Jonathan Immoderate AVARICE. ness aspect of religious experiencedue to the consciousor Lat. In his physical for purposes oriented and grouped with and of them most are psychologicalideas. " A of feeling reverence involvingactual potential dread induced by some object or Awe is an event suggesting sublime mystery. was manifested. and reUgion. century appliedalso liberty. AUXILIARY is appointed as than where more BISHOP. the world of ideas. mature to the good spirits (in a later dialect). a priestly the religionwere derived from peoples of a finer code like Leviticus. commentator on Through Moses as a savagery.Edwards. the death god over the midnight. remained is commonly employed in opposition to The term as papal property until the French Revolution." used the word to morals to City in the department of Vauthe facultyof the will to determine its own cluse. the residence of seven 1309mean popes.confession and penance.liturgical favorably with most of and far surpasses The only explanation around the Gathas "hymns" (the oldest and most many. organized. passionfor the tion acquisi.v. philosophy and theology. (1) A salutaMARIA. Philosophy. the Spanish conquest of Mexico the rulingpeopleof the country were Tenochthe Aztec.or lord of food and life. uninfluenced 1377. Zoroastrianism the Parsis of India.and such peoples. The AVERROES. having emerged from and but a relatively eminent as an advocate of Greek science. going thoroughempiricist in epistemology is opposed to " regardingany truth as axiomatic." An American AWAKENING. A containing religiousdevelopments of mankind.was on the site of the present Mexico City. moral by the objects willed. 1568.Religion of is endowed with personal immortaUty. the national consciousness stimulated. age AWE. He was advanced Aristotle. was They had occupied this position law." At the time of AZTECS.1378-1408. usually used to describe the coming of the revival of the " " supreme God of the world in animal or human form in each and for the world's salvation. whose capital. the Tennent brothers. there are evidences of lieved reference to this cosmico-temporalcycleof stations: beAristotehan He and Neoplatonic influence. laws. best preservedtoday among baptism. under the tutelageof the more exerted on Christian than two his influence was Maimonides peoples whom they superseded. Among bodhisattvas in supreme rank as the active presence of the Buddha is the ruler of the western this world while Amitabha Paradise.souls. a polytheistic (980-1037).and by a monstrousness of imagery perhaps surpassingall others. heteronomy or subjectionto external authority. See Arabic religion.which included Mongol invasions of Persia. a scale probably by human elsewhere of the language and religion never It is the oldest memorial equalled and in forms horribly cruel by ceremonial branch of the Indo-Europeans.). and that and. The Aztec pantheon was AVICENNA motley.Aztec religion compares important texts are the Yasna of paganism texts grouped forms other its appendix the Vispered). as AVE to of contact with the divine. figureof Buddhism.in its prayers and rituals as preserved perished during the Greek."An Arabian physician the author of and philosopher.

See Behaism. and the several of its tenets. the to us goddess of Byblos is known only as the baalat (fem.A. were to primitivereligion meant to abundant increase of field and garden as secure well as of flock and herd. the Calvinists on the ground of predestinationsupporting the negative view. It was to this sacrifices human deity that the most numerous ing of war-captiveswere made. very "invisible. century.symbolizing the hearth of the world. and Gregory XIII. founders of UniversaUsm (q. Various other deities hold the intermediate positions. Both the Hittites and the Phoenicians worshiped baals of the skies. practisesafter reformation. is from the Itahan baldacchino. pochtli. chancellor of the Uniof Louvain. having " to common in the temperaments of certain reactions following experiences of and temptation. (OR DE BAY).was the supreme he is identified with deity in a cosmic sense: with the night-winds. A god of lightand moral purity in BALDER.and phases of sun and moon. The tribal deity was state. tales of a bearded white man to teach come law of life. certainlya and also cosmical in character. doom " BAALZEBUB. The Hebrew ets prophwere unsparing in their denunciation of these flourished on cults which the "high places" and "under every green tree. all of the Semitic dialects and of "possessor" or the general meaning of the word as epithetor title The usage BAAL. BA. very precious. AND ASSYRIAN RELIGION." who flourished in Spain the firsthalf of the eleventh Halebabot" century. matters and journals. See Apostasy. D. of the local How many baals attained to the dignityof personal names we tribal or after they became cannot tell." Quetzalcoatl is the third great deity. In Babylonia and a baal or addressed as bel.C. Religions H. conprofessionof reUgion. Xipe Totec. the high elevated over metal canopy.. law. like that of their female counterparts." (1) A stone. Luckenbill and the BAETYLS. BAHYA BEN A Jewish philosopher JOSEPH. impalpable compassionate. planati arms "lord. " BAHAISM. distress. and nine of the night and of the lower world. B." One of the BALLOU. rist or a or dignitary. (2) Also the canopy preciouscloth carried in processionover the euchaBALDACHIN wooden. and the love of God the most as F." of the deity was general. The reversion to wrong or sinful habits and or version. Tlaloc the rain-god and Chalchiuhtlicue the goddess of flowing waters are also of great cult importance. whose grim visage seems everywhere to have haunted the imaginations of the Aztec race. altar in largerR." -See Beelzebub. 1866. the B head and ^The bird-like figurewith human which symbolized for ancient Egypt the revivified soul or intelligence of the dead person. church in the U. Tezcatlipoca. god of vegetation was worshiped with frightfulrites. churches.was by the grossest sensualityand licentiousness.and sacraments. although there appear to have been in the dominant system twelve lords of the day and of the upper world. BAB. the Ashtacharacterized roth (Ishtars). Later Marduk of Babylon attained the "elder known to this dignity and Enlil was as bel. and repentance are presented as essential virtues. gods of fertiUty.but even city gods they continued to be addressed as Baal. education.." Such practices. the exact number of which is uncertain.)in America. property. very noble. but the most horrible figureof all was Mictlantecutli. So Melkart of Tyre remained the Tyrian Baal. but promising to return with a new reign of peace and purity. people doubt.which have dealt with of doctrine. councils provincial from 1829-1869. the R. MICHAEL versity Belgian R. very able been innumerIn Canaan there seem to have Baalim whose worship. theologian. departing over the waters. cerity. psychologistsfind an exThe HOSEA (1771-1852). He was the author of "Hobot (Duties of the Heart) a system of Jewish ethics. and eve lord of fire. Harold BAIUS (1513-1589). BABISM.A Ba DICTIONARY OF AND RELIGION and the hours of dawn under Xiuhtecutli. (pi. and wrote defense of its doctrines." D. books convened societies. legalistic of Councils OF. discipline.and usuallysupported but sometimes supported by chains. opposed Calvinistic and views. are prayers Lord very good. Alexander of.in he moral which emphasized the spiritual and the legaland formal.S. Babylonian Religion. founded lucid advocate most UniversaMst extensively in magazines. The by pillars. Reinhart the highest aim in life. BABI. The great gods of Aztec cult include a triad of high deities along with a secondary group of only Huitziloless importance. Sinaspects of religionover humility. and 1884. " Different spellingsof a BEL. while the Arminians declared that the freedom of the human will was sliding impaired by such a denial.C.v.C. for his ultra-Augustinian " tendencies." and See Behaism. . and was by a precursor Pius V. Backhas led return to evil ways as a temporary Protestants to preach the need of renewal and many Modern sanctitication.. and leader of the anti-scholastic Baius is regarded as reaction of the 16th." Sacred stones or pillars. made. See Mexico. Calvinistic-Arminian cerned concontroversy was with the possibihtyof a permanent apostasy after conversion. Plenary councils have secret There have also been ten in 1852.)Gubla and the Old Testament ets prophfound it exceedinglydifficult to keep the Israelites from applying this epithetto Yahweh. OR BALDAQUIN.probably brought from the savage and known primarily as a war-god.." COUNCILS BALTIMORE."SmokMirror" (probably the sky). the ItaUan name for Bagdad where the cloth of the canopy was name of See Ciborium. It is this deity who was the center of the remarkable .the skeleton god of death. the quarter^ of heaven. condemned of Jansen. word BEEL.his victims beingflayedalive." " BABYLONIAN See Assyrian BACKSLIDING. His death through the trickery of Loki IS at once a symbol of the fading sumrner of the approaching beauty and lightand an omen of the world and the gods. common the world over.). pre-Aztec divinity.but AssjTia all of the gods were the bel par very early Enlil of Nippur became excellence. Norse mythology.persecuted. The greater portionof ETHICS 40 the finer Aztec addressed to this god.

oil. In primitiveChristianity. official edict imposing AND (2) An certain duties.and newness of fife. an (3)rejectionof infant baptism on the ground that it lacks a sure BANTU. Anglican doctrine. priest(India. to which miraculous powers are ascribed. privileges. presidentof the faculty of Arts. The been advocated by Irenaeus but contested by Terthrice immersion referred by Origen to apostoHcusage. BAPTISM. was a figure. the rite baptism in infancy and the baptisni of an baptism became indispensable adults which admitted if its benefits were to full social and religious lost.A 41 DICTIONARY OF male infant. was all be found. unregenerate element. _ KRISHNA MOHUN BANNERJEA.since it is to be referred to neither precept regarded as expressing the believer's union with but only to human nor Christ in his burial and resurrection.from infants only originalsin. yet the more the questionof election. The mode. into the responsibilities to peculiar of specialreligious in the case societies.its relation to the ancestral ship mark. they may later especially such an announceThe R. rehgiousstatus or privileges. for Paul wherein by a and others it took on sacramental or a mystical time.born tianity. churches in connection of the with the liturgyand symboUsm Christmas to feast. conditioned " on is a sign and seal of the covenant of grace. wine. Japan.or sprinkhng. that the rite is of.by a mysterious working. of the member child became life. the infant Jesus. iaught that baptism removes from adults original name the the rite was and actual sin. All infants within the so church are saved. form varies. The best known the Santissimo of the church of Santa Bambino Maria in Ara Coeli.and exposed from Christmas BAMBINO. Doctrine of Baptistchurches." of intenwhen made ecclesiastically. The a 4. an incongruous. practiceof the scriptures tradition.). Reformed doctrine. It came world which demon affirmed that the effects of baptism are (1) release to frorn actual and originalsin together with temporal also. Thomas Thibet.by immer(qq. Sprinkling. cation disappointment. C. This church. even if unbaptized. China.). It is an initiatory rite to church membership. The efficacyof baptism.washing." A sacramental appliBAPTISM.Except for martyrs. This was Dunkards. condition of salvation. and this theory as commonly.C. excites faith that they truly beheve. of Calcutta. Beckwith 2.and honey are sometimes ceremony. Baptism is not. a Hindu. Lutheran doctrine.that use probably intended to remove contagion of the strange potenciesconnected with is. immersion tulUan. sin and rises vital union with Christ one puts away character.such as militaryservice.C. no repeated. University V " ETHICS Baptism. include the recognitionof the legitimacyof the child. requiring group " " " " " " " " " threefold immersion. faith. a Brahmin by caste. Scholastic and later teaching. three points: (1) personalChristian experience as of Great Britain and Germany. etc. by a among or. Others who hold this positionare Disciples affusion. and that it introduces into the church of water to a person.that to baptize in hope of later faith issues in frequent CHRISTIAN. rea official declaration (3) An by the R.) An artistic (Italian. 5. but is not a requirement of baptism. binding. forgiveness. Rome. America. church excludingoffenders from the privileges of the sacrament. relying upon Augustine and Aquinas. holds that hy baptism all sin is removed.Iran. threatened its life. is not from the a " kinship group. in the name in accordof Christ. water but from the Spirit in the adult conditioned by faith.on gion.To the first class The of admission . which confers forgivenessand grace. (3) adoption as sons of God and memberto the protection of the line and admission in the church. or sprinkhng. ^Through baptism the sin removed. appointed only for a John.by the addition of the naming ceremony. sion. The Council of birth and to guard the child from dangers of the Trent. church stilldemands ment by their free will either developor neglect. especially figurerepresenting the doll-like image used in certain R. (1) A have superhuman " or curse denunciation AND RELIGION supposedto See Blessing to harm. soul is regenerated. This embraces and it is customary in the evangelicalchurches 8. Indian Christian leader and scholar.C. without baptism children are not saved. Religions tive apostolicsanction. or (Thibet) pouring. concerning those outside of the church is permitted to one cherish hope. a 1. is usuallypublic The ceremony Augustine prescribedinfant baptism on the ground may of kin and is performed by the father or one near that it removed sin. (2)immersion.either forms of societyor. ever. (2)impressing an indeUble its receptioninto the clan.for the non-elect it has necessary recent view disregards significance.Baptism. Epiphany BAN. used. A germ A publication tion BANS.v.of regeneration.In both cases repeated. in Sanskrit and 1839. that an inner change is produced claim is advanced in any case it is not to be by this ceremony. meaningless except as a sign of personalfaith.is indifferent. A. Patristic theory. the one or both of which are on professingChristians.so that whereas it had been simply a to newness of life. more determined the practiseof the church. with earUer Jewish rites and the baptism of Baptism of which that of John. that is. adult ceremonies are twofold. whether immersion. Infant baptism is in no it was sense now symbol of changed inward disposition.1867-9. " is in a crib or manger. TertuUian attributed to the water of baptism a magical virtue derived from ETHNIC" There are two phasesof the presence of the Holy Spirit.guiltbut not concupiscence.affusion. See Africa. PrimiReligions.the guiltof original of eternal BANNS OR and the Holy Spiritbestowed.the condition without original the Teutons which infants could not be saved. 7.fife is implanted in infants which to marry. of grace and of covenant ground of the Abrahamic the family as a rehgiousunit. Consecration of infants by baptism receives special No emphasis in relation to religiouseducation. converted to Chris1832. (1813ISSS). howto salvation.which had though blood. Infant children of parents. In infants the Holy Spirit. Later. Celts. a symbol of purification. punishment due to sin.it could not be the usual fluid is water.is wholly spiritual. became a recognizedauthority Hindu philosophy.was ance at first. Baptism. In the case Aquinas In its earliest is usually given at this time. Ethnic in the word of institution. of Christ. 9. Doctrine of the Societyof Friends {Quakers). and Mennonites characteristic position of the Anabaptists.have a right to baptism. of infant baptism the 3. essential prerequisite for a legalmarriage in Great Britain. power Cursing. 6. ordained as an AngHcan clergyman. The Eastern church. whether by immersion.hence arose a tendency to postpone the The rite of infant baptism.

Widespread rehgious liberty. democracy.After assembly. Eustace Like the General Baptists positionsin the army. gathered a Separatist Philadelphia Association (1707 onward) were congregationat Gainsborough (1606). and able to liftthe denomination were spirit to a high plane of missionaryendeavor. chap. through the whole develof a dangerous contagion (tabu. characterized by A denomination founded church was at Newport (1641"44) insistence on behevers' baptism. Cambridge Fellow. as of conscience. The form is a renvmcinobly for civil and religious hberty and world wide ation of Satan. of educated Unito enter the ministryand a widespread aversion to form of organeducated ministers and to every ized work resulted.C. containingthe addiHe became convinced that the ordinances soon of dressingrooms and a catechumen's room. and by missionary (1608). Persecution exception. A strong connectional zation organiestablished with associations. Baptisteries. after effort exerted an influence in the middle and southern controversy with the ministers of the older English church colonies. those insisting it holdingalso to general redemption. The General Baptists their previous church estate." A promise made BAPTISMAL by a partialco-operation Particular and General Baptists candidate about to receive baptism. Drawing recruits from New England drove them to Amsterdam and Wales its churches increased. became ministers caused hundreds of illiterates tarian. Tiverton. or a reservoir in the church set apart for in Massachusetts who. In both the initiatoryrites and in these evil was life and ceremonies higherreligious it was customary to AND RELIGION give ETHICS 42 (1640-41) that immersion alone is baptism. From the candidate a new name. but divided on the of the baptistery is taken by the baptismalfont." A a building or portion by Roger Wilhams. The firstBaptist church in America founded was of BAPTISTERY.Smyth and his associates disowned and fostered by this body. evil). Carey and HaU with its it. (2) the admission to social status. ceremonies known class belong the group of religious Orphic. Under the influence of the evangeUcal revival a the remnant.as separate buildings.but by 1741 most of these had and John become ^teenth divided and feeble. the Smyth. De Corona. Though they did not co-operate in the evangehcal it was early discontinued.but heretical Christians revival of the eighteenthcentury.rejectionof infant baptism and all muiister. In 1609. united Smyth and his associates sought fellowship revivals after the Revolution brought multitudes with the Mennonites.v. are tions of circular or polygonalform. (1662-83) with much oppositionfrom medieval In their main features they have ancient. the orthodox Among receiving the ordinance. India.OF A DICTIONARY Baptism for the Dead belong the worldwide ceremonies of initiation at adolescence when by social rites the youth is said to be "born anew. Reacting custom and Socianism against Arminianism of them many of a candidate for baptism who had died before became hyper-Calvinistic and averse to evangeUsm. The practise united in 1891. as the Mysteries (Eleusinian. though the cult of the Great Mother.000 and well equipped It is found in TertuUian. A few mindenominational the first EngUsh advocates They were of liberty of conscience. had been lost in the great apostasy and could be is pracimmersion and sometimes Where a choir. withstanding Notis a reservoir within the to-day the baptistery the defection of their leader the church. Murton Those who others. men like Ryland. the and adhered to South. where baptism is by sprinklingthe place church persistedin a feeble way. tained mainand Montanists such the Marcionites as became imbued Fuller. made (q. formed Connection New of General Baptists(1770) which engaged successfullyin all kinds of evangelical work until the amalgamation with Particular Baptists multiphed during (1891). Ill. churches in London. Helwys returned to England (1612) and founded having co-operated in a successful struggle for in entry. was general general superintendency. Maine. tian An early ChrisDEAD. an educated Enghsh Separatist. Calvinistic Baptistchurches were formed sacramentaUsm. reinforced by new converts."or "twice-born. Along with the Calvinistic anti-pedobaptiststhey became convinced . (3) the acquiring of new powers. Rhode founded Island College was there. after a stormy career (1631administration of baptism. ment 36). ritual. Great Mother. baptism and ordination. was Having established a settlethe immersion and baptistery was customary on NarragansettBay on the basis of liberty included the basin and a room for the neophytes. tised restored only by special divine intervention.they suffered severely under Charles I."as To the second in Australia. After years of VOW.Mexico. century. Mithraic) where the idea of release from moral involved and the candidate secured a new as gave such union with the Savior God the usual of immortal life. the church. into their ranks. liberty under John Clarke. of blood in the taurobohum use Cybele. themselves side by maintain Magical elements side with the evolvingsocial values.Sahsbury and Cov1785. and behevers introduced as baptism anew prosperedin Rhode Island and Connecticut. These Particular Baptists also prosperedduring the revolutionary period (1641of educated 60). Another upon BAPTISTS. Water was assurance medium. reference being dates back to the membership of about 500. and the persecutionsunder Charles II. Regular and Separate Baptists. and an effort to reproduce apostoUc in Massachusetts. A considerable number ministers Hatdon adopted their views and many held high members A. a Puritan congregationthat returned from Zeland (1616)several groups of convinced anti-pedobaptists peaceably withdrew (1633 onward) until Calvinistic Baptistchurches had been formed in London. and reorganized with Smyth as pastor. Common elements run (1) the removal opment. the authorities. afterward repudiated the transaction and was of converted but thousands soon Congregationahsts excommimicated turned Baptist and these Separate Baptistswon with the majority by Helwys. They the civil war and CromwelHan time (1641-59). uncleanness. The churches of the century antecedents. Smyth Baptists held aloof from the Great Awakening. Pennsylvania and South Carolina Christianity. Iran. evangelization. In the early church banished." "reborn. Both Rehgious enthusiasm and dearth parties had become by 1644 seven ^ " ^ Arminian and some of the former. an educated Enghshman. of conscience he introduced behevers' baptism usually independently (1638) and organized a church. his works and his pomps. with ministers and institutions are contending stilla part of the R. question of the layingon of hands.)." THE FOR BAPTISM of baptizinganother as the tive representa. have a Enghsh Baptists now 2d. their churches wrecked by controversy and excessive disciphne were and of the survivors most became Unitarian. In Virginia.

and are knit together in enthusiastic world wide Baraca-Philathea an Union of nearly one million members. On the first Sabbath after the thirteenth birthday. Seventh Day Baptists(8.holding as fundamentals ance. Classes found in all organized on these principlesare now Christianized countries. firstgiven as a name Oct. baptism.833. RegularBaptists tists (4.and (22. Societies grew of the Triennial Convention. resurrection of the body.a union in the South of "Old Lights" and "New A. This occasion is observed as one of festivity by the family and the community. Reinhart " BARACA-PHILATHEA BIBLE CLASSES.historian.v. based on the story of Buddah. Barnabas Barbarites from the monastery given to them in 1538. Goodspeed which the apostles Cyprus (Acts 4:23) prominent place as a co-worker with " in the New Testament He was referred era. BARNABAS." the commandment to whom one i. century). but named of St." Its general aim and methods the are those of the Baraca same as classes.400).and equipment. plural:Baraitot).416). Baptist organizations distinct bodies with (2. mythology. written in the first quarter of the 2nd.in which the representative of Christianitytriumphs. ETHICS AND RELIGION Banutbite regularsessions of the Sunday school have been its The "Philathea" movement (for women) was organized 1895 in the same church. intelhgence." Gnostic preacher and writer. Old Two-SeedPredesiinarian in-the-SpiritBaptists (387. They are harmonious themselves and becoming more among less polemical in relation to other evangelical Christians. H. " A BARLAAM Greek and jo ASAPH reUgious (OR JOSAPHAT).007). quite lacking in historic sense. BARAITA " (aramaic: outside. appropriating for his the substance of the second-century argument Apology of Aristides. minor rehgious order called Clerks founded in Milan in 1530 originally Regular of the Congregation of St.holding to the specificelection of the seed of God to salvation and the seed of Satan to reprobation). docetic Christology He has the credit of winning Edessa to Christianity. They may the druids." It was meaning "blessing" in II Chron.C.). Price chief features.500. Paul. the Southern Baptist Convention and the Colored (3. united with the Northern Baptist Conin the 2d.writin Itahan from a Mohammedan point of view. adaptation of business principles to the Christian life and the study of the Bible at the "Baraca" is ' GOSPEL OF. led the Jewish revolt against the Romans in 132 A. to a Bible class of men.475. of romance the seventh or An eighth century." An apocryphal ten of the Middle Ages (13th. BARD. It is counted among the ApostolicFathers.D.A 43 DICTIONARY OF churches in northern isters and southern and cities had supported Carey's work in India and when they learned that Judson and Rice on their had to India as Congregational missionaries way become Baptists (1812) were willingto undertake Rice returned their support. "son of the commandment. "Philathea" is a Greek word.65. tion. Indian prince named Joasaph is brought up in ignorance of all human at length suffering.000. 20.521)] SeparateBap..000 of than 7.355). century).000Baptists are in the organithe more zations known the Northern as Baptist Convention (1.layingon of hands. in Syracuse. designating him as having reached the age of moral responsibility. There are now about 6. Free-Will Baptists (54.the bar mitzvah is called up to the Law. His defeat was the occasion for the final and ruthless destruction of Jerusalem. Harold F.Y. . He is traditionally reported to have founded the churches in Cyprus and in Milan. as BARNABAS. Other statistics of 1919 are: the Free Baptists(ca. Six Principle Baptists(ca. This romance was very popular in the Middle Ages.the Levite from occupied a J. observingSaturday as the Sabbath) .he despairs. Edgar BARNABAS.000. His of Hebrews and the Epistle authorship (Tertullian) of Barnabas is no longer accepted. Its Sinaiticus shows that it was place in the Codex received as a sacred book by the ancient church in the East. custodian of legal genealogist. N. Conventions were appointed a formed by friends of missions and education. Their satires were greatlyfeared since accredited with the power of killingby they were of such chanted spells. Ira M. work a BARNABITE. practicing and anointing of the sick with oil). he formallyaccepts responsibility for his own acts.113. A BARAKA. out estabhshed in different Theological Seminaries were felt.097. When he perceivesit." See Mana.285. Arminian. successful and was in organizinga number of local missionary societies and at last in securinga national Baptistconvention decided to meet (1814) which trienniaUy and State Board.735.466 Arminian). repentfaith. means " BARDESANES (154-222). parts of the country as the need became MissionarjrBaptists have rapidly increased in numbers. but it is at present thought to be anonymous. EPISTLE OF. In Alexandria it was accepted as from the famous Barnabas. feet-washing General Baptists(33. porated teachingof the Tannaim (seeTanna) not incorin the collection of the Mishna (q.311Hyper- calvinistic) {21. gave who Paul The surname to Joses. Primitive (or "Hardshell") Baptists(80. decade of the 20th." modification of the word "Beracah.000 in the world manifest their fellowship who by co-operating in the Baptist World Alliance. He taught a mixture of Chaldean and other elements.254)an organizationformed as a result of the Whitefield revival) . and was translated into allthe languages of the west. vention Arminian. institutions were founded Educational in the various Home Mission and Publication states. teacher (Acts 13:1) and apostle (Acts 14:14).all but about 350.000. A class of poet-minstrelin the early Celtic world who combined the offices of singer. eternal United Baptists life)." (Hebrew.000 Baptists in America and about 7." An epistle in chapters. meaning "lovers of truth. Newman Lights").-16th. He is said to have suffered martyrdom in Cyprus. by which act. In the United States. Edessa was the center of his labors. century by an Alexandrian. and for three years defied the power of Rome.but is converted by an old monk named Barlaam. Efficient class organiza1890. and have been closelyallied to knowledge." bar Coleba who Messiah as a acknowledged by many Jews. the prophet. to BAR-COCHBA given to Simon The name (BAR-KOKHBA).Persian by birth ." A R. but it was never so regarded in the West.e. 21 BAR MITZVAH. A court debate on Christianity follows. including Akiba ben Joseph. the Jewish the term applies) apphed to boy of thirteen years of age. 20:26.

Hebrew meaning (1) A name.000. " " to 100. DAY. the name being a patronymic.organized the Parliaof Religions in Chicago. especiallynoted for his commentaries which were of a popular type and had an extensive sale. and noted for his facilityin acquiring languages was and his knowledge of the gypsies. with water. First Coligny (q. whom MICHAEL BAUMGARTEN. such as Hinduism Other religions fication. 1860). 16:4. See Bonn. The solution is Gnosticism (q. 1899-1902.). BASILIANS. GEORGE BARROW. It is torian hisBRUNO BAUER. In turn the Pope excommunicated the Council and summoned another at Ferrara (later removed to Council at Basel Florence). professor of theRostock.) who." English traveller and author. A vessel. to be of ceremonial importance.330-379). The elected an anti-Pope (Felix V. and theologian. annates The Council spUt over helpingthe Greek Empire againstthe Turks." BARROWS. 24. JOHN ment American Congregationalist. (1538-1607). and in ritual. He served the British and Foreign Bible Society in Russia and in Spain. Basil was defender of orthodoxy against Arianism. Hegelian. The Levitical legislation emphasized the rehgious value of the cleanhness of the body. point of view. and attained renown author. " and flaringsides."Bishop of Caesarea and one of "the Three Cappadocians. centuries. which pretation the Tendenz (tendency or bias)interThe result was of the New Testament books. "blessed. councils regularlyat the expirationof certain definite outgrowth of vital religiousmovements periods." The of history and Council held in Basel which his remaining years writing works attempted to reform the Church in accordance with the decision of the theology. (4) A legal code.of Tholomew." Italian cardinal. have given the bath a place in the cult. The the cardinals thereupon elected Nicholas V. a form (3) A church in the form of the old basilica. century and has a branch in Toronto. biblical criticand church historian. and then the massacre spread.noted for the ecclesiastical history which sincere he produced in 12 volumes which a was the from attempt to write history scientifically R. " BASILICA. (2) A Roman hall of justiceof rectangularform divided into aisles and nave. He collaborated with Gregory of Nazianzus in preparing a compilation of Origen's works. CHRISTIAN FERDINAND (1792BAUR. to which " Baur found the key in the oppositionbetween the .ordinarilywith of metal. 1834-1842. was of Huguenots in France begun the great massacre de Medici. to admit its authority. to the 1st.v. his work he was losophy strongly influenced by the phihe applied to history. It compelled Eugenius IV. But his critical work. of rods used in The small bundle of the Parsee sacred ceremonies rods may reUgion. Shailer Mathews BASIL THE GREAT (ca. BASIN.). Bartholomew's Day." One of the twelve AND RELIGION ETHICS 44 had already elected.the canonicity of which is not accepted by Protestants. however.but hostility between it and the Pope immediately developed. connection " with These BARTHOLOMEW. Canada. Clement couched in His statement of the problem of evil was the concepts of Persian duaUsm. 1850-1858. Monks or nuns observing the rule of Basil the Great.v. used in the Jewish made early churches for ablutions. The ultimate effect of the strugglewas favorable to the papacy. was Basel Council at subsequently resigned." American Presbyterian minister and author. and in revision in 885.000 BASILIDES. BATHING. as a Cappadocian See preacher and Theology. " The Council was called in Basel in order to meet the problem of the Hussites. Vulgate.) was slain at his home. Immersion in or cleansing BATH. " apostles Jesus. He It is composed of poorly integratedparts and B. of Hegel. (1798-1870). CAESAR BARONIUS.made compromises with the Hussite leaders. and later adopted as by pillars of early church architecture. which chair he lost Protestant at because founders of his liberalism. MASSACRE On Aug. It is commonly supposed that he is to be identifiedwith Bartholomew Nathaniel. See Puri" BARUCH. COUNCIL OF spending BASEL. (1431-1449). (1809-1882). and the anti-papalsection remaining in Basel suspended the Pope." ology theologian. beginning his work as an orthoApoceypha. so that bathing came See Lev. code. begun about destructive that in 1842 the governso ment 1840. queen at the instigationof Catherine Mother of Charles IX. BARSOM. represent the twigs of the sacred plant which were spread as an altar for the sacrificial offeringsin ancient times. German In most of head of the so-called Tubingen school. the Philocalia. HENRY (1847-1902)." the name of an apocrjrphal (2) The name book. exclusive His rule became in the East so "Basilian" is virtually equivalentto a Greek Catholic monk. son so of . BARTHOLOMEW'S OF ST. according to the Synoptic Usts. first lecturer in the Orient in the Barrows Lectureshipof the University of Chicago. is mentioned He in the writings of of Alexandria and Hippolytus. beinga Greek adaptation of the Roman issued by Basil the Macedonean in 878. that his name would be Nathaniel. taught in Berlin and dox evidence shows of plurality of authorship. a zealous He advocated the ascetic ideal. German (1812-1889). though a community was organized in France in the 19th. A Gnostic teacher and writer.A Barnes. Albert DICTIONARY OF ALBERT BARNES. 1893. He was one of the Deutscher Proieslantenverein of the in 1865. (1)In Athens a porticoin which the archon basileus (whence the name) presided. of an associate of Jeremiah. the estimated number of the slain being from 10. (1803-1881). Irenaeus.abolished the and other papal taxes. St.C. to hold general attempt to interpretthe New and controversies." German variouslydated from the 3rd. found in the LXX. presidentof Oberlin College. who lived in the reign of Hadrian (117-138) at Alexandria. to or cathedral or one which the Pope has given the name." elder brother of Gregory of Nyssa. and Douai versions. was cancelled his hcense and he retired. The merit of his critical work lay in its the Testament Council of Constance as (q. 1572.C. and not recognized by the European powers.v.

conperson is worthy of limited homage. and His people. ordained. and within a year trouble began. happiness or blessedness. rum) which contains a few autobiographicalreferHe also wrote some treatises on science and was greater as a critic than as a constructive historical and thinker. toward canonization (q. but during his remaining years by Chief AND was Justice free grace. BEGGING.v. It follows from this principle that the most religious BEATIFIC immediate VISION. III." French losopher phipriestand author." of order in A contraction for "Bethlehem" churches and churchyards during service.).C.C." and symbolism (Also written Baalzebub is probably derived from Babylonian mythology. between England and the U. USE OF. Edgar J. In certain sects of Christians it has in promoting a better understanding accomplished much been considered sinful to cut the beard. 1847-1887. which is the incarnation of opposition appearance. sanctified begging as divinely 0:3-11 and Luke 6:20-22. PIERRE (1647-1706).A. To own springs from popular sympathy which the church property was to divert the attention of the from divine to earthly things." In the R. including the title of "Blessed. greatly stimulated the critical historical study of the New Testament. He translated the 4th. King. (1813-1897). He leader of the over essence was a the scrupulous care of the beard on the part of the slavery question. pastor of Plymouth 10:4). a man specificsphere he was any and of great influence in transforming theological century B. he fled to France." The first English BEDE. as respected them as saints. " " " " ." EngUsh and archbishop of Canterbury." To pull it or to mutilate it was insult (II Sam. His theology was modified Calvinism. he was 1641-1660 puritan and theologian. BEADLE. The conflict culminated in the Constitutions of Clarendon. This idea hes behind of the Gospel. he was murdered by royahsts.. An officer in the church of England. works being The Saints' Everlasting Rest.Becket was capable and efficient. In similar fashion the Brahman ascetic BAYLE. where with the assistance of the Alexander the struggle. mendicant on wanderers. chancellor persistentlypersecuted.to which Becket was compelled When he repudiated his promise. Baxter voluminous best the known of his was a author. He dechned the bishopric of Hereford in 1660. Goodspeed RICHARD (1615-1691). In Jewish of wide culture literature." See Rosary.) A god. In 1330 it was being used as a hospital. of him who called for self-denial from his followers. he continued pope. To indulge in the (ii)formal which is the outcome approves." An vision of persons practisedthe severest asceticism in an age God which is a portion of the future bliss of the that interpretedreligionin those terms. Petrinethe Pauline-Gentile Christianity and work While Baur's Jewish wing of the church. 22:4. When he became in he refused to be a tool of the archbishop 1162. on certain matters of parish administration. a mythical monster. gave it to the corporation of BEADS. London as a hospitalfor the insane. THE scholar of renown. Rev. whose duties are the maintenance BEDLAM.672 or 673-735. As chancellor. BEATITUDE. Brooklyn. it was impaired by his too rigorousappHcation of his hypothesis. the place being transformed under his influence. and they saved. Beelzebul. From minister at Kidderminster.C..A 45 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION Begging. His greatest work was number of commentaries and homia a considerable lies. (2) The name applied to of the declarations of blessedness which Jesus any property and founded an order of brothers who.and by 1403 there were lunatics housed there. I John 3:2. Significanceof THOMAS A (ca. St.and in 1662 left the Anglican continued church. of dragonlike sympathies during his later years." It is frequently a step RELIGIOUS SIGNIFICANCE OF.. and man of letters . In July 1170 a formal reconciUation effected was and Becket returned to England. and mediating party on Muslims. critical dictionary. 13:12. BEECHER. He ences. from the 2nd. The word Bedlam for certain customs and beliefs which have arisen. American an preacher. in those critical days.1 1 18-1 170). Though not a technical scholar in BEAST.S. VENERABLE. In some 1547 Henry VIII." of supreme Francis of Assisi. He to preach.but in December. in early Christian literature and in Islamic literature.)." English BAXTER. preaching the love of God as the gave him magical power him. Such to God BEELZEBUB. was one the possession of part of another's beard orators of America.Y. attendance hospital. The savage thought that N. as made in the "Sermon the Mount" in Matt.v.especially George Jeffreys. author and reformer. professorof philosophy in Latin the Ecclesiastical History of the He wrote at the Protestant University of Sedan until supEnglish Nation (Hisloriaecclesiastica gentis Anglopressed in 1682. Beatification is of Poverty and asceticism have often been regarded kinds: two ideal conditions of the cultivation of spiritual (i)equipollent (or equivalent) which as life.accepting literally the command (1) A condition divested himself of his of Jesus to sellall possessions. to subscribe.first opened in London as a priory for the the clergyin the vestry. Gospel into AngloSaxon. Its voluntary removal was a symbol of Congregational Church. The the firstsuch hospitalin England and the second in feature of manhood is perhaps the reason is used figuratively for Europe. 1164 (q. confusion. church canonized Becket and for a long time his shrine in Canterbury was the object of pious pilgrimages.worshiped by the PhiUstines and consulted by idolatrous Hebrews. ing earnthe friendshipof Henry II. It was but a step from penniless saintship to saintly mendicancy. church a papal In New Testament times the name was applied to declaration that the deceased under sideration the princeof the devils. primitive and some sophisticatedpeople Many HENRY WARD regard it as a Divine gift and therefore sacred. lord of flies. In 1172 the R. of the greatestpulpit mourning (Ezra 9:3). BEATIFICATION.so that it was fact that the beard is a distinguishing BEARD. The belief is founded such passages had of those who to live by the contributions on I Cor. as well as oversightover monks and nuns of the Star of Bethlehem in 1247. decision to venerate church's the a on good things of life was to act contrary to the spirit person double ground of holiness of Ufe and miracles. and afterwards in Rotterdam. making a distinct placefor ETHICS BECKET.

century. 154-64 and 193 should not be overlooked. His sons quarreledabout leadershipand interpretation. Many think him stillalive.who might supplant him. 1826) and his successor Kazim of Resht.and did not surthe 14th. where the of building a great Bahai temple is planned. Kilab-i-aqdas(the most holy book).) The earliest records are of communities in Belgium in the first half of the 13th. Beha'uUah BEL. important because of the fight they of God). soul or mind. Communities of lay brothers. Americans scarcely understand fully certain Asiatic aspects of the new religion. Henry K. they are more " his new had two wives and a concubine. are In so far as the term behaviorism represents a metaphysical theory it is on the side of materialism and mechanistic theory. The results achieved have the attraction of definiteness and co-ordination with other more developed sciences but the formulations admitted by its advocates to be very incomplete. called them Babs. The was following year Subh-i-Ezel to Acre in PalesSee Baal. Browne's notes. are clearlycloselyrelated to that party of Shi'ites.having forestalled with curses any claimant. Armed risingsof his followers brought about his execution in 1850. M. the Mohammedan Accordingly as 1260 (1844 a. and the manner death are not known. There Yahya's elder and abler brother Husain Ali.v. century. In 1260 AH (1844 a. but of the entire system of and muscles nerves as organized by inheritance and experience. The method is to observe the responses of the be either organism to stimuli. In principle the method recognizes no difference between the behavior of the lower animals and man except that the latter may become much more complex and refined. Mirza Yahya. The Lambert de Begue (ca. Behavior is indeed highlyindividuaUzed in man but intimate acquamtance with man's afford a past and his environment for and for means even understanding predicting his conduct. like the originalcomNetherlands munities. As these associations dissolved. organism which it involves. in common parlance leaders in the ritual.d. " hoods BEGUINES.(q.to which the Bab was a mere forerunner. 'The name of certain lay sisterin Germany and the Netherlands. The existingbeguinages in Protestant in the Germany are almshouses for poor spinsters. was religion. era The new movement was inaugurated by Sheikh al-Ahsai (rehgious Elder) Ahmed (d. E. whose hopes center in the succession of twelve Imams Imams. the revelation inaugurating a new a new Beyan. and even maintains the theory a reforming Jainism of pubUc support for the devout. correspondingto the Beguines. Of the twelve Imams recognized by this party the last took office in the year 260 of the Mohammedan Era 873-74 He disappeared a. Sprengling BEHAVIORISM. were soon won over They issue literature in English from Chicago. The stimulus may experimentally set up or such as operates in the of ordinary experience. entitled Behd'ullah (Splendor of Darius. See Charity and Almsgiving. (sometimes ImamMahdis). "Thinking" is identified by of the larynx. G. 1187).356-73. immediate Its two and antecedents. A new connected with Shi'ite Muhammadanism (q. entitled Subh-i-Ezel (Dawn of the Bab's successor. See Zoroastrianism.A Beghards DICTIONARY OF RELIGION expects to obtain provision for his bodily needs. Political claims led to his imprisonment. The beggar is of grace to the giver.for he provides a means a channel for almsgiving. Such tendencies extreme ought not. "gates" between humanity and the Imam. in 1866-67 announced himself Messiah of throw upon the rehgious ideas of the Achaemenian rulers. Their followers. Ames BEHAVIORISM.)approached. however. The significance of course the stimulus and the nature of the organism'sreaction determined are by the inherited instincts of the organism and its previousexperience. No is taken of the findings of account introspectionand the concept of consciousness is The ideal of the behaviorist completely discarded. but these implications have not been worked out beyond the negative attitude taken toward consciousness and any power of introspection.d. hopes attached themselves. on In 1892 Beha'uUah died. Rowb BEGHARDS. The whole organism thus becomes the subjectof inquiry. The versity Episode of the Bab (Cambridge Uniauthor's Press. American converts to the majorityparty.d. Edward S. influenced by Christian ideas of love and marks an advance Babism. Influenced by followers of various ranks he became the Imam Mahdi. banished to Cyprus. To him Messianic.v. of propaganda Because in Persia they were of the removed in 1863 from Bagdad BEHISTUN. one investigatorwith movements pleasure and pain with the various contractions and relaxations. which. to obscure the value of the method in the and determining capacities accomplishments of individuals and bringing many duct phenomena of conout of the realm of mystery and mere theory. is to make psychology as completely objectiveas is chemistry or physics." The name locaUty in to found the great rock inscriptions Persia where are Adrianople. of which called communities the correspondingmale are of these communities founder Beghards.a priestof Liege." See Behavior Behavand terms Asiatic religionin origin BEHAISM.and almsgiving accumulates merit against the day of reckoning that is to come. much agent. He fled with Eternity) was other leaders to Turkey.The minority party began propaganda in America at the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. and the same Materials for the Study of the Babi Religion(1918). was differed from These communities regular orders taken were in that the vows not irrevocable. This is the originof what is now called Babism. to these people certain descendants of Mohammed are in whom the Godhead manifests itself to humanity. new a dispensation. and date of his mysteriously. At the Reformation the orders were suppressed in countries.) a young discipleof of Shiraz proclaimed himself Kazim. some men began year to look for a new with his return. and severe persecutionsof his adherents in Persia from that time forth. AND ETHICS 46 Babists joinedBeha'uUah and accepted Bible. Beha'uUah Most tine. Ali Mohammed such a Bab. His claims did not stop there.).the name associated became with wandering mendicants through the similarity of the name with "beggar. His unfinished book." The Beghards were vive persecuted by the secular clergy. An action is not viewed as the function of any one less of a conscious part. Babism Sheikhism. mainly artisans. the Sheikhis. as he had supplanted the Bab." " = ." These BEHAVIOR AND indicate respectivelya recently developed method of studying the psychology of animals and and the doctrines of consciousness and the men. They claimed to be in communication with the absent Imam and announced his return. justice.in part chiliastic.1891).

and learning.). and formal intercession with God for his a solemn vegetation spiritand one or more such as is used at the conclusion of public The cuttingof mistletoe before the victims could be blessing. His pontificatelasted less CLERGY.animal. the well-beingof others. and people but for a time was not recognized by regulatesthe conditions for canonical appointment. Benedict ing BENEVOLENCE. and brands or scatteringashes over BENEFICE.ca. and was trator. antipope. of being tried for offences before the bishop's 972-974. an animal representativeof the human victims.. and this use is the basis for the identification of Belial with Antichrist or Satan which in the apocryphal literature and N. a nephew of Benedict to promote well" to others. privilege accorded Middle when than two months he was to the clergy of the deposed by the Ages in could to all who England. (2) A blessinginvoked by one person of a rather on the fertility the another as the benediction symbols (tree." Italian Roman ecclesiastic and theologian. 855-858. In the Roman church the cure Benedict 7. a life of asceticism. He was a cardinal. (2) Pope. op BELGIC of CONFESSION.T.also called Black Monks." A faith. In 596 Augustine of Canterbury professorin Louvain and Rome.A. certain ecclesiastical revenues by virtue of being BENEDICT. the community of magical power element in the sacraments source brought (3)In R. The name of fourteen popes. and the occupant of a church office which has been endowed of rendering certain specific account or on one antipope. 1303-1304.and unsympathetic " scholar and toward the Jesuits. X. sanctified. was author. In canon law. See Faith. BENEFIT OF THE A V. on the emperor's death. the right to enjoy eating the flesh of the victims. is used as a common usually signifying a worthless or wicked noun. a liturgical these into contact with fields.who were Benedict XI. Benedict XIII. Benedict IX. Since the fire and for a worship. Disciples prayer. decoratingthe houses with branches.accordan(!e with the rule of St. and archbishop of introduced the order into England. in America. ing of the divine authority vested in the church.however. The Benedictines was in the conversion of the Teutonic accomplished much See Gongs BELLS. In Neh."making scholarly reading and labor in the fields compulsory as well as the specific rehgious disciphne."683-685.480. Benedict was 974"983.and the rightsand obhgations of the benefice. Benedict read. negotiated toward of the Greek and Latin churches. title assumed (1) The by Pedro de Luna.and of the Dutch Reformed church See Confessions Faith. A Celtic midsummer festival for the spread of education and lay brothers as well as monks. and later extended Emperor Otto I. BELIEF. was chosen by the clergy Anglican church this restriction is made. adminisa weak " Benedict BELIAR. who had driven out Benedict VI." 1915-.-574-578. theological of their habit. Benedict deposed by 1058-1059. Educated in Rome. following and meditation for three years. and explainshis being cast into the lion's den because he destroyeda dragon which was an object of worship. 1 : 15 this wicked power or thing. the word forms of the same word.W. and he founded the famous were Monte at in His Cassino rule was monastery Italy. Benedict ZF. a necessary The law Benedict III. court the Great. in the Benedict 77 ." Benedict 964.It required a freshly includes nuns kindled fire in which burned sacred tree were a BENEDICTION. attracted to him. houses. slain was rule of the ritual. the circumstances the Emperor. of souls is services.v. Bells. 7777. one was of the council in Galileo's first trial. began the buildingof a splendidpalace at Avignon where he lived.Benevolence was " " " " " " " " " " " " " . 1724-1730. "conspicuous for its discretion. was sions Catholic The term into prominence in the discuscame Hildebrand. that Copernican. was In some rather than the secular court.T. Europe." (1) In Evangelical churches (probablythe oak). made unsuccessful attempts to reform clerical morals.C.900-903. man) were a son. was friendlyin his relations with the European sovereigns. (q.carryingburnthe fields. his attitude BENEDICTINES. Benedict 77.. Catholic ROMOLO (1542-1620). and the civilization of N. elected by those abolished in the U. He obtained with conduct in native human impulses rather than peace declared of the papacy." Two In the O. 544). usage.v.S. Louis II. owing to the color attested. as occurs II Cor. but. claiming." An apocryphal the Book of Daniel which identifies Daniel with Cyrus. eminent an 1740-1758. a scholar and author endeavoring to establish the foundations of moral of several commentaries. In 1846 it Capua." Benevolence XIV. elected by Otto VI. he fled as a youth to a cave. or From 1394 when he was elected by the cardinals until his death he persistedin keeping up the schism." 1334-1342.who appointed Anastasius by which the officeis vacated. person is personified. or whereby the person object is purified.a vigorous champion of ultramontanism and the greatest exponent of Catholicism He in the modem world. BENEDICT OF NURSIA (ca. in 1790 and in England VII. Literally"willingor wish1033-1048. Benedict AND BEL supplement to Calvinistic confession has become in Belgium and Holland.. It cases by the people." The founder of western monastieism and framer of the Benedictine rule.A 47 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION THE DRAGON. not condition of a benefice. and people consecrated to holy service by virtue or in various ways by jumping through the fire. and in tribes. and is reckoned by some of the British Moralists authorities as an antipope. was dered murit resulted in the miscarriageof justice. as antipope. the production of fertility. France which had b"2ii an enemy in external authority." The monks who live in being judicial. an ethical purpose VIII." 1012-1024. The order BELTANE.). Benedict of Nursia ism should be presented as an hypothesis until scientifically (q.dating from 1561 which the symbol of the Reformed churches AND the reunion ETHICS Z77. ROBERT FRANCESCO BELLARMINE. 1328-1422 1423. 6: 15. introduced into America. was in 1827. BELIAL.

Jeremy DICTIONARY OF RELIGION of the human ing a natural capacity mind. preacher and theologian. of in Law. GEORGE BERKELEY.v. He is noted for his theory of subjectiveidealism which asserts that the edge only certain knowledge which we possess is knowlof our ideas.g. BERENGAR Scholar and ecclesiastic. b. BETTING. (1748-1832). and in theology and Greek.)order of Clairvaux. many of his hymns occupying a cherished place in Christian a BERNARD OF CLUNY. The contains number of hues of a poem famous section was spiritualbeauty.the Principles of Human Knowledge. 1564-1597. from which supreme Edv/ards defined it as "that habit or frame of mind wherein consists a dispositionto love being in general. He what is perhaps the most thorough-going gave which must analysisin existence of the principles guide individual conduct and legislation designed to See the maximum secure happiness for mankind. 1549-1558 1558-1564. the ideal of charityor love is employed to denote such conduct. thing or amount " over WILLIBALD man (1823-1900). He was drawn into ecclesiastical affairs where his powerfulinfluence resulted in the termination of the long papal schism by the abdication of the antipope in 1138. occupied the chairs in Geneva and at Greek at Lausanne. virtues and vices. See Symbolism. His power lay in his zeal. sincerityand humiltogether with his administrative and oratorical which made him the embodiment of the ideal powers of mediaeval monachism. = BETHLEHEMITES. Utilitarianism. theologian of the mediatingof the church school. By certain American theologians(e.) The great Rabbinic schools that flourished in Palestine during the founded 1st. d. century.c. He wrote extensively various phases of Christian on life.faith. of pledgmg certain folks by act among to a riage. in 1548. He was as than pope greater spiritually intellectually. In 1728 he went to America. dwarf body. (1685-1753) "Irish educated at Trinity bishop and philosopher." born and 1000 probably between 1010. and Dialogues. wanton sexual practices includingintercourse with beasts." (Hebrew: study. 1860-1900. symbols for Christ. was Dubhn.but not supported. a biographyof Calvin and several theologicalworks. a Cistercian monastery and was appointedabbot of the Clairvaux monastery in 1115. ^The act of wagering some specific againstanother with reference issue. author of considerable activity. Das from were Leben Jesu. and Neutestamentliche Theologie. Berkeley himself denied the existence of a material world.holding that our ideas stimulated by direct divine activityare BERNARD OF CLAIRVAUX (1090-1153). his sucthe death of Calvin in 1564 he became cessor He in office which positionhe held till1600." Three Christian orders have carried the name: a 13th. AND ceremonial. short legsand gorgon-likehead. Bethlehem century and placed in charge of the hospital of in Guatemala. His task of warding off was evil spiritsprobably accounts for his grotesque shape. BET AND HILLEL BET SHAMMAL" (Bet Hebrew: house two of.the soul." Mediaeval He entered preacher and monk. After his return he was made was bishop of Cloyne. The most translated by Neale as the hymn "Jerusalem the Golden.educated in law and in Greek. In popular speech benevolence means giftsof social enterprises. and in the election of a Cistercian in 1145. The uncertain is to an practice generally considered morally objectionable. whereby they are used as reUgious the devil. and a Central American order of Brothers founded at the close of the 17th.writing a was an defence of Calvin in the burning of Servetus.immortality. in which is set forth the writer's conceptionof monastic hfe." This is readilyidentified with Christian love. the more the dispositionfor men to manifest these in qualities." The accompanied soon hymnody. ity." resuscitated of monks The Cistercian (q. virtue. 1734. Mary of Bethlehem BETROTHAL. professor of practicaltheology in Halle. century association in England of Dominican type.Bestiality appears a gluttonous abuse of the appetitefor food. " A demon-dispellinggod of ancient Egypt who guarded the articles of the toilet and the friend of children. OF TOURS." French BEZA.in connection which adults study the Jewish with house the synagog.so that he became famous." GerProtestant preacher and theologian. " BET HAMIDRASH.A Bentham. THEODORE (1519-1605). Geneva. the Knights and who Hospitalersof the Blessed Mary of Bethlehem for a few brief months fought the Turks in the 15th. his personalinfluenabled him to triumph in the name of religion.. who wrote a History of Babylonia fragments of which have been preserved. Behavior BESTIALITY." A Babylonian priest of the 4th. See Gambling. He is noted for the prolongedcontroversy which he had with the church over the Eucharist. The more primitivethe society. leadto altruistic behavior. century. to support religious or money Birney Smith Gerald to be BENTHAM. court ruhe. practised law in Paris 1539-1548.) School.and inhuman of enemies. and Christian love is regarded as a divinelycreated attitude rather than as a natural impulse. intending to found a college in the Bermudas to train missionaries to the Indians. On . united with Calvinistic church. by Bernard ETHICS 48 BEROSUS. century only BES. mar- religious See Marriage." appropriate to beasts and therefore degrading in character when found in human beings. Mediaeval treatises on animals in which human and moral characteristics are ascribed to them. Berengar being discipUned because he refused to accept the doctrine of transubstantiation." Noted JEREMY Enghsh writer on legal and moral subjects. His writings include the New Theory of Vision. and in 1713 took orders. 1088. BEYSCHLAG. the School of Hillel being characterized by its moderation and that of Shammai by its severity. treatment BESTIARIES. Although no match for Abelard's ence logicin the controversywith him. championed the freedom His chief works state control. court preacher at Karls1856-1860." of the tweKth Monk noted for his long poem of nearly century. They were respectivelyby Hillel and Shammai and in their many tions disputathey follow their masters. theologian. In Christian ethics. Jonathan the is made Edwards) benevolence all morality flows." BERNARDINES.especially thousand three Unes De contemptu mundi. To his intense zeal and added unusual irigorousdevotion were giftsas preacher.

The Bible consists of two main portions. translation (LXX) of the Hebrew or At the same canon by the Jews time the Gita contains diverse elements. but discussions as to certain better understanding of the Christian movement. As the Bible was of the sacred writings.) as religion. century. and 200 a. England.the teaching of the Twelve and the historical valuation of the various Apostles. and in the New group.). that the discussions concerning the canonicityof certain books do not affect those GITA. l ife of this material active than Much added religious enjoinedin the Gita is more to the Greek was that of Buddhism Brahmanism. which directs the use of the Apocrypha of the Old Testament save. Certain Roman Catholic scholars have undertaken to distinguishthe authority which teaching is not a unity.T. the Writings are their historical meaning. although there are a few pages. longs beto the Apocrypha from that which belongs to BHAKTI-MARGA. very probably some The rise of the historical method Psalms. (In of Scripturechosen with littleor no regard to the Greek translation of the O. The influence which led to the and so the final constitution closingof the canon sect which offshoot of Methodism.belongs to the by William O'Brien in Devonshire. ence of Peter. by God. hke those writings which composed it may be used in the Old Testament. century had belong in the last two centuries before Christ. The Bible as finally the recognized serves as basis for the theologyof the church. that they are grouped in the the fruit of action is good. The Old Testament with the authority of the Pope among was the selected from the mass literature because of Hebrew Catholics. but such distinction name Bhakti was stopped by the action of the Council of Trent. II Peter. book of the Mahabharata and consists of Testament.that there should be a profound influence in modifyingthis conception difference of opinion as to the acceptance of the Bible. there was uncertainty as to the experience is interpreted largely through the of certain books admitted to be the New to medium of the history of the rise and fall of the right Testament Jewish By the middle of the 3rd.v. between Krishna and Arjuna.v. The the Protestants and the Roman Catholics former written almost in the 16th. the canonical those full recognition to the historical origin of the books. as in the case this experience." which forms a part of the Hebrew and the Christian rehgions. So position have come is that any action which is performed in disregardof irnportantare they. were selected from a considerable theologyas the record of a revelation of God in hterature.). In the controversy Old Testament and the New between Testament." erally which most essential to the historyof the The name of a poem. " " " . the Acts of concepts in which the experienceof God is set forth. (q. Its fundamental religious down to us from the ancient past. some It began to be studied from the point of some of these books. See type Hinduism. and among among admitted that were the Apocato the canon. and 17th.) of all religiousknowledge. and the Writings. The trustworthiness of the record is not confused Paul.d. This rabbis as to Esther. or the historical of these three groups marks a periodin the selection understandingof its meaning. in BHAGAVAD." a A century longer.continued in the East for BIBLE CHRISTIANS OR BRYANITES. It is notegeneral course worthy. and under source the The exact date at which the canon of the Old influence of this new conception of its inspiration Testament closed is hard to state. To literature by the philosophically Hindus this belong some of the most valuable writingswhich minded of the present. the New OF RELIGION Testament AND ETHICS Bible Christians or Bryanites of the church's history. (For variof this theistic of followers in the Eastern Bibles see Canon.also. 2. Bible in three parts Hebrew the Law. if not other material of the Sacred Writings. way of salvation by faith in a personalGod.II.III John and Revelation accepting him as the Messiah. these questions were Such a view gives James. serves as otherwise would say. has the sense of trustingdevotion to one who can April8. It is regarded The collection of sacred writingswhich BIBLE. by all branches of Christians as inspired that is to the basis of the Christian Religion. never the historical development of the experilypse Scripture. as its were. limited the point of view of the experienceof Jesus and those to however.the not have been gained by man. tion. historical inquiryresulted in a new of the appreciation The New Testament is composed of a group of Bible as a product and record of religious experience if not authorship. however..).v. the Epistlesof Barnabas and Clement. In this sense These. the Prophtreated in theology without regard to the ets. It is probable that each one historical origin of the books. as revealingthe truth which 1.C. and the Shepherd of Hermas. In the Old Testament some Testament. See Canon. of of this is to be seen in the controversy among the the various possibleportions of the books. The Bible became the called Hagiographa or Sacred Writings. chieflyin Daniel.A 49 He also in Greek DICTIONARY publishededitions of and Latin.therefore. is now almost scholars that the universal among The Bible became. notably Revelation. litare "The Lord's Song. was the Bible became entirelyin Hebrew.but. a basis of authority with the Protestants. A point in illustration of the originnot only of itsvarious books. Duty done unselfishly Bible used by the Roman CathoKcs as a sort of intermediate will result in overcoming Karma known the Apocrypha canon as (q. Hebrews. theis hard to draw. 1546. The a conversation Many of the writingswhich the Hebrew people did not beheve 200 B. The (q. centuries. Testament from state. therefore.* The necessityof such an ultiRoman mate its various writingswere court of appeal led the Protestant regarded as being inspired scholastics These to attribute to the Bible Uteral infallibility. The opinion it was was appealed to by a great varietyof theologies." A Hindu for the the other volumes of the canon. See Hinduism. date is between The Gita to "contain divine doctrines" were is the most widely used section of Hindu sacred gradually grouped into a third collection. Old Testament. It would be natural. of the study of Hterature in the first half of the 19th. as there are historical books which was built up by a combination of passages in the former and propheticbooks in the latter. singularlyunified and progressing along selfconsistent hues. writings are organized in the It was. By the middle of the 5th. and its of Alexandria.comparable written in Aramaic. founded was an of the Bible as a closed hterature. of the Old human Also. writingssupposedly of apostolicorigin. See InspibaNew 6th.for the distinction between Protestants this element of very widely read among the collection of the Prophets and that of the Writings its authority became essential to Protestant ology. a set of divine oracles Book of Daniel and of the to be used as a source and support of theologies. Shailer Mathews books. Fully half of the people of India are counted as ations Scripture. century the limits of the canon with questionsof literal infallibility and leads to a were closed in the West.

of parts the Old Testament in their true historical sequence.v. preceded by other MSS. But resultingin his withdrawal continued its identity. Mr. be carefullyanalyzed into their elements. of knowing how many criticism is simply the appUcacopied. captiousfault-finding. they must of These oldest MSS. Hebrew Egyptian Uterature on How do the legends in Genesis compare with the however. preserved in its originalform? Since almost all theological science has to do with mean? The search for (2)What does the document the proper the answer to the first questionyields cism. commonly known as in distinction from the lower^or Higher Criticism. scientificcriticism.and the greater the hterature those of Babylon? Does the Messianic prophecy under study the more of Israel owe certain is it that criticism its inspirationto the Messianism of will but enhance its value.and there is no means Uterary or historical) times the process of copying had taken place. to what social. might be made to cover a the Old and the New At the present time." A commission tablished often appear esto past history. and between and the other. How do the former owe The result of the process much to the latter? What of criticism may be increased appreciation rather is the difference between the psalms of Israel and than depreciation.group them Catholic scholar will naturally Roman include them in his discussion. homiletic When (q.000.D. Is the writing under in parts. Still another source for the text is at hand in the quotations of the Old and New Testaments found m the writings of the early Church Fathers.and from the pomt of view of accordingly. Knowledge founded and in 1698. It then arranges the component long since disappeared. or is the writing a composite production? What sort of person the author. and meaning of the or prophecy with another. Was it all written at the same in LonBritish and Foreign Bible Society. But tion to bibUcal literature of the methods which are used in the study of other ancient books. M.). is to see a pieceof Uterature exactlyas it is and to estimate it without prejudice of any kind. Among the the earUest societies were review poetry or Corporationfor the Promoting^and Propagating of prose? This is by no means always an easy or an the Gospel of Jesus Christ in New is it a England (1649). The criticism of literature itself with two questions: (1) Is the text concerns now applied to the literaryhistory of the Old and of the document New Testaments. Another of information upon the text is found in the old translations of the Scripture. tury Many of the books goes back only to the 9th.. of the Biblical A question which now naturaUy suggests itself is whether Biblical Introduction variations.d. There have been numerpurpose and what means utterance did he employ to attain most societies. what was his influence upon of 31 kindred societies organized by representatives posterity? Most of the data with which the literarycritic in 1816. textual criticism.toward dis- in 1829.000 members throughout the United States and the British Empire. or one Biblical Uterature. one code with determining the origin.growing and the church expanding until in 1882. Catholic scholars. were certainly course from which these were This process. ^The term cism" "critiinstitute comparisons between Hebrew Uterature and the idea of brings before the average Babylonian on the one man hand. to and are A. was copies of the Scripturesin a year. How with another. Powis Smith Kinds BIBLICAL INTRODUCTION. it? How much did he owe and to his predecessors. century a. cenand of the New discovered be Testament to the 4th. posed of a committee of cardinals assisted by stylewill tell for or againstthe syntax. are in existence thousands of MSS." This term is of criticism.. composite. Both that science which endeavors cover to disoriginated Introduction centuries ago and the originalmanuscripts the date and composition of the various BibUcal many have books. The oldest MS.and the occasional publication But there is also the necessityof pursuing a process of comparativecriticism. whose annual circulation exceeds 2 million work are must in the literature itself to be found copies. and literary theologicalconsultors. and the Canstein Institute. yields Literary Criticism.founded time and by the same 1804.the decision of of Biblical criticism in dispute among matters determining questions of authorship and unity.the duties of which include unityof the writing. mere matter-of-fact the Society for Promoting Christian annalistic record. The function of criticism. corresponding myths and legends of Babylonia? favorable or unfavorable. another? We must however. determine include called Apocrypha. representingalmost innumerable critic must The examine these minutely.whose circulations have reached 1 1. we Testament offer a wide field mean by BibUcal for the pursuit of this science." Organizations for the translation and distributionof the Bible. In 1884 branch the Canadian joined in the union of all Methodist bodies. This will have to do first of studies on the Bible. the books to The their relative ages and habitats. however. imaginative in character? founded it written and in Halle. If prose. which he is working. and in 1907 by the absorption " " source . There copying is always attended by error. Characteristics in 1902 by decree of Pope Leo XIII.The aim of a justcriticism. These often reflect a different original from that found in any MS. and whose total distributions exceed 300.purpose. Here the critic aims to discover BIBLE SOCIETIES. under The largestsocietyis the what was circumstances? don.000. and go further afield.which was followed by a similar union in Austraha. J. the date of some of which hes further back than that of our oldest MSS. with similar writings within the Hebrew Hterature BIBLICAL CRITICISM. which is caUed the higher (better.Bible A Societies OF RELIGION AND ETHICS 50 the discovery of the correct text. The search for the answer of the parent church in the United Methodist to the second question church. or is it didactic. The European important association is the American American Bible Society." does one Psalm compare The art of accurately itself. BibUcal literature has Egypt? Only by such investigationsdo we come littleto fear and much to gain through a thoroughly to a fuU appreciationof the value of the Bible. 1710. it numbered 300 ministers and scattered 34.000copies in over 500 pohtical or ecclesiastical group did he belong? What did he seek to accomplish by his ous languages and dialects. O'Brien's DICTIONARY dictatorialness caused sension. Textual Critiunderstanding of the Scripturesthe term sometimes called "Lower Criticism.in whole or everything that will throw lightupon the author's words." Introduction Both wide field. should be extended texts. Consideration of the religious standards and aims will helpin dating a book and in the defence of Catholic exegesis. Evidence as to date wiU upon in allusions to contemporary events or BIBLICAL COMMISSION. comof vocabulary.000 hand.and estimate aright their contribution 1815. unimportant problem.

made for the manifold influences which had helped BIGAMY. in which the theology Certain early experiments seemed to indicate that of the Bible still be regarded as a whole. century fies a periodof several centuries. was oned for his heretical views.(2) The word meant religioushypocrisy in 16th." The hypothesis that a being Old Testament is viewed in its relation to the of body may have more than one location at the national life of Israel. There is a sense. the church. the king. royal family.considered apart from AND RELIGION The theology of the the later theologyof Old ETHICS Testament. Christianity. century this view began ALOIS EMANUEL BIEDERMANN. The is traced out process time without same multiplicationof substance." thought. A term no longerin use among of thought represented in each of the Testaments. The on day by the same then it is shown how this message understood in was R. as several times imprisBut the it in conformity with Bible standards.revealed in the Bible and formulated in the creeds has thus disappeared.and that this revelacalled because the deacons bid the people pray for formulated had been accurately in the various these things.C. must ever doctrine.book-worship. A stubborn adherence to a given with the teaching of Scripture. DICTIONARY OF be no doubt that can In practice. At the Reformation perceived that the then prevaifing BIDDLE. used to express the view that Hving forms biologists and to the changes of outlook which found arise only from hving forms. (4) that in both of them we must reckon in early Buddhism grades of disciples applied to one with influences from without."Teacher. JOHN (1615-1662). Abiogenesis. an each other.therefore. and the author of Hebrews in terms of Alexandrian BINDING AND See Keys. a prayer for specific objects. His from the later creeds. ous In thf the Bible was whole. theology. The creeds themselves chief work was Christliche Dogmatik. in a completely lifelessand sealed solution organisms may When we apply the historical method would This was to the various called spontaneous appear. "spontaneous generation" had its behevers. in the fight of creeds. New Testament system. (1) In criminal law. permits binafion specifically only under the primitive church. etc. constitutinga harmonia single Lutheran tion church.T. But it was that the while the firstis living. F. Smith to them. versity 1885). the marriage of a second wife after the death truth." made In the Anglican church. the marriage of stillassumed to mould them. ideas were that both largelytransformed. examined and aUowance were was historically.therefore. however. (2) In canon a second spouse Bible contained coherent a system of revealed law. The theology of the BILO CATION. (1819studied The Bible was to undergo a modification. Efforts were made to bring an impediment to holy orders. the church.forgivenessof sin) which were in connection of technique.T. eternal life. it was discovered that the "hfecame to their fruition in and that the "sealed" less" solution was not lifeless. though and a disposition to coerce others to agreement." Literally. Biblical form understood.when thus the basis of Christian E.g.and had to be understood it was them. Biblical Theology is now higher state of the Arhat. idea still persistedthat the teaching of the Bible and traditional dogma were the same. how it was interpretedby Paul.C. The Gospel evidence is sifted. whereby a primitiveform of religionwas developed It is involved in the R. essentially Towards the end of the 18th.In order to apprehend these ideas in their Christian form it solution was not always sealed against certain IS necessary to trace them back to their roots in the has disappeared organisms. are quite distinct. Swiss theologian. The celebration of the Mass twice BINATION. belong literary to a different age and a different world of thought of theology on the basis of Hegelian monism. how it was re-stated by the Fourth evangelist exceptionalcircumstances. Biogenesis Theology.. faithfully creed or party or ideal accompanied by an intolerant For a variety of reasons this conception of a attitude toward differingbeliefs. the Kingdom of God.or "biogenesis. especially graduallydeveloped in the religionof Israel and with bacteriology.in which the Old and New Testaments mented suppleaction which in the R."as distinct from lifeaware ideas (e. Protestant this is correct." in order to discover the originalmessage of Jesus. travagant exand uncritical devotion to the Bible as possessingdivine authority apart from a properly scientific estimate of its contents. (3) Testaments comprise a number of different types of BIKSHU lower of the two (BIKKU). Scott BIBLIOLATRY. that between them related. theology is likewise studied historically. truth. It was taken for granted that originallythe preacher bade the people pray foi' system of doctrine. books of Scripture we become of certain'' generation. The term arose can sion expresin the later history when of doctrine. The old conception of a singlebody of Power op the." With the improvelaw.however.however. as well as with an who had entered upon the way that leads to the inner development. English Unitarianism . BIDDING-PRAYER. scholars reaUzing the special importance of the canonical books usually confine their discussion H. and thus to build up a scheme should correof doctrine which spond BIGOTRY.or "abiogenesis.so bodyof divine revelation. himon (1) that the Old and New Testaments." The teaching. It is recognized unreasonableness the part of the adherent self. all the inspired writers into harmony. professor at the Uniwith a new a nd to was seen of Zurich. P. distinction was times no Until modern the prayer called because^ and the orthodox between the teachingof Scripture so preceding the sermon. Church is of the first.C. treated.who elaborated a profound system feeling. the same ministrant.under the two separate heads of O. defense of the doctrine and purifiedby the ethical teaching of the great of the real presence of the body of Christ in the hardened into a legal prophets. LOOSING." Bible. the moral ment generation. Modern enquiry seeks rather to do justiceto the different phases BIOGENESIS. and N. purelyliteraryhistory there BIBLICAL THEOLOGY. theologywas often at variance known with Scripture.and an attempt was the founder of made to revise author. and was latterly Eucharist. " " " _ " peat .A 51. in which reUgious usage. and theologian.including biblical theologyhas now broken down.

Its most important forms are the rightsfollowingfrom BIRTH. Vision III. or seniorityof birth. circumcision. Alexander religions. finallyto secure These various motives recognitionof fellow men.and with it this use of the term biogenesis. The bishop was soon acknowledged BIRETTA. This meant a citybishopwith power over a single at synods the bishop community. hence callingfor especial form is rather frequent. receptionof decisions) a which with the primacy of great centers arose 11th. Hindus. churches of America In the Methodist bishops are san diocechosen by the General Conference. This subordination to the deputies^ is increased by the modern separationsof papacy church and state. pagan expose beUeve BIRTHDAY. 5).give rise to efforts to drive possible evils and bewitchments.including the ancient Among many classical peoples and modern some Orientals. stories of good fairies.baptism. Devotion or first-born child to sacrifice or to religious service is another parental right frequently recognized in H. All bishops at first were equal but by an historical process (presiding at synods. Originallyboth the laityand the clergyjoined in electinga bishop. in the 2nd.who had. rites. is the rightto inheritance or to social Birthright station as a consequence of birth condition. Birthand gods are made occasions of martyrs. in Rome." Those who in astrology and some others regard certain days as lucky and African tribes practise others unlucky.Rome. dread of changefolklore. substituted ecclesiastic above church recognized no a pastor. have given occasion not only for important religious ceremonies. by the action of the Council of Constance but after the Council of Trent bishops tended to be of the Pope. The assumption by Teutonic kings of the right to confirm or even to appoint led to the Investiture dispute which ended (1122) with the provisionof election by the then chapter.Italy)developed the higherrank of Patriarch for Alexandria. B. male children commonly being given priorrecognition.d. When the United a mission country nominations sent both by the were diocesan priestsand the bishops of the province to the Congregationfor the Propagation of the Faith. if he chose. In 1908 the United States ceased to be a mission and the Apostolic Constitution of Pius X.g. and under whose protection expectant mothers are placed. Christie history. Among certain peoples mothers dying in childbirth were regarded as thereby made heroic.although its more primitive the dread of witchcraft at this dangerous period. for priests as a for bishops is purple or black. John M. Byzantium. and faith black. " . to bring to the child the protection easy for it the proper of good powers. The desire for children. death. The pope installed in spiritualfunctions and the king in pohticaland property rights. Certain other Protestant bodies employ the term but shoot only in the Church of England and its American offis there an episcopaloffice resembhng that of Cathohc F. in the Koran the name of Allah" which appears as the opening phrase of each section and is used by of each act of Moslems at the commencement of ceremonial. In power. Great Britain the title is not used by Wesleyans. among Among many peoples birthdays are celebrated as days embodying the idea of the renewal of life.v. but by presiding of the provincialcapital became (3rd. in Cathohc countries the state has usuallyhad the right of and in Protestant German the states nomination chapter elects one whose acceptibihtyto the government States was is assured. century became for the Roman bishop in archic theory and increasinglyin fact an absolute monall western bishops.is purificatory 13). or (England and Germany) from the fact that the first bishops were missionaries serving a large area. ' An Arabic formula meaning "in BISMILLAH.A Biretta DICTIONARY OF RELIGION as a doctrine based upon any observation. lings. while synods of larger areas (Syria. primogeniture. tension Antioch.chap. In Acts 20:28 Paul addresses elders as bishops. Calvin's Sweden.the rights the social station of the parof rank. The biretta for cardinals is red. appeals. the Christian Christobservance of Rama's (q. excluding the laity. With the horoscope and the elaborate astrology came arrangement of lucky and unlucky days based on the astrological signs evident on the day of birth. BISHOP. The term is also used as a synonym for evolution as appUed to the plant and animal kingdoms. peoples. Coulter ETHICS divinelyguaranteed vehicle of the inherited culties TertulMan).)and the Hindu birthday. birthrightdepended upon recognitionof the child by the father. due to ents.and special Belief in re-birth of honors were given them. " AND persecution resulted acceptance of the bishop'smonarchic m the in disauthority cipUneand his priesthoodby divine rightover souls." The earliest officers of Christian churches called both presbyter (elder)and were bishop. placed in the control of the the choice of bishops virtually of State. However. saints.and 3rd. In virtuallyall pagan there are goddesses whose especialcharge religions is birth. Early century a monarchic bishop is found at the head of a body of presbytersin Syria and Anatoha {Epistles of Ignatius)and by 150 a. infants still-born or early dying is also not infrethere is held to and in some religions pagan be a speciallimbo for the souls of such.both in the East {Didache 15) and in Rome (/ Clement 44. such as purificationafter child-birth. church Apparently each had community several bishops. legitimacy or illegitimacy.the desire to and to insure the health and protect the mother future of the child. as ecclesiastics. Cardinal Secretary and in Deimaark The Lutheran reform. century) a metropoUtan or archbishopwith growing jurisdiction over others. but also to a great number of superstitions which are stillpresent in European such as faith in charms. Probably the name bishopwas apphed to an elder presiding over worship and distributing alms.bishopsin / Clement 52 42. It is also used as a potent word ences in itselfto ward off evil influhaving efficacy power and to assure a safe beginning of every action. Chinese and many as. The episcopal power over constitution of the Cathohc church was renewed (1415). Officers appointed by the apostles are called presbyters in Acts 15 :23.g. are BIRTHRIGHT. See Evolution.. mas of special celebration. e. Hermas. the right to of an unborn the child.as about universally associated religiousrites and behefs." . awaiting rebirth. Certain infanticide of children born on unluckydays. centurydiffi(Irenaeus. arising from About birth.e. A. ^A square cap with three ridges on its upper surface worn the official cap of R. Exof a to a diocese bishop'sjurisdiction when Teutonic invaders beyond the city came settled on the estates of a gau or county subordinated themselves to the bishop of the old Roman city which was the county seat. quent. save superintendents. have no and are properly Superintendents.. The belief in defilement as an accompaniment of childbirth (cf Leviticus.C. others. to secure away dehvery. Egypt. the rightsof sex.

of words be bound to a physicalobject (Aladdin's secured the footing lamp) and obhged to do the bidding of its owner. 6:3-11. the close as if it came through birth. H. Alexander other felicity is associated with the divine favor upon BLACK A DEATH. literally. The BLAVATSKY." to be due to intercourse with spirits. or. history. church the black prayer-book. doubtless due to association with the conception of HELENA PETROVNA black art comprises all the devil as black." The PRIESTLY. seeminglynecessary in this crisis. B.) In the Saints of Christ. of " significant as Religiously a relationship. 15.blasphemy was defined so as to include veins of men by contact of fresh wounds. "The less The spoken or written words insultingto God. Among primitives . might work harm by its own man. "Black magic" Societyin New York in 1875. priests. In the punishment. largely supwas planted say supernatural. BLOOD. him.appearing in Italy (1348). In consequence estimated as high as fortyper cent of the variously AND CURSING" BLESSING The power of population and heaviest in Italy. and more too if I do not do thus and so. ness. Jews. (1831forms of magic supposed to be due to collusion with 1891). and with Col. latter case common to flow in the blood is made Formerly." The most of cursing and rigorous form of blessing. by the Rabbi dismissingthe congregation at services.A 53 DICTIONARY RELIGION OF ETHICS AND filood BLACK or any ART. France.BLESSING. means of basis the or conciliation. BLACK SUNDAY.as did also the Roman Blood is universallyregarded as the bond of law. Thus.composed chieflyof negroes who Jewish ritual. The vokes judicialoath in which the witness inon himself. over related to the attainment of a right state of mind." name natural development from the curse." The term "black art. ch." is a traditional perversionof the punished rigorously.wages rapidty thought to be something uncanny and the older aristocracy rose injuriousword is a curse.and its use sacramental. however. an apostate. could not be reversed. though to the food and time." popular name Examples are not rare. but non-residence and pluralism. imprisonment. Smith BLACK of God and Church JEWS. Mode inherent force. especialpower fastingin R. such men's drinking each other's blood. or corporal birth) or artificial (through ceremony). for blasphemy (Lev." The basic idea concerning blood is common blood is the life.C. 12:23. even if pronounced by a common difficult to so G. S. The demon might by the efTective form worldlyminded. As thought became by one risingfrom the masses. and rife. BLACK FAST.is a vengeance BLACK The attached to FRIARS. With the scarcityof labor. it is (through Relationship is natural relationship. Russian authoress who traveled extensively." See happiness. such as legerdepresentation main and various forms of divination not deemed A condition of happinessor BLESSEDNESS. celebration of the Holy Communion in the Anglican Conceptions of the." The name because of their black habit. in which the the congregationof the Fathers of the Holy Ghost the divinity rather than entreats speaker commands and the Immaculate Heart of Mary. Not and the efficiency irreligion only were blessingwas of force because the speaker was in moral tone of the clergyimpaired by the admission communion or or specialrelations with a demon into the priesthoodof the immature. so called from lettersin which it was formerly printed." The populardesignation of the old priests." or saints. Alcott founded the Theosophical evil spirits. P.given in Deut." religions or pestilence of Oriental experience." See Future BLEST. punishable by fine. according to the reform monks of the Benedictine order.his punishment being death. discontent acute.in case he lies. BLISS. to injureby From BLASPHEMY. Isis Unveiled." speech.specifically.and divinity. of its mortality western Europe. 6:22-27) claim to be the descendants of the true Jews. untrained. clear the theory was formed that the curse became more or pronounced. Latterlythe rigorous requireintended for Esau. a tainer con- of power. Dhamma'pada. BLACK The for FATHERS.from which. is pronounced in the Synagog. which in Christian and theistic H. trade routes. as well as proper.the austerity relatingboth the blessingof Isaac once given to Jacob. One of the Dominican monks in England because of the color earhest examples is the Hebrew formula: "God do of their garments. but the law is seldom put into effect. is active in making the curse the divinity or blessing effective the form is usually that of a prayer. from which in later centuries it was But a curse. Sunday. ABODE Life. innocent forms of wonder-working. with the dead) being a guilty Muslim being considered by communication corruptedinto negromantia (asif from negro-. See Blessed" " " " Supreme " nuns BLACK SISTERS. and death had men near Magicians. on certain holy-daysby the descendants BLACK for MONKS. according to the orthodox. or by drinking the Trinityand the authority of the Scriptures. the Greek. the term necromancy has even been applied to astrology. defamatory speech. by two denial of certain orthodox Christian behefs. Her most important is contrasted with "white work. See Thkosophy. holythingswas included in blasphemy which was "black magic. and the spoken word seems to men at a certain stage of England great structural changes took place in should or as we society. In England and the United States. (Jewish. blasphemy includes contemptuous classical "necromancy" necromantia (meaning disspeaking of Mohamet.is an attempt at a systematic magic" which includes of theosophy. given to Alexian Passion See Alexians. making a bond as In France speaking against the Virgin Mary. ments When have been relaxed. The the helpful one Class interests a blessing. blood drawn as from a third source. the PriestlyBlessing (Num. the close of some BLACK RUBRIC" The declaration which commands kneeling at the end of the order for the OF THE.whereas in ethical originresembhng in many jjresence in human particularsthe bubonic and non-theistic thought such as Buddhism it is plague." to me so H. it rapidly spread into large areas of See Matt. 24:16). black).In Muhammedantinctionism. or Consequently blood is everywhere more Levitical legislation prescribed the death penalty sacred. Peter dislodgethem.

(India). blood. flesh and the immaterial drunk at marriage. Spirit. Burial. the time of the in thought. ^A form of primitive justice of life from that of embodied life. noted reprisals.or smearing themselves it demands burial for mutilations. He was of sincere and devout life." German JAKOB BOEHME. BOETHUSIANS. upward through human formed of the mingling of blood. Swiss pastor of unusual religious power. George W. Alexander of the principleof wergeld (ransom) to a large (1575-1624). sealed by it calls for ritual safeguards. Bathing with it (actually of the dead) being conceived as the bond. He met with much Even the blood-feud had its strict rules and was a day. when blood is shed.). evil influences (India). remains in the wife's veins and Nevertheless. or of one interpretation. mind. envelope. Speculativelyit is difficultfor man totallyto separate the conception BLOOD-FEUD. to them at " A Jewish Saducees. the body is rarelyconceived as fixed in form. exists from the BLOOD-BROTHERHOOD.blood may be (a) forbidden as food. an exami)lein the human the rationalistic Prussia. or to givingtestimony. B. while upon of various elements The blood childbirth and of menstruation the added thereto to constitute ara themselves regarded as more are or less supremely perilous. The blood-feud is a consequence tionship.gives a BODY. Soul.ghostly. Influential Lutheran pastor.the conceptionof a body from which reveals and punishesinfidelity sublimated life or soul can be disengaged.spirit." in tribal The custom societywhereby the next of kin of a murdered man is bound the murder to avenge by the death of the murderer of the murderer's tribe. many Christian and in early religiouspracticesthe distinction of hymns).soul. avenge This may involve counter (1831-1910). ConsanBLOOD-RELATIONSHIP.and feuds for his vigorouspromotion of the work of the Inner arise which last generations. strife. as a corpse.makes marriage fruitful. as among individual assumed the responsibility of vengeance of incarnation the Egyptians. nally. as or BLOOD-COVENANT. internallyand exterwith appetites. cf. a man and exercised wide influence.the corpse cures disease." See orthodox though doctrines.The body as the house of See blood-relationship.often among savages each drinking. In primitive thought (Mithraism. Gilmore temporarily as well as permanently. subject to profound changes in the seasons into which two parties Have entered. of a transfiguredor sublimated in especialvigor among the Semitic and Aryan spiritualbody. East Indians. imparts strength to the old (Australia). reading of By prayer. and for his theological to counteract (see Sacrifice). in the name of the he acquiredthe spiritof a mystical books. or other home from sin or defilement or or metaphorically)purifies contrasted modes with it. His parents were a shoepeasants and he was right and responsibihty of blood-revengepassed and Bible study. feast to settle difficulties. perceptible look upon not it for a certain period after Plato that the distinction between the material may the birth of twins (Africa).. tic." lowest savagery A fraternal bond culture. Dyaks. See Covenant. after successive existences accept at last the peace working beneficently or harmfully according to of essential Boddhahood. Friedrich of inspirationto such as great minds did not Schlegel. affect gods As a means of conciliation blood may school at Bethel in Mission. being. a more (India). As sacred. to provide an omen They are the great cosmic saviors who pass through sanctifyor make powerful a fetish (Africa). into the hands of the king who. It See AvalgkiteSvara.though wasteful. with the blood of the other. possibihtyof divine healing say: Its social value Ues in the protechas been shed. When the state was established the firmly maker. founded sphere tendencies of the theologicalfaculties in the uniis that Australians drink each other's blood at a versities. Its beneficent powers vary. When tribesman is believed blood who in Arabs "Our the a slain. it calls for temperas endowed ate ascetic control. of the life. from its bionomic its spiritual bestows on or ghosts (Odyssey. the ten stages leading to complete knowledge and A concomitant notion is that blood has potency.a relative a him. See Asceticism.Hegel and ScheUing. to FRIEDRICH VON (familyor clansman) is bound BODELSCHWINGH. its use. in kind upon the offender or his kin. temporary power XI. 34 "f." or to consecrate a (b) eaten appliedin Buddhism ceremony to those who are destined for future Buddhahood.Blood-Brotherhood A DICTIONARY OP RELIGION AND ETHICS rA this bond extends over the clan or tribe: one common BLUMHARDT. CHRISTOFF JOHANN (1805blood flows in the veins of every clan-member. exacted on vengeance opposition in his visionary. of more closelyknit societies caused the adoption H. but his works subsequentlybecame a source form of crude. etc. 1880). The outgrown growth Resurrection. and flourishing related closel}' sect . circumstances. Parents It is first with by the physicalsenses. a livingman it must be buried to protect the passer-by. before A name BODHISATTVA.sustains the dead.being infused with.etc. bodies. material and of or restrictions immaterial does not Its perilsappear in prohibitions clearly exist.hence arises the which the maltreated in or family of a murdered ideas of a partiallife attendingthe corpse. community. and on several as organized from a priest The conception of a man modes of being is well-nighuniversal. idea of body and The influence of the disjunctive by the ceremony The conceptiongrew out of the primitiveconception soul has been one of the most profound both upon of kinship as necessarily ritual and speculation.aldepart from the current methods and mystical he used the allegorical " " " " " of BLOOD-REVENGE. Boehme guinity. of astral." through prayer. for castigation. Usually. and rites of allayingthe dead." A solemn agreement of life. and who established and superintion tended of life imder conditions of nearly perpetual institute for religious an healingat Bad Boll. of bodilyresurrection. of blood relaWhen clansman is slain. or phantasmal peoplesthough the Indo-Aryans seem early to have tion.justice. Brotherhood. It is found and reincarnation. disvictor the life or courage of a slain enemy tinguished (Africa) . the soul requirespurification. mysextent. Some kinds are especially dangerous. mystical the culprit.the physical confers of prophecy. Incarnathe blood-revenge stage. The physicalpart of an organism. The husband's soul is sharply drawn. It prevents and power mode and averts or material (thebody of the living.

was pohtically active and succeeded in restoringRoman order in the R. and radicals (Taborites). BONAVENTURA. Martel The partiesresulted. and proconsul of the Papacy." R. a (927-968)." radical reform than was VII. and his theology was commander-in-chief until his death.1434). Pope for 15 days in 896. Boniface III. creating Canterbury as a Metropohtan see." of nine Popes. protection of Charles moderates contributed From 732-754 he to his success."Missionary From He the 9th. for use Bohemian Protestantism all but annihilated was in the established used church of England.where they church to the book name on given organization assumed Unitas Fratrum Brethren. containing the forms and modes of public service appointed by the Act of Uniformity. Boniface IV.followingHuss' (q." Fope. were interpreted spiritually the papacy in a number of conflicts with Eastern movement spread over required. the name or in 1560." retired. and living strictlyby the Gospel.v." The OF sympathetictoward the intellectualand spiritual tendencies of the age (Universities. Pope. His influence and Prankish with the was death.the former secured concessions (freepreaching.. prominent They are especially Many of his hymns are in common usage. He of Roger Bacon was a contemporary the Methodist Connexion New ministry. 418-422.A 55 OF DICTIONARY RELIGION AND ETHICS Bornholmers A Christian community originatBoniface V. 606.C. interests in the Protestant secThe latter attached were supremely religious." A sect. (Calixtines. (1829-1911). Reformation).) going as a missionary to Frisia in 716. BONIFACE. Henry (q.India.having accommodated 1111.-Nov. Feb." Pope. Church. are BOOK of Revelation. received from Phocas the Roman pantheon which was converted into a church. and Benedict sect committed to a more XIII. From and lost its idiosyncracies movement became BOOK book COMMON PRAYER. theologian. in 1482. (1221-1274). He was canonized by Sixtus IV. churches.v. One BOOK DEAD. Islam. ordained 1494 the bishop by Waldenses).v. their doctrines to orthodoxy. in apocalypticliterature such as Enoch.Miracles.and Judaism. obtained from Emperor Phocas recognitionof the primacy of Rome. Pope. large on both the German desire for religious Two reform. named from John Bolland so (1596-1665).). They also publish a quarterlyperiodical. It was the development of an evangelistic in Sweden movement (from 1846) which spread to Denmark where the leader." Founder order. Boniface//. several religious books. was a Saxon by birth.). to Kunwald. 984-985. Taber- name " " " Danish BORNHOLMERS.. was Platonic influence." In the Book destinies are human heavenly book in which The portrayed as being recorded."Pope. were absorbed into Boniface IX. gnosticism. 530-532. imagery is Oriental peoples who have picto many common tured a the existence of celestial books or tablets containingthe wisdom of the gods and mythologies inhabitants. The Taborites cluded incup and irreconcilables(destroyed by Romanists BONIFATIUS-VEREIN. The Belgian edition of the Acta Sanctorum has reached 63 volumes. Clement BOHEMIAN BRETHREN. of Germany.sacraments. He wfote literatureof Babylonia.and H.). with certain modifications by other Protestant Jablonsky preservedthe history and traditions of bodies. (1876)."Scotch Such ideas may be paralleledfrom the religious hymn writer. Pope.v. Pope. BOOTHS. He was the author of the bull. The FEAST OF. the contents of which are largelymagical formulae and charms. influential in BOGOMILS." The Belgian Jesuits. C.and Revelation. for laity)and leadership.v. 619-625.Utraquists). to Rejecting force. 1863-1877. SAINT BONIFACE. (q.Unum Sanctam In 1650 the Bogomils. so . By accepting the Compacts (q. was archbishop. Bishop of Rome. and rival popes. the papal states. Frisian pagans. tillthe brotherhood the Brethren reconstituted " " " " was and broadened by Moravian Brethren Zinzendorf (q. was intensely nationalistic (language. 1294-1303. voiced these national aspirations. (680-754). the Walker BOLLANDISTS.C." A society for the interests Utraquists.China. century time of the papal schism. and others whose tions protectionof R.Egypt. who the publishersof the Acta Sanctorum (q. drawn by the Scotch Presbyterians up In 1467 they became an independent sect (Matthias A revised edition appeared in 1578.and by 1255 rose to the office of generalof the for the Salvation Army educated (q. Trandberg. In 754 he was murdered by the 1433. 608-615.1457." See Feast of nacles. and edited several journals. century the church in Bohemia to Germany. held office at Avignon. Daniel. Persia.owing its name Bogumil Christianizing to a priest.). Lititz. themselves the Chelcic Brethren. The Hussite wars. pietistic island of Bornholm in named from the Danish of the the center the Baltic Sea. OF LIFE. The order was officially pomp.).C. was prevented from By his orders Bacon in East London which subsequently developed His philosophy was Neolecturingat Oxford.v." OF THE of the sacred books of the religion of ancient Egypt. 1549. ing in Bulgaria. The beliefs of the Bogomils were dualism Marcion's of Manicha"an and fusion Boniface VI. concerning the earth and its human HORATIUS BONAR. Boniface VII. The and condemned in European nations by his arrogance Europe. Boniface I. and ceremonies He and broiled emasceticism was Boniface VIII. He was order. 1419-1432. was P. England.the Analecta Bollandiana. and stood in opposition to 1865 founded the Christian Mission for social rehef both.a great scholar and preacher. (1808-1889). and and Commenius during the Thirty Years War. ST. they BOOK The OF COMMON DISCIPLINE.into the Salvation Army of which Booth suffused with Platonism.v. the national from (Calixtine)church of Bohemia which it sprang. In 1243 he entered the Franciscan of WILLIAM BOOTH. which became movement. liturgy). 1389-1404.and Presbyterianminister. and in and Thomas Aquinas. the Jesuit father who was of the principal organizers one of the work. His pontificatefell during the A 15th.).

(1627-1704).or the world-soul. for the Qudras were always rigorouslyexcluded from a knowledge of The K?atriyas and Vaigyas were the sacred texts. AND ETHICS 56 It is convenient to restrict the former to the earlier sacerdotal phases.Narayana. Where there were natural no markings. rence (1) A word of frequent occurin Indian reUgiousliterature. A priestlytheoryof the ideal life developed (the four Agramas). consists of sacrificial formulae.) made their appearance. Asceticism became a prominent factor. Scholars gathered around famous teachers. ^In the fertile plains and enervatingclimate of the Ganges valley life became easier and more settled. The etymology is uncertain. witches especially. (1)The Brahmacarin spent years (accordingto one theory. (2) The designationof the highest of the four Indian castes. performed all the religiousand social duties prescribed by priestly tradition. BRAHMANISM. There Hfe involved fewer religiousand social duties. known by many names.but most writers trace it to the root used in the neuter it refers brh. BRAHMANAS. Brahmanism from Vedic Religionbecause of the extreme comphcation of its ritual. there grew body of explanation four Vedas a up and interpretation(interspersedwith myths and legends). The BOURIGNIANISM. Social background. set to elaborate music. " " " . " he He forms In one of the Hindu triad with Vishnu and literature he has an early Buddhist the important place as the supreme figureamong gods. The texts.)and transmigration(q.it meant in the sacrifice. added to the " BRAHMANASPATI The (BRIAHASPATI) Lord of prayer. Jacques DICTIONARY RELIGION OF BOSSUET. To master complicated science an education became necessary.as at the cross-roads. but he to make too pedantic was a popular appeal.from Hinduism fervent devotion to a personal god." In all parts of the world early careful to mark the limits of their lands. a French visionary and mystic (1616-1680).v. Culture was centralized in the valleysof the Ganges and now Jumna.rambUng texts in prose called Brahradical certain In speculativecircles manas. (ReligiousStudent) thought. and with them a pessimistic attitude toward life and a negative ethical ideal. As the spoken language changed. 1. and the pope. or remain permanently in the second. Religions Philosophies and of. the latter to the period when fers difpopular elements preponderated. The development of greater political solidation unity was accompanied by a conof the priesthood and its exaltation to a Caste (qv. renounces subsisting a wandering as solitarymendicant This is the ideal picture from entirelyon alms.g.A BosBuet. a type of quietism in which spiritualecstasy rather than cult or dogma is made paramount. established as trees. soon 2. Interpretation became This. who one meaning of possesses the force. His dominant was purpose to reunite Catholicism and Protestantism. wrong this might vitiate a whole sacrifice. Hermes and Terminus have as their chief function the protecting of the boundaries In and roads. As differentiated from Brahman is the personal creator god. BOUNDARY. Unknown dangers lurked at the boundaries Jack o' Lanterns. the places an annual ritual of re-establishing many markings was performed. mostly from the The Sama-Veda The YajurRig-Veda. perhaps largely but stillof great influence on all later theoretical. The theory applied only to the three higher castes. diyine. to a hermitagein the forest.v. When the ritual (in) the power developed. of magic charms. texts All the Vedic except the 3. Prajapati. (2) He returned home. doctrines of karma (q. See India. restless souls. he went. (i) The spoken hymn.abstemious life. stones. A man the Brahman might pass point of view. but Brahmanism lingered on long after that. Hiranyagarbha. and became Grhastha a (Householder). Minute One accent paid to accent and grammar. " commentaries The prose sacred Vedic texts of India. BRAHMA. (4) He any fixed abode and lived as a Sannyasi (one who completely Bhiksu the world) or (Beggar). the sacrifice retired the hymn in the cult. giving detailed explanation of the sacrifices. his hair turned grey. The period may be dated roughly between 1000 and 200 B. renowned as a pulpitorator and controversialist. and the beginnings of Hinduism confuse the outlines. consists of hymns. mostly in Veda is made up. power " . Historical settingand date. e. handed attention was down was orally.v.where peoples were " " boundaries met. he holds his position in the epics but in the later religiousdevelopment recedes before the But see growing popularityof Vishnu and Shiva. for the most The Atharva-Veda prose. the hymns of the RigVeda became archaic and obscure. Then Then as (u) the power in that prayer or formula. The Punjab was no longer the center of civilization. magical power When gods arise such figures as Min.C. either the heavenly priestof the gods the personification and deification of the magical or of the brahmanical priesthood." When to power and when in the masculine to the or force.. JACQUES BENIGNE French R. Piva.) and the development of Hinduism (q. twelve years for each Veda) in the house of a teacher.) and the positionof social supremacy. also Brahman.C. hymns of the Rig-Veda belong to Brahmanism. See Atman.. or prayer or magic formula.).doubtless. "to speak. and he (3) When had a grown who might succeed him as head of son the family. BRAHMAN.long. and because of its emphasis on knowledge and ritualistic works as the chief means of salvation.Hving a and memorizing the sacred chaste. he tried to support the papacy while opposing the " Jesuits. alone or with his wife. The the word has developed historically. a recasting of received doctrines and elaboration of an minutae men parallelto that of the period of the schoolin Europe. from the first to the third or fourth stage. Around the texts of all part. togetherwith the hymns.v. Brahmanism and Hinduism terms The are often appliedindiscriminately to the whole religious development of India after the Rig-Vedic period. They are exegetical and speculative. necessary. or waste places were artificial marks. There ensued a period of formalism and polemic.which relegatedthe gods to a subordinate end in position and became an because of its lack of a itself.and left him freer for meditation the meaning of the ritual and of reUon abandoned then gion in general. In the quarrelbetween Louis XIV." doctrinal system of Mme. Antoinette Bourignon. Such boundaries were sacredly preserved and the boundary mark carried its own the transto inflict penalty upon gressor." The religionelaborated by the Brahman the period of priesthood between Vedic Religion (q. the sacrifice was regarded as the most came potent force in the world hence "brahman" to mean (iv)the cosmic force. with a short term of studentship. contented. married. texts.

of all later Hindu thought. as in the Rig-Veda. Sutras. The of its vital energies. The of the priests. but they have powers greater than those of men. There Veda The Sutras of any one with each its Veda." "Verily there are two kinds of gods.only vague. but Uttle attention pays ground. and ate this passed over into an intuitive. Asceticism was of it developed independently and origin. the sum of the the essential doctrines Upanishads are following:(1) The individual soul is identical with soul.and a large expenditure. the force verse. (2) The Grihya Sutras deal with Soma the simplerhousehold ceremonies. Toward the reaching up to the time of burial: birth. etc. The were so wieldy of felt for short summaries that need was the ritual. a monism which the external world fades away to nothingness. The benefit of the sacrifice accrued only for ceremonies directions or fire). was tially essenpriestlyand aristocratic." The reHgiousgoal slaughteredin the sacrifice. the rites of which himself (with one There was state rehgion. Much then amalgamated with priestly theory. Salvation is not. as Brahman northern culture spread over India. differed littlein their fundamental texts. and midday tendency developed chieflyout of ritualconsiderations. and guests. initiation.but in the and later texts the divergenciesbecame Brahmanas four classes of priests. The significant the thing is the difference in attitude toward gods. not the hymns were used in the the order in which ritual. ritual and the power as controlling in the forces engendered by the are sacrifice. however. considered the greatest power in Brahman (the hymn and was employed to denote the immanent cosmic cosmological energy. The fires. giveonly the duties of one class of priests. much and of Vishnu Qiva (Rudra). the Brahmans studied and teach sacred lore. personal manifestation what The Upanishads tried to define more closely There this Brahman was. must themselves perform sacrifices in order to gain would rise if the "The not their desires. and giftsto the priests that to the human who have gods. the force within the soul. but only as a preparation. Each of the germs the four Vedas has its own Brahmanas. were very great.give elaborate and of pregnancy to the man (and his family)who had it performed. There was more cosmological speculation. many the same that of the as pantheon remained much The chief difference is in the supreme Rig-Veda. material joys. the world (2) The individual existence of the soul is for it a state of suffering.and the salvation of the soul are in the foreis no for beUeving There good reason formulated that the doctrine of illusion was definitely it in the Upanishads. 6. (2) The Atman an relation to Brahman that the spark bears to same fire. the body. was texts of almost algebraicbrevity. divergence of of rituahstic details gave practicein the matter The schools rise to different schools for each Veda.revealed texts. becomes bears the illusion. Further. is. Philosophical Brahmanism. laid on knowledge. (3) The individual and a pessimistic soul may be freed from its misery by union with the the world soul.about cattle and ploughing. sun priest did not sacrifice. but a knowledge of the irmer. merging of the individuality theistic panwhere Brahman individuahty is lost. The sacrifice of these is divided into two kinds : oblations constitute the sacrifice to the gods. Further.the word magical potency) this period From sacrifice became a cosmic power. . Some emphasis is laid on reUgiousworks. duties to Brahmans from matters with the cult. admits of two interpretations: The first statement in (1) A complete identityof the two. Upanishads. the dutiful performance of ceremonial The works. It centered around ritual of extreme complexity demanding three a priests. in their interpretationthey followed the order of the hymns in each Veda. The gods are Hke figuresin a puppet show managed by the priests. Brahmanism. The of word power ETHICS AND RELIGION Brahmanism. This 4. male Since the sacno of extreme importance. is true of asceticism. mystical.indeed. no one system of philosophy. tendency culminated and divorced from the which became philosophical Brahmanas diffuse and unritual. and the growing importance positionof Prajapati. This union is realized when conscious of its identitywith individual soul becomes Brahman. beginning in the third month 5.about istic the first fruits. Aranyakas. A mysterious power emanated worship. set in motion by it is the greatest in the uniit depends the welfare of the universe. Ritualistic Brahmanism. Crauta Sutras deal with the elaborate. Of the authors for of certain Sutras it is said that they cared more the saving of a singleshort vowel than for the birth These texts fallinto three classes: (1)The of a son. Brahman. izing This rationalthe Aranyakas (ForestBooks) come in the Upanishads. in Prajapati became a power of the neuter Brahman. esoteric meaning of the sacred. or a controlled of observation intellectual knowledge based on the material world. this are the theories of karma view of life. This summary given in the Sutras. the gods are the gods. studied and teach and the Brahmans who have sacred lore are the human gods.tonsure. at the to find some the gods. tain to one They are largelysocial and conof the later law-books^. on and act (hymn and ritual). and sort of unity behind for the departedancestors. on The gods the gods are obhgatory intermediators. This philosophicalbuildingof houses.sacrigiving. for. there were no no temples performed by the householder idols.immediThis trait is characteristic knowledge of Brahman. Popular Grihya and was The ritual itself was Dharma were chiefly entirelya personal matter. The whole sacrifice becomes a magical operation.namefices end of the Rig-Vedic periodan effort had been made marriage. inconsistent gropings based on associative thinking rather than on thinkingrigorouslycontrolled by the objectsof the that The final_ external world. espeeverything connected Marriage and the begettingof a son were cially from the hymn or prayer. and Sutras. Whenever and asceticism mysticism begin.aristocratic sacrifices. vague the to it. But if not formulated hovered the union the edge of consciousness as on and more with Brahman became more a mystical For mok"a (release)chief emphasis is process. burial. katharsis.not the accurate knowledge of the ritual or of the sacred texts. answer given was is the same Brahman as Atman. evening. If there were . (3)The Dharma to the gods and Sutras deal with the duties of men another.morning. the foreground. but the a personallife of enhanced into the unified. Coupled with and transmigration. ceremonies behind the many forces of nature. the theory of transmigration From and from the animistic conception of the unity of all life developed the idea of ahihsa (thesanctityof all life)which largelymodified the old ritual by symbolic substitution of other thingsfor the animals came to be rifice an the its the universe. The gods fall into the background. " " " . the universe. conservative creed and dogma and social barriers begin to break down.57 A DICTIONARY OF from the ritual itself to thought tended away allegoricaland symbolical interpretationof the to speculation the inner meaning of the ritual. soul. The a predominant note is the second: pantheism which does not deny the world. The same as a worked into the theory of the which was over not all of priestly fourth A^rama.

g. See Brethren. (1) An act." BRETHREN." See Plymouth Brethren. See River In the book which churches. STRIKING THE." BREAD. tem founded in India in 1830. patron saints of Ireland. See Inspiration. RIVER. marks already what is so characteristic of Hinduism. The third leader was Keshub Chandra Sen. including classical See Marriage." BRETHREN. Since emphasis on Keshub's death in 1884 the Samaj has lacked in leadershipand vitaUty. but were elaborated by priestly ingenuity to a degree of complexity found nowhere else in the world. Word. Brethren.a part of in hohness of the Hindu the discipline seeker consisting in regulated breathing. the Hindus. United ren. B. E. or of winds as being the vehicles of gods and spirits. See Bohemian Brethren. symbolic of penitence. presenting.such as the wellthought to requirethe sacrifice of human known Roman custom of the inhaling of the the river powers to give securityto the structure.because of the personnelof its membership. of the liturgy. The details of the ceremonies invented not were by the Brahmans and imposed upon the people for their own dizement aggranthan were the Qaruta ceremonies. Undoubtedly the idea of the sanctity of breathingis associated also with the idea of speech. a figuratively where the breath of the Lord is spoken of as creative.receivingor extortingan advantage giftby a person in the dischargeof pubhc duty BRIBERY. a across anima." BREAST. hark back to "breath" "wind" their original river was or as a dangerous work for early peoples and life to was meaning. Alexander BRETHREN. Breth- Greek and Roman contains the daily services and prayers for the canonical hours. built direction of This is of under the as the t rue regarded were particularly religiousofficials American times evident in and breath which is the whom in Roman the Indians. The system is rationalistic and stresses the ethical and social sides of religion.and died after four years of heroic service from tuberculosis. BRIDEGROOM. smoker with the life-breath of nature. The breath as an certain type of behavior.Brahma A Samaj DICTIONARY OF RELIGION descendants for the dead. 2:7. Hence the necessityfor earlymarriage. or " BREATH. who attempted to establish universal theism with stillmore a more pronounced Christian the elements. that the ritualisticsignificance has received most conscious attention. by a kinsman Aeneid iv. See Marriage." See MORAVIAN.for a girlto at puberty was be unmarried considered lent equivato the destruction of a Ufe. The priests. Popular Brahmanism. The founder was influenced by a comRam Mohan parative Roy. (1718-1747). multitude of illustrations to be drawn from the lore of BRIDE. and like idea is suggested in Ps. while frequently SAINT. A river. BOHEMIAN. where it is spoken of as destructive. the COMMON THE Common Life.(2) (1302-1373)." See Moravian PLYMOUTH. second The great leader Debendra the society Nath Tagore under whom was based tended toward Indian theism a distinctly on Ramanuja's philosophy." See Holy Meals. however. 33:6. UNITED. Bridges sacred. the instrument of prayer and supplicationand of while some sacred songs. who was study of religionsto organize a society which should conserve the best in Hindu thought. Gen. notion of supernatural breath is associated with the propheticinbreathing of vapors (asof the Pythia at Delphi) and with the notion of prophesying to the winds (Ezek. BRETHREN See Brothers OF of BRETHREN Adamites." breathing upon the sick is thought to be BRIDGET. pneuma). among e. a cele" " " . Its of the higher daily use is binding on all members communities. noteworthy breath. and the idea of a bridge-passage religions others) point to a literal gave to many identification of the soul with the departing lifeThis is especially into the other world. nephesh." Missipnary of the Scottish Society for the Propagation of Christian Knowledge of the Indians of New York. (2) A symbol of mourning certain rehgious groups.Greek psyche. the act of pledging. and be loyal to India and adopt the monotheism ethics of Christianity." SPIRIT.a liturgical In criminal law. which is itself viewed the periodical as inbreathing and outbreathing of the spirit of among Brahm. Further. spiritus. more any All were based on widespread popular beliefs and customs. It has exercised an influence altogether out of proportionto its numerical strength. last breath of a dying person (Vergil. 684. W. Latin The building of a passage BRIDGE. BRETHREN. There are philosophy of atmosphere and traces some in ancient Greek similar conception of a worldat least a breathing universe. especiallythe of breathing Hindus. OF THE FREE LIFE.one of the It is. (1) (452-523).of course. BRETHREN.C. DAVID BRAINERD. a H. " ETHICS AND 58 the peoples of the East. Spirit. He endured much hardship. the conservative of amalgamation between process priestlytheory and popular beUefs and customs. and Job 4 : 9.performed in certain parts R. orders of clergyand of certain religious BREVIARY. Because to induce a image of life is natural and universal." Many and Hebrew examples (Hebrew ruah.. typifieslivingby the breathing which is its condiwords for soul. is only one of a of its anti-social character it is morally condemned.among as early from the sacred pipe is Christian title of Pontifex mingles with the smoke applied to the chief viewed as a commingling of the life-breath of the priest. however. Unfortunately it has been hampered by divisions into sects. did of utilize the tacit popular acknowledgment social their own priestly sanctity to estabUsh primacy.as a boundary to be crossed by a bridge." Dunkards (Progressive). In ritual the breath is often symbolized and in the eschatology of Persia and Islam. New Jersey and Pennsylvania." See BRETHREN.Wind. efficacious in restoring health. while certain rites. the to perform ceremonies souls of the ancestors were jeopardized. LITURGICAL USE OF. inevitably man many peoples showing how tion. Soul. Clark BRAHMA An eclectic theistic sysSAMAJ.thought to be symbolic of the processes which sustain the life of the world. 36:9).

Stanley." BRIDGEWATER A series of when he became a Unitarian. founder of the OF RELIGION Brigittines AND ETHICS Bruno. of self-evident external authority. a spirit again. growing out active first as a school Enghsh Separatists. Maurice. to creeds. and speech.Henson. sought to estabUsh morahty in unquestionable of all is that it independent fashion by proving ROBERT (1550-1633). and Bentham.. Monastilogical American theologian. groups. The temperament imaginedto enter the are Shaftsbury..London. the ^A culture BRIGIT. A party within the AngliCHURCH. of all women. (1). He rejectedAristotelianism.and was with the General Assembly for heresy cited before equal authority for all members.C. and founded exercises are common means. The mediaeval guilds works. Such communities have because of views concerning the Bible growing out frequentlypreferred the Brothers Brethren (q.professorin Union Theocism (q.) to the name name or of his advocacy of Higher Criticism." order. e.). he was him. Whateley.)is one of the most wide spreadforms of Seminary.parconsecration common by some taking of a common ceremonial meal.ranging from mutual benefit associations BRIGGS. Unselfish social relations are normally developed in family hfe and these are widely used as analogies written statement BRIEF. emphasize the evident utilityor happinesschief names of benevolent producing effect of morahty. century it had ceased to exist. CHARLES to organizationsfor serving social need. of Arnold. among grounded considerations. Erastian grounds.. who sought to find an independent It was an Radewyn. and in 1591 returning disbroad to embrace to the age. subsequently developed into (Brownism) which Others laid stress on an innate feeUng of sympathy. be organized for various religious and may AUGUSTUS (1841-1914). in their foundation for morahty.and later as a clergyman of the established in in the ultimate nature of things. of Copernicus. Kingsley. Adam of great value in stimulatinga scientific were Smith Birney Gerald See Congregationalism." OF The MORALISTS. suited it flexible. farm houses and do the work while the inhabitants cussionsare asleep. BROAD church " . introduction to the secrets and duties of the brotherhood about 1350 by St. and some were modern trades unions take the title. and sufficiently imprisoned of thought to Venice where the agents of the Inquisition It insists on absolute freedom burned After a long confinement. Morahty was sometimes teacher. by disciplinary which spread over Europe. (2) Ecmembers have of the Pope. of ethics was foundation the theological being of the community. the priesthood pledgethemselves to promote certain mutual interests. By the Kempis was a member Rationalism.v.)and CongregationaUsm (q.fertility. religious Briggs was a Presbyterian. 1891have been which and symboUcs. relationship of close so named in 1833-1836 mutual will a proregard and service arising from either of Bridgewater (died 1829). ness eight treatises "On the power. " " " ItaHan GIORDANO. See discredited. or originalimpulse to benevolence. wisdom. have repudiated encyclopaedia many groups 1904. He protestedagainstepiscopalauthority. e. found in connection with initiation into a brotherfire. and theological sacerdotahsm and have estabUshed munities com1904-1914. by whose vision made for the writing and pubof 8." BRITISH name given founded men by Gerard community of devout of philosophersin England during the to a number Groot his disciple Florentius (1340-1384) and 18th. of Hebrew.v. " TREATISES.a 1916). metal-work deity of learning. but on the Established Church on of Germany.and sometimes church." In Scottish mythology. an BROWNIE. There are nine existing Sisterhoods represent similar relationships among Holland Bavaria in (1). Cudworth.and practised communism. Butler. BRUNO. hoods BrotherBriefs. BROWNISM. moral ends. of his views was account persecuted at 15. 1548-1600. He was noted as a Uterary critic. of the or same. They middle of the 17th. Mandeville. 1857-1880. Their disSmith. Independency (q. Hutcheson of intuition men. and accepted the heliocentric hypothesis He said the unity in the varyingphenomena Farrar. (2)." A leader BROWNE. and goodin Creation" pubhshed of God. and opposes compulsory subscription It has had the distinguished leadership at the stake in 1600. as. goddess of the Irish Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers. the Sisters of Charity." A from the 8th earl in 12 vols. can order He entered the Dominican that. a condensed by which to describe and organize various social of the argument and the authorities to which A brotherhood is a group in which all the clesiastical. and a mystic R. the patron in various places appears as Celts who is A wide variety of ritualistic ceremonies medicine. he was fraternities with more less elaborate initiation or from the Presbyterianministry. Drinking or sucking one Saint Brigit.Hutcheson.g. century. modern In life there in 1893 suspended numerous are with heresy in 1892. Under Christianityshe and of the domestic another's blood. See Bulls and a bull. attempt to revive piety. England communities. defends and fled from Rome in 1576. less formal than equal standing and share equally a rescript in the rights and duties of the group.A 59 DICTIONARY brated saint of Sweden. Bridget of Sweden. hood. and composed Spain (5). Paris. as manifested BROTHERHOOD.g. the author of many He was theological often regarded as brotherhoods. Enghsh minister and man clergyman of the Anghcan church. Charged Church." study of ethics. 1874-1891.v. immediate the and formulated that theory of church government elaborated the doctrine of a distinct moral sense. New York. In 1899 he entered ceremonies where men of the Protestant Episcopal church. Deism. The members of the community continued lived in a period when British morahsts The Thomas a vocations.000 was lishingnatural kinshipor membership in a common society order. monastic A BRIGITTINES. Wittenberg. became blood ritual. (1) Legal. women. Bibhcal theology. and others.v. going to Geneva. Others. appeal is made in a case brought to trial.influenced by the historical spirit ca. seeks to make senters. Gerald Smith Birney A BROTHERS THE COMMON LIFE. Giordano STOPFORD AUGUSTUS BROOKE. Prague. (1832of letters." philosopher. occupying the chairs In Christian history there religiousbrotherhood.

the rehgious ideal is called teachings are best representedby the It is a mysticalexperiencewhich canNirvana.which can EnUghtened.O monks. did not know a personal God. each preached and the impermathe most obvious thing about Mfe was of many.and the world. Buddha emphasized the inevitability BUCER (orBUTZER). in the present hfe. of the Middle Path which avoids the two extremes means of habitual devotion to the pleasures of sensual hterallythe going out of the fireof anger. BUDDHA.C. all reUgions. brought to a man he of mind whatever and contentment gods are merely higher and more powerful than Be reborn as a might believe about God. Right Aspiradisease of individual existence. as tradition he was the son of the chief of the Qakya resolutelyrefused to answer questions Buddha not tending to edification. If there were not.unprofitable." This permanent something "The by Siddhattha Gotama (latercalled Buddha deal cannot be reached by speculation. He was given a chair in divinity at Cambridge. who is not creator nor but soul of the world. he felt. Within of cause the cognizable world and effect is supreme. Buddha.nothing is permanent.the taste of salt. what the creed and theology. but hism found no comfort.their constant flux and flow. Early Buddwhich through which discarded allsuch speculations. after death) Himalayas. BuddPrimitive op ^ The 4. Burma. 3. The essentials permanent something. There must be. 1. like Socrates. (whether the world is eternal or not."the attachment his doctrine as a medicine. produced. China." writer of the A Buddhist repudiatesboth the materialattitude involvingan eternityfor an individual fifth century a. the who could cure unattached and passionless. the of Buddha's summum bonum.A Bryanites of DICTIONARY OF RELIGION the universe is God. " .Right Effort. (4) The Noble Eightfold upon himself as a physician If a man herent adPath consistingof Right Views. gives a concise statement of the significance "There is.suited his disexistence is misery. in them is to be found only that which is conditioned. results rebirth in a never enaing circle. Essential Doctrines hism. are impermanent.pre-cQspositions. Methodism. and the nihilistic attitude which sees only Magga ("Path of Purity") in which he of the complete annihilation. would be no refugefor that which is born. This philosophy threatened Catholic to undermine doctrine. a Creator and certain ethical principles Buddha did not deny the gods. Right Conduct. northeast of Benares. Constantlyrecurringin Tibet.was an to those with whom adept is tanha to objects'of "thirst. of desire.both conceptionsare heresy. The Founder. practiced the severest asceticism. In this sermon oppositepointof view. not having to do with as clan.whether 560 B. but at last even and metaphysical and human." See Gautama. Siam." and wandered salvation. The Four Noble Truths. fullof earnest.may men. the law of cause everything is Buddha's subjectto change. anything permanent it must not subjectto change and to the operation of cause istic and effect. and with showing the plausibihtyof the the objections. nine abandoned home-life (leaving his wife and the great ocean has one taste only. In the sermons references to the indeterminates India it failed to maintain and merged into are itself. " " " . a non-becoming. of one point of view about the world and the Right Speech. born ^Buddha was man the body or different from it. becomes. not theological be reborn." Does this denote an absolute and categoricaldenial of soul (any being in itself)or does Buddha any merely argue against the current animistic ideas of soul? The denial seems to denote only the denial of a permanent soul anywhere in the five aggregates. and therefore perishable. Nirvana. Right Mode of out himself with pointing contented soul Buddha Livelihood. was of objects. Hinduism. India. but one Buddha gathered disciples. Cambodia. and Japan. prime mover AND ETHICS 60 and effect. whether the soul is the same 1. work is the whose best known Visuddhi soul.is caused. deeply religioussouls seeking just so this doctrine and this (uscipUne have one was To Buddha taste only. where he died ten years later. and the soul. India at the time child)and became a Wanderer. Of the other contemporary sects only Jainism has By nence endured. at dialectic. as a result of the forces set in motion Brahman in teachers and others with whom he came by good and bad acts. Mongolia. If there is be outside of them. be attained even which "low and vulgar. whether the about world is infinite or not. to sign the ti-uce between tants the Catholics and Protesto flee to at Augsburg. From this came the doctrine of anatta "no-soul.ignoble. Right Contemplation. him analysisof the individual showed only five skandhas.senseBRYANITES. allof which are subject to change. feelings. thence to Ceylon. point of view. BUDDHISM." German reformer and theologian.no matter II.Right Mindfulness. the soul.of becoming sense. The indeterminates. and therefore incurred the church's displeasure. See " Christians. Bible and consciousness) perceptions. It is a state of passionlessness both of which are things and to self-mortification." the truth flashed into his was philosophy but a religion emotional filled with mind. of greed. cussion.it is to be attained only by the saint in all of monks in Magadha it graduallyspread over his state of mystic insight. First comes a statement word The be defined or described. but the lessness passionRuler.a contemporary and In 1548 he decUned supporter of Luther. Buddha BUDDHAGHOSA. Early Buddescape.d. something more austere not an tree of enUghtenment. (2) The cause of this misery he talked. of wrath. Corea. " " . God. a by good deeds. a non-born. and fit only may of became of the saint after death was one for the worldly minded ' ' tion What Then follows the enunciaBuddha refused which about of the Four Noble Truths: (1) All individual the indeterminates course to speculate. MARTIN (1491-1551). "the permanent. whereupon he had England. For forty-five about the mysticism. man.but at the age of twenty"Just as the fundamentals of the religioushfe.some contact." The rehgion of a sect founded is created.the taste of dehverance. was reared in luxury. Then under the Bo-tree. 2.a non-caused. there non-created. "aggregates" (matter. an was tions. and must The teaching is a pragmaticethics. For six years he sought help from cUnging to them. the futihtyof any such disto his own he came hism Then there is no mention of God or of Soul. at Kapilavastu. According to way. the world. the personal years he wandered in the same expressionof which is psychologically country on his ministry.preaching salvation. not first sermon at Benares. He looked upon (3) The possibiUtyof release. a Buddhism of his period. in them is nothing changeless and eternal.intenselypracthe gods pass away tical god.") only with the five aggregatesof the world of cause Beginning as the reUgion of a small group of and effect. in a as Such exists in any the foothills of the or not.

A

61

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

its general appeal and
Hence
like Brahmanism.
Brahmanism
ism
outside of India.
and Hindusuccess
with the Indian
too
were
closelybound
up
much
social structure
outside of
to have
success
India.
found
5. Ethics and mental discipline.Buddha
certain ethical principleswhich to his mind, and,
as
history has shown, to millions of other minds,
would work, would lead to the cessation of hatred
and desire,craving and discontent. For the practice
of these principlesmental
control was
sary.
necesBuddha, however, distrusted deeply the
mobilityof the mind, and doubted the possibility
of entirely
detachingoneself so long as one remained
in contact with worldly
things. He insisted on life
monk
essential to salvation.
The
as
a
an
as
thoughts are wayward and hard to control. On
the least slackening of attention they jump from
one
object to another as monkeys leapfrom branch
to branch.
monkhood.
Buddhist
monkhood
6. The
was
discarded.
not based on asceticism,which Buddha
It gave
and
congenialseclusion for meditation
in India
mystic contemplation. There were
many
who abandoned
homelife,became Wanderers, and
of ascetics,
formed groups
but the Buddhists
order
was
closelyorganized,with elaborate rules and a
and therefore maintained
bi-monthly confessional,
itselfand grew at the expense
of the looser ascetic
"

"

groups.
III. Mahayana
Philosophical
tions.
Speculaand
Later Buddhist
thought, in characteristic
Indian
rational basis of
a
fashion, demanded
belief. Within
three centuries after Buddha's
two
or
in the order which gave rise
death came
a split
yana,
to the two
great schools of Hinayana and Mahathe Little and the Great Vehicles.
On the one
hand a body of conservatives clung to the thought
that Buddha
who had lived and struggled
was
a man
and preached and entered permanently into Nirvana;
that he lived on only in his teachings. The
Radicals extended his lifeinto the past and future,
worked
out a theory of pre-existences
and mythological
existences,and found at last in the continuity
going through these lives a unity identical
with the law or order of the whole cosmos.
The
Transcendentalists
carrying this thought farther,
analyzing every
concept by a dialectic process,
showing the contradiction involved in any finite
concept (any concept involving a limitation which
has an
developing ideas of absolute
antithesis),
Being as distinguishedfrom relative Being, could
in the
find no placefor this universal Buddhahood
and placed it in the reahn of absolute
visible cosmos
literally
emptiness,
Being,in ^unyata. This means
but does not, as has often been
stated, mean
vacuity and complete annihilation. Qunyata is
neither Being nor
from
Non-being, as understood
the point of view of common-sense
realism, but
transcends
both.
From
the point of view of this
synthesisthe phenomenal world has no meaning.
in Ceylon,
In Hinayana
now
Buddhism, found
Burma, and Siam, which keeps close to the old
naive realism of primitiveBuddhism, the ideal was
"saint" who
attained Nirvana himself
the Arhat
and entered into it permanently to come
no
more
into the world.
To the Mahayana
this is a selfish
ideal. The
their ideal. He
Bodhisattva became
attains sainthood, but instead of entering into
Nirvana
continues
to transmigrate in order
to
imitate the lifeof the Buddha, to become
a Buddha
in some
future life,
all men.
The conto help save
cept
of karma
was
enlarged. Good karma, instead
of helpingonly the one
it was
by whom
acquired,
could be transferred to others and help them.
The
was
as
a
opened for the conception of Buddha
way
God manifestinghimself to men
to
by incarnations,
"

saints in

AND

ETHICS

Bulls and

Briefs

mythologicalheavenly existences,for

conceptionof Nirvana

as

a

the

heaven, for the invention

of hells.
IV. Tantric
Buddhism.
By the 7th. century
had
approximated to Tantric
A.p. Buddhism
Hinduism.
Magic played a largepart. Animistic
soul concepts crept in. Asceticism and the acquisition
of miraculous
(coupled with mystical,
powers
magicalformulae and diagrams) were important for
the attainment
of Nirvana.
Female
deities,as
counterpartsof the male deity,and sexual elements
became
prominent.
V. Decline
Buddhism
of
in India.
Buddhism
has been extinct in India since about
1200 a.d.
For the cause
to look not so much
to external
we
are
Buddhism
persecution as to internal conditions.
needed
who
would
earnest, zealous monks
preach
morahty to the laymen, and by personal example
the
The monks
keep
precepts before their minds.
became
lax in their moralityor plunged into metaphysical
scholastic
speculation and
wrangling,
thereby losingtheir hold on the people.
VI. The Texts.
hism
In the 3rd. century b.c. Buddwas
adopted as the state religionby AQoka,
the Constantine of Buddhism, and a canon
formed
at a council held under
taken to
his auspices was
Ceylon in a language not far removed from the
original Magadhi. This
canon
(with perhaps
later additions) has been
preserved intact. In
India the language of the texts changed as the
spoken language changed, and when Sanskrit was
freelyused as the common
literarylanguage, the
texts were
In the 1st. century
put into Sanskrit.
A.D. , at a council held by the greatScythian emperor
As
formed
in Sanskrit.
was
Kanishka, a canon
Buddhism
and
vanished
from
India this canon
the later texts based on it were
have
lost. Some
been preserved in Nepal; most are stillpreservedin
Tibetan and Chinese translations.
It is doubtful whether the Pali canon
as a whole
before
represents the unified tradition of Buddhism
the splitinto sects.
Already in it scholastic and
See India,
mythological tendencies are evident.
Religions
ligions
of, for statistics. See also China, Religions
of; Japan, Religions
of; Thibet, Reof:
of.
Korea, Religions
W. E. Clark
"

"

"

BUGENHAGEN,

JOHANN

(1485-1558)."

German
Luther

Protestant
reformer, a close friend of
and
Melanchthon.
the
Wittenberg was
of his activity. He
is remembered
for his
scene
skill as an organizer,
and for his assistance to Luther
in translating
the Bible.

BULLINGER, HEINRICH
(1504-1575)." Swiss
Reformer, a friend of Zwingli and Calvin, and
after the death of Zwingli his successor
at Zurich.
He was
of the framers of the First and Second
one
Helvetic Confessions (q.v.)
which reflecthis views on
the Lord's Supper and predestination.
BULL-ROARER."
A flat pieceof wood
which,
when
rapidly on a string,makes a roaring
swung
sound
like thunder.
in many
It is found in use
parts of the world in the initiation ceremonies of
primitivepeoples. Its nature is kept secret from
the uninitiated to whom
it represents the dread
of its
of the unknown
spiritforces. Evidence
and
from
use
comes
Africa, Australia,America

Melanesia.
BULLS
AND
BRIEFS."
In the broadest sense
the
bull is any pontifical
act authorized under
seal of the pope,
pertaining to the authority or
of the Roman
Church, whether dealing
economy
tion,
with points of fact,or questionsof law, administraetc. The term is derived
doctrine,discipline,
a

Bulls

Briefs

and

A

DICTIONARY

OF

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

62

and an
Invocation,usually ending with the word
"Amen."
A Valedictoryconcluding the bull was
of early and
permanent
usage, generally in the
when, as under the early popes,
singular even
the plural
used in the first part of the
was
pronoun
bull. The form of valedictoryat first varied,but
since the pontificate
of Hadrian
valete"
I the word "Benehas been fixed. Originally
the word
was
written put, but was
gradually abridged until it
evolved
into the papal Monogram
in the time of
Leo IX.
The
do not sign the bulls. The
popes
Pagina, Scriptura,Decretum, Privilegium,Precepum,
is the signature. Dating. Under
sives
kinds of misAuctoritas.
The three most particular
papal monogram
under the early popes
Empire the popes used the consular
were
Synodical Letters, the later Roman
the
with
Exeats or letters of credential,and Decreta, i.e.,
fasti to designate the year,
calendar to
of the papacy
Kalends, Nones and Ides of the Roman
authoritative pronouncements
upon
denote
the month
and day. When
the consular
and
matters
of administration
discipline.These
elections ceased in the middle of the 6th. century
last constitute one
of the most
important sources
the popes dated accordingto the year of the reigning
of canon
law.
See Law, Canon.
I (772-95) every
From
the time of Hadrian
emperor at Constantinopleuntil the breach between
the Iconoclastic
what
its character, the Greek and Latin churches over
papal document, no matter
ing
called a bull. The Benedictine mediaevalists of
Controversy(q.v.),after which they dated accordwas
to the name
and year
of the Frank
kings.
the 17th. century divided all papal bulls into two
the first pope to date according to his
fication Hadrian I was
categories "great" and "little" bulls. The classiof the popes
own
not a scientific one, for it rested not
pontificate. Some
clung, until
was
well down
in the Middle Ages, to the chronological
of the document, but wholly
the substance
upon
its form.
The
former class comprisedthose
practiceinaugurated by Constantine of dating by
upon
documents
emanating from the papal chancellery the year of the indiction (q.v.). Gregory VII was
III
which
By the time of Clement
complied with every detail of chancellery partialto this usage.
became
composition touching title,salutation,invocation, (1187)dating by the years of the pontificate
signature,dating, etc., and the style fixed. In the 15th. century Nicholas V introduced
valedictory,
the year of the incarnation as an additional date.
or
distinguishedby an
composition of which was
Hadrian
I (772-95) initiated the system of doubleor
rhythmic cadence (cursus) which was
assonance
to indicate the date
of composition
read aloud,as all bulls of impordating, one
tance
very effective when
of a
(scriptum)of the bull, the other to indicate the
were
promulgated, through the mouth
date of publication. During the period of conflict
ance
inheritan
papal legate (q.v.). This practicewas
with the German
the popes
often
schools of rhetoric.
were
from the ancient Roman
emperors
and frequently counter-popes
"little" bulls lacked many
of these diploThe
matic refugeesfrom Rome
As a precautionary measwere
ure,
opposed to them.
insignia,often being emitted without all of
in order to prevent the bulls of counter-popes
them
except the papal title and papal signature,
confused
those
with
of
the
lawful
Bulls
are
pope,
technically entitled being
i.e.,monogram.
Calixtus
II
(1119-24) suppressed the date of
according to their opening words (as secular laws
gether
also in the Middle
were
Ages), as Ausculta Fili, scriptum and substituted designationof place towith date of publication.
Unam
Sanctam, etc.
of "great"bulls what
In the case
is known
as
The history of papal bulls forms an important
to concentric circles
chapter in mediaeval palaeography and diplomatic. the Rota is also added, i.e.,
drawn
Certain of the popes, notably Gregory I (590-604), with a cross
through their center, the inner
circle enclosingthe papal monogram,
and a motto
I (772-95),Nicholas
Hadrian
I (858-67), Leo IX
in the zone
from Scripture
between
the inner and
(1049-54), Eugenius III (1145-53), Eugenius IV
the outer circle. Beyond the papal seal and papal
(1431-47),made permanent changes or introduced
pensable
other witness is absolutely indisno
that the dates of their pontificates monogram,
so
new
practices,
of a buU.
But in the
to the authentication
have served to periodizethe history of the papal
of "great" bulls the seals of the papalchancellor
case
chancellery. The most important of these features
and cardinals,
at least those in Rome, were
The early popes sometimes
as follows: Name.
are
usually
attached.
The last "great" bull bearing the pleninamed
themselves before,sometimes
after the name
tude
lery,
of the diplomaticinsigniaof the papal chancelof the person addressed.
No fixed practiceobtained
that pertainingto the Council of Trent in
tillthe time of Nicholas I, with whom
the usage of
was
1564.
estabUshed.
first was
putting the pope's name
the time of Eugenius IV the tendency has
From
used
title except
earUest popes
Title. The
no
of the term
been
"bull" to
to restrict the use
phrase
episcopus,with or without the qualifying
doctrine
The
ecclesiae Romanae.
catholicae ecclesiae or
important papal pronouncements upon
and to appointments of cardinals and
and discipline,
word papa
(pope) is only occasional before Gregory
are
the Great, who also introduced
the title servus
vorum
serbishops. All other official acts of the pope
to
known
as
practically answer
Briefs, which
Dei, and the invariable titular formula of the
"httle"
bulls.
Benedictine
the
Use
designation of
of the 9th. century.
pope since the middle
As these are said to proceed ex motu
of the Salutation is rare
before the 7th. century.
propriosuch a
is not infrequentlycalled a Motus
document
Propri.
The
early popes sometimes
spoke of themselves
ments
in the singular,sometimes
in the plural; but the
Finallyit is hardly necessary to add that all doculatter usage was rare except in addressingpatriarchal
emanating from the papal chancellery are
Westfall
Thompson
James
written in Latin.
bishops, metropohtans and great lay princes like

from the metal seal or bulla (inthe papalchancellery
in
almost always of lead),affixed to the document
certification thereof.
Besides this insigniaa bull
also invariablyhas the titular formula of the pope,
servorum
semis
Dei, and the papal Benevalete
written in the form of a monogram.
ogy
terminolBefore the 6th. century no systematic
ments
used to classify
the various kinds of docuwas
which were
issued by the papal chancellery.
find many
We
terms, such as Lillerae,Epistola,

"

the Germanic
kings. The tendency of succeeding
for use
of the first person
centuries was
singular,
and from the time of Eugenius III no other usage is
found.
On the other hand, in addressingthe pope,
Holiness'
"Your
the use
of the pluralpronoun,
the nature
is the proper
form.
Depending upon
of the bull there may
be a
Perpetual Clause
(ad perpetvum rei m^moriam, or similar words),

gious
(1628-1688)."English reliJOHN
BUNYAN,
author, born near Bedford, and reared in an
served
in the
He
atmosphere of Puritanism.
in the civil war, 1645, his
Parliamentary army
figuresfor
miUtary experience yieldinghim many
His rehgious experience began
his hterary work.

with

a

periodof

storm

and

stress

which

overtaxed

A DICTIONARY

63

OP

RELIGION

When
he joined
came
his nervous
energy.
peace
the Baptist church, and
soon
began to preach.
thrown into Bedford
Five years later (1660) he was
he remained
12 years.
jail where
During his
imprisonment he wrote Grace
Abounding (pub.
1666). In 1671 he was
released,but was
again
incarcerated for a brief period in 1675.
During
the periods of imprisonment he wrote
his immortal
Pilgrim'sProgresswhich was pubUshed in 1678 and
reached its tenth edition in 1685.
In 1682 he published
the Holy War, and in 1684 the second part
of Pilgrim'sProgress. He is acknowledged as the
of Christian literature.
greatest allegorist
The act of the interment
of a dead
which is usuallyan occasion for a religious
rite. See Death
Funeral
Practices.
and

BURIAL.

body, an

"

act

AND

Lepers, the
China

Inland
Peace

ETHICS

Caird, Edward

Leipzig Missionary Association,the
Mission
(in
Association.

Bhamo),

and the Missionary
A. S. Woodbuene

BURNT
OFFERING."
A form of sacrificein
which the whole of the victim is consumed
the
on
altar. See Sacrifice.
B U S H I D O .""Military-knight-ways."The
code of moral
action of the feudal retainers or
of Japan from the 13th. to the close of the
samurai
19th. centuries.
The
soul of the
knight was
loyalty but he was
expected also to have the
qualitiesof courage,
fortitude,honor, rectitude,
benevolence.
Hia
training was
courtesy and
intended
to produce fightingvalor, physicaland
moral courage.
His ideal was
honor rather than
wealth
the sword.
or
learning. His symbol was
The
spiritof old Japan, of loyalty to land and
is embodied
in Bushido.
The
word
emperor,
itselfis of comparatively modern
coinage.

RELIGIONS
MISSIONS
OF
AND
Burma
ing
is a province of British India,includthe
old independent kingdom
of
Burma
and
former
British Burma.
The
total area
is
BUSHMEN
OR
about
An aborigiBASJESMANS."
nal
240,000 sq. miles which includes the Chin
African folk,formerly
of nomadic
hills and Shan states.
The population in 1911 was
habits, the
dwell in the less fertile parts of
of whom
remnant
12,115,217as against 10,490,624in 1901.
Toward
S. Africa.
the north they have
The Burmese
mingled
are of the Mongoloid type, and are
with
the Bantus.
Their
Since the coming of the British
religionis an inferior
gay and vivacious.
indications of totemism.
there has been quite an influx of Chinese,Telugus,
type of animism with some
and Tamils.
About
65 per cent of the population
HORACE
other vernacuBUSHNELL,
(1802-76)." American
speak Burmese, but there are many
lars
in use.
The
theologian,
pastor in Hartford,Conn. ,and influential
degree of literacyindicates the
writer on theological
subjects.
progress of education, the proportion being 22 per
His work was
to
cent as compared with 6 per cent in India proper.
prophetic of the change soon
Protestant
In religion,
about
85 per cent of the people are
theology,whereby
appear in American
the Calvinistic framework
and the rigidmethod
of
Buddhists,6 per cent animists,3 per cent Hindus,
proof-textargument were
abandoned, and religious
31 per cent Muslims, 2 per cent Christians,besides
convictions were
derived from a study of Christian
small numbers
of Sikhs, Jains,Zoroastrians,Jews
tian
and Confucians.
The Buddhism
of Burma
is Hlnaexperience. His most important works are Chrisideals of modern
Buddhism
Nurture, in which many
(seeBuddhism) and has done much
yana
education
to enlightenthe people as it has fostered education
religious
are
anticipated;God in Christ,
in which an experiential
and a comparatively high ethical standard.
trine
interpretationof the docof the Trinity is substituted for metaphysical
A largeproportion of the Christian population
of Burma
in which
is comprised of Baptists and
Roman
disputation;and The Vicarious Sacrifice,
the doctrine of penal substitution is rejected in
Catholics.
Catholics have had missionaries
The
Roman
favor of the conception of redemptivesufferingon
and their
in Burma
for several centuries,
work
French
and ItaUan
sions. God's part.
misis divided between
Protestant
missions were
begun in Burma
in 1807 by the English Baptists, but the first
(1692-1752)."Anghcan
BUTLER,
JOSEPH
of the American
mission
that
was
bishop and philosopher. Beginning as a Presbypermanent
terian,
he joined the Church
of England when
a
Baptistswho began work in Rangoon in 1813 under
the leadershipof Adoniram
Judson
youth, entered the ministryand eventuallybecame
(q.v.). Their
wrote
successful work has been among
the hiU tribes, bishop of Durham.
He
most
important works
Christian ethics,but is best known
because of
The mission
on
especiallythe Karens and the Lahu.
is progressing his great apologeticwork, The Analogy of Religion,
has a fine equipment and its work
Natural and Revealed,to the Course and Constituiion
ail classes. The Societyfor the Propagation
amcng
of the Gospel opened work
This was
of Deism
in 1859 and has conducted
(q.v.)
a refutation
of Nature.
and
the ground that the objectionsagainst revealed
the Burmese
on
a
strong work among
missions at work
be urged with equal cogency
the Karens.
Other
Protestant
against
religionmay
Methodist
are : the American
Episcopal (since1879), the whole constitution of nature and that design
the English Wesleyan Methodists
(since 1889), in the universe is argued by analogies between
the Y.M.C.A., the Y.W.C.A., the Mission
natural processes and admittedly rational acts.
to the

BURMA,

TO.

"

^

CABALA."

See Kabbala.

religiousmatters,

e.g.,

the

government

of

Con-

stantine.
CAEDMON."

The

earUest

Christian

poet

of

losopher
England, hved in the latter half of the 7th. century,
(1835-1908)."Scotch phiCAIRD, EDWARD
and wrote
bibUcal and
and theologian;brother of John Caird; in
theologicalnarratives in
in the vernacular.
A hymn, which
1866 became
vigorous verse
professorof moral philosophyin the
Bede translated into Latin, is extant in the Northwas
umbrian
universityof Glasgow, and from 1893-1906
In philosophy
Christian
and is the oldest known
of Balliol College,Oxford.
master
dialect,
of the
hymn in a Germanic
and theology he was
a neo-HegeUan, and one
language.
The Eooluinfluential thinkers of his day.
most
CAESAROPAPISM."
That form of government
tion of Theology in the Greek Philosophersembodies
in which the political
ruler has supreme
his conception of religious
development.
authorityin
.

A

Caird, John

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

64

crucified. (2) Any
(1820-1898)."Scotch theologian the place where Jesus was
1862 appointed professorof
sculptural
portrayalof the crucifixion.
divinityand in 1873 vice-chancellor and principal
pretation
interof Glasgow University. His theology is an
CALVIN, JOHN
(1509-1564)."Born at Noyon,
of HegeUanism.
of Christianityin terms
Picardy,trained for law, converted to Protestantism
about 1534 through unknown
published
influences,

CAIRD, JOHN

and

philosopher;in

CALIPH."

See Khalif.

an

annotated

edition

of Seneca's

De

Clementia

to

mitigate the

the 15th.
A
Hussite
sect
m
demanded
that laymen should be
permitted to partake of the wine m the eucharist.
See Utraquists; Bohemian
Brethren.
CALIXTINES."

century, which

OR

CALIXTUS,
three popes.
Calixtus
was

CALLISTUS

"

The

name

of

I. 217-222, condemned
SabeUius;
opposed in office by Hippolytus ; the catacombs
"

of St. Calixtus were
under his cemetery.
excavated
Calixtus II.
1119-1124, obtained a settlement
cordat
of the investiture controversy (q.v.)at the Conof Worms, 1122.
Calixtus ///." 1455-1458.
"

GEORGE
CALIXTUS,
theologian. In

Lutheran

(1586-1656)." German
troversy,
syncretisticcon-

the
effect

of
reconcihation
he strove
to
a
Western
Christendom
by eliminatingminor points
and Protestants,
of difference between
Cathohcs

reformers.
persecution of French
Associated with Farel,he estabUshed
in Geneva
a
theocratic church
order notable for its consistory
and
of
rigorous system
discipline.Becoming
unpopular in Geneva he temporarily (1538-1541)
established
himself
in Strasburg where
refugees
from
became
lands
acquainted with his
many
church service and system of theology. Returning
to Geneva
though countering vigorous opposition
he was
able to dominate
the city,making it famed
for its moral tone, educational
and economic
facilities,
hundreds
of preachers
prosperity. Here
trained for the Reformation
were
propaganda in
western
His most
Europe and notably in France.
important literaryproductions were
Catechism,
a
the
a
Commentary on Romans, and the Institutes,
last of which
embody the principlesknown
as
Calvinism, through which its author has rendered
his greatest service toward
See Calvinism.

militant Protestantism.
G. Mode
Peter

CALVINISM.
A name
given, more
narrowly,
A sense
of inner impulsion,
interpreted to the system of doctrine,or, more
broadly,to the
of action, entire attitude towards
Ufe, characteristic of those
as a divine direction to imdertake
a course
Christians known, in contrast
with the
Protestant
a lifework.
specifically,
1. Vocational.
Lutheran, as the Reformed, and one of whose most
tation
By an interestingmisinterpreillustrious teachers in the 16th. century was
John
of I Cor. 7:20 the idea arose
that each man
Calvin.
was
designatedby God to the Ufe work in which he
John
1. Calvin's achievement.
tion,
Calvin, of the
was
engaged, hence the English word call or vocasecond
as
generation of Reformers, standing on the
applied to one's occupation. The conception
is doubtless one
of great religious
significance, shoulders of Luther (whom he delightedto honor),
shared
with
Luther
and
all the Reformers
the
and is taking its placeas part of the modern rehgious
trine
fundamental
endeavor
artificial distinction
obliterate the
to
standpoint of the Augustinian docof the underlying
of grace.
Out
between
the sacred and the secular. That farmers
reUgious
consciousness
of which this doctrine is the expresand
and
are
sion,
carpenters, statesmen
merchants,^
he had
the genius to release a principleof
needed in the kingdom of God as well as ministers
and teachers,is a commonplace of modern
religious Ufe which reinstituted healthy granulation in the
diseased body of European: society and thus, as
thinking. The endeavors that are being made to
Mark
Pattison
The
Europe."
puts it, "saved
develop wise vocational guidance and instruction
vehicle by which this new
have deep religious
if the church
was
life-principle
spread
significance
may
Reformed
Churches.
the
takes its part in the making of a sound human
through Europe was
to be spoken of,accordingly,as "CalThey came
society.
vinistic" Churches
it was
of their own
not a name
2. Religious. There
two meanings of the
are
word
that have
become
somewhat
confused. It
choosing and the complex of their points of view,
take
has always been felt that a person who is to underphilosophical,
ethical,social,economic,
theological,
"Calvinism."
as
reUgious service should be divinelyappointed political,
The
creative
2. Calvinism
in its broad sense.
(Acts 13 : 7). But as the organizationof the church
of Calvinism
has left a permanent mark not
developed those alone could serve as ministers who
energy
had been "called" in regular order and by proper
only on the thought of mankind, but on the social
order of civilized peoples,the politicalorganization
authority. A minister is stillsaid to be called of
lifeof communities.
God
and also called by the church.
The practical of states, and the economic
of the conception is that each person
Taking its start in a readjustment of the religious
significance
its way first to a reformation of
relation it worked
should
with
of himself
seriouslytake account
reference to his opportunitiesfor service in the
tirety
morals,and thence to the reconstruction of the enof life. It has been, for instance,the source
world and should most
carefullyconsider those
liberties of the modern
and guardian of the poUtical
occupations which do not promise large financial
the
reward but do offer peculiaropportunitiesfor benefiting
world; and Max Weber has shown that even
the growth of modern
mankind.
capitalismwhich makes
By conference with friends and
industrialism
possiblehas its root in Calvinism.
by prayer, he should seek to put himself in an
that Protestantism
set
attitude to make
It was
his decision aright and to accept
only in Calvinism
the divine leading,
which
will come
a
complete world-system
to him
over
as
an
against Romanism
inner sense
of obhgation. What
istic
is thus characterhaving in it an organificpower capable of giving
to the entiretyof life. Accordingly
of the decision of Ufe work may
form and energy
also be true
that "of all the developremarks
in the decision to undertake all types of religious P. Hume
Brown
ments
of
Calvinism
and the Church
of Christianity,
service.
Theodore
G. Scares
alone bear the stamp of an absolute reUgion."
Rome
the
From
CALLISTUS."
3. Doctrinal
See Calixtus.
system of Calvinism.
point of view of its doctrinal system, Calvinisni may
either as theism come
to its rights,
CALVARY."
be looked upon
(1) The Anglicized form of the
be
and should
Latin calvaria,
equivalent to the Hebrew
golgotha; in which case it is a world-view
"

CALL.

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

A

65

OF

DICTIONARY

RELIGION

AND

ETHICS

Campanile

spoken of as "the five points
comparison with other comprehensive not wholly accurately,
of Calvinism."
the reUgious relation in its
They are really the Calvinistic
or
as
obverse
the five points of Remonstrantism.
to
it stands in
case
purest expression, in which
be treated as the formative
Though they cannot
the other
with
contrast
great religionsof the
world; or as the logicalexpositionof evangelical principlesof Calvinism, however, they provide in
of its subtheir entirety a not unfair summary
stantial
it challengescomparison
case
rehgion, in which
B. B. Warpield
methods
of conceiving Christianity.
teaching.
other
with
pretation
interto its rights in a teleological
Theism
comes
METHODISTS."
A denominaCALVINISTIC
tion
to
of the universe,in which all that comes
of Welsh
aUorigin largely confined to Wales,
pass is explainedas the outworking of God's
combines
the evangelicism of Methodism
which
comprehensive plan, and is referred ultimatelyto
The
with Calvinistic doctrine.
the cause
of all things. The
beginnings of the
the will of God
as
traceable
to
Rev.
Griffith Jones
movement
of absolute
are
religiousrelation in its purity is one
tion
(1684-1761) The firstCalvinist Methodist associadependence on God, and is best expressedin a lifein
dates from 1743,but not until 1795 was
which an attitude of dependence on God, responsibility
tion
separaof England considered.
In
from the church
is sustained in all
and trust in Him
to Him
of ministers
1811 the body ordained the first group
emotional
and execuits activities,
tive.
intellectual,
and in 1823 issued their confession,founded
soul of evangeUcalism lies in utter
on
The
church
the Westminster Confession. The
ment
governdependenceon the grace or free mercy of God as the
and Congregationali
of Presbyterianism
into
is a combination
of all the efficiency
which
enters
only source
in
A vigorousmission is conducted
salvation.
All the revivals occurringin Wales since
From
N. India.
4. Fundamental
of Calvinism.
principle
dists.
each point of view alike the fundamental
principle 1735, have originatedwith the Calvinistic MethoIn many
is seen
to reside in its profound sense
of Calvinism
respects it is the strongestchurch
of churches of the
in Wales.
There are a number
He
of God and its reference of everything to Him.
mined
denomination in England, but the administrative
without reserve, and is deterwho believes in God
work
is done in the Welsh
to him, in all his
that God
shall be God
assembly. There are
vidual, about 190,000 communicants.
thinking, feeling,doing,throughout all his indirelations,is a Calvinist.
religious
social,
CAMALDOLESE."
The
name
This is often,but not very felicitously,
(from Campus
expressedby
saying that Calvinism is the pure embodiment
pf Maldoli, near Arezzo, Italy,the site of their first
of men,
R.C.
order
the
Lutheranism
of predestination,
the principle
rehgious
is, hermitage) of a
as
it is added in contrast, of the principleof justificaoutgrowth of a monastic reform by St. Romuald
tion
have
by faith. Both the doctrines of predestination earlyin the 11th. century. The Camaldolese
ideal
written rule,but endeavor
to practicean
of faith,however, were
no
and of justification
mon
comthe entirety of originalProtestantism; asceticism of silence,
to
prayer, and labor,combining
the claim at least of preserving solitude and community life. Their religious
garb
and Calvinists make
and an ample
is a white robe,scapular,cowl,girdle,
statement.
both
alike in their only consistent
cloak.
There is also a similar order of Camaldolese
Calvinism
What
reallyrepresents is logicaltheoFlorence.
near
centric thinking; a world- view, a religion,
nims
a soteriology, in which the vision of God in His glory
PLATONISTS."
A
of
CAMBRIDGE
endeavor
is to render to God
rules all,and the one
group
and philosophical
His rightsin every sphere of thought and action.
thinkers,of the latter
theological
of
The
formed half of the 17th. century, largely members
Re5. Chief depositoriesof Calvinism.
who
set forth theological
theologyis alreadygiven expressionin its Cambridge University,
and
Neodominated
fundamental principlesin the teaching of ZwingU.
by Platonism
systems
Platonism.
its first comprehensively systematic
It received
They opposed both the sacerdotalism
of Laud, and the rationalistic doctrines of Hobbes;
whose
formulation,however, at the hands of Calvin,
ize
known
day
as
Institutes of the Christian Religionremains until towere
Latitudinarians;sought to harmonrevelation and reason;
were
mystical,tolerant
of its chief classics. It has been embodied
one
and liberal. The best known
of the group are Ralph
since then,however, in a long series of important
the whole predoctrinal treatises,
have
which
Cudworth, Richard Cumberland, and Henry More.
on
served
remarkable conformity to type. Among
a
those by the
be named
the latest of these may
(1579-1623)." Scottish
JOHN
CAMERON,
American, Charles Hodge, and by the Netherlander, theologian,leader of a school of Calvinists,who
Herman
It has also found
expression, modified the doctrine of predestination,asserting
Bavinck.
the human
will is entirely
that God's influence on
naturally,in formal Confessions,which have been
moral.
of the extension
because
particularlynumerous
Churches
of the Reformed
through many
nations,
A section of the Scottish
CAMERONIANS."
the Church
in each
independent
requiring an
Covenanters
influential of
(1648declaration of its faith. The most
(q.v.)led by Richard Cameron
Helvetic
these are
the Second
Confession, the
1680),which after 1690 became a separate church.
fession They refused to take the oath of allegianceor to
Conand the Westminster
Heidelberg Catechism
exercise civil functions.
From
1743 they took the
has the advantage of
the last of which
versy
controReformed
name
Presbyterians; and in 1876 the
having been prepared after the Arminian
and of summing up thus the results of the
majority united with the Free Church of Scotland.
entire Reformed
development.
The
CAMISARDS."
Points"
"Five
6. The
designation of French
of Calvinism." The
against
rebelled in 1702-1705
who
Protestants
Canons of the Synod of Dort contain the replyof the
civil
Churches
made
Louis XIV., assertingreligiousliberty and
Reformed
to the "Remonstrance,
five points against the Calvinistic system by
on
rightslost through the revocation of the Edict of
Excited
the Dutch
of the early 17th. century.
Nantes.
Arminians
by persecution,and led by
frequently
enthusiastic preachersthe Camisards
istic
They reassert over againstthis protest the Calvindoctrines of absolute predestination,
particular developedfantastic ecstatic phenomena.
irresistible grace, and
redemption, total depravity,
considered in
world- views;

.

"

"

"

the

perseverance

of doctrine

are

of the

saints.

accordinglyvery

These

five heads
but

commonly,

a

CAMPANILE.
church or town

"

A bell tower in connection with
hall in Italy,usually detached

Campbell,

DICTIONARY

A

Alexander

OF

RELIGION

famous are those
from the church.
Among the more
in
of St. Mark's, Venice, Giotto's at the Duomo
Florence,and the leaningtower of Pisa.
ALEXANDER
CAMPBELL.
(1788-1866)."
Founder
of the aenomination, Disciplesof Christ
Campbell, and he were
(q.v.). His father,Thomas
Baptists,
Presbyterians,in 1812 became
originally
denomination.
the new
and in 1830 formed
They
taught baptism unto repentance by immersion, the
second advent of Christ,the abandonment
imminent
of creeds,a return
to the primitiveChristianityof
the New
Testament, and church union on these

premises.
McLEOD
(1800-1872)."
JOHN
CAMPBELL,
of heretical
convicted
Theologian; was
and expelled
teachings concerning the Atonement
from
the Presbyterian ministry by the General
Scottish

preached in
His
church.
his work, The Nature
to theology was
of the Atonement, in which the current doctrine
that the death of Christ rendered penal satisfaction
denied.
to God
was
Campbell held that Christ
offered vicarious repentance on behalf of humanity
and so satisfied God's justice.
Assembly,

1830.

in
contribution

Glasgow

an

For

16

years

he

undenominational

See

Campbell,

Alexander.
CAMPBELLITES.
Popular designationof the
Disciplesof Christ (q.v.)because of the foionder,
Alexander
Campbell.
"

66

includingthe impulse

of hunger, the disposal of
dead
sacrificeto the deity, the
kinsfolk,human
desire for revenge, a ceremony
of initiation,
and
various
magical practisesof the sympathetic
and
is usually
protective types. Cannibahsm
regulatedby ceremonials, and probably endocannibahsm
(the victim being a tribesman) is of

rehgiousorigin.
CANON.
cally
(1) The list of writings,ecclesiastiauthorized
as
constitutingthe Bible, (q.v.).
(2) A findingof an ecclesiastical council regarding
doctrine.
See Law, Canon.
or
discipline
(3) The
order.
rules of a religious
(4) A list of canonized
saints.
(5)An ecclesiastical dignitarywho receives
income for the conduct of services in cathedral or
an
churches.
In the Roman
church, canons
collegiate
five in a community as Canons
Regular. In the
Church
of England the rule of ceUbacy has been
removed, but the duties are the same.
(6) The
between
the Sanctus
and
portion of the Mass
the Lord's Prayer. (7) A class of hymns used in
the Eastern church.
"

CANON

uring
(BIBLICAL)." Canon, meaning "measthe term
which
first
was
rod," "rule," was
appliedby Christians in the second half of the 4th.
that collection of books which
has
the Christian church
as
Holy
each
Scripture. The
through which
processes
book passedbefore it was
recognizedas part of the
divine libraryare
too complex to be discussed in
But we
shall specify the epochs
this connection.
of those books seem
in which certain groups
first to
been collected and regarded as sacred and
have
authoritative.
The
gradual growth of the Old
Testament
culminating at the Council of Jamnia
at the close of the 1st. century a.d., and of the New
Testament
culminating for the West at the end of
lowing
the 4th. century a.d., and for the East in the folcentury, is one of the characteristic features
of their formation.
The
Old
Testament.
I. The
growth of the
Canon
be observed
in the
Old Testament
may
recognitionchronologicallyof the three groups of
it has been arranged. (1) The
books into which
the so-called five books of
first collection embraces

century

THOMAS."

CAMPBELL,

ETHICS

AND

been

a.d.

to

recognizedby

The
CANAANITES."
inhabitants of Canaan,
of the ancient names
of the land known
today
in the Tel el
first appears
as
Syria. The name
Tablets and is there used interchangeably
Amarna
with Amurru
lonian
Baby(Amorite-land),the common
designationof the Westland from before
Phoenicians
called themselves
The
2500
B.C.
Canaanites,and so did the Carthaginiansas late
the 5th. century a.d.
as
The inhabitants of Canaan
not a homogeneous
were
people. In most of the twenty-two passages
of the
of tlie Old Testament
where the predecessors
Moses, Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers,
Israehtes are enumerated, the Amorites and Hittites
termed
the
"Pentateuch."
This
Deuteronomy,
Canaanites.
hold prominent placesalongsideof the
first publicly
also called "the law"
was
group
Tablets
Similar testimony comes
from the Amarna
recognizedas sacred and authoritative by Ezra and
and the Egyptian inscriptions
which also show the
forth
Nehemiah, about 444 b.c. (in Neh. 8:9). Hencein this region of Indo-European elements.
presence
Jewish writers referred to "the law" as the
and
The
(Amarna
of all the three sections
hieroglyphic,cuneiform
firstand most highlyinspired
Babylonian)and Old Testament records are our
of the Old Testament.
(2) The second collection
chief Uterarysources
for the study of Canaanite
is "the Prophets," broken into two subdivisions:
civilization. In addition we have the results of the
(a) that covering historical material, Joshua,
tion
Exploraexcavations
in Palestine (seePalestine
Judges, (I and II) Samuel and (I and II) Kings,
'
enable
the
to trace
us
story
Fund), which
'the former prophets"; and
called by Jewish writers,
neolithic
from the days when
the Canaanites
were
(6) that embracing pippheticutterances, Isaiah,
in
dwellers.
master
For centuries Egypt was
cave
'the Twelve
(Hosea, Joel,
Jeremiah, Ezekie?%"h(i
Canaan
and greatlyinfluenced its material develop"Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk,
ment, but in the growth of business and legalprocedure Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi) eight
well as in mythological thinking, the
as
was
reckoning. This group
books, by Jewish
influence of Babylonia was
much
about
stronger. The
authoritative
200
recognized as
B.C.,
reUgion of the Canaanites was Baalism (seeBaal).
and accorded an equal placeby side of "the law" as a
D. D. Luckenbill
second part of the Old Testament.
(3) The third

one

"

_

"

CANDELMAS.
Church
feast commemorating
the presentationof Christ in the temple, celebrated
Feb. 2nd.
The Roman
brating
church regards it as celethe purification
The
of the Virgin Mary.
is derived from the custom, introduced in the
name
11th. century, of blessingthe candles for the whole
year on that day.
"

CANNIBALISM."

by human

beings, a

The

flesh
eating of human
practiseof multiple origin,

called "the Writings" and
books
was
books not found
all the Old Testament
These in their order
in the firstand second groups.
Bible are, Psalms, Proverbs, Job,
in the Hebrew
Song of Songs, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes,
and
(I and II)
Esther, Daniel, Ezra-Nehemiah
for the most
These were
Chronicles
eleven books.
^art probably recognizedas authoritative in 132 B.C.
by Jesus the son of Sirach in the prefaceto the book
in disbooks that were
Those
of Ecclesiasticus.
group

of

embraced

"

A

67

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

pute in the times of Christ

(Esther,Song of Songs,
and Ecclesiastes)
were
finallyrecognizedas genuine
and authoritative
by the assembly of Palestinian
Jews held at Jamnia, near
Joppa, about 90 a.d.
puted
disThat Council by its public recognitionof the
books simply confirmed
and fixed what had
been already for a long time the opinion of leading
Jewish writers.
By that decision the full collection
books
was
(Canon) of Old Testament
informally
closed
embracing within its compass
exactlythose
Hebrew
books now
found in our
Bibles and also in
and Revised
the (English) Authorized
Versions of
the Old Testament.
collection of Old Testament
This same
books was
regarded by Jesus and the apostlesas sacred and
mon
authoritative,doubtless on the basis of the combelief of that day. Even
Jewish
the books
which, in some
quarters, had been held in dispute,
their way
to full recognition. The
gradually won
of the
church
founders
and
fathers
Christian
accepted in full the decision of the learned rabbis
of their day at the Council of Jamnia, and henceforth
of the Hebrews
the Old
Testament
was
revered and quoted as Holy Scripture. See Old
Testament.
did
and when
II. The
New
Testament.
How
the books
Testament
now
constitutingthe New
become
authoritative,and take their place by the
side of those already embraced
in the Old Testament?
"

"

Jesus,in his utterances, spoke with an authority
which
ranked
with that claimed
for the Old
soon
Testament.
The
ment
Testaapostles and other New
writers were
influential and effective in
so
their works and words and lives that they secured
the immediate
attention,gradual obedience, and
communities
of
of the Christian
even
reverence
their day. Their letters and other writings were
Christian
read in the churches
and
assemblies,
and were
received with a degree of sacredness and
divine
attributed to them
a
authority that soon
character.
During the 2nd. and 3rd. centuries the
be largely
growth of the Christian church may
attributed to the use which the pastors and evangelists
made
of these same
writingsin their preaching
and
preachers and
teachings. Early Christian
teachers used a larger number
of writings in their
contained in the New
church work than those now
Testament.
Early Christian writers,too, recognized
varying grades of authority in the apostolic
works
in their day, thus verifying the
current
ity
that the whole process of gaining authorstatement
ment,
was
gradual. As in the case of the Old Testament
Testathe so-called authority of the New
books was
a
growth through several stages
there was
and
centuries.
And
a
difference,too,
in the East and in the
between
the results seen
West.
first period in the East and the West
1. The
extended from the close of the apostolicage to about
The thirteen epistlesof Paul (Romans,
220.
A.D.
I and II Corinthians,Galatians,Ephesians, Philippians,Colossians,I and II Thessalonians,I,II,and
III Timothy, Titus and
Philemon) and the four
Gospels (Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John) were
received as sacred
read in the churches
and were
find also Acts,
and divine.
In the same
we
group
I Peter and I John
all with their authority generally
period
recognized by a.d. 220. In this same
also we
find the followingwritings as a kind of
candidates for admission
to authority: The Apocalypse
of Peter, Teaching of the Twelve
Apostles,
Shepherd of Hermes, Epistlesof Clement of Rome
and of Barnabas, Acts of Paul and a second Epistle
of the
of Clement.
read in some
These
were
churches,but failed to obtain generalrecognitionas
equal to the books found in the first group.
"

AND

ETHICS

Canon

(Biblical)

2. In the second
period (a.d.220-323) in the
there seems
been little progress in
West
to have
recognitionof the books stillin dispute. The early
church
fathers in general refer to those already
recognized as accepted and authoritative,and
probably under the influence of Origen, the greatest
scholar in the East, add to their list the Epistleto
the Hebrews, on the basis of its dependence on and
with
apostolic teachings in general
agreement
although not of apostolic authorship. The real
in both sections of the country,
tests now
at work
the East and the West, were
ments
(1) use of the docuin the churches and (2)apostolicauthorship,
(3) appeals to the teachings of those books as
against the heresies of the day. That is,church
usage and authorshiphelped fix the authorityof the
them.
books current among
be desig3. The third period in the West
nated
may
the last three quarters of the 4th. cenas
tury.
Several causes
conspired to fix the limits
to be regarded as
of the books
sacred:
(a) the
difference between them and other books was
sized
emphaby the persecutionsin which the destruction
of those very sacred books was
the chief aim.
That
fact stimulated
their production, so that Constantine ordered
through Eusebius fiftygreat Bibles
now
produced. (6) The
Scriptures were
being
prepared as a whole and so limits thereto became a
practicalquestion, (c) The preparation of creeds
for the church demanded
the fixingof the limits of
the New
There are many
Testament.
lists of the
books
of the New
Testament
which
have
come
down
to us from the 4th. century, but the first one
with those of our
to agree
present (Western) New
Testament
that of Athanasius,a.d. 397.
In the
was
Council
of Carthage recogsame
nized,
year the Third
approved and confirmed as its list (canon),
the same
books
New
Testament
that we
of the
Western
church have today.
On the other hand, the churches
in the East
under
the leadership of Origen and
other great
churchmen
slower in recognizingthe authority
were
of some
of the New
Testament
writings. Origen
to have
seems
recognized James, Jude, I Peter,
I John, and Revelation,but barred II Peter and II
and III John, while II and
III John, Jude
and
Revelation
refused recognitionin Antioch and
were
the Syriac-speaking world
the close of the
to
4th. century. Origen refers to the Gospel of the
Hebrews
the Gospels of Peter and
apologetically,
James, the Acts of Paul, and givesquotations from
Hermas
and
Barnabas
as
"Scripture," though
he admits
that Hermas
not
was
accepted by all.
It is, however, striking that Origen wrote
no
of the books not now
on
commentary
part of
any
New
Testament.
Eusebius
the
historian
our
took a long step ahead in the settlement
of the
troublesome
question. He made three lists of the
books involved in the dispute: (1) those recognized
and regarded as authoritative by all the Christian
churches and leaders.
These were
the four Gospels,
tion
Acts, Epistlesof Paul, I Peter,I John, and Revelawhich
he would
(doubtfully).(2) Books
bar them:
recognize though some
James, Jude,
II Peter, II and
III John.
(3) Books that he
regarded as spurious: Acts of Paul, Shepherd of
Hermas, Apocalypse of Peter, Teaching of the
Twelve
think,
Apostles, and perhaps, as some

Revelation.
In the Western
church during the 5th. century
Augustine (430 a.d.) laid down certain rules
by which the authoritative recognition the canonicity of the several books should be determined:
(1) the books accepted and acknowledged by all
the churches
should
be regarded as
canonical;
be
not
universally accepted should
(2) books
received
by the
subjected to two tests: (a) those
4.

"

"

Canon

(Buddhist)

A

OF

DICTIONARY

majority of the churches are to be acknowledged,
(6)those received by the ApostoUc churches are
to be preferredto those recognizedby onlya small
number
of churches
of less authority, in other
words, those not founded by the apostles. Augustine's
applicationof these tests gave him precisely
the books of our (Western) New Testament.
Jerome
New
(a.d.420) also accepted the same
Testament,
includingHebrews and Revelation,on the authority
earher
of.
writers,and not because of the opinions
of his day. Augustine's opinion and
Jerome's
Latin
Bible
'the Vulgate seemed
to
complete
the crystallization
of the Western
of the
canon
and

"

"

General
without
the edict of any
this before the middle
of the 5th.
Testament.
century. See New
III. Canons
Churches.
There
Various
op
is no
In
universally accepted biblical canon.
distinction from the Protestant canon
of today the
older churches adopted as their Scripturea collection
of biblical books either with omissions therefrom
Of those bodies mention
or additions thereto.
be made of only a few.
can
The
1. The
Syrian Church.
Syriac version
of Scripture is found
in two
distinct classes of
manuscripts, representing different rescensions.
But they agree on the books found in their canon.
Both classes omit II and III John, II Peter, Jude
and
Revelation, but contain all other books of
the Western
tions.
without any apocryphal addicanon
This version was
also the source
of the
first Armenian
which was
later revised
translation,
from the N.T.
Greek.
The Egyptian versions
2. The Coptic Church.
of the New
Testament
are
two, the Sahidic (Thebaic)
of upper Egypt, and the Bohairic (Memphitic)
of lower Egypt.
The
former exists only in fragments
today while the latter has been published
entire. This is the canon
of the Coptic church.
It
is identical in content with the canon
of the Western
This same
lack is
church, but omits Revelation.
found in the fragments of the Sahidic translation.
3. The Eastern or Greek Church."
We have seen
the Eastern
church
of
establishingas its canon
Scripturethe Septuagint,togetherwith its quota of
Wisdom
of Solomon, Judith,
apocryphal books:
Tobit, History of Bel and the Dragon, History of
of Sirach.
Susanna, I and II Maccabees, Wisdom
4. The Roman
Catholic Church.
'The power
of
tradition as well as the content
led the authorities
of the Roman
church to determine
by Council the
limits of their sacred volume.
had
The
church
sanctified by long usage Jerome's primary translation
of the Vulgate, except the Psalter which was
Jerome's
second
revision of the Old Latin.
No
formal
official decree of the Roman
church
had
fixed the limits of the Bible.
Disputes through
centuries on the authorityof the apocryphal books
were
suddenly settled by a decree of the Council of
that
Trent, April 8, 1546. This edict determined
in the canon
of the Western
church there should be
included Tobit, Judith, Additions
to Esther, Book
of Wisdom,
to
Eccleeiasticus,
Baruch, Additions
Daniel, I and II Maccabees, III and IV Esdras,
books
which
had been
revered
by long usage in
the church, and
whose
claim to recognitionhad
been
generallyrejected by the churches in the
early Christiancenturies.
all the canons
of other minor churches
Practically
based on one
other of those already named.
are
or
And
within most
even
of them
there was
liberty
allowed
in the
discussion of the comparative
of
the
books
authority
already regarded as sacred.
See Bible.
Ira M. Price
New

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

6ft

the written

down
to us
Scriptures have come
Sanskrit.
and
Of these two, only the
of Ceylon, Burma
and Siam is complete.
Pali canon
It is called the Tripitaka or "three baskets" and
consists of the Vinaya-Pitaka or Basket
of Discipline,
the Sutta-Pitaka
Sermon
Basket
made
or
up of five divisions or nikayas (Digha, Majjhima,
the
Samyutta, Aaguttara, and
Khudda), and
Abhidhamma-Pitaka
Basket of Higher Religion.
or
This canon, brought togetherprobably by the time
in the 3rd. century B.C., was
of Asoka
the literature
of the Hfnayana sect.
The Mahayana
form of the
has an extensive literature but no authoritative
religion
in

Testament

Pali

canon.

Council, and

CANON

LAW."

See

Law, Canon.

"

"

ANGLICAN."
The rules and regulations
drawn
ecclesiastical convocation
in
up by an
1603 and ratified by James I. in 1604, as the official
expressionof English church law.

CANONS,

CANONS,

CANON
The language spoken
(BUDDHIST)."
by the founder of Buddhism
was
Magadhi but

See

Apostolic

CANONS,

COLLECTIONS
ANCIENT."
OF
of conciUar decisions and papal decrees
pertainingto church government.
Collections

CANONS,
standards
church.

of

Rules or
ECCLESIASTICAL."
conduct
or
doctrine, fixed by the

CANONESS."

"

"

APOSTOLIC"

Canons.

A

member

of

a

R.C.

secular

congregation under the rule of an abbess, and
of obedience and chastity.
governed by vows
HOURS."
Times
rule of the church, Roman

appointed by
or Anglican,
as
devotion, and, in
specificpurposes,
prayer,
England, the celebration of marriage. The usual
devotional hours are called matins
turnes
(includingnocand lauds),prime,tierce,
sext,nones, vespers,
and compline.
CANONICAL

the
for

canon

or

CANONIZATION."
The
Greek
and Roman
churches
is enrolled as a saint.
person
op; Beatification.

formal process
in the
by which a beatified
See Saints, Veneration

sacred song.
CANTICLE.
(1) A non-metrical
Usually adapted from the Scripturesand chanted,
"

in church
services.
also as the
known

(2) PI.

The

canonical

Song of Solomon

or

book

Song of

Songs.
CANTICLE
More
formal

pF

THE

BLESSED

VIRGIN."

designationof the Magnificat (q.v.).

The designationof collections
CANTIONALE."
of ecclesiastical music for the complete liturgyin
and Bohemian
the Lutheran
Brethren
services.
The
infliction by
CAPITAL
PUNISHMENT."
legallyconstituted authorityof the death penalty
for a specific
crime.
In the code of Hammurabi
a

"

collection of laws
'the death
offences.
penalty was
imposed for many
Progress
has been steadilymade in the direction of mitigating
the barbarity of the methods
of execution and of
of crimes for which
reducing the number
capital
punishment is inflicted. In the leading nations
today the punishment is confined to murder and
treason.
See Penology.
the

earliest extant

CAPITALISM,
the

present method

"

ETHICS
OF."
of carrying on

Capitalism is
industry and

A

09

DICTIONARY

OF

AND

RELIGION

ETHICS

Capitalism,Ethics of

to political
is subsidiary
It is
western
or intricately
Europe and in America.
power
involved in family prestige
and social status.
The
with older methods
of carryingon large
such as slavery or forced levies. It is
capitalistclass receives the successful business
enterprises,
contrasted also with sociaUsm, which
in the form
man
irrespectiveof family. It is also distinct
known
state
socialism would
in its ideals from the farmer class which, although
basic
as
carry on
industries through state resoui^es
and credft. It
owning property, gets little advantage from the
collective process
of modern
is contrasted
also with an
industry and finance,
agriculturalsystem of
farms
which
does
small
not
large works hard at manual labor,gets littlegain through
require any
accumulation
the labor of hired wage
of resources.
It signifies
the accumulation
workers, and does not
of property
realize the meaning of the power
by private hands of a store of tools and
be used to provide material
which
in combination.
It is contrasted
most
resources
can
sharply
with the wage-earning class,which
and equipment for manufacture
little
and
possesses
pay wages of
the
United
Great
and
salesmen
until products
laborers,managers
States,
Britain,
property. (In
and Germany the tendency to the accumuIn its actual operation, P'rance,
are
placed on the market.
lation
it operates
of wealth in the hands of a few is so uniform
largely through corporations. It
as to imply that this tendency is part of the system,
employs the great developmentof credit,by which,
of
though greatly aggravated in Great Britain by
through the agency of banks, the resources
of people and the earning power
great numbers
primogeniture. The richest two per cent in all
of future generationsare
these countries own
all made
than half
available for a
considerablymore
the wealth, the upper
middle
class,comprising
present enterprise. It implies the wage
system
of capitalare the employers,
in which the owners
about oneeight per cent of the population,owns
assuming risks and taking profits,whereas
two
third,leaving from one-thirtieth to one-eighteenth
of workers, commonly known
for the remaining four-fifths of the population.)
salaried
as
groups
and
The
attitude of the capitalist
is not militancy
workers, receive a relativelystable
wage
but no
for its own
profits. It therefore tends to form
sake,but as the builder of enterpriseand
wage
classes having a certain degreeof
the owner
of it .he resents any interference with his
sharply marked
interest in that
both
common
rightsof control and ownership, and hence opposes
normally desire
continuous
and
such recognitionof any group
lesssen his power.
as
industry (subject to
prosperous
limitation of output by either group
this
He is willingto give what he considers fair or even
when
liberal wages,
but is likelyto insist that he must
the more
of enhancing
be
seems
profitablemethod
the sole judge of what
is fair.
interests as to the shares
prices)but with conflicting
of total income which shall go to employers' profits
3. The capitalist
is a competitive group.
group
It observes
and workers' wages respectively.
strictlycertain "rules of the game,"
The ethics of capitalismmust
be understood
condemn
to
forgery, frauds of certain
e.g., which
In merchandizing
signify not the ethics of all engaged in modern
kinds,failure to keep contracts.
it has made
in recent years toward
ards
standindustry and business (the ethics of one group of
progress
these is treated under Labor
of quality and uniformity of prices. But in
Ethics
Movement,
caveat emptor
op) but the ethics which the system tends to foster, large fields of operation,the maxim
in the owning and
prevails. The logicalstandard of value is "what
managing class.
particularly
Individual
members
of the class may
in various
can
get" or "what the traffic will bear" rather
you
than any
assumed
intrinsic value or any
relation
respects be governed by their membership in other
to cost
of production. In this point it has enmined
reUgious, political,local or be detercountered
groups
by temperament or conviction to actions not
oppositionin other groups, particularly
when
ideal.
in accord with the capitalistic
prices for various kinds of quasi-public
services
have been in
1. The primary objectof capitalismis the carrye.g., railroad and gas rates
ing
of business and industryfor profit. It is not
on
question. Monopoly is in such cases
a
disturbing
factor.
the craftsman's interest in skill,
the inventor's
nor
interest in discovery,although these may
be utilized
4. In dealing with labor,capitalismhas in the
It is not the avaricious seekingof wealth
as means.
past also preferred the competitive method, as
contrasted with any method
of collective bargaining.
apart from the process of business; it is "making
It has stood for the "open shop," which means
Success from
in
not merely gettingmoney.
money"
vidual
the capitalistic
point of view is secured by building practicethat the employer bargains with the indiemployee and not with the union to which
up a great business,but the outstanding measure
ness
of success
is not so much
of the busithe efficiency
an
employee may
theoretically belong. The
its service to the public as it is the profits employer believes that in this way there is gjreater
or
incentive to individual efficiency.It goes without
secured as shown
in the annual balance sheet.
scarcity
Further,its conception,although not excluding saying that except in times of extraordinarj^
the spending of money
of labor,the open,
non-union
or the bestowal
i.e.,
shop, is highly
luxuries,
upon
of it upon
education
and philanthropy, does not
advantageous to the employer.
The central idea is that
6. In relation to the pubUc at large,capitalism
directlyfavor such uses.
has adopted the underlying
business enterprisefor profit is not
to
means
a
philosophy of Adam
he will
seel^his own
Smith:
if each man
tious
ostentareligion,
interest,
anything else leisure,
art,science,
the public good.
if not the all-sufficient,
promote, though unintentionally,
display but is itself,
at least the most
important, end and value of life. Capitalism believes the present system to be the
best yet devised for carryingon the world's industry
of acquiring wealth,
It is not merely the means
and
It believes that
it is both
prosperity is
commerce.
a
fascinatingoccupation and, under
ject
of
dependent upon givingcapitalisma free hand, subpresent-day conditions, the greatest source
which
of pubUc control over
to a certain amount
in comparison with
politicsis of
power
banking, etc.,which operates to stabilize
secondary interest and place. The logicaluse to
railroads,
make
is to
of the great bulk of wealth accumulated
pricesand values.
it as
6. The
use
capital for expanding business and
prevailingagency of capitalismis the
be
can
is impersonal. It
industry.
corporation. This
but as it is organized
the capital2. The class which best exemplifies
held to legalresponsibility,
istic
ideal becomes
for a singlepurpose,
not onlyan active accumulative
namely "for profit,"it does
class. As such it is, not admit other motives to enter into its conduct of
class,but a property-ownmg
interfere with profits. Both
would
affairs which
however, distinguishedfrom such a propertiedclass
in its relation to the pubhc and in its relation to
as the British landed
aristocracywith whom
prop-

business in

erty

contrasted

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

"

A

Capitularies

DICTIONARY

OF

RELIGION

the
corporation frequently pursues
workmen,
policiesvarying widely from the views entertained
directors
stockholders. This
or
by individual
impersonal attitude is of great importance in the
of
ethics of capitalism. It also explains much
the public attitude toward
corporations,since the
public refuses to treat a corporation in the same
has
treat an individual who
On the other hand, however,
the very
fact that the corporation is impersonal
its operationsin the
favors a stricter control over
Jamios H. Tufts
interest of public welfare.
way

it would

in which

feelingsand morals.

CAPITULARIES."
ing
originatLegal enactments
with the Merovingian and CarolingianKings,
called from their divisions into chapters {capiso
capitulariesincluded ecclesiastical
tulae). The
legislation
emanating from the councils of bishops
tians.
and by royal approval made binding on all Chris-

THEOLOGY."
CAPPADOCIAN
Cappadocia
in which
inland province in Asia Minor
an
Caesarea,the episcopalsee of Basil,was one of the
Nazianzus
and
Nyssa were
important towns.
placesof no importance except as the centers of the
temporaries
bishopricsof the two Gregorys. These three conknown
are
as "the three Cappadocians,"
their contribution to theologybeing the formulation
of the Trinitarian doctrine in terms of three hypostases
ousia
(substance). The
(persons) in one
thus individualizations
were
"persons" of the trinity
divine substance common
to the three,the
of one
aim being to avoid tritheism and Sabellianism.
was

CAPRICE.

AND

ETHICS

70

he had to flee Germany and spent the last twelve
years of his lifein Switzerland.
THOMAS
CARLYLE,
(1795-1881)." Carlyle,
like Coleridge,
mediated to England and America
the German
of thought which produced
current
Transcendentalism
and
the
interest in divine
Immanence.
At first a prey to skepticism, oppressed
by the mechanistic view of the Universe,
he reacted powerfully{Sartor Resartus, 1838) to
Goethe's
infused
with
conception of nature
as
deityand of each human will as an utterance of this
divine nature.
Despite his intense moral earnestness
Carlyletends to speak of the divine will as
Force, and his Heroes and Hero Worship, as well
well as his historical
as
the strong
works, glorifying
wills that have
shaped history,verge perilously
the doctrine that might is right. Though dison
trusting
poHtical democracy he was
a champion
of oppressed workingmen with a bitter hostility
to
the laissez faire economists.
He
dealt with the
social problem in Chartism (1829) and
Past and
Present (1843).
F. A. Christie

CARMATIANS."

See IsMA'iLis.

CARMELITES."
R.C.
A
mendicant
order,
founded
by Berthold, a crusader,on Mt. Carmel
in the 12th. century,and called in England "White
Friars" from
the white mantle
their
worn
over
brown
cloak.
St. Theresa (q.v.)introduced drastic
reforms into the order in the 16th. century, resulting
in a division into the discalced or barefooted
and
calced or older branch, the former section being the
active and numerous.
more

An
abrupt change of attitude,
plan without adequate moral grounds.
"

CARO,
JOSEPH
(1488-1575)." Great Jewish
and codifier,
born in Spain,
rabbi,mystic,talmudist,
CAPUCHINS."
A R.C. order of friars ing
his
originat- flourished in Palestine. His fame rests chiefly
on
in 1520 as an offshoot of the Franciscan
order, Shulhan-'Aruk
(set table), the latest and most
authoritative code of rabbinic law.
from their pointed hood (capuche). Their
so named
discipUneis rigorous,and purports to be a literal
purpose

or

of that of St. Francis.

CAROLINE
in

BOOKS."
books
Four
which
peared
apunder
magne,
the name
of CharleA member
of the highest official
CARDINAL.
forbiddingthe worship of images and pictures,
but approving their use
The cardinals form with
works of art for
as
body in the R.C. church.
and memorials.
ornaments
the College of Cardinals,the governing
the pope
body of the church, and elect a pope when there is
CARTESIANISM."
fixed by
The
The number
of cardinals was
philosophical system
a vacancy.
orders:
Sixtus V. 1586 at 70, divided into tjiree
originatingwith Descai'tes (q.v.),attempting with
mathematical
14
demonstrate
mental
fundaexactness
to
6 cardinal bishops, 50 cardinal priests,and
truths on the basis of indubitable facts of
Nomination
to the office is a
cardinal deacons.
the conscious
self
experience. These facts were
papal function,as is also the installation service.
nence
be
cannot
(cogito,
By decree of Urban VIII., 1630, the title of Emiergo sum) and the ideas which
attached to the office.
eliminated
The
existence of
by critical doubt.
was
God is held to be necessary in order to account
for
of consciousness.
VIRTUES."
Those
the content
virtues which
CARDINAL
conduct.
in human
most
deemed
are
necessary
SYNODS
OF." As the leading
Plato named
CARTHAGE,
prudence, courage,
temperance, and
of distinguished
city in northern Africa and the home
justice. The R.C. church calls these natural and
age
virtues
whom
adds three theological
was
bishops,among
faith,hope, and love.
Cyprian,Carththe seat of a largenumber
Vices.
of Synods during
was
See Virtues
and
the firstsix centuries of the Christian era.
Of these Synods the most important were
those
(1761-1834)." Pioneer mi^
CAREY, WILLIAM
(251,252, 253, 255, 256) concerned with deciding
sionary to India and Oriental scholar. In 1792
through his efforts the first Baptist missionary the attitude of the church to those who under persecution
had lapsed from the faith; and those which
societywas formed; and in 1793 he went to India.
Bible
dealt
with
translated
the
whole
in
into
which
in
the
He
or
arose
as
a
part
questions
great
and was
for 30 years professor Donatist controversy (seeDonatism)
(most impor26 Indian vernaculars,
tant
also
of Oriental languages in Fort WilUam
College.
401, 403, 404, 408, 418). Synods were
held
in connection
with
the Pelagian controversy.
RUDOLPH
CARLSTADT,
ANDREAS,
The
BODENSTEIN
VON
Synod of 419 indicated the independent
(1480-1541)." Protestant
attitude of the African Church toward the Bishop of
Reformer.
Originallya follower of Aquinas and
he became
of Luther, but
Rome.
a defender
Subsequent Synods (525, 535) dealt with
Scholasticism,
the relation of Arians to the Catholicchurch.
to revolutionaryviews which
gradually advanced
Mathews
After confUct with the state
led to estrangement.
Shailer
observance

"

"

790^791

of fundamental the CATECHISM. Creed (q. dis- includingespeciallythe impartation of the fundamentals of Christian doctrine. oral)and the candidate was known (q. The basis of society is the endogamous group. called The instruction given to the candidate was of impartation catechetical from the early method chumen as a cate(i. the invention is not due and fixation of caste to priestly entirely aggrandizement. An almost solitary life.). earliest Sanskrit word "color. They were CARTWRIGHT. They. (3) Such to involve three Subsequent trainingcame casuistry easily resulted in pernicious legalistic the of the most elements. Each group claims a comone mon ancestor. barbarian invasions and two they fell into disrepair the firstin Western in the 9th. warriors (Ksatriyas) . See also Catechuand on purityof cult. Thus the word catechism cast in the mean a body of elementary instruction form. (1535-1603). established in S. The method of legaldecisions forms its nearest present J.v. casuistryis involved in all estimation of conduct under moral standards.and menials (Qiidras).in antithesis to the basing of moral life attitude and intelligence rather than rules.e. century they venerated and visited by pilgrims. repaired and restored by the popes. plete com- E. for infringement of caste rules. coarse silence are their characteristic rules. Its present religious of applying general CASUISTRY. Goodspeed INSTRUCTION. to the tradiof the caste. The catacombs canonized."English excavated Puritan. tional in a large measure.in which he defended Presbyterianviews of church government as againstepiscopalianism. See also Catechism. the term Hence now to be learned.the Chrisof earlier times. tillersof the soil (Vaigyas). changes of social conditions.as intermediators between and men gods. use seems The instruction 1. order of monks. came excavated there and afterwards in other places by THOMAS the Roman Christians for burial places. summary for Christian doctrine intended for children and social scale depended on the nature of the occupation men.some distinct castes are tion instrucIn the earlydays of Christianity religious some national.)in the early church (2)But the term is usually given to the catechimien under limited to the settlement of doubtful was cases partly practical." first line of demarkation that The was between the white Aryans and the dark-skinned Dravidians.but applied to the division of simplyas placesof burial. oral and so naturallytook the to change due to crossingof blood.v. The unity. Clark " . was pose. tionally tradicalled because has been the catechism so chetical employed. Crawford analogue." of some Originallythe name low-lying hollows (catacumbae)along the Appian to designatethe subterranean passages Way. It has been the almost universal theory of the church that a person should possess some gent intelli- appreciationof the meaning of Christian life and teaching before becoming a communicant. formula will cover No one name teachingby oral repeticatechizing(literally.v.and a feast in his honor was long observed were part removed in Marseilles.and a vow of meat. 354). noted for his direct and of preaching. Early Christian catechisms. would castes employ the question and answer are constantly forming.means social excommunication.). Christian living.some occupational. written in the 2nd. 435). century the bodies were for the most Europe. and early 4th. The of fundamentals where authoritative moral prescriptions applied in Twelve the confessional made it necessary to seek judgment Apostles (see Didache).authoritative standards." An extremely vigorous R. 360-ca. of custom." The science deahng with the theory and practiceof instructingchildren and new of Christian in the fundamentals converts faith. In India. St. He wrote two treatiseson monastic soon forgottenand remained so until 1578 when life.that he Puritan ethics.to migration. A in became and position occupation hereditary. Each caste forbids certain kinds of food. is alien to modern life. basis of the system was The purity of blood.and partly doctrinal. Caste does not tend to social or national method. It should be accidentallyrediscovered." The art question and answer to date from the Reformation. as sole custodians of the sacred tacitlyrecognizedas the highestmodels texts.)which was Apostleis' usuallycarries a sinister reference. was necessarily are the whole tion). In thiy sense caste. CateInstruction. F.. those uninstructed in the faith. or refuge. He was among to other places. tion Occupais restricted. In order to elucidate the truth the teacher system. The accident of birth determines place a man's in the social order. (1785-1872). Jerome Whitgift.some religious. This tended to become but changes slowly to system is not absolutelyrigid. " the acceptedform of impartingknowledge ages it was to came in all subjects.especiallyapplicable " to India.of social custom.the Brahman castes occupy but a positionof unquestioned social supremacy.and were were After the CASSIAN. The body of instruction gradually written form became fixed and in its elaborated called the catechism was (q. burial to cremation.and to the re-shapingof moral ideals in the very process of applying them. unsophisticatedmanner CATACOMBS. " AND ETHICS Catechism casuistry. moral principles to particular (1)Broadly. JOHN (ca. Edgar J." Monk. Catechumen.and especiallyCatholic practise." CATECHETICAL The cipline.preferring like the Romans societyinto exclusive classes. Marriage outside the group is forbidden. considered in the as preparationfor full participation necessary fellowshipof the church. might be furnished with sound knowledge of the Teaching of the faith. Scares Theodore CATECHETICS. visited them in his boyhood centuries. (q.were of ceremonial and racial purity. A term tians. who engaged in a long conflict with principallyin the 3rd. actions. as sessing pos- religious sanctity. accuratelystated answer."A famous pioneerevangeUst in the Methodist Episcopal church in America.v. probably designed for this puron specificconduct by moral experts.A 71 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION CARTHUSIAN. century.C. One important was elaboration and evasion. In the middle meet Expulsion from definite. Bruno in 1086. hundred tribal in origin. on PETER CARTWRIGHT. Some of the twenty-four Catechetical Instruction. The for caste is variia. who founded monastic institutions at Marseilles. New and fixed as set question. Italyby St. W. Food or drink may not be received from members of lower castes or partaken of with them. poor food with no and scanty clothing. G. as in Jewish law. they were observed that they were made not for concealment CASTE. (ca. By the end of the 4th. Then came a fixation of the loose division of the peopleinto priests(Brahmans) . of ceremonial practice.concerned with his actual fixed.

by him. thus in 1536 and another. and Anglican churches. the Genevan one Catechism. then Lord's Supper. sin and misery of man. Gentiles To these familiar with the Hebrew faith. Then very candidates follows the consideration of the for Christian fellowship through a of salvation way and the doctrine of the sacraments. not even ance.the offices of Christ. effective calling. Martin Luther attached the very Christians. These life. the smaller and the larger. being present at its observthe Lord's Prayer as the expression of Christian Inasmuch in a condition of as they were life.the Larger and the Shorter. church. These followed were by the sacraments learners. CATECHUMEN. and acceptance of children into the church before they it was therefore that appropriate catewere had to capable of personal faith. and based its teaching Calvin's Genevan Catechism (4) Westminster. to Theodore people against theoG. church differed (2) Heidelberg. published in of allegiance taken personallyby the candidate was 1563. The task. in the phrasing of these latter statements the When the gospel was as preached to the controversies who had no knowledge of the Old Testaregarding the sacraments were ment ticularly heathen parkeen. baptism. Moreover as children of Christian families needed to the instruction of the young similar instruction.) indicating the by Immanucl turns so greatlyupon " " " " . disciplinewhich emphasized the ethical meaning Questions 98 of their new faith. was the first Book of Common chumen. He in 1529 the articles of faith and were put forth his catechism tian livinga worthy Chrisin two forms. translated for the Scottish regardingfellowshipwith God upon the petitions was Presbyterians. Thus commandment and answers." A CATEGORICAL phrase there was added a section upon the sacraments used Kant (q. which includes the Creed and the sacraments.including the Catholic. Protestant catechisms. the latter among indoctrinate endeavor logical is that of Isaac Watts. taken their incorporationin the Christian comwarrant Special care was munity. the basis for was against murder Proceedingfrom the Scriptures it instruction regarding all sins arising from anger defines God. Scares Theodore and the Lord's Prayer.the vows necessary chisnis should be The catechumenate prepared.duty. Questions it was useful to be able to put the 39 to 82 deal with the commandments. in the It was Most notable by individuals.the work of the Spiritin againstadulteryfor all sins of the flesh.but is not explained. tutelagethey were called catechumens or together with the exposition of confession and When the church was satisfied that they understood absolution. the ceremony of in 1545.Lutheran. however. A catechism before receivingchildren into full church membership. the Creed. " of this prayer. employed during the Middle Ages. the order being justifiedas faith. The languages and is stillthe most popular catechism in the Reformed which reasons same formerly led to instruction faith. and believed. the Commandments.then the Creed as the expositionof grace. of the obligation statement taken for the child by See also Catechisxm. Catechetical the sponsors and now to be assumed The Instruction. and answers.the the commandment or vengeance.It contains 107 questions the as typical of a whole class of sins. (2) redemption by Christ. But the great Reformed catechism of the confirmation was the vow developed.A Catechism DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS 72 church with fine in which form the catechism has continued explained. of which the latter is the thought to be especiallyuseful for this purpose. tribes of central and northern and the benefits thereof. justification. greatest importance There was in the Christian faith. Lord's Prayer was the means of securing from The first converts to Christianity Jews and were God the abilityto keep the commands. fall. It is a of highly elaborated statement precedingbaptism now required similar instruction creed and The child passing through doctrine.the eternal decrees. verted. however. In 1604 IMPERATIVE. (1) Luther's. It is a most more elaborate statement of Calvinistic divinity. As the heathen redemption. to 107 deal with the Lord's Prayer. Calvin published be taken by sponsors. G. adoption. The The controversies of the century led to a demand central doctrine of salvation the meaning of sin that Chrisfor a more tian exact definition of Christian doctrine. and aspiration." A term applied in early The three elements 2. For doctrinal reasons he therefore developed a class of novitiates who were the of order the traditional elements rearranged permitted to attend the services and to enjoy the Christian fellowshipbut were putting the Law firstin order to produce conviction not admitted to the of sin. disappeared. Gradually.they were permitted to take the solemn attained wide popularity and became soon ard standof allegiance to Christ and to receive Christian vow for the Lutheran church. The word is now was sometimes used for one The recitation and explanation of the Law the is receiving instruction preparatory to conwho was firmation. It was translated into many when attained he had sufficient maturity. The to the insightearly realized that the Lord's Prayer is a present time. as each of the sins there forbidden could be presented celebrated. a (3) the Thankful the Decalogue and the Lord's Prayer. containing 129 questions before confirmation. The Creed the expression of faith. model of Christian aspiration. to one who was Christianity receivinginstruction which bad been traditionally still employed were preparatory to baptism and membership in the used. It consists of three parts: (1) the be called a catethis period of preparation may chumen. conEurope were sanctification. instruction on Two catechisms Decalogue was were published. the use of the term catefollowed the old order. in which 16th.and so on. A very large number of catechisms to give them background it was necessary a appeared of which a few stand out as of chief period of instruction in the fundamentals of the faith before they could be baptized and accepted importance. century was the Heidelberg.v. the Trinity.in 1647. similar preparation is employed by other bodies included in (3) Anglican. The Reformed the adoption of infant baptism and the With on some important points from the Lutheran. we do not know catechisms have been put forth (5) Numerous that they were from time to time by various Christian bodies and ever put into definite catechetical form before the Reformation. The Creed is While these three elements of instruction were appended to the Catechism. Prayer (1549) which without. Soaees that the catechism was error developed by the reformers. The added and were the doctrine answers questions acceptance of Jesus as the Messiah was sufficient to upon of the sacraments. While the above statement appliesespeciallyto Life of the Christian. teachers found and it necessary the Westminster to give careful this Assembly undertook this subject.

Mark's. An frequentlydestroyed obvious extensive open most the court atrium by fire. Chapter.528). Its rank (episcopal. Without In form contrast to the longitudinal specified church. the problems of vaultingwere latter had sloping lean-to often visible more roofs. the atrium might be omitted or the infallibility of such a pronouncement. has been given. In Egypt. the history of cathedral architecture begins decoration of such a cathedral as Moscow the with that of the episcopateand with those scattered to analyze the ground plan to see necessary of which have derivation.separated the place of worship from the corridor Northern street. See Bishop.g. patriarchal)correspondsto the dignity of the see to which he belongs.such as throne of a bishop in the principalchurch of his or the baptistryand the dwellingsof the clergy. choir.. too. the name in the left aisle or in galleries adopted by church. Clement's see CATENA. it grew up in Northern successfully the interior.follow the Byzantine to the building may be a cathedral date and not at another. Paul's at Rome. The atrium. Denis. Notre Dame de Paris. on aisle beneath the clere-storyof the middle carried forward into a great national stylein was rose to Spain and Italy and a gabled roof.and elsewhere. The frequently with a vaulting was about achievement the which made fountain in the center and colonnades of the Romanesque style. their Gospel and the Epistle from pulpits on sides near the transept end of the nave. lennium. type. though the great height and eccentric it make Thus." The church in which the bishop absence of the transept. off by longitudinalcolonnades from Gothic was simply a continuation of the Romanesque and narrow . modifications of construction and decoration were provided by endowment introduced.73 A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION of the formal concepprioriabsolute supremacy tion of the ethicallyright. St. though it too has been rebuilt.espeare varied. the narthex such gave access to the body of the or two Bamberg). Its revenue.and upon which volves known deture. Of these canons feature was type. and chambers beside the apse compensated for the CATHEDRAL. doctrine. outer The members of the chapter are called canons. The in it. the women various reformingsects in the historyof Christianity. and Southern valley of the Rhine (e. transept has his throne and atrium which he the (Cathedra) and near were irregular and sanctuary resides. The Christian East showed diocese. inner and or Constantinople. Beyond the court -a transverse Italy (e. and above the abutment of which France (e. respective CATHARINE.and apse were each of which is assigned a stall. The within the congregation stood CATHARI. usually three months. the cathedral possesses there developed contemporaneously the central an nave. at one present day. tions to architecture." for the seat There were (1) The Latin name adjoiningdependent buildings..above. The earliest known Those catena is that of not in full standing penitentsand persons converts Procopius (d. and abandoned.hence (2)A designationof officialteaching great variety in its of the church by the bishop. and so forth.-apse " ETHICS Cathedral Architecture rightangles to it. the carpentry of which was solved. The set Here a wide middle France were nave. and.g. ruinous according to the decrees of the Vatican Council.in addition to the sanctuary. especiallycharacteristic of Armenia but best which constitutes his council. facing the congregation the Albigenses.g. Beyond this a projection which was commonly semicircular. this central type funds. by a transverse Through the periods of the the heightof the middle aisle was Romanesque and the Gothic the clergy becoming transept or aisles.however. of the nave. drals imposing cathebuildingsand the development of ecclesiastical many built in Italy." See Catherine. or read the (q. A well known exponent of the type is St. At the end opposite the entrance England. The clergy officiated.. CATHEDRA. A series of quotationsfrom Patristic at Rome. the traditions of Roumania. CATHEDRAL ARCHITECTURE.Waldenses New Manichaeans as at the altar table in the transept. changed to a court at the side of the church. or and of which the above account or dimension. Puritans.etc.indicating.the arrangeplaces ceryear.where numbers vast of early churches. The throne cathedra of the bishop and lower benches for the inferior clergy were in the apse. of the patriarch of Constantinople just as G. much lower side isles. their general evolution of architecture. The ethical imperative is thus normative and a entirely formal principleof action with a function analogous to that of the categoriesin the realm of thinking.v. by its manifestation in Byzantine architecof souls exercised through a vicar the cure The great example is Hagia Sophia at chosen either from its own number outside.). a and AND at -.continued the direction of the nave and terminated the structure. the eastern type is echoed in St. " " " " " _ _ " " " " " " " " . built as in the longitudinal to narthex. did for the territoryof the Roman patriarch. St. its appearance at the beginning of the second milsides. Thus ex cathedra Early Christian architecture. were two organization were important factors in the of them. for all word cathedral does not carry any definite implicatheir local pecuharities. spread southward the aisles were terminated aisle eastward to Cyprus. metrothe axis appeared as a separate domed room on arch-episcopal. ment ceremonies of the aisles about the central room reserved to the cathedral. basilica had posThe Though time has spared none sessed ally features were astical but a wooden therefore continuroof and was permanently retained in the ecclesiarchitecture of Western in need of repairand was Europe.Modena).). though the building as'we it todayis less than a century old. new might gather in the atrium and narthex. In many tain Though the atrium later disappeared. politan. is entirelydistinct remained standard for the territory from those of the cathedral parish." Because of overseas Venice the connections at Meaning as it does a church which is the seat of a bishop. episcopalseat in which the bishop officiates. including some cathedrals. The same as Russia. basilica.Palestine. In the interior is applied to a formal pronouncement of the pope of Syria.gives a and other acknowledged authorities to form a comfine impression of the early church because the mentary the Scriptureor an elucidation of Christian atrium and old interior furnishingsare on preserved. aisle was church the regionof its fullest expansion. in the exercise of his cathoUc office. cially and innumerable the administration of baptism. Mode Peter the longitudinaltype Canon.still remain. the distinguishing a huge domed central room residence is required for a fixed proportion of the that formed the body of the structure. attended by his chapter. we pre-Constantinian churches still more In Western enduring inadequate Europe the desire for more inadequate records and Under Constantine remains.

conformists Nonare dying ("ofthe Agony of Christ"). to ing Belonging to or relatchurch. e.. CATHOLIC Church.)was "Irvingites"was appliedto them.Catherine de* Medici A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION and more more numerous powerful." "St.v." the British Parliament under the ministry of Wellington and Peel in 1829 by which the civil Cathohcs under which had Roman disabilities. They are of three sorts. three of John and Jude. international. by CATHOLIC The EPISTLES. usage the universalityand completeness of the Christian to family hfe ("of St." "Our claimed by the Roman and Greek churches.everywhere and always. two of Peter. She was a CathoUc.if not heretics. Confraternities. suffered since the reign of Elizabeth." "Holy Ghost.)." particulardoctrine or practiceis the central element in Catholicism. still retained of a creative tradition. tary VolunI. ecclesiastically universal community of believers. In opposing these tion some diocesan.)." "St.)and of different Empire gave rise to a great number Congregations (q. In Protestant the words indicate to instruction in the faith ("ofChristian Doctrine")." Queen of France.an ecstatic who received the stigmata. The of St." epistlesin the New Testament which addressed to general were readers in contradistinction from those addressed churches to specific or They include the persons. the virility of time-honored Only Baroque style. But the vascillation spirit between modern conflictingideals makes many cathedrals seem more a harmonious a medley than composition. leavinga long choir behind it.or parochialin character.S.). (2) Those manifestingzeal for souls. Joseph.as distinct Blessed Lady of Mt. however. however. which originallyran the end of the nave. and yet not utterly." A term applied CATHOLIC. Michael. to the conversion of sinners ("of the Holy Heart of Jesus").v. ROMAN. Imitation of classicalbuildings.v. and resolved to keep down Protestants. element of Christianity..the transept even times and the resultant choir was so long that in England a second easterly transept was introduced.spread everywhere by the Society the of Jesus. the church appealedto the Bible as the laity.)of medieval and modern times." to the Roman CATHOLICISM. CATHERINE. the authority. designated in its title as Church.were removed. much emphasis being placed on symbolism. and on the of Byzantine doming. churches in charity. heresies and schisms which emphasized some the "Holy Family. and in the Gothic cathedrals of France lady chapels ran all the way around the sanctuary proper. . The Renaissance deflected the course abruptlj^ of architectural evolution in Western Europe. though there is much disagreement as to what past should be chosen. They do not publishstatistics. sects. that they are the representatives of the historical.or engaging universal Christian Catholic tering church. to church music system as distinct from variant theories.. Anthony of Padua.primarilyamong the expression of apostolicviews and confined to recent times." "St. of Bishops' Christianity.prophets. The movement Germany and Holland. They are millenarians. gradually advanced across toward the middle.which described as Sodalities." There six saints are of this name in the Roman Cathohc calendar. Irving leader in this group. Their highly liturgical. to doctrines " " " . of angels and saints ("St. and associations canonically established This idea of a universal doctrine possessed by a controlled. AND CATHOLIC ETHICS 74 APOSTOLIC CHURCH. GREEK. of piety and charity."and "Precious After the Reformation. serious attempts are being made to build in an orderlyfashion on the solid foundations of the past. "Holy Sacrament." "Sacred Heart. The famous St.. CATHOLIC. Shafley John MEDICI CATHERINE DE' (1519-1589). Bartholomew's massacre Day Were results of her anti-Protestant policy. these were the outgrowth of attempts organizations. Included here are Confraternities ministo the poor regard themselves as the true agents of saving grace ("PurgatorialSocieties"). it has been claimed by the Anghcan Benedict. pastors. though repudiated by the group itself.as opposed to (1) Those cultivatingpersonal piety through Confraternities of Included here are veneration. catholic character was Blood". of the Virgin ("Holy Rosary. etc. century witnessed of apostolicteaching." "Children of Mary. Francis Regis"). Catherine of Sienna (13471380). broke tradition." etc.A. epistleof James. even to Mexico.g. The transept.). who most are in the time of Maximus professed Christianity tortured on a wheel (308-314) for which she was and beheaded. the Holy Catholic ApostoUc and Roman CATHOLIC." See Roman Catholic CATHOLIC An act passed EMANCIPATION. CATHOLIC SOCIETIES." and Protestant Episcopal churches on the ground etc." from the Protestant churches. on the other. In no the Church of Rome has developed a complex of groups small measure. evangelists and has spread to the U.for the cultivavarious groups. While in no sense After the bishops came to be regarded as the reprea remarkable development sentatives 19th. Carmel." "Holy Name. with their own behefs and practices. Cecilia").to the of which the sacraments the channels. the one hand. and practicesof the church to indicate that they are universallyobserved. they support a fourfold ministry of apostles. all the claiming that the membership embraces services are baptized.national ("Church of various philosophiesand rehgions to appropriate Extension Society of the United States. hence the name a (q.believing that the church must make spiritualpreparation for the millennium by the maintenance and ministeries of all ordinances ordained Hence of God." Aside from the The spread of Christianitythrough the Roman monastic and clerical Orders numerous (q. Catherine of Alexandria. murder of Coligny. Meanwhile the cult of the saints had led to the provision of countless subsidiary chapels. At present. officially the Holy Orthodox Catholic Apostolic Oriental as Church. passed the middle at finally. to temperance reform Shailer Mathews ("League of the Cross"). was influential duringthe period of turmoil of the wars of religion(q. associated by were their exercise of specialspiritualgifts and their Edward expulsion from other churches. and St. or was that which was held by all. ("of St. THE." Belonging or taining apperthe Greek designated church.there grew up a sort of these organizations." denomination growing out of a movement religious begun in England in 1830 and taking definite A Certain persons form in 1835. In late years.. This reveals in itselfin the way their part of the church grew relative size. are regarded as schismatics. SAINT. CHURCH.v.

or animal-gods.and they are supposed to have been divided into a number of that of the bards. Vincent Paul" (reUefof poverty). Confraternities in not being canonically estabthough approved by ecclesiastical authority.1191-1198. In Iran it was expressly entered Christian influence. the Druids The were rehgion is Druidism. worship of nature's fertility the Celtic temples were sacred groves. Inde here are the Societies of "St. to do no evil. CATHOLIKOS. Pious Distinguishedfrom lished. With the insular Celts the sea-godwas naturally belief that the common a important. by classical Greek writers They are firstmentioned who describe them as inhabiting central Europe. settling in Gaul (France) and the British Isles. century. Ireland and Scotland.shamans and medicine among men. Religion. repudiatecelibacyas binding on their ministry. The patron saint of music CECILIA. FIRST. Associations. 1294. Very earlyin the historyof the church the conceptionarose that the celibate state was more conducive to genuine piety than the married state. Greek Platonist who CELSUS.1143-1144. those who This gradually grew into a demand on cil The Counconducted ecclesiastical ministrations. and Celestine I. however. of Trent (1545-1563) made celibacyabsolutely binding on all taking major orders or the monastic The various Protestant confessions expressly vow. cluded and as being subject to milder regulations.to exercise courage. II. etc.. and the death was strong in Celtic religion.probably early in the firstmillennium before Christ. stag." the great branches of the Indo-European peoples. (for priests). of Christian teachcrudity and lack of originality the impossibility of the deity of Jesus Christ. however.. canonized as St.. of which was orders or ranks. and his notes references to these peoples. first extended are our Celtic languages are today spoken in Brittany (in France). and several Confraternities having* similar names and strong.and regards with suspicionorganizationsincludingboth CathoUcs and Protestants. Raphael" Arch-confraternities include (foremigrants). and was succeeded by Boniface VIII. A opposed Christianityin the latter half of the 2nd. etc." has developed the celibate religions only Buddhism ideal in any parallelto Christianity.' "of St. tic The most famous feature of Cel2. opposed Nestorianism Pelagianism. the " " etc. SAINT. such as the boar. and of declaring the equality of men the fooUshness before a God impiouslyclaimed to be loving. and Cuchulainn. 1241.. "of the "of the Blessed Virgin" Child Jesus" (protective). Walker The title assumed by the of the Armenian church. group. one Catholic monk. Like theism. Shailer Mathews of CELTIC The Celts form one RELIGION.the social inferiority ings. the first pope to show interest in the churches of Great Britain. Celestine IV.and as teachers of the traditional religion. Buddhism. A notable cult was and of the world of the dead. Islam only under In India the ascetic and mendicant was expected first to have passed through the married state. or Fionn. very in myth honored spiritsof ancestral heroes were of Celtic mythology are found and rite." Abstinence taken of the three vows by the marriage. They are numerous purposes. Other images indicate veneration that the of trees and vegetation.the religionof the Celts was a pagan polyGallic images which have been preserved show that they venerated animals. CELIBACY from (CHRISTIAN). priestsof the Celtic peoples of antiquity. They were regarded not only as priests." See First Cause. bear. Celestine III. of war.and it is assumed was early important. are the Taoist groups tude of China have acquired an attiof approval toward celibacy. whose feast is celebrated 22nd.. the demoniacal originof biblical theophanies. The Uterary work of Celsus has disappeared except as voluminously and accuratelypreserved in evidentlysincere Origen'smasterly reply. abdicated after five months. The same Finn. He was of Christianity in attempting to show the inferiority " plete philosophyand he marshalled a very comlist of objectionsraised against Christianity the secret these were in that period.as AND ETHICS Celtic Religion the Jains. CELESTINE. peoples.DICTIONARY A 75 OF RP^LIGION (3) Those ministering to the needs of certain classes of society. who put him in prison where he died in 1296. developed orders of monks of celibacy and and nuns who under vows were celibate wherever this religion flourished such Influenced by Buddhism communities found. and of the church.422-432.. body of them. League" (missionary). Henry H. It place. "for the Propagation of the Faith" (missionary). Chief among character of Christian and illegal if not shameful of Christians.the gatherings. forbids membership in all strictly secret Rome societies (Masons. moved at a much southeastward.). another later date. and it was beneath the sea or dead were conveyed to caverns Belief in life after to islands beyond the waters. enteringnorthern Italyand threateningRome itself390 B. Included here are Confraternities of Christian FamiUes". Celestine V. and among "corn-mothers" and "corndeities honored were maidens" associated with the productivity of the fields."of Mass-servers GeseUenvereine (forjourneymen). A portion of them moved south. barbarous that of other 1.the "League of the Sacred Childhood Heart" "Holy (intercessory). heroes. as is natural among a hunting people." are the maxims which they emphasized according to Diogenes . The greater and settled in Galatia in Asia Minor. Druidism. Of the great CELIBACY (NON-CHRISTIAN). one to Greek " _ " or poets." The name of five popes. In Buddhism. and Sacristans". Remains nected chieflyin the British Isles. The way and Japan give it no native religionsof China forbidden. She has been a favorite subject for painters. went westward. such as the "Association "of the Holy Childhood" (missionary). of poetry and eloquence.where the stories conwith King Arthur and King Lear indicate divine or ancient Celtic divinities. was probably a Roman lady of musical talent who suffered martyrdom under Marcus Aurelius between 176 and 180." and the blind in the Catholic church. Knights of Pythias. fires that of the sky or sun-god. died sixteen days after election. "To worship the gods. that these were is true of the Irish saga heroes.the rule did not apply to the laity and monks were always free to return to the life of the citizen. Other important deities were merce gods of comand roads. It was and British Celts that Julius Caesar with Galhc fought in his northern campaigns. Ancient America also requiredcelibacy of the oflScialpriesthood. worshipped with baleand other rites in which fire was employed." spiritualhead Nestorian CAUSE.and in parts of Wales. Peter Celestine in 1313. Celestine II. but also as sorfcerersand healers. She Nov. and the rule binding also on a priesthood.C.

making possible churches the word "sanctuary" has largelydisplaced decisive action. Alexander A place for the burial of the CEMETERY. Rituals and tion thirtyvolumes from his pen.C. See Gnosticism. Censorship of edict religiousbooks harks back to Constantine's regarding the works of Arius. It also to mean shrine or relic depository came any and is used in a specialsense to refer to the temples of these two religious groups.Originally they were separate from churches.and communion affirmation of a propositionor idea. An unassignablecause of an event. however. any When personal experience is the source.frustrating all attempts for ecclesiastical freedom and the first moderator at escape.A Cemetery DICTIONARY OF RELIGION Laertius. what he saw. but so united in the Jesus Christ. authorityin the form of a publicreprimand.). of the Free Church of Scotland their withdrawal on from CEREMONY. Doubt. the word "chancel. See Mon- AND ETHICS 76 of the three foundations mentioned above. " CHAKRAVARTIN. (2) Sometimes operations. (3) on the testimony of men or (q.form of the elements of the earth. being unknown. astical -Disapprovalexpressed by ecclesiTHOMAS CHALMERS. the Catholic church exercised CHALDEANS.however.the dog which success. CHANCE. matter Censorship of news correspondence sent by mail or telegraph is an CHALICE.v. See Creed. Religion created the congregationof the Index in 1753 whose of.). In unlawful made by the Roman was emperors. H." child substituted for or A in folk-lore. duty is the censorshipof books for the guidance of CHALDEAN CHRISTIANS. the fortuitous element itself chance is frequentlytreated as if it were earlyJewish Christian Gnostic. Ireland it was early replaced by Christianity. and more attention is now being given to experimental and rational grounds for belief. CHALCEDON. so designated because Peter is traditionally regarded as the founder." The Papal office in the R. used in important aspect of the State's direction of military the observance of the Lord's Supper. has modified this basis of certainty. CENSURE."Scottish with or without added an Presbyterianpreacherand theologian. An attitude of unquestioning table. The.and transformation Their crude science. the chief is his refutaCERES. CERINTHIANS. of logic. Official examination and regulation of manuscripts. was an acted as sentinel at the entrance influential professor of moral to the realm of philosophy in St. After the invention of the printingpress. unmingled. well." the established church. used metaphoricallyof the contents of the cup. Ecumenical Council CENSORSHIP. religion. Religiously. believed to have reUable information. as an eye-witness sure concerning pulpit. CHANGELING. The decision of the Council was to the effect that in Jesus Christ there two were natures.lived in Asia Minor a toward the close of the 1st." life under with anchorites a or rule. included a and hence Druidism cruel forms of human sacrifice. PETER. A monument erected the over relics of a saint by the Jains and Buddhists.v. (1) A goblet-shaped cup. and of See Nestorians." In non-conformist churches. Of the more scholar in economics than as Rites. and more Babylonia. religiousceremonials.that neither nature one was person. since ancient times. the postulatesof matheAPOSTOLIC" matics The Roman curia as CHANCERY. chance (Tyche) makes him an Egyptian Jew who had studied under was a goddess. His InstiCalvinistic. affected. CHAITYA.). church. later came to be used tillthe unsanitary conditions due to overcrowding them led to the settingapart of park-likeenclosures for the purpose. ambitious an system of education and poor-relief in Glasgow which met with marked CERBERUS. CEREMONIAL. the practise coimtries. as in the case catacombs of the (q. container for burning incense also called thurible.such as the Chinese and Turks. The critical historical study of sacred literature. rest on been substituted by the a child believed " " " " " " " " " " . Gerald Birney Smith CHAIR OF ST. " Monks who live a community CENOBITES. teries Cemein European and American now have been used by oriental peoples. See Assyria strict regulationof literature. a leader in the movement the dead in the underworld." designate a The Hindu world-conquering ruler term or used to universal monarch. we have assurance the source (q. an Cerinthus." dead. Benedict XIV. See Tychism." the cause CERINTHUS. In Greek mythology. while other classical writers ascribe to them teachingsas to the motions of the stars. B. That in a church Christianity. He See Cult.v. Tradition real cause. century a. mostly from the Greek Church. was a Ceremonies. Philo of Alexandria before coming in contact with CHANCEL. self-evident or (2) on axiomatic propositions. A " in COUNCIL OF.v.d. It was attended by six hundred Bishops. in contrast hermits who withdrew from the world. In Roman minister. while permitting all to enter.grain-goddessof the old Roman of Hume's tutes objectionsto miracles. books and plays intended for publication or production. She is never a clearlyanthropomorphic of Theology were strictly figurebut rather the spiritof the growing crops. CENSER. rites." The Fourth held in 451 for the purpose of drawing up dogma regarding the person of Christ.as the conclusions of an expert.He instituted penalty. certaintyis urged because it makes put in the place of another. beyond space the nave and transepts reserved for the officiating CERTAINTY.choir. In Christianity of has usuallybeen reUance on the word of certainty inspired Scripture. so called by the early Christians from the Greek word meaning a sleeping-place. Andrews and Edinburgh. Churchyards (q. the chancel refers to a space railed off in front of the Certaintymay rest (1)on personalexperienceor when is investigation. See Assurance. especially It may to have possible decisive consecration." In Hellenic legend." all Catholics.). (1780-1847).

they ceased to appear among Miraculous attributed to the Christians powers were for several centuries after the death of Christ. 1803. The Catholic church taught the obligation of charity. used by R. CHANT.it is akin to refaith and is reinforced by religious experience. It is impossible to understand exactly the psychology of the charismata. Edward. In most religionssupernatural powers were which given a held are Primitive persons. The administration of charity compelled organizationin the church at Jerusalem. a publicinstitution etc.and encouraged right motives. 55 beads. Not apostleship." of the conventional (1) One divisions of a book of the Bible." An ineradicable CHARACTER." chapter (q. bishops became of wealth that was amount given away through and to the church was enormous. a small buildingused for worship attached to or a part of a church other building. Tongues. i. all Christians had the same charism. New Testament teaching emphasized the spiritof charity as the essential element. a place of worship not belonging to an established church. ordained to the ministry of the Federal St. Much charitybecame vitiated by the selfish motives that the lay back of it. the AND . This end is attained when certain habitual preferencesare so well established that a person's response to any stimulus will be directed by them. labored in behalf of the anti-slavery movement. but almsgiving and was early recognized as meritorious very became Christian of highly approved. or built shrines and churches that he might victims of his The gain favor with Heaven. CHAPTER. (2) In Greek mythology the oldest of the gods. Similar of (especiallyof heahng and powers claimed "tongues") have been sporadically even into modern days.e. American preacher and author.)assembles The place in which to conduct the business. adapted " to CHANUKKA. a person The formation of a rightcharacter is the primary aim of moral and religiouseducation.A 77 OF DICTIONARY RELIGION less cultured peoples weaklings or fairies.The donor with the benefits almost exclusivelyconcerned was accruing to himself. included those of Eph. A good character is attained when fidelity to good ideals is involves to be depended upon. originally a garland or wreath. ETHICS imprinted on the soul by the to Chinese BOOK OF.although more than individual. The sanction of subsistence. impossible people believed such substitutions were after christening. " See Rosary. begging for the means of of the church seemed to be given to this method friars set an the mendicant when gettinga living. Gerald Birney Smith INDELIBLE. mark or trait declared by Catholic theologians to be Charity and Almsgiving and CHARISMATA." See Hantjkka. A minister whose office is the conduct of specialreligious services for some age. The or word has also a number of derived uses. CongregationalChurch. (2) A group of church.or to know justwhen the Christians." The sum of fundamental traits which individual from another. to Paul one might come an of no moral value taught that charismata were without love. Since such fidelity allegianceto a spiritual ligious imperative. distinguish one In a moral sense the settled tastes and purposes of which determine his behavior. This involves inner conviction as a cultivation of taste so that an to the right of certain ideals is present. In the Hebrew religionsuch powers ascribed to the Spirit of Yahweh. Faith Shailer Mathews Healing. (2) One third of a rosary. be conferred on certain CHARITY AND ALMSGIVING (CHRISTIAN).progenitorof Nox and Erebus.prophecy. Gifts the altars of the church. example in this respect. and were poured upon the The the administrators. and also administration. CHAOS. Among infants imbecile were regarded as non-human Scottish children substituted for beautiful children. and became the leader He also wrote of the Unitarian and movement. The relief of the poor by giftsor organizedaid. 4:11) these charismata of tongues.but the with the motive. According to Paul (I Cor. " Superhuman powers regarded by the early Christians as believer by the Holy Spirit. As distinguishedfrom a church. Rom.v. century B.which he also described as a "fruit" of the Spirit. act has been confused the early Generosity was conspicuous among Christians. " CHAPEL. They formed the basis of the organizationin the establishment of the division of labor in the early church. or a fraternal society. 12:18. religionsnoticeably recognize the possession of superhuman powers on the part of medicine-men and the like. personthe state. ordination.CathoUcs in counting prayers. He developed strong anti-Calvinistic Boston. The underlying motive to social relief is the spirit of goodwill. the navy. 12:5-6." A CHANGES. unmetrical such as the Psalms. unimportant. Primitive Christians were the first to hold that the Holy Spiritcame upon all members of the messianic kingdom. CHANNING. Such were varied from abilityto manufacture vessels powers to the giftof prophecy. " A song or melody in church music. clergyattached to a cathedral or collegiate (3) A local branch of a societyor fraternity. The gospel of Jesus was based on the spiritof goodwill.. (1) A condition of utter disorder and lawlessness in contrast to the conception of order and design expressed by the word "cosmos.. The result generositywere relatively swarmed around the that thousands of paupers was doors of the monasteries. the army. attacks of demons on which are ascribed classic taries commen- to Confucius.or infested the citylanes. a small to building devoted rehgious purposes. the interpretation work miracles. Unfortunately the Middle Ages brought Uttle conception of the importance of estimating the effects of almsgivingupon the recipients. CHAPTER-HOUSE. CHARACTER. (1) A head dress. the power to tongues. He paid his doles to the poor.and the apostle Paul frequently exhorted to charity. See Unitarianism. See Irving. or See Music. evangelism). verses those comprised of both recitative and rhythm. since each office presupposed a charism (as of teaching. sacraments of baptism.C. dating from the 12th. and anti-Trinitarian beliefs. " confirmation " CHAPLET. The origin of the belief lies in the notion that infants are especiallyliable to the and fairy-folk." See Cosmogony.but we must not underestimate kindly sympathy that found expression through the gift. WILLIAM ELLERY (1780-1842).but the friars themselves " CHAPLAIN. Almsgiving is theoretically but the expressionof the spiritof charity.

and their charityto others is a proverb. XXXIII. herded together. At first the inmates were without their own labor. resorted to in individual cases only as a temporary expedient. Mo XIV.or private. century brought new treatment. became too largeto be taken care In these public institutions children and adults. that "the milk kindness" has always been a factor of of human greateror lesser influence in life." Parsis boast the absence of beggars in their community. . exists for the For Egypt decisive evidence exercise of almsgiving as a religiousduty in the uttered by the soul in "Negative Confession" to go the judgment hall: "I have allowed no man tomb inscriptionscarry the hungry. chaps. Indian religions(Brahmanism. motive is acquisitionof "merit" by the donors. almsgiving. four "energizing immortals" "Good Visparad. (Cf. Later teachers differ greatly respectingthe applicationof benevolent principles. Tao Teh King.but the applicationof its ministrydepends increasingly the teaching of social science.g. V.and to co-ordinate pubUc and privatecharity." and obhgatory on all. that provide and medicines. now Private provisionfor the poor.chap. Rowe AND ALMSGIVING (ETHNIC). 179 ff. wiser conceptions of charity. charities as It is possible to classifymodern ETHICS 78 agencies that give aid in the homes.) Respecting Babylonia data are deficient. Children's aid societies are agencies that with one hand are preventingindigency and crime. difficultto establish a religious took the form of public benevolences Private buildingsand entertainments. but the poor of small homes laws of England provided poorhouses in all the taken care of parishes. The former describes the Chinese phrase "charity another": the latter puts it of heart" by "love one the four virtues and makes first among courtesy a part of the gift.whether in the home or at a publicinstitution. and pubUc aid was given in monasteries. and attempts of made to systematize the methods various kinds were in vogue in different places. 414. Under primitiverelithe only form of almsgiving common and considered obhgatory isthe hospitality characteristic of that considered due to clan or of many races or from home." Numerous "I gave bread to the hungry and clothes sentiment: to the naked. though bringing satisfaction to the and should be giver.often included largess frequently)of goods and money. for the care The aged and children were placed in homes where they could be taken care of properly. and with the other are Ufting victims out of their misery. By degrees it came inmates for his own advisable to separate the different classes of to seem estabUshed dependents. careful Relief agencies find it necessary to make investigationsto determine where relief shall be given. institutions.. Capital. and at least some of the family be transferred to public institutions. Christie. orphanages. Rome. pp. the modern illustrate so beautifully spiritof Chris- in use for social uplift. but they flow from the same spiritof goodwill. of aid and the the form and amount to decide on length of time for which it shall be given. most of which are cared for by and reformatories. homes. Co-operation between private and publicagencies is indispensable. began to make contributions had made possiblethe maintenance for a few in poverty. widows. and the support of the of much the public officials.) the Zoroastrianism places Benevolence among ( Yasna. CHARITY Institutional asylums. It is not to totemic members away be forgottenthroughout. and orphans. Claudius of sick slaves or forcingthem forbade abandonment This is indicative in a sinister out to starve. On the other hand without the large giftsof philanthropyit would be impossible to charitable agencies that the numerous on carry tianity.but after a century of such found better to set the people experiments it was to work.Vistasp Yast [XXIV]. (undiscriminating But Rehgion was often an affair of city or state. set apart for The last ten days of the year are deeds of charity. methods A great many are Some of these. including asylums. sick.and commonly placed under were who worked the of a contractor the irresponsible care benefit.especiallyto A constantly present the ascetic and to monks. 36). possessionof wealth entailed the duty of generosity. Relief in the home the feelingsof these who must receive help. Chinese Classics. Hinduisrn. 53. Pratt. teachers stress benevolence as a Chinese religious qualityof the "perfectman. ecclesiastical charity stillexpresses the spiritof Christ. of the "religious" on The sacred laws prescribe almsgiving.and that plan various means nurses of prevention to check the growth of dependency.hospitals. XV. II. Mencius and Confucius and emphasize wisdom in exercising this quality. Budge. XV. drunkards and imbeciles and cripples epileptics. Current interest in charityas a subjectof study for its and the best means centers about its causes that It is well understood prevention and cure. in the Manchu Ti. of the poor: "Place the needy with those without need. and Henry K. 1 implies rehef Mind").e. Osiris and the Egyptian Resurrection. ceremonials for the dead (cf.is a hindrance to self-reliance. friendlyclubs. like housing plans. The thrown on indigent was town guildshad aided their members in cases of want the raunicipaUtiesthemselves or sickness. The Buddhism.Charity and Almsgiving A DICTIONARY OF AND RELIGION to charity in their social noble expression a gave the poor and miserable. As in the days of primitiveChristianity. Jainism) favor the ascetic or monastic fifeof absolute poverty and consequent dependence alms for bare subsistence. Li Ki. Common way. People of Ancient (Cf.passim. State institutions were of the insane and the feeble-minded. but it is often preferablethat the public authorities should take of the members charge of the case. disabled. and guildsdisregardedthe even corporations Still. Abbott. and given rational and deUnquentswere and The 19th. and then that large enough to cover by steps shall be taken to make relief unnecessary finding occupations for the individual or some member of the needy family. The Reformation deprived the church of its property." charity (hospitals." (Cf. service among The church used poor funds for the aid of the Later more of this parish poor in their homes. spares and it is a generalprinciplethat the home shall not be broken up if it can be prevented. however. hospitals. Defectives sorted out.religiousbanquets. The result here and elsewhere under like conditions and above the ascetics is a plethoraof beggars over and monks (cf. 41).Thirty Years XIII. See Charity on Organizations. the discrimination existence of which they both teach and assume.) be worlds it would In the Greek and Roman base for benevolence. x. and social settlements are above the Une of charity.. p. the like)is and has been peculiarto except as imitated under other systems Christianity gions religionin modern times. institutional. XXXVIII. India and Its Faiths. In America provided by towns poorhouses were the number of local dependcounties as soon ents or as of in families. such as the voluntary pubUc authority. It is an accepted principlethat temporary relief should be the need.

supplemented by the investigations of Edward Denison in London.C. and organizationsin England and the United States. 25. princes. depends mainly on the abihty of its friendlyvisitors. This societywas SISTERS OF. 24:27. The society is in with the various charitable agencies close contact in the city. e. which is especiallydevoted to care of exist about the sick." and elected emperor public education to appreciate the value of of the Holy Roman Empire." Sole monarch of Buffalo in 1877.. organized in 1617 and operative in Europe and America. personalallegianceto him. centers of population in the East. Since the success of charity organiderived from the Latin carmen The name. Vincent de Paul. came 1626.the poor. various CHARITY. 13:3). The Sisters service itself. of donor's superfluityyet involving the bestowal something prized (cf. 263. relief agenciesis essential to prevent duplication of effort and oversight. several R. It gives aid only in an emergency. 64:17. ."cleansing. Reformation. give them friendlycounsel and and expert assistance in meeting their difficulties. On that occasion specific cases discussed on the basis of the facts elicited. spells.as well as with the ambitions of of organization the kingdoms of Prance and of England.A 79 DICTIONARY OP RELIGION of the five pillars In Islam almsgiving is one the the faith.but their sympathy as often needs restraint for the good of those whom they are trying to help. power the country..I Cor." The designation Society of London of CHARITY."righteousgious which indicate the reliterms sufficiently view of believers and founder of its relation It is. By means of a card catalogue at the central office.Saxony and.therefore. (2) A lay order. but it has performed a valuable as the care of the poor and the sick. world though his work for civilizaalmsgiving in an effort to get an individual or to the mediaeval tion tween family to achieve self-support. 73:20. There 120 houses. Discussion of problems CHARLES V. Workers trained thus visit frequently the among houses of the poor. character of supreme Charity organizationrests on the pontiff. In addition to these services the societyis often able to aid and advise public officials and committees. There is a central office. and travellers.Bavaria. tribute conto its maintenance. is coupled its wherewithal the with drawn from prayer. Glasgow.but it is highly desirable that all sections should be closely defined as a small portable object worn the on co-ordinated with the main office of the city orfor magico-religious ganization. to donors. reasons. a Portuguese. He instruments in had to deal with the problems caused by the Protestant charityorganizationare necessary the effective alleviation of poverty. In his parish he was able to check almsand by friendlyvisitation of charityworkers to help the needy help themselves. Charles dating from societies." Indiscriminate charity tends to pauperism. Rows CHARITY ORGANIZATION. declaringLuther an outlaw. and is for the benefit of relatives. etc. and frequently a period of years kept over revised." AND organization. person. It often co-ordinates such agenciesin a whole city. Its antidote is charity organization.but its own object is to prevent and cure poverty. usuallyunder the name of the Charity 800.C. founded 1540 in Grenada by John Ciudad (John of God). 211. who Protestants and Catholics ending in the Religious guide the administrative of this board Peace of Augsburg. unable to unite all the agencies of the metropolis. after thorough or ing. or otherwise preserved. He developed an following four principles:Pecuniary aid should efficient administrative system which united all in be given only in an emergency. American The Sisters of Charity of St. His first 2. For this purpose trainingschools of philanthropy have been organized in several cities. centers in the large cities. 1519." 1. of " 30:38. are and The success of organizedcharity plans are formed. female associations which undertake it Loped to do. The experiments of Chalmers. They are unpaid workers." Bryce). with district he abdicated and entered a monastery. The method and work may be summarized briefly. mostly after the London into existence in the seventies in the model. Dec. Organization.g. a prime duty.Co-operation belapsed through the weakness of his successors. The membership the promulgation was important act as emperor of the society consists of those who of the Edict of Worms. most Henry K. and it keeps the records of its own visitors. An important part of the task performed by the charityorganizationsocietyis the keeping of accurate records of charity cases. are They are sometimes criticised as case-hardened. of Spain. 216 f. ("the central event of the Middle Ages. (1500-1558). to influence the community to provide social reforms and neighborhood improvements. of such organiCo-operationwas a cardinal principle zation. zation Charityorganisince then has been based on that principle. AND ETHICS Charms and Amulets it is becoming increasingly necessary that they be well trained. 2:40. In 1556 district heads. with something of the a forum an emperor for discussion. The members elect a His reignwas marked by a constant strugglebetween board of directors.C. now BROTHERS R.it is possiblefor the society to keep well informed and to furnish information to other agencies that may be greatlyneeded as a basis for wise action. An executive committee keeps in close touch with the superintendent and were granted Lutheran and R. was crowned by the Pope in Rome as Emperor Organization Society or the Associated Charities. such as playgrounds. but in most cases they faithful to their self-imposed obligations. In the fortyyears that followed the Franks in 771 Charlemagne extended Prankish similar societies were formed in the leadingcities of in Italy.) Geo. Sometimes the district has its own center A charm may be CHARMS AMULETS. orphans. This renewal of the idea of the old empire made and it soon him head of Western produced a National Conference Europe both in state and of Charities and Corrections that became church affairs. (Quran. zation depends on the efficiencyof its workers.Spain. Among the first this was Reverend Thomas Chalmers to see of giving. ences bring back their experiencesto the weekly conferof the society. whereby equal rights policy. fostered arts and learnreveals need. 1555. and to supply information to philanthropistswho wish to give help where it is needed. W. A charity organization societyis not an agency of direct relief. and found in Europe.is also often appliedto incantations. king " . resulted in the organizationof the CharityOrganization in 1869. 98:4. The first to be CHARLEMAGNE organizedthoroughly on the London of plan was that (742-814). 23:4. prescribed principallyunder terms ness" zakat. History. and has been an impetus to similar of Charity of St. investigationof conditions of opened schools and planned even a system grave should take the place of Friendly encouragement His largeideal gave an impress popular education. Gilmore OF." (1) The designation benevolent orders in the of mediaeval in period."and sadagah. (asong).

gods.the Reform and dedicated things. Mode -In some 3. Asceticism any objectsupposed to be inhabited by a spirit may lays especial stress on and it is included in the vows of monks and properly be described as a charm.are called taHsmans. the detachable parts of certain or before It has animals. commonly very depression. Classification charms.subrehcs stances parliaments. Artificialcharms.both natural power of the working classes.g. and white things. such as the crosses and best fitted to develop loyalty. Riots developed. a word is a material charm.annual of the dead. proved a disappointment and the beginning of and ornaments. which was hastened by revivrelics and mementos of holy persons and places. perforated stones and double walnuts or almonds. originatingamong other objects the 18th. red." It had six points manhood seeds. magical name such as Jewish amulets married or inscription. Of these.. leaves. Occasionally. Bills of 1867 and 1885. CHASIDIM. fetishes (see Fetishism). provides a sufficient the for choice of charms. continuously effective without any action on uttered are A to be the part of the wearer. As a rule the for good luck.g. tusks of wild boars.and the specialvirtue attribworshiped (seePhallicism) .e. iron. attracts light objects probably led to the notion that to look through amber beads attitudes.human vote by ballot. of a warrior before combat. sent to Parliament. Surrey. been demanded of religiousofficials who used be must are to gain their qualities.coral. and used: Bad "stones harvests and as artificial.Power be ascribed (see Concupiscence. of Arabic origin.evil eye. hands. This logical Polish Jews of fallacyunderlies magical religiousecstasy. Petitions were emblems.v. " ^ . the color of certain stones suggests flesh. care for children and other virtues essential Others are objects containing some But monogamy is meaningless to social welfare. shells. sick" " etc. explanation (1) A body of piousJews who Thus. A demonstration written in London beads. it was alum. 2. Diffusionof charms. salt. disease. Man seldom nourishes a superstition without effective antidote for it. to Godalming. quahfications believed to have been extracted from the for membership in the House of Commons. 6. chapel and almshouse in London. primitive-mindedpeople." characteristic of See Lokayatas. so CHARVAKAS. power Such power be ascribed to them because of CHASTITY. or religious when The power of sexual passion has led to various rubbed. devisingsome HuTTON Webster CHARTERHOUSE. Material 1. figuresof the saints worn love.. hair and teeth. Chastityin such cases powerful being or thing may give rise to charms. horns. some models has proved to be the type of sexual are Monogamy of objects. have been of many different kinds and formed of CHARTISTS. of a candidate example." A 19th. perforatea). and on and animal forms. however. relations so as to secure moral purity. the bank.following hard those of a curious shape or naturally upon the enactment of the Reform Bill of 1832. and a development of the idea of tabu. and demonism pronounced.stone implements (celtsand arrowheads). abolition of property. or imagined dangers witchcraft." The state of refraining from se"ual may their mysterious properties.emphasizing skin diseases.The lore of rehcs in Chrisclean in order to secure the favor of the tendom spiritually is similarly celibate explained(seeReli cs) Finally.payment of parliamentarymembers. equal electoral districts. in the interests of Mohammedan amulets composed of texts from the has exalted chastityin women true that exclusive personal relationshipwhich Koran.moral supply of largely is limited.threads. Among primitive peoples the making of " " _ " " . accidents. is especially witchcraft.. medicinal substances. DICTIONARY verbal Such OF charms must RELIGION be whereas material charms effective.tufts of eagle-feather. century CHARTISM. measures prepared to abstain from the use of excisableproducts. hence it is often chastity. containing unless chastity is expected on the part of all unthe Pentateuch the Psalms natural from and The or verses jealousy of men persons. The fact that amber. different substances. come posed to contain magico-spiritual (seeMana). at the other extreme it to iron was has been rigorouslysuppressed as the root of evil perhaps often based on observation of its magnetic qualities. Miss Freire-Marreco movement in Great Britain to extend the poUtical ates enumerthe followingclasses of objects. phallic human strikes. In primitive may of their rarityor unusual to other objectson account to thinking sexual activityis frequentlybeheved have an occult influence on processes of nature shape. planned on a largescale (1848) quotationsfrom sacred writings. or of a For tribe during planting season.unselfish or representations relationship in European countries. As coercive silver. lower jaw-bone religious ceremonies. coins.. horns. the erronecases ous association of ideas. there will usually be a corresponding development of prophylacticand protectivecharms. who in 1838 drew up a program called the "People's Charter.recourse natural charms will be had to social considerations have also had great influence. century and now restricted to Southern practices (see Magic). Asceticism).g. Peter portionsof offerings.). and crescents.Charms and Amulets and passwords. rock-crystal. charms. will be employed for both these the same charm purposes.inscribed objects. prosperity. animals and insects. At one extreme it is positively religious uted strengthensthe sight. commonly of the tortoise." and the Ballot Act of 1872.teeth. and sick in magical cures. Eng. association with some is or significant enterprises. (especially caused the masses. Kinds Talismans and amulets of charms. hence garnets joinedwith the Hasmoneans (q. required. sacred or Again.and other parts of suffrage. great disappointment among curious vegetable growths. e." (1) A monastery of the Carthusian order. G. founded in 1611 in a suppressed Carthusian monastery and in 1872 removed " evil. of chastityis While the religious interpretation When the 4.claws. and to cause rings. The of charms is use Wherever the belief in practicallyworld-wide. medals.nuts. Vestal virgins and priests are examples. obsolete weapons ing waning enthusiasm. of charms. roots. An amulet whose purpose is to protect the wearer against real ness. (2) a school. Choice of charms. (2) A pietistic and cornelians may be carried as amulets against reaction against Talmudic legalism. imported ornaments.evil eye.the secretly talisman will be worn amulet openly to avert AND ETHICS 80 artificialcharms is usually an important function of the professional magician. e. artificialsubstitutes. But many because they are supto be used as charms Russia. representations of runs strings.gold. representations to organize nation-wide of eyes. blue. used specifically to bring good fortune or to transmit desirable quahties. between charms and so-called difficultto distinguish nuns.

Soares Theodore religion. restingon a complex play of of the instinct. due almost entirely to illicitsexual venereal disease.confession. with God.). " by The RELIGION OF. I Kings 6 :23 ff. It yieldsthe more satisfaction of abilityto do the things that others Doubtless prayer.of communities. largelybecause his own Stage Religion. of duty. should be recognizedas a stage of religious progress childhood. Catholicism Doctrinally he stood midway between Luther and Melanchthon. A group of books written CHILAN BALAM.A . See Moabites. 18:10: Ezek. ReUef obtained from this difficulty was whereby by the doctrine of baptismal regeneration. 10:1 ff. less which in the process of livingacquiresmore or the highermoral and reUgioushabits of the group. 2 Enoch 20:1^). in the happy and earnest assumption of the tasks that belong to the child as a co-operating Ideas of member in God's great family on earth. an to exist As a custom child-marriageis known the primitive peoples. female populationof British India are married before ^ . genuine. the emancipation of women of morality. developing some. But followingupon a genuine religious the experienceshould by no means be superinduced through social pressure and the creation of highly emotional situations. in religious exercises have their generalparticipation beginningsin this way. could be thus the process of religiouseducation effective. In the Old Testament appear bearers of Yahweh's throne as (Ps.. participated and in polemics againstCrypto-Calvinism. In consequence. " " AND ETHICS Child-Marriage that have been developed tliroughthe long of racial fife. He and acceptance of the Formula in the Adiaphorist controversy (q. for themselves Hence Unfortunately. called imitation but it is very This is sometimes much than conscious copying. on the other hand.prominent in the formulaof Concord. they form part of the ten "troops of angels" who mount guard on the throne of God's glory. It seems that earlyadolescence is the time when the habitual reUgion of childhood becomes personal.).). (2) The elements of childhood religionare to be found and in the glad conformity to the moral religious practicesof the elders and of the church society. sense and. relations. Education. a child is born CHILDHOOD. the invention in which the books are written were of tlie Spanish monks.and the of forgiveness. derived a the Assyrianwinged bulls.in a joy in the good world where God is and where so much kindness is to be experienced and exercised. if simple contrition. hand in the one on resulting. 1:5 ff. AS ences (1)Social suggestionis one of the strongest influgeneity to which we are subject. and modifying others. children a in young at great pains to stimulate consciousness of sin and a willingness to be saved in would be the hope that the required conversion secured. According to this view." in formal marriage children under fifteen years of age."German CHEMNITZ. There is of life to the way an experienceof commitment which has hitherto been followed as a matter of This should not be called conversion but course. nature of religious (2) The doctrine of the positive the child has come to be very generallyheld. II. Looked (3) The theoryof instinctive behaviour. are a blend and seraphim (q. ChildNature I. and the Egyptian cherubim Sphinx. of social living. See Summum GOOD. Gordon Alex. young human experienceand the natural way to achieve experienceis by followingthe paths that others set. and thought of as a prevalentin India.v. firstof all. from the same source as of Phoenician the griffins art. various acts of worship. A very significant upon basis of religious experienceis found in the child's appreciation of God's approval and disapproval." ence experiof social relations with the superhuman and conduct of boys and the consequent effects upon See also Religious girlsunder twelve years of age. attendant the Divine presence. it was held that the nature of the child was changed. of cherubim R. the truth.)as guardians of His holiness in both capacities (Gen. usuallythe marriage of a girlunder fifteen with older man. representinggradual achievements be said to have a moral or The child cannot race.partly children the theological are on ground that all men of God and partly on the theory that there is a ndtural instinct for rehgion in man. will be a natural part of childhood G. tion theologianand reformer. The four "Uving creatures" of Rev. III."singing in the boundless lightwith small and tender songs voices" (Enoch 71:7.there is an increasingpressure for a stricter of terrible scourge The code of morals for men. 25 : 18 ff. With and the growing desire for consistencyin ethical theory. He is non-moral and his acts purely instinctive. hood. In Apocryphal literature (Exod. The cherub is on survival of ancient Hebrew mythology. with the tendencies at biologically.). of speaking ness. for The child is a candidate others do. (3) An emotional prejudicefor the ways of one's gious result in very valuable moral and reliown group may achievements. MoraUty religion are social developments. The Personal op to be clear (1) The danger of precocity. be desirous Thus a child may of maintaining cleanlinessand modesty. Gerald Smith Birney MARTIN (1522-1586).. Hence the homoof nations. iVlORALITY AND RELIGION SoCIAL HaBITS. men a The CHEMOSH. to act range " " " The practiceof uniting CHILD-MARRIAGE. it is the task of religious education to develop in childhood a certain religiousquality which is supposed to be alreadypresent at birth and which requiresappropriateculture. 3 :24. of specialgroups It is almost inevitable that we do what of fanulies." An order of spirits CHERUB.of performing acts of sympathetic kindof helping God in his good work in the world.v. Roman and the Jesuits. notably among among It is especially Australians Melanesians. or 37 :7 ff. Theories as to the op (1) The doctrine oj natural depravityshuts childhood from out possibihty of genuine any religionuntil the miracle of regenerationhas taken the church has often been place." CHIEF Bonum."?! DICTIONARY OF RELIGION have claimed in freedom not countenanced standard" the existing "double women.and is ordinarily than one-half of the total Hindu More custom. scribes of the Maya Indians of the native America embodying records of the ancient times previous to the coming of the Spaniards as well as The characters "primitiveastrologyand medicine.and do. The social group are. 4:6 ff. folk do that sort of thing. of the permitted and the non(2) A sense permittedis an extension of social suggestionas the child feels the approval or disapproval of his elders certain types of conduct. He has the common human nature reUgiousnature. the conditions of fife to which he belongsdetermines in which these instincts operate. love demands.corresponding these experiences." ites. national deityof the Moab- CHERUBIM. in joy in conscious well doing. is an additional argument for chastity. imder wise leadership.

carried on against the Christian religion. only five or six converts earlyyears numbered. however. Most change has been due to several the disillusionment chief causes followingon the of necessity carried on at various was decree in 1905 aboUshBoxer Rebellion.brought this de Chine et da Japon. " " " "" " " . progress Missionary and was widely supportedby Christians. Apparently recovered from this reverse. native helpers. he was of driven to the Portuguese settlement old dislike.300 years. But in 1368 the Mongol Dynasty was overthrown. girlremains at home with her parents until sexual maturity is reached. of converts the end of fifty influence was at its heightin the 9th.the ports of Foochow. was rapid treaty of 1860 Catholic missions have made The culminating outbreak of this antagonism to all Their statistics for 1916 {Les Missions progress. aid in flood and famine work. Penang and even The new in 1911. 1807. the province of Chihli.. The transwere TO. and Tientsin Two years later a permanent lodgment societies. the promise in throw 1908 of constitutional government. A.Medhurst and others as far north as Manchuria. 1. Neither residence work in remote down. diswas that followed. The sionaries of the work of the earliest misMacao. reached Canton classes has resistance of the educated stubborn Chinese chances of Christianizing the seemed broken indeed. above one not much hostile imperialedict compelled 3000 Christian was a 2.A Chiliasm DICTIONARY OF RELIGION while they are mere fifteen years of age.and Canton. supported by all the Hindu castes. The earlyperiod. mission boards increased from seven missionaries reached China in 635 a. century. over the last to be occupied. These lation " and and Milne was much labor spent in the distribution saw of tracts and booklets by Gutzlaff.od. and the overoccupied Bangkok were Java. were concluded and America two years later France I. Hunan In 1860. By the Treaty of Nanking (1842). hundred Christians had grown Of these the Lazarists have the largest The one at work. Protestant Missions. Each speedily Roman The history of Itinerant evangelization missions in China covers occupied by mission boards.800. in the national Red An Anglo-Chinese College was opened by Dr. Nestorian treatiesgivingthe right to erect houses of worship and of these cities was in the ports. century. and the nineteen societies to fifty-three. The middle period the period of expansion teachers to to return private life. the Boxer Uprising. and the four and Shensi were embassy to the Pope. The most extravagant propaganda of misrepresentaSince the tion secretly by heroic endurance. a period of 1. but in Bengal girlscommence their married life at the age of nine years.aided The by twice the number period of beginnings may upon 1766 day-schools and from the coming of the first Protestant missionary." MISSIONS Missions.however. till the opening of the whole 105 higher learning. Eleven societies are is indicated by the mission now to 80. a full half milhon of these are in How statistics lor 1898. although the common In 1724 the Emperor Yung Cheng issued an edict people were well disposed. Franciscans Matteo work grew rapidly after 1868.and even permitted. Although about fifty taken root in Chinese had been missionaries sent from England and could be America. ing the old system of education. The modern peri. rightwas conceded to travel with passports throughthe eighteen provinces. The number of continued.the imperial ports in the Malayan Archipelagowhere colonies of Chinese were to be found. Christianityhad nowhere soil.600 followed. in the anarchy most westerly provincestill a year later. sion. found in as 30. but hostility was Discardingunconfirmed traditions of earlier evangelization. but at Their favorably received by the reigningemperor. and some was made. The beginning made of medical work was by Dr. were II. and an attitude of receptiveness nor of friendUness toward western Chinese teaching. of be said to reach the field.d. had churches been established Throughout all this period. somet.although the provinces of Shansi not opened till 1876. entered and Peking were by numerous effected in the country by the Jesuits. and were with about 169 missionaries on the ground. Robert missionary work in 1862. War in 1842. ETHICS AND of the Bible was 82 completed by Morrison published in 1818.000 Nestorian Christians were many and for the first time the to foreignresidence. almost without and literati continued tained and for 130 years the church was only mainreligion. the Mission.the last traces of Christianity missionaries were hundred waitingin Shanghai one for the opening of these new hundred doors. Singapore. carried on from these centers. and after a year territorywas has largelyreplaced the toward the missionaries. and woman's Dominicans 1. continues and is years. and by 1664 over in five provinces.under was lished.the steady of both officials oppositionif not the open hostility strictlyforbiddingany further propagation of the diminution.|mes in India infants. When physicians since the Boxer Uprising 3.Twentynumber of adherents. under appointment by the London in 1900. although as began in 1860. Amoy.000 foreigninfluences. students finished their education. See Millenabianism. 1917) give a total of 1. Ningpo and Shanghai opened to foreign trade and residence.the Jesuits coming second. and speedilyestabMedical and educational work was the famous Ricci (1583). repubhc of the Manchus from time to time.in 1897.Both foreignersand A brief but interesting period of missionary natives were also protectedin the "quiet profession begun in activityunder the Mongol Dynasty was tian and teaching" of the doctrines of the ChrisCorvino and the Franciscans. Christians distributed over all the eighteenprovinces periodof slow but steadyexpansionto an end in 1900.at the close of the war with the British they never thrown additional cities were Seven and French. the Rev. appeared. when years the total number hundred. China by the Franciscans as late as the middle of the open out 14th. Foreign empire to numbered 190. especiallyalong educational literary lines. 1292 by John of Monte of Peking who even sent an under the Great Khan religion. Catholic CHINA. a half million plague. Child-marriage is least common the Dra vidian and other native tribes which among uninfluenced have remained relatively by the caste In the western provincesthe system of the Hindus.Malacca. had been accomplished from 1860-1900 much and Mongolia. where Morrison in Malacca fifty Cross associations.however. male and female. Peter Parker at Canton At the time of the first Opium in 1835. has been significantand fruitful. The in September. and.had produced a deep and favorable impresAs the firstexalted impulses of the revolution volumes also issued in Chinese. There were of institutions in 1807. In 1891 ineffectual attempt the British government made an to check child-marriage by prescribingthat the age of legalmarriage should be not less than twelve The practice.000. and at the time of the pneumonic about in 1818. Morrison. five hundred missionaries. Ellwood Charles CHILIASM. and petty persecution it is now generallyconceded that Nestorian to nineteen.

).943. or the union efforts. ancient. Closelyconnected with work of the Y.460. In spiteof the growth of Buddhism 2." that life and fostered all those institutions which These had been developed during the nation's longstruggle were compiled or written by disciples or followers of Confucius.has been of great value." "Modem In 57 a. and Confucianism and its classics came near missionaries. republicanconditions.c.were presented to the government. In 492 a. the compurposes Ch' un Ts'iu or "Spring and Autumn it Literature. 534. the new Medical by a high ethical purpose in no the the Board. to 220 a. therefore.warmth." glorified (q.A 83 began DICTIONARY OP and bribery and dishonesty fail. The posipoliticallife the observance of the proper forms. Baptist. (memorabilia of Conto strike of whose monastic orders seemed to them compiled by his pupils). or "Book of Poetry.high honor. or the "Tao of among large government schools. both national and denominato propitiatethese spirits.d.5. and the Chung Yung or "Doctrine of the Mean. under pastors.the "Works Mencius" at the bases of Chinese life. $644. the accomplishedSage. and libertyof religiousworship.401 (Mex. Man. to extermination along with the rest. century b.).'' In 609 a. tional undenominalines. Congrega. adherents.thoughtfulmen Man's began to see that fresh moral impulse was finer qualities needed for new from his shen. venerable Ni. especially this is a righthuman the order. for existence. The sacred books of Confucianism are books. He necessary which is wholly independent and endeavored unconnected in Chinese domestic and to secure denominational with any organization. mentaries They were called "Ancient Literature". which thought to be expressed entirelyin the Classics. reformer. service."_ There was for man to cona duct proper way and its staff has increased five-fold within ten himself.were Already there are the consummation regarded by him beginnings of the "Chinese Christian Church" as expressions of proper feeling. These have been studied to the neglectof all unrewith except in accordance lated law. He reverenced was sense a China Medical order of nature Missionary Association are all full as expressedin the Chinese empire of promise for the future.c. the Republic of China shall have libertyto honor have been crystallized. Confucianism the Ta Hsiao or "Great Learning. Through the influence of the in a law of May. The air of earth of these and other causes.cold.v. the Christian Educational Association. productivity. About as follows: hundred briefly summarized hook) _may a Chih HwangOrganized congregations. Religions of and the earth. it was to manifest themselves in their old forms under to the number " " . time passed. the commentaries OF. shall be unrestricted.v.880. To the was finally five Classics four books and became are from Taoism a added. in educational and medical order of the universe. Presbyterian.against Chrisimposed by the government upon the nation.165. It is a sysgreater or less degree under Taoist influence. Indeed the smooth working of the Central boards for united action are order of nature. bers djrnastysoon gave place. tion of the Christian community has been much proved the fostering imof proper and the preservation feeling. or^nizationof a definite state religion. Sunday school scholars. Yang is subdivided into an innumerable of good spiritscalled shen." I.d.)some the Shu King. which suspended all business and even of a modern church. hospitals. 1916. new into numerous evil spiritscalled kwei." In the first part of the Han period." This seemingly brings to an end the effort literature.754. The Tsin ordained The num330.corwhich had existed in China from times primeval. Confucianism Confucius were written by men who were to a CHINA. and be directed that a temple to him should Yin. As a consequence and is supposed to swarm with evil spirits was innumerable." All of these except ordained that sacrifices should be offered to was the last were Confucianism Confucius. In 165 a.The Tao of Man has been Confucius. the Lun Yu or "Analects" fucius Confucianists were much opposed to Buddhism.A.providingthat "the people of the forms of Chinese life Confucianists. contributions. the Shi King. the basis of the have everywhere been breakingdown. Ni. books. Kingman tionalist.282. by the granting of full religioustoleration. and application "Book of Changes" (explanations The books presentedwere to said to have been dug up. his passionsand come times. RELIGIONS upon takes its name from Confucius and (q. of examinations for the civil a and their teachingshave been dogmatically tianity." the / King or These differed from the corrupted commentaries. of the foreignworkers are divided among which the teachingsof Confucius were the revived and leadingchurches as follows: China Inland Mission. began RELIGION AND ETHICS China.ConChina while animated Edinburgh Conference. Such opportunitiesfor wider influence on the part of the religionas the Chinese had church have sprung side.life.764. Yang represents light. the all complete and illustrious.multiply year by year. depended upon how years. Anglican. such working in China now of an recognizethe primary need as the three years' mourning for the death Chinese of training ship the youth for the efficient leaderemperor. ceive conception.death. darkness. in the judgment of later generations. of marriages.however. perpetuate the old discriminations.however. the Tien Tao.3. The so-called "Continuathis had led to the tion By the time of Confucius Committee" of the federated churches in the fucius." more five Classics. tem of morals engrafted upon the nature rupted religion who. compiled by Confucius.d. revered.108. the teachings of the master.said to be Mang (6-23 a.338. Chinese workers. At tional. This statistics for 1916 The result has been reached by gradual steps. and religion. a feature of this modern order was followed correct human out periodthat promise to be of by men.d. and Chinese conception of life lies the Tao. Henry 284.d. Annals. of a less authoritative are They are system." and the Li Ki or "Book of Rites. he was canonized "Duke as 621. y. 385. Fundamental and the frequent extension to it of imperialfavor. though these disentangled separate character.C.652.M. Even its burdensome Practicallyall bodies customs.. Methodist. 20.d. periods(206 b. consisted in the endeavor up on every tions and divisions. Historical development. they have been made the basis of of Confucianism state religionand to make to Chinese education. to the Han.)Confucius was held in In 1 a. During both the earlier and later Han 976. the orderly especially It embraces The revolution of the seasons. In the reign of Wang the 1. and the heavens.Jin Tao. or "Book of History.earsafter Mencius the Tsin emperor. ^The Chinese conthe universe to have originatedby generation the estimate of Confucius rose higher and higher as stA^led "the from two he was souls or breaths called Yang and Yin. 526.). coarser qualitiesfrom his kwei. Yin. to destroy the literati and all their ti. of divination of eightenigmaticdiagrams). (China Mission Yearbe 3. Lutheran. of ethical standards. communicants.endeavored 268. Old separabefore the 6th. the widest helpfulness.d.

century b. (6) Confucianism noble. II. (1) Foremost the principles among is reverence for reverence the the Shen. tioned above.and the gods of the ground. Peking. after existingseven years as a philosophy.d.rectitude. into a religion.accordingly. the Imperial Ancestors. This includes the physiciansof olden time. run free from convention. if that land is stillto have a mission in the world. gods of water and of storehouses. grown up (2) According to Confucianism the five Classics contain and reveal all the binding principles of the Tao of man. Sacrifices are offered to corn gods and gods of the ground. All that conflicts with these is to be uprooted and discarded. the divine husbandman."but he lays great stress upon sincerity. of self-control was admirable. and sincerity.i. to him the perfect set man His famous the primevalman. it seems the China which must create be. or Soul of the for the chief deities menreverence universe. he believed. and forms the basis of both Confucianism (q. and more In this class seventy exponents of his doctrine. streams. Confucius advocated kindness. He does not employ the word "lie. 4.holy. the god of fire.about eighteenhundred from years ago. saying: man was "The Way (Tao) which can be walked is not the enduringand unchanging Way {Tao).e. In 1907 the late Empress Dowager raised Confucius with to the first grade of worship. Reformation but is believed to be within wrong-doingis required.but in 1915 President of the Chinese Yuan Shi Kai. the name ging is not the enduring and unchanthat can be named Name. There atoning sacrifice. bonum.) advanced him to the title of "Emperor. "the The former was bright. On both occasions he sacrifices also to his ancestors. 5.) introduced a new of the Confucian departure into the interpretation classics.but its punishment from is expected in this life. and patron divinities of all sorts. At least a few under this influence had sought through asceticism to return to primitive holiness. It nature essentially as regards human has inculcated loyaltyand has upheld a high ethical standard. To to nature return a the inexpressibleInfinite." Cheng Tsung (1068-1086 a.d.vases. Tao It seems the or at times to be "Nature" "Way the Universe goes. I also wish not to put upon He did not. others. who was He is beUeved hved to be about 80 years old.decorum. as Sheng Nung.wind. when " of Confucianism manifestations of " AND ETHICS S4 applied. also Confucius. power. Confucianism. and advoand the simple life. The sacrifices are propiatoryrather than common expiatory. wisdom. rocks.on which are placed wax candles.and for ancestors who were believed to be possessedof a shen kindred to that of the universe. (3) A third class of deities is worshiped by Mandarins. These is no offeringsexpress homage. the perfect Yuan Sage. Confucianism has. find also the planet Jupiter. but his influence seems." "way.c. His works have never translated into a European languageand are little known in the West. a part of itself. (5) Confucianism embraces also a high degree of ethical teaching. of etiquette and politeness.templesand ritiuil. Images of these gods exist by tens of thousands.)and Taoism. Lao-tze. Pantheon. It takes its name the Chinese word Tao." Tao was reverenced by all the early Chinese. but they have not been content with this. and thunder. "the Way of Heaven. in the spring and autumn. thought that heaven with should not live under the same a man the murderer of his father." Then the latter.of porcelainkilns. rupted The overthrow of the Empire in 1912 interfor a time the state religionabout which entwined had Confucianism itself.and meditation. omitting T'ien they employed Tao alone to denote the summum which eludes the transis a word lator. one's own (4) Confucius was a formalist. to be the author of the Tao Teh Ching. into harmony with the Tao was This harmony was. ranking him Shang-ti.deities of clouds.five ranges of hills.the ten principal of the empire. His influence a sober interpretation of the Classical been books. Taoism is a system of Chinese thought and hundred practicewhich." The emperor Tsung (713-766 a. has made fall into three classes. The divinities of the Chinese Confucianism which state religion." Chu Hsi (1130-1200 a. Chuang-tze. then the made Confucianism more Republic.the Prince of the north pole. cated midst of increasingwealth and luxury.dark. In spiteof its noble standards. the firstbreeder of silk worms. In this class of gods rulers of the past are worshiped." contrasting it with Jen Tao. believe in forgivingenemies. and pots in which sticks of incense are placed to burn. but advocated He blood revenge. in a park to the southwest of the Tartar cityeither by the President his deputy.as one of its principal elaborate system an expressions. Way of Man. etc. His motive of conduct of the was a negative form Golden Rule: which I do not wish others to "That others. to have tended toward agnosticism. from his younger contemporary. on the whole. once religionof the state. In these respects he became an example to his followers.the Supreme Spirit.and of millet On the night of the winter solstice the or com. Principles. Religions of DICTIONARY RELIGION OF erected at every seat of learning. _ . and Sien-ts'an. developed. the seemed him Tao exalted spirit.flower.he Lao-tze would would all life into a mould. and various famous who are believed men such to have introduced civilization." expresses his transcendentahsm. Confucius taught a system of strict etiquette. the god of the eastern mountains (inShantung). and many rain.v. (3) Sin is recognized. The founder of Taoism as a distinct system was and who born about 600 b." "road. In the time of Confucius the worship of the passage was way accordinglyon the side of " " restricted to reverencing people was their ancestors." Early Chinamen spoke of l^ien Tao. to lack the ethical power to however. too.right. living according to nature. the oldest of He lived in the the sacred books of the Taoists.c. To come greater than the most to attain all virtue. He refused to interpretone in one way _ and another in another. and institutions reverence. gods of walls and moats. however.A China. Confucius.d.and has thus been of untold benefit to the China of the past.) him the title "Accomplished and Sagacious gave King. His power He inculcated code of honor and exhibited urbanityand a rigid courtesy.is accordinglydogmatic and consistently intolerant." put upon me. All over China in villages and other localities they now have temples for the worship of mountains. many than togetherwith his ancestors. a star in the Great Bear which is regarded as the patron of Classical studies. "path.. In 659 he was styled "K'ung. (1) There are those worshiped by the Emperor the spiritsof Heaven and Earth. (2) Gods of the middle class are or the sun. The altars consist of two or more tables. perverse. selfcally radiLao-tze differed effacement.and on the night of the summer to the Earth in a temple to the north of that city.to be attained by quietism. we mountains rain. Emperor (or President)offers the most important sacrifice to Heaven in a temple to the south of solstice. For two hundred years the teachingsof Lao-tze undefined life a somewhat exerted upon Chinese influence. the ancient Teacher. for all the good customs which had in China's past. In the 4th.

Chuang-tze possessed of pure philosophicthought than greater power Mith other Chinese writer. fell into the background.and his descendants dynasty of the time. wood. present. worshiped a divine person. which the late Empress Dowager.a system of temples. while nominally temples practiseexorcism. the Taoists were spared. who was the last two dynasties golden image of the same again flourished. and the state religionof the Tangs. The earth is said to consist of five constituent parts. i. with Buddhism. monasteries Taoist a group undertaking." is worshiped He controls as the ruler of the physicaluniverse. The Taoists became or largely any of magicians.who is worshiped under the titleSan tsing. emperor that he had heard that in India they Their magic arts commended them to the Mongols Feu-to (Buddha). tell fortunes. as well as religion. monasteries constructed for them (q. They were chronomancy. Tow-mu. when he persecutedthe Confucianists and destroyed their hall of the temple stands an altar and a shrine. Under person.d. doctrines of sanctity.)had were the Chin had a historyof five hundred dynasty imperial patronage. however. Ones" title given him in translated a Buddhistic a any perceptions are " " " .v.while under the China comes from the reign of Wu-ti of the Han was great Tang dynasty (618-907 a. imperialfavor has varied with different sovereigns.A 85 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION abilitygreater than that of Lao-tze a literary and reinforced the philosophy himself. of the priestsnow clearly separated from one another until the 2nd. In the shrine is a venerable figurewith a long beard. times Someand described as a miracle-worker. present.combined with a native Chinese opposition to Buddhism. Hu Kui-ping. those formed have for other reasons an exorcist. claimed that Lao-tze had appearedto him and commissioned diverted to agitation politicalagitation. never appropriated the imitation of the recently introduced Buddhistic hopes of a future life. the lord of the tide. one of Wu-ti's generals.reportedto the but persecuted by the Kin dynasty (1127-1235).Chang-k'ien. it was fostered For centuries Taoists have secret a system of ethics which said would lead to sanctity. In the principal Taoist temples are numerous.which are regarded as the sublimated of these earthlythings.and practise revered.and votaries. The great procure Tsin emperor. to without of self. Mars. The god of thunder.and.Taoism has absorbed into itself any the popular spiritor god whom He held that all human The fundamental most distinctions of our in the thought crumble away He thus sums hght of nature.an attitude right.are regardedas gods. the Confucianists All this organizationof Taoism is the result of to purify the teachings of their Master from Taoist corruptions. been ehxir of life. It was some as also favored by the Sung emperors (906-1127).Lao-tze and Chuang-tze. Under the influence calm of contemplation. and future.Mercury.D. The priestswho serve thinkers. Faithful to native Buddhism.d. While every Taoists and Confucianists were survive to the few of them were once not. for in 6 B.c. Possibly missionaries also followed in the wake of At the head of the Taoist the Chinese pantheon stands armies. Chuahg-tze'sinfluence did.and other spirits able are worshiped. Confucianists up to ridicule and sought to commend the teachings of Lao-tze. honor are discountenanced by the great Taoist writno god is more eagerlyworshiped than Tasi-shin. He accordingly. essences Other stars are deified. These planets. frequentlybeen prohibitedand broken up by In rivalry the government. it has thus precipitatingthe massacre experienced various years the year 1900. to him men express hopes and griefs. Most mingle freely the efforts of Under the later Hans in the common lifeof their fellows. century a. up the whole duty of man : "Resolve your mental energy into abstraction. in Pamir a that under the Yuan Another so dynasty (1260-1368) they general. Sometimes they have existed for the of contemplation or for the cultivation of hermits. its arts and teachings are confined to matters the present life.)." The admitting the element logicaldeduction from this teaching was that all would come does nothing. It has. In particular. Taoists had come to believe that an island in the Yellow Sea produced a plant from which the elixir of life could be made elixir an which would immortality.56-580A. such as exorcism. the mother of lightning. Chang purpose Sometimes they Tao-ling or Chang Ling. which concern wholly its own.which are respectively representedin the heavens by Venus.and pupils.) their establishments were destroyed its introduction into China. These societies have. however. accordhold it to the present day. Under the Ch'i dynasty (479-502) temples and under Buddhism III. For the same the Han emperor Wu-ti (140-87 b. Magicians and alchemists have added other deities. The Great Bear comes in for a good degreeof worship. books. a foreign growing self-consciousness of their own. Saturn. San tsingis the god of contemplation.and a god-man. societies.they tell what days and understood times favorable for and unfavorable are by few.C. however.a distillerof the have been organized for political purposes.desiring peopledesire to worship. human their can affairs.teachers. Jupiter.C. another part of the god Kwei-sing. metal. Under years in India before The first authentic (5. Such him to become ingly usually has taken the form of opposition to the patriarchof the Taoists. of the Massagatae with the aid of a Chinese scholar "The three Pure book into Chinese.saints. assumed this position. fire. hundred Tsi Thsi. reached record that a knowledge of Buddhism along witJi those of the Buddhists.if man that did not appeal to great numbers of practical Chinamen. saw adored.d. with an organizationChinese helped Taoism to become a real religion tendencies. this elixir. Allow yourself your physicalenergy fall in with the natural order of phenomena.sacrifices. the spiritof the sea. whose ardent supporter of the Taoists. Yu Hwang Shang-ti. It possesseda pantheon. Taoism soon One of the latest of the societies developed and the Boxers. encouraged as a means of ridding China a priesthood. Spiritsinnumermany which preside over possiblecallingare every also invoked. relative. a monastic was order.. the god of riches. During his reign the Chinese penetrated to Tibet and the Caspian.) was with folded reflect the features reason an hands.one part of it being thought to be the palace of a goddess. and earth. AND ETHICS China. patronized the Taoists. In short. water. Canton in 1900 contained of such ideals the teachings of the great in these ten such temples. the king of the sea.advocated He held the punctilious of the great founder. Religions of rivalry to Buddhism. attract a followingand by the next century the efforts of the Taoists to live in accord with Nature had led them to dabble in various doubtful arts in the hope of discovering Nature's hidden secrets.e. which reverences Buddha under three aspects as past."the preciousimperialgod. a man regarded as a saint mystic arts. an ambassador Lao-tze.) Taoism favored to such a degree that it is regarded by dynasty (140-87 B. of foreigners. Shih Hwang-ti (221-209 B.C.). numerous. Chinese Buddhism. In the last seventeen of vicissitudes. In 165 a. into inaction. In spiteof the fact that wealth and ers.

is a kind of Saviour Buddha.however.had been miracuconceived and miraculously born without As an infant he had causing pain to his mother.and that the way to attain this perfection the Noble. arrived patriarchsto come and from that time China became the seat of the of the self by which a CHOICE. selection is made from alternative courses of the Tang dynasty. or Amitabha). the weak. they had attended him throughoutlife. an imperialdecree permitted the Chinese orders. and escape hell by frequentinvocations of Buddhas and Boddhisattvas.d. to gain which assures petual perbliss. such a life is the most perfect. Confucianand Taoism not mutually exclusive syswere tems. George A. together with fastings and the leadingof a moral and it encourages pilgrimages. of temf"orary sojourn between AND ETHICS 86 strong protest against the whole has been often quoted. century with Nestorianism. It appears to have reached China at the time of the Tang dynasty in the 7th. the substantial hypostasis of the universe. from India to China.all China's millions may sense. Chivalry was recognized by the ture church from the time of the Crusades.Mi-to or Amitabha. the twenty-eighth sucof Gautama.v.century) in which age aid knightly honor was pledged to protect women. There is no clearly marked line of distinction between and those of the the devotees of Buddhism The other religionsof China. have easily on gods and spirits. and involvinga comparison of relaChoice the selection values. stillthat existence is an Its fundamental tenets were to successive evil. behaved in a most miraculous way. he has become in the minds of the people practicallya god.which This form of Buddhism had developed in northand northwestern India among Scythians and other tribes who of had come into India by way Parthian enced empire. or Mi-to. In . these for a time were While vigorously pushed. Buddhist monks multiplied rapidly and began to make pilgrimages to India. In be a therefore.and organizesmany monasteries and nunneries. it may truthfullybe said that Buddhism has penetrated the whole of Chinese life. and the phrase "all the Buddhas" has become in northern Buddhism almost an equivalent to "all the spirits" "all the gods. and to have been adapted in the time of the Mings in the 15th.e. Barton The system of knighthood in the CHIVALRY. or "Pure Land. Gradually there has grown the up doctrine that faith in Mi-to combined with the will insure entrance of his name into this repetition Paradise. involves a moral evaluation of the alternatives. the opposing influences weakened. in the end the religion proved too strong to be repressed. While it does not demand that all who it does hold that accept it shall live a celibate life. Chinese the other hand. Admission Land" tutes constito that "Pure salvation. Originallyonly a form of Buddha. withdrawal of The people from active married life was contrary to Chinese ideals. Although the imperial favor wavered. Daevas (theold gods) had rejoicedat his birth. it was believed. and the majority of the Chinese have from themselves that time counted members of all as three faiths. Middle But Path. and had been profoundlyinfluby ideas originallyforeignto it. which elixirof life. to enter the monastic established monasteries in northern were Many nine-tenths of the people had in a China and soon become Buddhists. wrote a procedure. is ethical when to the capital. and another veering again to Buddhism. and the first of the Buddhist ceremony. Chinese have nothing to who While there are do with Buddhism. or Buddhism two deities of northern have won a very largeplace in the Chinese form of the faith. Indeed it strikingly is believed to have been borrowed from Christianity. one favoringConfucianism emperor at the expense of Buddhism. called by the Chinese Amita." a Paradise supposed to be situated in the West. and a divine being.d. sent commissioners tive to escort a things.so as to gain whatever benefits each can bring. was to this simple faith many thingshad been added. another Taoism." That power Buddhistic patriarchate. Abolokitesvara. It has had on an elevatinginfluence on Chinese life. cessor Buddhidharma. has contributed to Chinese thought an eschatologyand a conception it calls its devotees to attain heaven of the hereafter. which and to contain the magic power delivers from the circle of transmigration." of feudalism (10th. belief in Boddhisattvas The was already a part and faith in heaven of it. known Amitabha.Religions of A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION official introduction of Buddhism into The China dates. Eight-Fold.^ For more after the introduction of Buddhism the orders were monastic kept alive by the influx of After the beginning of the later foreign monks. ism. from the reign of Ming-ti. They Amita are Kwin-yin and Mi-to (i. been transformed into Buddhas or Boddhisattvas.China. sense Buddhism. undertook to At different times Chinese emperors check the spread of Buddhism of perseby means cution. Both Confucianism and Taoism and legal (q. by a ritual which resembles a Christian liturgy. the whole and altruistic life. and in 335 a." who is believed to descend regularlyto hell to release spiritsbound She is worshiped now there. Hindu The conception of the transmigrationof souls has never taken deep root in China. The lously Buddha. of action. was known Buddhism." In addition to these. Into the system of belief there had been introduced a goddess. Kwan-yin is the "goddess of mercy. in which the duty of being economically tain productiveand of begettingchildren to maindue to ancestors had perpetuallythe reverence for centuries been deeplyingrainedinto the national consciousness. Buddhism supplied at this point a real lack. Tsin dynasty in 265 a. In 819 a.as was hell as places different incarnations. em . The other deity.or ends. As neither Confucianism nor Taoism held out a hope of a future life. century. result of this doctrine As a Chinese Buddhists will sit for hours repeating the word is supposed to contain the Mi-to.D. Buddhism counted as Buddhists. in China as Kwan-yin. It thus happens that in China a religionof faith and of of the name of a Saviour has been ritual repetitions substituted for the strenuous ethical endeavor which constituted taught by Gautama primitive Buddhism. and act magnanimously toward a quished vanfoe. The progress of Buddhism in China was at first slow.the investielaborate church of the knight including an Han Yu. Great supposed bone of the Buddha reverence was paid to the relic. that individuals are doomed reincarnations until they become sufficiently fect perto attain Nirvana by losingtheir individuality in Tag^thata. Hsien Tsung..d. He is believed to control the tsingtu. A Confucianist.526 A. great majority of the people are on friendlyterms with all three.-14th. The faith thus introduced what is 58-86 A.)were ments impediopposed to Buddhism from were employed to prevent Chinese than two turies cenbecoming monks. It was in many as Mahayama nally respects quite different from the simple faith origithat which as well as from taught by Gautama is still perpetuated among the southern Buddhists.D. and although the same emperor would at times veer from one faith to another.

Her mother was especiallydevout and spiritually minded. and cultivating life. which place is also called choir (from chorus or corona or chancel).the chorus forming a circle about the altar. instructed in Hebrew. In most well-ordered religious of the ancient world the people responded to the trained priestsin the chanting of litanies. whose knowledge and apprehension of God have been scientifically must correct. unction. relatives were Her immediate prosperous people of local prominence.the West Indies.New tabernacle at 8th Avenue ana the Hudson.922. She was of English and Scotch descent.) in 1822. 9. with a native communicant body of about The 7. the AlUance announced its foreign mission policy. a systematizedand formulated knowledge of the divine Principleof being. CHRISTIAN REFORM CHURCH. Since that date missions have been begun in Palestine. After the 4th.regular. N. mainly under studies were natural philosophy. In 1887 at a convention at Foreign missions. Consecration of the chrism is performed by a bishop on Maundy day. the means of promoting its evangehstic and as missionaryinterests.625 (1919). and at Nyack Heights upon where is established the Nyack MissionaryInstitute." A the society operated by Church of England to publishand distribute Bibles. the Second Coming of Christ." A of group Christians organizedby James O'Kelly (1735-1826) in North Carolina with tenets similar to those of the Disciplesof Christ (q. since God is infinite must Spirit. Baptism by Holiness. " " CHRISMON. laying stress on faith-healing. Eddy took an unusual interest in religious subjectsand at the age of twelve she in recovered illness by turning to God from an . PhilippineIslands. Aunam. Membership.e. Christos. which be apphed spiritually.and occasional national. Revolumember of the Daughters of the American ethical and moral She was a fluent writer on subjectsand for a time earned her liveUhood through and other contributions to newspapers her literary " periodicals.discovered by Mary Baker Eddy in the year 1866.and churches with neither organization nor ministry.logic and moral She was science.2. Barton CHRISTIAN CATHOLIC CHURCH IN ZION. and Mary Baker of Christian Eddy. It mainofficial residence of many tains and orphanYork City various homes in New ages and also a training college. Simpson. Ideallya person possessedof the moral and religious character of Jesus Christ. v. A rehgious body organized in 1896 by John Alexander Dowie. pagan or nation. The early Christian Church continued modified synagogue service of a psalm chanting. hence the teachings of Jesus are at Christian and scientific. once I. Christian Science is so called because of its exact and scientific nature. 111." A body consistingof secessions from the Dutch Reformed Church 1882. (1)An unguent made of oUve oil and balm used as an anointing substance in the Or. It dates from 1698.and in three countries in South America. Her ancestry was marked by sturdy devotion to Protestant libertyand deep rehgious tendencies. It the tombs of some of the earlyChristians. and 450 native workers. however. The latest mission 260 foreignmissionaries. Maine. " " See Jesus CHRISTIAN PEOPLES' SOCIETY Societies. education. It implies a correct and demonstrable knowledge of God. Membership (1919). New Hampshire. century.a gentlewoman of culture and refinement. churches at baptism. the educational of the Alliance and the center of its leaders. ordination and consecration services.v.we hear of choirs (schola cantarum).. CHRIST." YOUNG See Young Peoples' CHRISTIAN SOCIETY FOR KNOWLEDGE. In 1903 she was tion. six provincesin China. and local.A 87 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Christian Science services CHOIR. A religiousmovement which has as its founder and president Albert B. The national are 44th Street. She received a liberal favorite Her tutors. first two appears on A formed of the monogram letters of the Greek word. abstinence from pork and tobacco. Discoverer Founder. In 1879 the International Missionary Alliance and the Christian Alliance were separatelyincorporated. on the border of Tibet. CHRISTENDOM.C. Its (q. Christian literature and tracts. in 1821.and Greek by her brother." A founded in sect 1848 by John Thomas. reportsshow some many of whom are lay workers. Alliance puts unusual emphasis upon conventions. and " " OF. CHRISTADELPHIANS. especially in monasteries. Thursused for the (2) A designation sometimes olive oil employed in the administration of extreme the Congo in Africa.and the and persons Extension of Christianityto all races with the purpose of offeringsalvation to every nation and individual in this generation. York. engaged throughout this mission field. Later these two societies united in the Christian and Missionary headauarters in the Alliance. In ordinary usage.three provinces in India. CHRISTIAN. Reagan CHRISM. Personal Heahng. Latin.). Old Orchard. i.anti-trinitarianism. CHRISTIAN " " ENDEAVOR. who occupied a prominent place in church. SCIENCE. specifically baptized and named. Divine Immersion. Leaders in the Alliance have been not especiallyprominent in the modern interdenominational and rehgious movement. 1857 and strongestschools are in western Michigan.confirmation. CHRISTIAN CONNECTION. the tenets of which are millenarianism. near was Concord. the Discoverer and Founder Science. James L. born at Bow. CHRISTIAN AND MISSIONARY ALLIANCE. and has been a great missionary agency in publishing books in various languages.the Soudan. the term is used to denote more even a professedfollower of Christ or loosely who is associated with a Christian group one or Mohammedan.conditional immortality. and R. J." A scientific system of metaphysical or spiritual healing.000. or a choir (chorus) of singers followed a leader or alternatelychanted psalms. not a Jew. Japan.district. It is Christian because it explains and unfolds the teachings of Jesus. Messiah. PROMOTING. a graduate of Dartmouth made an honorary College. Doctrinal rehgious doctrines position.separated from the people by a railing. As a child Mrs. The especially prominent in the Alliance and upon which it puts constant emphasis are Gospel Evangelism. The a sect strong religiouscommunity is located at Zion City." That part of the world which Christianity is the dominant reUgion." The of Christian ceremony the ceremony when an infant is baptism. " in CHRISTENING. Christ.

5. Footsteps of Truth. Church conducted The Sunday services and Second Reader. 6.Scientist. as a thus First Church " this Science for herself and others. Such services consist usuallya man of Scripturalreading. The and is known The organized was as Her parents had been members of Christ. As adherents of Truth. maintained The organizationof the church an intense interest in religious and metaphysical subjects. composed of Christian prepared by a Committee and it consists of selections from the Scientists. Christian Science versus Spiritualism. to do unto others as we would have them do unto us.X. VI. After churches are formed in accordance with the state laws and the directions given in the Church Mother Manual. First a and a woman. and all those who love this book are turned to a more appreciative. and to be merciful. man a complete revelation of the Science of the teachings of Christ Jesus 3. No and Fes (1891). Christ and Christmas (1897). XVII.Theology.efficacious Love. Miscellaneous Writings(1883-1896).etc. Marriage. causation. From nature to cover cover it stands for God and His laws. We acknowledge God's forgivenessof sin in the destruction of sin and the spiritual unfolded to her and she began to teach and practice understanding prayer. The People'sIdea of God spection (1886). " by . this date. Glossary. Life. 1902).and pure. We acknowledgeand adore one and having disappeared. today the Church In February 1866 she sustained an injurywhich Manual.even the allness of Soul. Church Manual (1895). These and branches have their own democratic forms of government. Mary Baker Eddy The Mother Church has. 1920. Rudimental Divine Science (1891). corporate. II. " ^ " that casts out evil as unreal. laws of the states in which they are organized. Science and Health with Key to issued are the Scriptures. and period she read littlebut the Bible and finally in God's image and likeness. The Christian Science textbook. and the nothingness of matter. It awakens each student of its pages to the awful and deceptive of sin and of all evil. The used in all Christian Lesson-Sermon and the same Science churches throughout the world. Poems (1910). prayer. Prayer. We acknowledgethat the crucifixion of Jesus and his resurrection served to upliftfaith to understand eternal Life. In her Mother Church. where they continue at As was she were a woman young further developed and afterward the present time. The formingof a branch church in its own locality does not constitute it a branch of The Mother Church. room. These are formed by loyal Christian Scientists in their own and conform to the requirements of the locaHties. it is more or as nection body for about fortyyears and she retained her confrequently called. which according to the laws of Massachusetts is a body of holding property. Reading Rooms III. are as follows: 1. Some Objections Answered. Teaching XII. but it has enabled them to heal others and so made it possiblefor them to fulfill the command of Christ Jesus to "heal the sick. Physiology. XIII. Textbook. And we solemnly promise to watch. It contains eighteen chapters. VIII. the as _4. Pulpit and Press (1895). IV. Fruitage. bequests. arose. After this experience she retired from society for We acknowledge His Son. and pray for that Mind also in Christ to be in us which was Jesus. and the singing of hymns.with correlative passages Science textbook. consecrated.definingits Principleand rules. Unity of Good (1891). Genesis. The Tenets Christian op the Science she read the account Church. Animal Magnetism Unmasked. II. XVIII. who be followed in every must act of Ufe if one is to merit the name of Christian. The Apocalypse. Branches.and intelligent study of the Bible. one about three years. Medicine. Messages to The Mother Church (1900. Eddy in 1879 and was given a charter by the Commonwealth In 1892 she reorganizedher of Massachusetts. with the following and Eucharist. Science Practice. IV." Health Science and with Key to the Scriptures acknowledges only one God and that the All-good. as given by her. The prayerful study of this book has not only healed thousands of its readers. are Services.Spirit. every trace of her injury supreme infinite God. dressed herself and walked into the adjoining 2. we take the inspired healingpower of the Christ came to her at that time Word of the Bible as our sufficient guide to eternal with such illumination and conviction that she Life. These Lesson-Sermons Science Publishing Christian quarterly by The of service is followed form same Society. VI.with the elucidation thereof. ment was of Christian Science. It shows Christ Jesus to be the Way-shower. followed by the reading of the Lessonis Lesson-Sermon Sermon The by the Readers. headings: I. Recapitulation. and formation of its By-Laws were directlyunder the supervision of Mrs. Science. unfoldingman's unity with God through Christ Jesus the Wayis saved shower. established in Boston. tian Science church was founded by Mrs. Christian Christian Science. of Jesus' healing of the man The reUgioustenets of Christian Science. These works may be found at all Christian Science and at most Public Libraries. The affairs of The Mother Church are administered by its Board of Directors. The First Church of Christ. Massachusetts. It was first publishedin 1875 and was revised by the author at various times until 1910 when the latest change This book contains the complete statemade. IX. Christian Science versus Pantheism (1898). 1901. called for her Bible and opening it at the ninth chapter of Matthew.XIV. and Miscellany (1913). The clear realization of the as formulated by Mrs. Retroand Introspection(1891). sick of the palsy.V. from the Christian Bible. the Holy Ghost or divine Comforter. Christian Healing (1886). during which Christ.We acknowledge Jesus' atonement evidence of divine.and Love as demonstrated by the Galilean Prophet in healing the sick and overcoming sin and death. Science of Being. extremity she turned to God. and we acknowledge that man through Christ. XVI. and includingmental and spiritual Eddy. at _V. they must be recognized by The Mother Church before they become branches thereof. But the belief in sin is punished so long as the belieflasts.Scientist. Creation. Church first ChrisThe Organization.Christian A Science DICTIONARY OF RELIGION At an admitted church to early age she was membership in the Congregational Church tarian). for the purpose " receivinggrants. upwards of eighteen hundred branch churches societies. written by Mary Baker Eddy during the years was immediately followingher discovery. XI.The Church.through Truth. Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. of that in Boston.just. VII. XV. Church subject to such By-Laws of The Mother churches as are applicable thereto. church (Trini- AND ETHICS 88 voluntary religiousassociation. The complete list of the published writings of Mary Baker Eddy is as follows: Science and Health vnth Key to the Scriptures. Eddy. Atonement III. is the accepted and duly recognized constitution and law of The was pronounced fatal by her physician. therewith until the first Christian Science Mother The headquarters of this church church founded.

reflects divine Truth. which elects the other officers annually. "Our under the provisionsof the in Science and Health: eth bread. where Science quarterly.' is Truth. to the healingof disease and sin. also from a per capita tax of one dollar tions and from voluntary contribu($1.also prayer and not more than thirtypupils. the erroneous individuallyand collectively. in German.under whose direction to become pupils are instructed and authorized number The of Science. not to man. hypnotism. It accommodate hundred and forty about one can now guests. sin and death.DICTIONARY A 89 OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Christian Science The midweek of Education services consist of testimonial of The or Mother by the Board form to classes and Church. in . . (3) Der Truth. VIII. and to reconcile man therefore Christ's purpose was and Truth are God Love to God. Second nance The Christian Science Board of Directors. tian authorized Chrisbe read or purchased.is taught yearlyby passages monies each teacher.which may in the dailypress or in circulated literature of appear any sort. from the textbook. (4) Le the life'to all who Science. Mother Church The financialsupportof The from its Publishing Society." "It is the livingChrist. in a full understand(6) The Christian Science Quarterly. Man not at war exceed divine Love.) tian Atonem"nt.. They are authorized to make a charge for their services equal to that of reputable physicians service is observed Communion in the branch in churches semi-annually. practitionersand Mother is held in The Bread and wine not used. at Massachusetts. the Mother The followingare the periodicals Church."the law of divine Love" in Baptism.with headc) A in Boston. followed by the giving of testiof the congregationof healing f) Practitioners.35. of Love. Mother Officers The Church The of tian follows: The Pastor Emeritus. of Christian Science teachers. down Our cup is the By-Laws. and represents for all evil.. Its property is situated in Brookline.a monthly publication. " " " " . The duty of these committees impositionson the correct. a shall at last we far as we apprehend it. Christian Science Benevolent tion Associainstituted and is maintained by Christian Scientists under the generaldirection of The Mother Church. relative of meetings there is reading from the Bible and corOnly one class. magnetism isthe synonym beliefs and false concepts of humanity. . are as Scientists are available. Atonement as understood in ChrisScience is defined by Mrs.in regard to Christian Science. 31).p.now b) A Board twenty-three members. Church vide for: a) A Board of Education."Animal magnetism is the voluntary or involuntary action of error in all its forms. who come for restoration to health and for recuperation.as the result of comes of the to the pubUcations sales of and subscriptions Church. the divine Principleof Jesus' teach- sense redeems of Love man and this truer sense from the law of matter. is a selfperpetuatingbody.who in connection devote their entire time Sunday Schools are conducted Church with The Mother and all branch churches. and Treasurer. IX. truer a to God by giving man reconcilingman ings.but no communion their respective localities. of Christian statistics regardingthe number so that no VII. First Science Board Reader. and present consists of an administration buildingand two dormitories.or any Animal of the allied occult or esoteric influences. Obeying Heraut de Christian Science.in consowith a By-Law of the Church Manual. which makes follow him in deed. some quarters Committee on Publication. At these take pupilsin Christian Science. Jesus 'the resurrection and Herold der Christian a weekly publication. A service classifieddirectory Church. (2) Christian Science Sentinel. Life." (Scienceand Health. who are elected by the Directors for a term of three years. of thirtypupilstaught once " numbering of Lectureship. Clerk. care Terms.. for reconcile Truth Christ cannot Even irreconcilable.the practical a monthly pubUcation . e) Teachers of Christian Science are those who have been granted certificates either by Mrs. and commended to draught our Master his followers. cross. Jesus aided Truth and are error " . 484. publishes the current literature of The wine Our the inspirationof Love. from its membership. drank which it issues: (1) The Christian Science Journal. Reader. Animal magnetism as understood in Christian action of erroneous Science represents the mesmeric belief. literature may are to the generalpublic and are maintained open by all Christian Science churches. followinghis demonstration in French. it is the human antipode of divine h) The was " Science. whereby man It Love. the only outward are being nurses is published in The Christian Science Journal. with God and prayer.00) per annum. of Spirit. There by members are upwards of six thousand of Christian Science in this from sickness and sin. public. 18-19). ceremony Christian Science the kneelingof the congregationin self-examination. mental suggestion.) ^The By-Laws proActivities. and also for the instruction training of in the proper (who are Christian Scientists) nurses of the sick. cannot to error. The object of this institution is to receive Christian the sick and injured among Scientists.a monthly publication. They are usually those who have taken instruction from authorized where pupilsare received up to twenty years of age teachers and are qualified to do the healing work. There is no baptismal ceremony sidered Baptism is conScience Church. organizations of correctingmisapprehensions are for the purpose in regard to Christian Science and for presenting of its fundamental teachings.with the exceptionof the Readers. singingof hymns. and so atone for himself. Christian Science is the very antipode of mesmerism. has representativesin all and large cities where Christian Science is known is to practiced. sit down for use in of the divine Principlewhich containing the Lesson-Sermons triumphs over Christian Science churches and societies and issued death" (pp. practitioners and other countries.by the law (pp.. 'which ComEddy and conducted from heaven. rest. Important Following is a list of some of the important terms used in the exposition of Christian Science. President. of Christian teachers class Normal teachers prepared is limited to one in three years. The Chrisof Directors. Eddy in Science and is the exemphficaHealth as follows: "Atonement cation of man's unity with God. g) The Publishing Society. authorizing them meetings held each Wednesday evening. with God's image and likeness. (5) The Christian Science Monitor. and instructed in the simplermeanings of the truth concerning Christian Science. dailynewspaper. who deliver free lectures under the Science the subject of Christian on Church and of the branch auspicesof The Mother These lectures throughout the world. so with ing him.in a Christian manner. the Christian by Christian Scientiststo be the spiritual " . his precious precepts. silent communion We read operating under a deed of trust granted by Mrs. Eddy d) Free Reading Rooms. (A By-Law prohibits the numbering of the membership for publication.

" that experience of each individual. seeing. " " " " p.bUss." an with Messiah. Soul.Christian "the flesh opposed to Spirit. as react The teaching of Christian Science always on absolute and invariable premise Christianityand produce individuals and movements starts from the one these of of the omnipresence.p. Spirit: Life. 333. But reactions have varied widely." The Christian Science Board Directors existent in matter. the reign of Spirit. opposed it as godless. dominate follows: "The the all-knowing. Desire is Christ Jesus the was (Science are not unknown from trusting God and no loss can with the occur and Health. sufferingand self. 42. op Error is neither Mind are life. The name is synonymous nature.destructive. omnipotence. remorse. the divine Mind. and the Churches have all-wise. Christ. Brieflystated. A used term Sharing the essential conby Christian of Christianityand Socialism. error. substance. Their from to protect the masses concern was Love. group. a spiritual thingsare possibleto God understanding unselfed love. " " " " " " nor faculties.Socialism has been anti-clerical and in great I AM. omniscience supporting or opposing it.^and in deeds. French Socialism. Christian political beyond the grave. powerless.587) is: "Harmony. the atmosphere of Soul. Where the conservative is contrary thereto European Churches. 581. the one and it renounces all that and only GOD. " but to propagate its ideas of Sociahsm that which 'worketh abomination the progress or maketh a lie. effects of sin.even signifya belief in more Christ whereof the Scripture beareth testimony." The effort to combine the fundamental aims of Socialism with the that reUgious and . Disease.as taught in Christian prayer and is preceded by the words of Christ Jesus in Mark and Matt." The definition of interests and ideals. 1. condemned of Christ and demanded of our Master as taught in the Scriptures.p. to God's service and makes daily progress in It is defined in Science his journey heavenward. Error is the contradiction of Mind's Error is a belief without understanding.) in Christian understood Error.all-acting. It is Error is unreal because untrue. does not seek to hinder destruction.government ple. 583. know that they have prayed arightin proportion as God and are in heart see that the pure signifies their prayers answered.death. eternal heals faith that all "Christ expresses error.through purification existence. to obey to obey the Golden and Health as follows: "Our baptism is a purification mergence the laws of God and of the land. with our be moulded and Christian Science textbooks. being a mental concept. more of workingmen. or the "As the advance in spirituality. or Truth and good" (Scienceand between of F. Switzerland." endeavor to live in accordance with the injuncin Spirit. as Protestant. and Science desires. lust." to be and seemeth (Science one CHRISTIAN SOCIALISM.illustrated. Eddy Science is a belief in that which is untrue. state of consciousness of one holding to such belief. "Error is a supposition trend of other Christian denominations that pleasureand pain. are found these words: embodiment.all-lovingand eternal. Truth. which is not.) as In Miscellaneous Writings (p. 472. 587). The first chapter in Life and its demonstration" are approaching spiritual Science and Health is devoted to the subject of (pp. Christian Science teaches its adherents Rule and. being frankly democratic.that they may exalted before they take form in words and in Health with and Key to the Scriptures. Socialists regard this kind of heaven. and belief. with Concordances.Christiad A Science OF DICTIONARY RELIGION AND ETHICS 90 mind" Paul's "carnal and crates "fleshlymind." to the divine Mind. Principle.They have medieval and with conservative modern aims kingdom of God is within you. deed. Scientists to mean mediators act as the human mind Socialists can and evil in contradistinction to interpretersand The early "Christian SociaUst" the two. in so doing. Christian sin.' victions within Mortal the Church. the Bible. self-imposed agony. Protestants. an and alludes to the spiritualitj^ Later." which is taught.members (Scienceand Health. mind. and Count Sagnier in the competitive selfishness of and this is the result of the teaching and practice France. intelligence.) shall neither entertain a belief nor of this Church (For further meanings of ethical and religious in Christian used Science terms consult the that than one as Christ. writes: ages Christian Science will be seen to depart from the that which appears to be but is not.that intelligence.in /Scienceand Health (p. of Him. a capitalismin the name Powerful antisolidaristic social order. that "the leadership. "Mortal In Great Britain. Christian Science teaches that heaven Heaven. "Christian Socialism" with hostility. tion of Paul to "pray without ceasing" and they washing the body of all the impuritiesof flesh. believingthat by divine Princiits main aim is to protect the church rather than spirituahty. D. except by increase of spirituality. America." accord with all of Mrs. It was inevitable that so powerful a spiritual and Health. Germany.ethical convictions of Christianity. Mind. Christian Scien"Purification by Spirit.as well as the sinful. formed in 1848 under the leadership 114).) Socialism modern would movement God. But no tian one can successfully Healing." "The baptism of Spirit. and is not a localityand is not limited to experiences socialistorganizations even thus created under religious On the contrary. Socialist influences.in which he conseof thought and which seems to be but which has no real or substantial himself. partieswere and radical combined Science accepts the teaching of Jesus. the main anti-religious. Error libraries. The great difference between ChrisSociaUsm the working classes without Science and other religions is that Christian oppose among for Scientists rely entirelyupon assentingto most of its criticism of the capitalistic spiritualmeans social order and outbidding its practical healingthe sick and sorrowing. follows: "The that reforms the of God. all substance.among revenge. 241). The "The divine manifestation 11:23-24 6:8. chapter Science. Prayer.) "In accordance prayer." Hell is defined in Science and Health (p. disand court the Protestant with the introduction of spiritualtruth chaplain Stoecker in de Mun and Marc and its activities in the thought of the individual.35. Strong and This healing is not miraculous such as the Catholic Bishop Ketteler appears personalities. . Eddy's teachings. 21) Mrs. It is regarded as equivalentto Health. Catholic or the religious God is defined in Science and Health (p.as: to free the people.allsituation. p." writingsof Mary Baker Eddy.pp.subtists from all error. as evil. a departure in no wise from that which is true. in Christian Science Reading Rooms and in public (ChurchManual. sincere religious but is divinely organizing efforts. untrue. on the same in the life of which and demonstrated "Thoughts unspoken page. hatred. which comes as to the flesh to destroyincarnate opens prayer sinner and the sick is absolute God's spiritual. natural.Christ means. sickness. of Truth.and immoral.588).

.the cities on the northern coast of the contained groups of Christians Mediterranean soon Jewish and who not predominantly Jewish. but stillasserts the moral responsibility (6) It stands for the sanctityof the family and the radical Christian attitude on the question Walter Rauschenbusch of mtoxicants. Member- 13. and nearly all the wider movements in have proved that Christianity the Free Churches Great Britain has been deeply affected by Christian have had no organized Socialism. So far know to be found among as we only Jews were the immediate followers of Jesus. creates a distinctive consciousof Socialism. Charles Kingsley and J. Historical Origins. Of these propagandists among know little or nothing. early Christians were conscious of any form of syncretism. This definition illustrates how thoroughlyJewish the movement in its original was stages. current they should use inevitable. Easter. as the divinely That endued Savior. and this process is stiU in progress. in 1863 primarily the or to protest against the preaching of politics ship emphasizing of doctrinal differences. An association UNION. but. It is a pecuhar genus The Christian sense of the sanctityof lifeand personality and of the essential equalityof men re-enforces the SociaUst condemnation of the present social order. except of Paul and his we associates. were had Gentile Christians believed that Jesus who " " " . But Christian echo of orthodox Socialism. is Since 1880 the "Guild of St. and Whitsunday.the churches. Christ as the enemy of love and righteousness. They accepted him fulfiU their national the one who would as reUgioushopes. and others. AND ETHICS Christianityas teachings and a Christianity religion is institutions. (2) study the applicationof Christian ideals to current social and economic problems. To-day those who apply it to themindicate that they accept at least the substance of the Socialist platform. without worship of the temple or the customs of pious Jews of their day. Thanks his preaching. their distance l"efore or after one is the The CHRISTIANITY. The Greek group acceptedJesus as Christ soon became propagandists non-Jewish people. I.A 91 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION Maurice. which is so dated as to give four Advent Sundays calendar festivals are before Christmas. but the movements religious spread of diluted Socialist ideas among of the most fruitful religious leaders has been one influences of the last forty years. religious The not century sprang. reUgiousqualities the followingpoints it is in conscious At antagonism against tendencies prevailingwithin the Socialist movement: (1) It sets a positive religiousfaith against the materialistic philosophy SociaUsm which has inherited from its European beginnings.unconsciously. The CHURCH YEAR." CHRISTIAN YEAR or celebrations to be observed in calendar of religious the Christian church. CHURCHES UNION CHRISTIAN rately (more accuOF CHRIST CHURCHES INDEPENDENT tional interdenominaAn CHRISTIAN IN UNION). and in the ultimate social redemption of the race through Christ lends to the Socialist ideals. CHRISTIAN UNION" See Union. The significant fact is not the conceptions which they used to the value of Jesus.as as accepted Jesus of Nazareth Christj^ the one God had empowered by His resident whom spiritto become the savior of His people and the estabhsher of His kingdom (see Jesus Christ). M.S. Social Union" in the Church and the "Christian of of England.or a thoroughlystandardized body of practices.but in a group confessingfaith in its Founder. CmjRCH. conceptions in such an evaluation was The precisecontent of their messianic conception. Not Buddhism shows a largervarietyof form than even does Christianity. Ludlow. After his death they preached his resurrection abandoning the and. Various similaritieswhich have been pointedout between the early Christian hopes and those of other nations are not independent elements appropriated and combined in a system. They are rather the fruitageof the complex religiouslife from which the Jewish life of the 1st." CHRISTIAN SOCIAL of Christian Socialists organized in England in 1889 Scott under the leadershipof Bishop Gore. ity. The religiousbelief in the fatherhood of God. It is doubtful whether they even knew the historical pedigree of their most characteristic hope. It did not begin as a completed system of doctrines. also elements of earlier Semitic religions which had been absorbed (seeKingdom of God." religionwhich outgrowth of the life and work of Jesus Christ and centers about his personaUty. It than more is a its reUgious- historical movement from which teachings and institutions have emerged in group life.692 (1919). Messiah). in the fraternal solidarity of men. Matthew" well known. The phrase "Christian SociaUsm" was formerly used in a loose way to designateany radical social selves sympathies.the religionwhich has become the dominant religion in Europe. Other Epiphany. the various Sundays being numbered according to of these Sundays. of the hopes and perpetuated not only many group practicesof their Jewish contemporaries and their Hebrew progenitors. What it is has been developed from what it was. Canon the Holland." body organized in the U. (3) hold up Jesus and the master of social wrong. of spiritual realityand independent power (5)It recognizesthe influence of social environment. and Australasia. by the Hebrews Yet it would be a mistake to thmk of primitive Christianityas a form of religioussyncretism. awaited his return from heaven for the establishment of the messianic kingdom. Catholic and Anglican churches In the Roman the year begins with the first Sunday in Advent. In the meantime to live according to the they undertook Thus this early teachingwhich he had given them. pendent inde1. Socialism is not a mere Its Christian spirit ness. (2) It believes in the value and social of the churches. forces. immediate Western Christianity is to largelythe outgrowth of his activity. of the individual. possibiUties (3) It lays stress on factor in the salvation as a religiousregeneration of society. the two Americas. This simple Jewish evaluation of Jesus as Christ almost was immediately supplemented by other reUgiousconceptionswhich came not from Hebrew of those who but from life. aiming to: (1) secure authority of Christian law in social matters. (4) It accepts "economic determinism" but asserts the as a chief factor in social evolution.and is markedly extending its influence in both Asia and Africa.e. while not without great influence in later Christianin many turned out to be less significant particulars than the fact that through it the early Christians made Jesus central in their reUgiousUfe. Christianity as an religionhad its rise in the group of Jews who in the second quarter of the Christian era that is. In America we of equal popular strength.but rather that in the express midst of a definite historical situation they recognized Jesus as more than a prophet. History. As a religion it illustrates the structural laws which condition all religiousdevelopment generally.i.Ascension Day.

strong to withstand the assaults of the northHeresies were the occasion of theology which peoples.but there soon member of the large group of oriental humble other writingsclaiming Apostolic authorship and cults seeking recognitionin the Roman Empire. century these Christian churches seem to have lost to a very conor siderable groups the expectationsof an imminent extent and have to given themselves to a practical return. preserved intact and without serious was charity rather than economic munism. centered around the two sacshould seek doctrinal preHellenistic Christians raments. comgenerosity There is no evidence that the primitive modification the ancient formulas which we know firstin the old Roman Christians ever attempted or taught the reorganizasymbol. efforts gave rise to endless controversy the theologiansof the two great cities of Antioch and Alexandria. ception Beginning with the rise of the Stoic-Platonic conwho could make of the Word personal professionof faith but (Logos) as an equivalent in adult spoke. Like the the religionit was theistic.and the head union of the divine and the human. was not interested Docetism. Conditions in the for participating be accomplished by the impact of the divine essence Lord's Supper were also developed. Influence of Hellenism. the movement From of characteristics which began to developa number from the start has been a (7) Christianity to survive the destruction of the nations and were of moral ideals. and philosophical explanationof that faith and hope which the gospelof the risen Christ. but was opposed also regardedas He was of his Christian group. the bath.. has been (5) Catholic Christianity commonly considered a process of Hellenizing the earher beliefs.).and the lifeof the the human it was inevitable that upon essence. At the start this new only a religionwas developed a collection of inspired. With class.e.by These between especially . apologetic and militarydecadence. literalness carried no intellectual difficulties. It taught strongly to all forms character. were increasingly sophicalpriestly and with the current ments beUef. and had gone to heaven would of the world and saviour of those who acknowledged him as their Lord. very advantages over See Canon with the Old Testament.v. which put them on a par an inspiration so possessing decided It had. however. It might with equal justicebe described the as result of the Christianizing of Hellenism.however. Christianity of European civilizo/from the earliest days regarded as divinely was tion. But time passed and Jesus did not return. The portant religion imcivilization from which most although these ideals have of these characteristics are: generally been those recognized by the existing (churches).and the moral idealism of the church was suffered in the general collapse of the empire before being systematic. which began in the middle of the possessionswith each other seems with of Acts the of 2nd. i. was the 2nd. that salvation was to as the recipient. There is no clear indication that the development of groups (1) The the Roman to transform of less affiliated. ready to share their Theological accuracy. in the immediate marked and the tendency became to expect the parousia in a general way and to center attention of men the rescue from the power of death. The however inevitable as men described. 4:34. of the economic life. needs led to the revaluation Their religious religiondeveloped a beheved its members their restless philoof their acquired faith.the Son of God.A Christianity DICTIONARY OF been put to death. century onward it seems istered to have been adminwith what were not in accordance regarded as but by pouring -and not only by immersion the beliefs of the originalor apostolicChristians. seek to modify They did not consciously their inherited faith but rather to seek effective provided. These synods attempted to correctly in current philosophical and of their inherited religiousterms the significance of blies conqueror 92 express faith. The church. possessed of the civilizationof Greece and Rome undertook co-ordinate their faith with to their culture. as for some Christians. For modern the early Greek. century to the 5th. below). (Biblical) Jewish them all. upon Thus by the end of the 1st. but its recognitionof the worth catholicityor universalityas distinct from the tutions of personalityindirectlyaffected such social instiunder the control of cosmobeliefs of groups more of criminals. 2. faith in Jesus as the Son of God. it sprang. priestly possessing immortality and the resurrection of the dead. but (4) The development of authoritative doctrines of to accomplishthis in the way did not undertake successive synodsor other assem(seeII " " " . As the Christian reared. Their sense of the imminence of the return of the Messiah made economic (6) The growing regard for the mystery religions laid new which emphasis upon the simple practices superfluous. 35). as slavery. rounded the result of its expansion religionwas By the second or third generation these two rites had begun to acquire a significance non-Jewish peoples. and its recipients not only adults were sprinkling. and Heresy) from which sprang ciently in developing a public opinion or patriotismsuffinovel interpretationsof the original Christian ern See Catholic. (3) The rise of the Bishop who was at once acceptance champion and expounder of the generallyaccepted bu. The precisedate at which this development reached is not to be fixed. the some Hellenism for the Messiah of sacraments increased until seven the number were new religionrapidlyacclimated itself to the nonentered. increasingly cision church was So important did baptism appear that from and guard it against all forms of interpretation the 2nd. It promised salvation by the of the Hebrew and therefore true Christian doctrine. to have the sole power of administeringthese sacratemperament in such way their blessingsto to assure born of the mystery religions. clear from the development. confidence as fulfillment of the hope weakened. account defense century originalconfessions (2:44. social order. born of economic literature.and cism.45. Gradually also infants for whom in Jewish thought. and the common memorial meal. Jewish world into which it had successfully recognized. but resulted in ecumenical. the main ancestor of tion the Apostles'Creed (q. The ment Old Testa(2) Authoritative the religion 3. into an independent and wellChristian movement namely. early church undertook or possessed of a sense more Empire as such. of polytheism. but such of faith.tit was not ethnic and did not demand cult. treatment logicaland theosophical influences (see Gnostimarriage. Its further development among of their own as an was expressionof regenerationand of largelyset by the Greek culture in very which practically all of its new members had been immortality due to the impartationof the divine nature. soon return as AND RELIGION ETHICS Christians. or the baptism. programs characterized the original group The expansion of the of Christians. See Sacraments.was process.catholic dogma concerning God and Christ. of the original How far this group born of ecoformulas of those who movement interpretation was nomic is not easy to state with accepted Jesus as the Christ and expected him to protest and purposes That Christians were return to do his Messianic work.

(2) the fixingof secondaryelements on the religion. The rise of the worship of the break-up of the Roman state organization established into brought the new movement emperor by Rome. It was natural. very with the body (3)the growth of power on the part of the bishops.v. If to these charcalamities of the period between acteristics as Romulus Augustus there be added admitted and Charlemagne. and a certain unify and Christianize degree of economic democracy. the developmentof the church was materially constituted the episcopalestate under the current affected by politics.v. The Roman Catholic Church of the Middle by scholasticism and the foundation of universities. and had proFrom this attitude gressed by the mortification of the body. which Emperor and Pope both were to represent it will not be difficult to see how Jesus Christ in Lord. were increasinglyregarded as a true sacrifice performed and Maronite churches. like philosophy. only after 12th. eastern had an effect in become ful life. reverence Ages the line of demarcation the clergy and the laity was martyrs. Nestorian. Transubstantiation. together with a Europe under the Holy Roman Empire (q. inherited such since He had imperial power survived as the revealed Himself Saviour. the process of Hellenization. being supplemented by the and the Western or Roman sacraments of marriage.all reappear that the Christians spread that Constantino lifeof the time. This situation. so far had it obligations between in the classes. morality. century and ran along the line of cleavage between the eastern and culture. It had its vision of a better already and Stoicism it was of the Apostle Peter. but slightlybeyond the results gained by of mind.that political (3) Primitive eschatology was transformed into methods and organizationshould be appropriated of future rewards in heaven.the worship of the VirginMary.and the ascetic qualityof the reUgion the organizationof the Eastern became church was never thoroughlyfixed in a desire to save the soul as systematized as that of the West. and after the disintegration of the Roman time the concleansingin purgatory. It was universal but did not. especiallythe Bishop of Rome. together direct conflict with the state. make morality the exclusive property Christianity church was furthered by the Romanization of the Christian movement. reinforced as it was by the fear of hell.the church in a long struggle to decide who speaking the sole religion should From invest the bishop with his office and the land which religion of the emperor. as Christianity the Roman had the elements evitably (2) The effect of the social changes which ga/e inwhich Empire made towards leadershipin the religious rise to the civiHzation of the Middle Ages is also field. however. and was other causes (forgedDonation of Constantine. hagiology. systematized. sharply drawn. for his temporaUties from the emperor and for his The Bishop became a municipal figure if not an spiritualbenefice from the Pope. It taught the forgivenessof God. See expressed by Augustine in his teaching as to sin. The mass progress.worship of images. zeal for Thereafter for several centuries an effort was made to an converts. The struggle. but unUke Platonism regarded as the successor anchored to a definite historical person. with the incursion of armed foreigners For nearly three who held their hundred this conflict continued with intermittent land in militarytenure. Centralization in church affairs grew steadily. century. to the was gained.however. philanthropy. At the same ception of salvation Roman Empire resulted in a transcendentahzed modified to meet this was Catholic Church..A 93 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS the mysteries.from world. 5.but also the centers of complete by the 9th. however. asceticism. It Empire called the Roman readjusted eschatology.and increasinglyof learning. saw The most significant tration illusreligious constituted a group with political of such influence isto be seen not to be in the significapower tion tianity. the Eastern being littleaffected by the progress of the modern and world Lord's Supper. was right.and morality was ingly increasthat this made is. in the development of the religion. therefore. the originaltwo. Furthermore. and social development furnished no Monastic stimulus for estabUshments appeared over the entire the East to make tionally. branches the Armenian. The creaseen tive This leadership social mind of Europe from the 9th. because of the stimulated collapseof other social control. persistent unlike all religionsof its time did not undertake conviction that the Roman Empire continued) to placate the Deity by sacrifices. Penance largelystatic. the classical Ages. during the for Middle between e. for centuries. baptism were great branches. The Bishop of Rome of the intellectuals.alliance of the Franks with papacy. but needs. became. official. where they became progress The break between home the two halves of the of those who sought salvation by retiring from empire was worldly lives and pleasures.commonly Both Pope and emperor could claim to possess that regarded as the conquest of the Roman The Empire by Christianity. western history.in popular reputationfor the abihty to work miracles. western instituor not only the theologically Europe. and the church identified increasingly of the clergy. at the altar. politicaltheory as to the Holy Roman Empire. The lack of political there sprang vast a development of monasticism. Even before the feardeveloping the church became very destruction wrought by the Arabian invasion. The feudal system already a licensed religion.and with his triumph over his rivals Chrisgiven the death of Christ by Anselm (q.g. Thereafter CathoHc (5) Early in the Middle Ages the sacraments Christianity existed in two increased in number. struggle ended with compromise contained in the Concordat of Christianity.however. though also. an shaping power of the imperial social mind was not clearlyfelt in the due to (4) Penitential systems.and future penitential continued by the church.ordination. increasingly (6) The intellectual life. The effect wine was to partake of the real body and blood of of the fallof the Roman Empire. many thus prevented from becoming a mere Pseudo-Isidorean economic and political system of Decretals. century was severe feudal. penance. a well-rounded system This process future punishments in hell. Coptic. ignored. This was in (1)pessimism as to human seen Jesus into which the substance of the elements had nature. confirmation. (1) The development of an imperialistic was primarilyconcerned in assimilating _ " " . quite as truly a Romanization of Worms ing (1122) accordThe institutional life of the Empire gave to which the bishop received his investiture great impetus to the development of church organization.). being a distinct element in that addition these In main to and extreme became unction. thought. and especially the attempt years but increasingly and extensive perseto build social solidarity the basis of reciprocal on grave cution. By the 4th. in largemeasure half of the empire where social affairs had the influence of Irish ecclesiastics. Constantine's time. been transformed in the miracle of the mass. To partake of the bread and the 4. noteworthy ecclesiastical interest.). involved the not strictly of the state.

g. dominant social minds which have shaped Western civihzation have not only characteristic sprung needs. It is at the present time making decided tology. founded in the 16th. The ception of reUgion which freed northern Christians Bible has been treated in a great variety of ways Church the Roman and emfrom dependence upon to the rationalism phasized ranging from practicalbibliolatry the immediacy of the soul's relation with of the early19th. togetherwith the collapseof the AND ETHICS 94 From each of the great a variety of ways. Under the Bible is of prunary is commonly known it as the Reformation. church and Holy Spirit. centuries. ^To all bodies of Christians the except in so far as it affected the ideas of the church. the Lord. joined without confusion in one person. and the English and Scottish Rechurches carried forward a conthese new faith claim to be the expositionof its contents. relation of the two Catholic individuals. This extraordinarydevelophas had its social group. e. gains elements of the historic Christology. the state churches 3. and 18th.Jesus consubstantial with God See Church. by faith alone. Through the wisdom as Luther. broke from had not become but their influence. At modern present the religiousworld developed into the generalconceptionof trinitarianbe roughly classified into Christian movement is that the one of which divine ism. but also to the fundalimited to membership in the true church. See Bible . The Bible. in the western world transformation This was Orthodoxy as an inherited and continuously accompanied by wide-spread restlessness at the expanded system is to be traced back to the faith control of the Roman and beliefs of the earliest Christian groups. in which the same individual might appear in various personae. the Greek.d.Calvin. although springing from different social conceptions and national hopes.It has always opposed 7. pantheisticor polytheistic. in one law suit he might be a into self-determining father and in another See Trinity. All creeds and confessions of Zwingli. Arianism. which had for centuries Other but also a been not only the ecclesiastical. Church Christ. Bible was The modification of those fundamental state churches. a divine nature the Father and human consubstantial There is also a very widespread nonnature Union. tion Recently there has set in a reacmon in them and element all was from excessive group-individualism. importance. century. a ecclesiastical Christianitythat finds expressionin with us. peoples of Asia. Inspiration. This movehas perpetuated. adaptable not only to the Semitic civilization from generallyrecognized the uniqueness of Jesus as a which it sprang and the classical in which it was divine example and saviour. The rise of nationalistic Christianity. On the teachingswhich characterize the movement other hand are those who hold that a church is a and which are capableof being institutionalized in so " " " " " " " . II. In consequence to the growing mass social experience. century. It has shown itself and defended.Christianity A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION This intellectualheritagein so far as it survived. however. The church. century. reUgious movements by Chrisof this new and others evolved by way of opposition pohtical institution. Theism. the Christ. of all the world's reUgions. the church. ism was subject to the control of the church and of church beliefs. in the modern with monarchs sense cathedra)and interpretedby the Fathers. organization resultingfrom its appropriation of the experienceof a virilecivilization and its adoption On the one hand are those who hold that the Christian of the agencies most effective in successive stages community is the sole channel of grace which of political such salvation is mental makes salvation possible. the essence may Catholic hold to the one of those who substance exists in three personae: the groups Father. and organized indegroup. Christianity teaches (in turn broken into three general groups lics) God of the Roman. Modern developments. resulted in the rise of nationalities councils (now of the Pope.See "Christhe Socinianism.. The comthe 19th. and justification 2. able to state in a dogma. This theistic view was torically hisEurope in the 16th. recognizesin the historic individual. ment. century passed into a new phase and began that process of grounded in the Hebrew religionand has given rise to the social differentiation which under the influence of the Graeco-Roman mind was order. have segregated themselves case son.) federation of the more which significantdenominations. and the Anglican Cathothat one into actual personal relations comes of so-called Protestant and the group with nature and man. The exact natures Content. These may be brieflystated as follows: 1. completed the systematization 6. generichistory of the movement which was not a break with Catholic theology. The movements religions ment has been due not only to the efficiency in its largestvariations in the content of the Christian doctrine are to be found in the field of ecclesiology.and development. the Saviour. Creed. expressed in the away of Chalcedon decrees of the Council there are strong tendencies toward co-operationand (451 a. All these terms have essentially the This period of disunion was duringthe very marked 17th. Church. of revelation as distinguished comes guidance of such profoundlyreUgiousmen formers. The defense of the oped doctrine has largely consisted in the restatement first developed. most widely diffused and influential of all religious Christianity hke aU genuine of history. beliefs which the by them taken as the sole basis of authority. have been induced tianity. Secondary form of Christianity has to play so largea role Christianitywhich had come no consciously been in Mediaeval Christianitywas largelyabandoned. Federation op Churches. Unitarianism. God Because of its loyaltyto the Bible. and has thus become among 4. Jesus.and reached its climax in same content. Chief Doctrinal was Christianitynever This Christologyhas been successivelyattacked Doctrinally Christianityis the most complete Those opposed to it have. sects It should be added that individuals but is a term does not mean a happy one) (although the term is by no means personae derived from the Roman holding to the including those Christians who courts. but also a geneticsuccession of doctrines. Many of these groups are the survivals of groups. supplemented in Roman Catholicism by tradition and the decisions of the church feudal system. that Lordship of Jesus and endeavoring to embody the fundamental conceptions of older Christianity.the Christians of the lands which of authoritative group beliefs. but also to the more highly develindustrial civiUzation assumed of western from some philosophicalpositionof the Europe.from that of nature.the Son of God. Son.that is to say. The originof these doctrines liesin the revelation contained in the Bible. Thus Christianityas anything approaching a mechanistic or impersonal the rehgion of Western view of the universe. far as it has been extended thoroughly Romanized so civilization had been those of the territorywhose nonbeyond the immediate membership of some pendent orthodox built up on the Roman has been chieflyfelt through their plan.The transformation of Europe through the economic development which began with the rise of cities in the 12th. speaking ex of the term. is characters. century.

observance the two universally recognizedbeing those of baptism and the Lord's See Church. was enslaved the will. The Atonement. in nature and history resultingfrom a personal. 5.as in the task of answering the objections of those who hold to purely utilitarian or impersonal views of the world. vindication of law.that others Supper. these demands In many standardized cases were which has sometimes into penitentialdiscipline. unite in holding that the church exists not only for the maintenance but also for the of worship and religious instruction.this originalnature.)." See Disciples CHRISTLA. however.g.A 95 OF DICTIONARY voluntary grouping of those who have experienced regeneration. In the course more time. The religious significance of Christ has been set forth in various ways (e. 7. query which had always been a part of the social order. Christian movement is also being increasingly 2. Missionary zeal. the church itselfbegan the development intended to of its own which customs were set forth the new of the lifewhich was born mores of the divine spirit. and the moral ideals of the Christian groups of have always been in advance societyat large. See Atonement.v. use the part of decided movement on seen a very representativesof the leading Christian groups towards the acceptance of the results of scientific At the present time discovery. no catholic doctrine of the atonement comparable with that of of the death the Trinity.socialand cultural. condemnation moral influence). if not weakened.and in consequence interest in the teaching of Jesus has moved along very decidedlyidealistic lines in the applicationof the principlesof Jesus to the social order.ethical motive of sharing have with those who a partial knowledge the full content of the blessings of the deeper knowledge and his salvation to be seen in Jesus Christ. to be denied. According to this doctrine based that of Paul.Christianity sets forth God as loyalto both love and law." of the Mandaeans (q. both in its organizationand in its theological concepts embodied and championed monarchy. By Adam's fall. with a philosophyof efficiency and force especially to which Nietzsche gave such vigorous expression.Since that day the freedom of God to love has been repeatedlyset forth as made possible by the satisfaction which Jesus by his hfe and death rendered to God 'sdignity or his punitive justice or the sovereigntyof law. of the sacraments.although seldom so far in advance of a contemporary as to questionthe presuppositions social order. the race was created perfectwith upon the abihty to choose the good as well as the evil. Thus in New times there Testament into the moral was no justiceof slavery. The rise of new ments philosophical systems has naturallyled to restateof fundamental values in addition. representativerepentance. as well as strictly religious ideals. The persistent value of all such theories has been the exposition of the ethical character of God's love. In originalsin which has affected all human later days among Protestants the eschatological motive. while not corrupted that evil impulses so destroyed. Jesus rather than precisionin theological tudes Loyalty to Jesus Christ is certain to develop attiwhich will not only conserve the fundamental values of the inherited doctrines and institutions. substitutionary punishment. Christian doctrine to a considerable 1. conceptionof authorityas immanent time there exists a definite society..so that until the nature has been regeneratedby the Holy Spiritthe will is incapable of choosing the good.it partakestoday of the great characteristics of the modern period.view found which expression in various dogmas of the church is an essential part of such dogmas. The ethical problem of how he could forgivethe sinner and yet maintain his moral order did not bulk in theologicalthinking until the time of Anselm (q. large element of hope in the situation liesin the fact that religious leaders are emphasizing the hfe and teaching of formulas. The idea of the death of Christ as a sacrifice. Since his day. The historyof Christian moraUty shows the development which is to be seen in the At the start it was hardly religionas a whole.than appropriation the fundamental strugglewith the impersonaland mechanistic interpretationsof the universe and man's place therein. The church has been a laboratory of social progress. and Europe the conceptionof God as immanent J ^ Simultaneously. A designation their honoring . fact that any democracy as representedby AngloAmerican pohticalhistoryis to such a largeextent the outgrowth of church hfe justifies the hope that Christianity will be as significant in the growing democracy as it was in the imperialismof Rome the nationalities of and America.). modernists the issue is less that of such among with consequent readaptation.v.however. At the same and serious problem in the fact that the church. the less always insisted But Christianityhas none the maintenance of moral standards so far as upon of its recentlydeveloped organized. 6. Morality. and from those who insist upon a literalistic But the last hundred years have of the Bible. once The democratizingof such teachingand conceptions will require no A small wisdom. Modern Tendencies Christianity. has been at least supplementea by the social. Sin and the need of divine salvation. in which his value was expressed both in New Testament times. " " " " AND RELIGION ETHICS Christians of St. but will also stimulate humanity to organize a Christian democracy which will give rather than Mathews Shailer merely demand justice. 8.however.NS OF ST. than a This missionary zeal is something more The Christian church desire for proselj^ting. The historic doc' embodied to very largedegree elements both of Platonism and AristoteUanism. See Modernism. The conviction that they have had the only authoritative revelation of God and the only assured way of salvation has always spurred Christians to an extension of their faith. in Its Relation That there is opposition to such Theology. in a democratic 3. All groups. The emphasis of this doctrine has naturallyled to the insistence upon good works following regeneration. The revaluated from the point of view of trines different philosophical systems. the death of Christ as a factor in the revelation of the divine forgiveness. The from the point of view extent is being reinterpreted See Science of modern science. John of the might also be saved from the consequence hfe.finds helpfulanalogiesin the developing in democratic.has been perpetuated in church teaching and by the Roman Catholics in the sacrifice of the Mass (qv. op Just because the Christian reUgion is not static but is a movement embracing . although free so to do. There is. to share with the world at large. served to restrain moral development along social lines.due to John the Baptist. III. of Christ. JOHN. of sin. of God " i|"^ _ CHRISTIANS. especially from cannot reinterpretation those who feel that the philosophical and scientific world. the doctrine of sin as organized by Augustine has been the point of departure of the entire doctrine of salvation.). of the forces of the cosmos interpretation given us by science. The place of Christianity The world order is yet to be fully determined. of than that of current Judaism. mere has regarded itself as possessedof a knowledge of under sacred obligation which it was the way of salvation.

Primitive Christians shared the Jewish conceptionthat salvation involves " deUverance.perhaps and not connected invoked to bless the representsthe vegetation-spirit coming year. between 400 in Cappadocia by 383. and future coming to judge the living (a) The "Plan of the Ages. 25. at Alexandria stated that the date and 432 (here it is definitely had previouslybeen Jan. mentioning virginbirth. recent importation of relatively L." i. At this time the spirits was " " " " " " . of man in origin. have who may except. Christianity passed to the Hellenistic world. but as Jan. be Dec. This subordination.A Christians of St.therefore. who divine spirit. sharp contrast and the immaterial the material cosmos between 3. The fixingof Dec. Justin Martyr identified Jesus with Atonement so (inthat year in Sept.and in Scandinavia there are still distinct traces of this The behef. i. To overheld on Dec.so took possession that the flesh lost its dominion. mistletoe. between 378 and 388. thinking made sharp distinction between was of evil. conception would be in March. Behef in in the near to be awaited Jesus as Messiah was grounded on the supernatural attestation of his mission during his life.session at God's righthand. 6) .and this coincidence was foremost. 28.acwas in "Hving according to the to the Stoics.Hellenistic reUgious though good use the Some have a made of it when it became known. Since he had not established the kingdom during his hfe. The more Christ. Incarnation Christology.was the central affirmation of Arianism. "anointed" for this end. "nativity"be regarded as referringto Christ's pervading control of the universe by divine Reason conception. ascension. Gray The doctrinal expositionof CHRISTOLOGY. his triumph death. emphasis was In order to overcome nature.probably a Celtic feature with a solstitial feast. inevitable the immutable "birthdayof the unconquered sun. The earUest eviof its celebration (Ephraem Syrus. 25 by the "plan of the ages" caused the feast to participatedactively coincide with the Mithraic festival in honour of the defined as subordinate in nature to in creation.however. 25.and feast of the Saturnalia flesh. about 385 it was still by 635 (perhaps the old date Jan. doubtless accidental." A Christian Hellenist. took place on March ception 25. 6). celebrated now of Dec. the Logos. man with Christmas. 1. at Jerusalem certainly by 425-58.When have been at Passover of that year. Messianic Christology. especially as was sometimes held to imply that he was baptizedon feast his thirtieth birthday. Influenceof paganism. his ascension to the righthand of God.). and as Christ is the Paschal Lamb born differentinterest appears. the givingof gifts.and formulating assertions concerning the metaphysical Christ. No feast of the Nativity seems have been observed previous to the 4th. and his nativity thereby makmg him the eternal divine being who and who It is also possible.etc. over and his future coming in glory to usher in the messtillprevails. the divine Spirit.however. This was by was Pope Liberius in 353-54 (lessprobably by Pope observance the in 336). AND The festival of Christ's Nativity. Accordingly the first done shifted to Dec. by the Basilidians. ap-" inspiredprophets and philosophers that the view that the Crucifixion of the "Paschal peared personally in Jesus... the flesh and give full dominion and was totallydifferent both in spirit The essential to salvation.the end when cosmic problems were of the winter solstice. By a faultyexegesisof the Logos. some origin. and from Rome Marcus nople introduced at ConstantiIt was spread to the East.must fulfilthis messianic hope. danger lest Adoptianistheresies creep in. at Antioch by 388. of the a metaphysicaltransformation by coming year). and the center of a large number on of pagan popular customs. These are of two kinds: kingdom. 6 (now restricted to the feast of the Epiphany). a different If. resurrection.though not proved. The Yule-feast festival are Teutonic Hellenistic translated into ideal the time the When this about of winter was celebrated was solstice. Reasons for the date. The properly means The questionin Acts 1 :6. THOMAS. Logos Christology.would story of Zacharias in Luke. 6 or Feb. 1 it is deduced that conceived after the Day of John the Baptist was naturallyvalue Christ in terms of the divine Logos. the great consummation national through future. in Armenia " " " AND RELIGION ETHICS 96 dead were also supposedto revisit the earth.was God. (b) The Gospels. laid the and from this came cakes corruptible the yule-log.notably with of the Christian and games. H.e. March Here the idea of an allthe first day of creation. 25 for the feast of affirmed by Origen and others.Christmas on terms.passion (a)based on a "plan of the ages"and (6)drawn from and death." According to the items have and the dead. dost thou at this time restore the kingdom indicates Israel?" this Jewish to expectation. These De Pascha usually been Computus. been transferred to Christmas.e.as the divinelysent saviour. 373) points to Jan. "Lord. The Apostles' Creed represents this interpretation. All this was 3. apostolic CHRISTIANS CHRISTMAS CHRISTMAS CUSTOMS. chap. his nativity must March 2. 1548 years after the Exodus. cording ReUgious salvation consisted. 17 the spirit. it encountered the date of creation of the sun. but this was come to the spirit and in origin.which was considered the source sought to connect the Roman Unked which to God. sianic 2. Why this date was chosen is thus far uncertain (see Epiphany)." The designation of the Nestorians in India.who hold to the tradition of Thomas' mission to India. to 1. important non-Christian customs connected with the whereby Christ. the Gospels. in Asia by 387. the SaturnaUa Much of the merriment apostle Paul set was characterizing of redemption through the forth the doctrine has. 25.and Christ's divine be held from his baptism rather than from nature Luke 3:23 his Incarnation. in Dec. Since the Logos Lamb" also is the organizing divine force in the cosmos. The date. the date of his conlater of the Logos Christ in the work of and of the beginning of creation may participation creation was have influenced the choice of Dec. which was to be consummated divinely authorized and empowered a word "Christ" deliverer. 19-20. Thomas DICTIONARY OF OF ST. even 25. Christologyis valuation of Jesus as a religious cerning furnishinga theological theory conthe redemptive work of Christ. furthered by the association of Christ with the sun. The of following are typical saviour of nature men. But since Hellenic thought made a the Nativity. the first day of creation was when a March retained in subsequent Christologies. the Christmas-tree is a German date. that Christ's the Logos. sacrifice "essence" of human for good crops in the (the survival of a this corruption. dence held it on Jan." the nature of Jesus Christ and of his redemptive work.and if 25 be taken as conception of salvation. century. perhaps.the day of his birth would naturally (Logos)rather than that of a cosmic catastrophe dominant. mystical union feasting. theories. Jesus. 6 was also there was the feast of the baptism of Christ.

See Jesus Christ.07 DICTIONARY A OP RELIGION AND ETHICS Chucius (Chu Hsi) of divine "essence" tions limitabelieved to be During the 19th. While this is secured partly by The greatJOHN (.Patriarch of in the lifeand the death of of God's lovingpurpose Constantinople(397). of the miracle with God. essence genuinely human by person exceptionally to the sacramental cism. This God-consciousness of was unique." CHRYSOSTOM. made Gerald Smith 6. or Logos. Restored to appease the people. rendering to God will enable God He initiates in us a such atoning work to forgive. he was employed the scholastic conception of essence. see details. vital Christology is not to be derived from developing the of Greek metaphysics. He enables us to trust God. been for the most scholastic perpetuaF. system of intuitive mysticism of Lao-tse (q. An attempt was made by the socalled Kenosis Christology to do justice to these while metaphysical nature) with the Father. but the metaphysical the sense that God meets us CHUCIUS ated conception of a divine "nature" is repudi(CHU HSI) (1130-1200 a. For fuller take the place of the which in these Christologies Atonement. real knowledge of realityand to the complete life. logicalproblems connected with the be one God thus disappear. to this day. Mystic whose conscious life was tual God. or humiliation self-abnegation of God in his purpose to save men. the where the teachings and the life of Jesus are portrayed of God's will. profoundly into the devotion of Western Christianthinking.as divine he can offer the infinite efficacy worshipfuladoration. with the life self and the Tao world. In the Latin church to that mission even during the Middle Ages." of Christ has discussion of the "natures" ethical emphasis of the Antioch school.) defined the in terms of revelation-value.C. systemof Roman and has entered tant through rituahstic usage When. rival. with which to equate merits divine condemnation. exposition with this vital The Tao is the ultimate reality. a brilliant pupil of the Libanius in Antioch. as is the case with much modern Protesity. . This found "essence" into vital contact divine nature with human nature. ing By assumhe brought the divine transformhuman ing nature conservingthe traditionaldoctrine of the essentially of Jesus. Christ thus becomes God and man. expression the divine in the doctrine that in becoming man thereby deifyingit. of his mission.v. life of communion our Such the conceptions are behalf. Man's true one are one. mediator between He reveals God his experience of God. Chuang-tze.Luther Birney ance assurSuch favor central in salvation. Jesus is divine in of divine love.nor duty. it is pagan potently and personallyeffective in the revelation (367)." there is a general frank recognitionof the fact that formula Chinese CHUANG-TSE. spiritual the Great Jesus was of being we know the phenomenal as perfect God-consciousness.). theology (q. Jesus is a of a divine "nature" are church. his again able interest nevertheless exiled to Armenia lay in securing God's favor(404)and in 407 to the Caucasus. as God." and man's life are is revealed. He is best religiousinterests. such as Messiah. a lawyer. attitude rather than in an impartation of the dyingfrom the final hardships. and in Unitarianism. but the It finds its incarnation Christologyis dominant.his faith in God. We may thus worship Jesus as God.d.deacon (381). century B. as trulyrepresentative of the practical completion in the sacraments metaphysicalpuzzles connected with the doctrine set aside. CatholiGod to teach and live the truth. any inherent divinity in him. whereby the saving potency of the divine is mediated endowed It is fundamental to needy man. assurance springsfrom a revelation of the gracious attitude of God. salvation was interpreted no second concept. The Nicene Creed affirms the carnation. were between these two His metaphysicallycontradictory divinity.the ultimate of Jesus exclusively significance In the personal life of the historical Subjectiveand objectiveare perfectionof Tao. Christie tion part a mere In recent times of traditional controversies.) See China. Chalcedon.in accordance of Jesus in terms of a defined the significance Absolute gives rise to God and the transformations interest. manifestation of. an inaction Ritschlian Tlw He says: "Repose. In the human SubsequentChristological there is latent or potential due to attempts to define exactly the relation life of Jesus. Revelation Christology. and the signifisaviour must who and older Christology can cance propitiate make the of Jesus is set forth directlyin terms of pardon possible. Nestorianism EutychianApollinarianism utter self-giving . Jesus God's lovingattitude toward men of appearances one. nor intellecimderived tuted and constifrom human knowledge but intuition only is the way to the sources. tranquility.Theophilus of Alexandria. CHTHONIAN See Earth Gods. ism. . DEITIES. Religions in him. is the revelation of the See "natures" in one historical person. the world In Jesus alone do we find an absolutely in the obliterating (Also convincing embraced unity of Tao. Jesus is able to act and speak on man's with He evokes As man.v.v. As a theologianhe Thus in Protestantism the theological illustrates the grammatical exegesisand practical divine "nature. or primarilyin terms of reconciliation between God and pre-existentdivine nature. Christ laid aside (kenosis)his divine attributes.). Atonement Christology. never questioned the truth court luxury gave opportunity to his ecclesiastical and while in his of the Chalcedonian Christology. and consecration to the point of death. " " " " .these are the levels of the universe." the Chalcedonian A employs concepts quite religious philosopher of the later 4th.344-407). commentator Chinese philosopher and on as beinginadequate to express the power necessary. of his atoning work for all mankind. Council of.presbyter (386). The the sinner who The Jesus. to us.and partly trust in the promise of God of ancient preachers. stillness. century the human was of the historical Jesus were made In the Nicene Christology Christ is savevident by iour he is "consubstantial because (of identical historical study. This impersonal Schleiermaeher. Jesus. rationalistic form of revelation Christology A more Monophysitism." A the Jesus' real power. the valuation of Jesus consists in of the elements transmutation of the The estimatinghis rehgiousexperience.therefore. A.there is 4. est in the Bible. Hence not works of charity.)he (403). metaphysical deity of Christ and his genuine incontroversies reassuming them at the resurrection. of God's CHRISTOPHORUS" Pope 903-904. m onothelitism is found in Socinianism In the Greek Orthodox Church. His puritan attacks on Luther While Jesus. his growing appreheneucharist in the Mass is a repetition his communion sion his human of the incarnation. to conspire with doctrine of the communicatio idiomatum the Empress Eudoxia for his banishment (q.and that a foreignto modern this described as an absolute idealist. former metaphysical discussion. then a monk by the reassuring effect of the sacraments.

until there developed today's general subdivide situation in the United States and Great Britain." op.however. is always supreme. and development among very rational principleconstitutes the law or order of The the churches of the west. were not united into a complete ecumenical councils were organization. it became increasinglyindependent were to be known from Judaism. The influof the collegia(bodiessomewhat resembling also felt. and popes and popes as Innocent III. and the presacred classics. where democratic than on the more history was political conformity continent. Jerusalem.and the pheamong The world composed of the five elements. the fundamental function of a church is maincarries on church The worship. bidden the democratic In America spirithas not only forthe existence of a state church. more especiallyof the Roman Pontiff. These in the west large metropolitan churches. over tion Economic forces may have assistedin the formaof these groups.howtained. but it is inaccurate to speak the majority of of them as proletarian.although held which supposedly representedthe entire body of fact.the In consequence Catholic Roman theologians regard the church there arises as superior to civil power whenever character.and as to the church the specialrepresentativeof God which he presided. But See Korea. the regularityof their appointand upon ment depends the vahdity of the sacraments. but despite of such the power as Gregory VII. churches of the west. and is the intelligent. This conceptionis in brief: united together for the profes"A body of men sion Christian faith and by participaof the same tion in the same sacraments. however. church. Doubtless their members slaves and poor workingmen. the administration of the the purpose of preaching. the influential Sing-li philosophy." is determined of this church their sucthe Apostles and cessors.and gave rise to various These in turn tended to non-conforming churches. each with its own had grown the great theologicalsystem which up during the Middle Ages. to produce history of the church after the separation entiated of the eastern halves of the empire the cosmos.A Chuntokyo DICTIONARY OF AND RELIGION ETHICS of of the New canon Testament. both as the one who was the guardian of the true teaching. which acts upon not recognizethe primacy of the Roman the universal principle or reason The another principleKH.the rivalryof emperors the effort well as of bishops and feudal lords made Empire. believe in Christ. and Rome. both consciouslyand under nature to this inner True moral life consists in obedience the leadershipof Rome. century we can see the development of the idea of the Catholic church. and the groups came those from their dominant quality as Christians. under the governance of local pastors. who As the movement gathered members not Jews. organfound themselves and in consequence soon forced to take action against those who were regardedby them as heretical.of an authorita_ a noteworthy attempt to establish a conjunction of the church and state in the Holy Roman Empire. brought about absolute freedom in religious and the conception of the church a as unit has disappeared in denominations.Ephesus. dispute over matters of religious The government by Christ. through national movements the rise of the new of Christians there appeared groups broke with the imperial idea and organized development of state churches. Thus of which the bishoprics. Antioch." of baptized believers in Jesus Christ which exists for of the sacraments. and later Constantinople. Roman unsuccessful. By the 3rd. the attempt to enforce with increasing met opposition. however.earth (yin). In the New Testament we in various see rise of the the placeshad accepted professed themselves through societiesof those who and baptism as the loyal followers of Jesus. recognition of a personal its predecessorcentered around Rome. of Catholic dogma. preserved many significantelements of the Roman empire. These state churches in and control the religious thought turn attempted to lifeof the various states in which they were ized. to which alone was (CHRISTIAN). ever. Under the influence of Li are differand western heaven in the churches nomenalis one of little progress (yang). but has organizations.sole Vicar of Christ on Earth. a material base. no of churches. sprang up the metropolitan chief in the east were Alexandria. The who organization of the early Gentile churches was very simple. A succession of especiallyin England separated themselves groups from the established church. the maintenance saw tive Ages reUgiousand moral education. See Holy Catholic During the Middle Ages the Roman completed (except conception of the church was of the Pope speaking ex that the infallibility cathedra was not made dogma). who seem have been sometimes appointed by an apostle..but by the to have end of the 1st. which like There is no reason. gradually evolved sort a which of transcendentalized Roman spiritualnature partakes of the universal Empire.but the prevailing the later guilds)was rather motives leadingto membership were religious that they evidence is no than economic. There the were Gospel communistic. In England. On the continent rule succeeded of Europe the state churches as a With in who Europe until very recent times in maintaining a high degree the of conformity. given charge of the administration of worship. of this divine establishment. It has the involves ideals Catholic all these of but the rational dualism Christianity of or spiritual appearance Catholics do with the exception that the eastern The "Great Ultimate" is Li. orthodox Christianityin both the east and the west insisted that salvation was possibleonly through An organizedgroup CHURCH the work of the Catholic church. It was into closer relationships with one The cities in the smaller that the churches natural around churches should gradually themselves group in some metropolis. and in the miracles or immortality. He is the chief representative eminence of the Roman church in the West. of the power of the bishop. century the bishop seems gradually acquiredpre-eminence. were who also contained but these early churches those_ ence possessed wealth and social standing. spirits.and it was also natural that in such grouping the lines of the Roman imperial there administration should be followed. moral nature of man. tain Jewish and did not undertake to mainThey were a religiouslife independent of the Jewish faith as institutionalized in the temple and synagogue. all this process of subdivision. Religions CHUNTOKYO. decided the east. rehgious Through . centuries which immediately followed the tered scatthese communities death of the apostlessaw basin around the Mediterranean growing another. As a matter fair representationof the more council had any distant churches. of the Catholic church Roman God. See Christianity. These in their earlystages had very littleorganization groups to beyond the elders or bishops.and The Middle in the west sacraments.

after some missionary church which Augustine had introduced There is difference of opinion in the year 597. the church which less connected or was always more the state.really by the prime " " AND ETHICS Church of England The church minister.although all use the same Prayer Book. and moral education. and deacon. Most of the bishops have of Lords. with its "Supreme acknowledging the sovereign as Governor. The bishops and some other church dignitariesare appointed nominallyby the sovereign.except where these have been ahenated. Some of the latter also accept principles known as Church" "Broad both in bibhcal criticism and in regard to politicaland social questions. They base their authorityon Scripture and the three Creeds. Ritual." The Prayer Book with its doctrine and ritual has been authorised by parUament and cannot be altered without that authority.although and other bodies have the bishops. An nection organization in conof England. As a matter of fact many clergyadmit to the rite " " " " . Church. varying accordingto from priests the conceptions of any given church to preach. almost extinguished it in the South. courts are subordinate to of the civil government. universities. Origin and continuity. After the breach with Rome under Henry VIII." last revised in the reign of Charles II.that of Melanchthon ticular. most to hvings is in the hands of whom laymen and are land-holders. lodging houses.according as the worship is conducted to which liturgically."a board of officials under the state authority. CONGRESS. presideat convocations of the clergyin their respective provinces." or "ritualistic. polemical writers on the question of the among continuityof the church in spite of successive national. The authorized doctrine of the Church of England isthat of the whole content of the Prayer Book. Christianity was introduced into Britain at least as early as the 3rd. which conducts (1)evanthe through lay workers among (2) social work unemployed and deUnquent classes. Order Anglican church is Episcopal in its government.mediaeval and modern times. There two are at archbishops. of E.while the Anglo-Catholics make of the ritualistic part of the Prayer Book and revive ideas and practicesformally repudiatedas Roman. In the coronation of the King. its identity The Anglo-CathoUcs (q. The comof the English. Establishment." be said that the unit of the church is so that it may the parish. have of which special a ministry. . and other ecclesiastical national property.the "advanced.)maintain throughout primitive. one The bishops archCanterbury and the other at York. but somewhat modified by Calvinism of a mild type. But the Anglican Church holds the cathedrals. in the form of labor homes." An annual CHURCH of the clergyand laityof the Church of discuss rehgiousand ethical questions. has been the nature of identity. new powers A National conferred. nation who have undergone the rite of confirmation to the communion by their bishop have a right to come in their own parishor district church unless inhibited by the incumbent for immoral conduct. like the divisions of a river at its delta. to the Church In point of fact the clergy enjoy great hberty of belief and teaching. and administration. The articles were based on the Augsburg Confession and are due to Lutheran in parinfluence.1882. Shailer Mathews Bishop. Under the "Enabling presentationof some of self-management are Act. cheap food depots.Schaff) confine the of England" to the periodsubsequent title "Church under This questo the settlement Henry VIII.rather than the diocese. The rubric and prayers are based on pre-reformation of service. tuted Assemblyhas been constiand the laityadmitted to mcreased bility. 2. England from the first. including tithes.. deviates least from ancient custom.presbyter (orpriest). with the exception of the Roman Cathohcs. tion for it is metaphysical rather than historical. and was oriental rather than the Roman ing type. All baptized citizens of the 6. of them.g. Doctrine. There turns on of the doctrine and discipUne continuityin much well as in the religiouslife of Christianityin as Cathohc. seats in the House The Archbishop of Canterbury ranks as the first subject in the realm. There are some High Church sociahsts.members functions which are recognizedby most states. In spiteof this fact. but it is more especiallydefmed by the 39 Articles and the homilies. employment bureaus. recognizing the three orders of bishop. and hold that a church of spiritthat the true unity of the church is one ual See fellowship with Christ. this should be co-extensive with organized ChrisOn the other side is the view of those who is strictlya local body. so that the Roman churches Anglican. and. Deacon. Anghcan divines of the 17th.there is at the present time a two-fold conception of the church. 1.such as that of Chaplain of the House of Commons. but the establishment has and deprived the convocations of legislative power transferred it to ParUament. again under Elizabeth. Communicants.parish churches. ity authorcentury and later have also attached some Fathers of the firstfour centuries. law courts The clergy enjoy the fruits of the tithes. conference England to The church established CHURCH OF ENGLAND.v.the Evangelicalsholdingby the Articles and taking the Bible as almost their sole more authority." 1920.largely modified forms by Protestant divines so as to exclude distinctively Roman Catholic doctrines and practices. 4. but it continued until the British to flourish in the North coalesced with the differences. while some Protestants (e.large latitude is observed. church and that One holds that there is a Cathohc tianity." "cathohc" or clergy reverting in a considerable while the "Evangelical" degree to ancient practices. then of the century. it is only clergy of England who conduct the requisite of the Church rehgious services. and Nonconformist less sucof today may all be regarded as more or cessors to the Mediaeval Church.A 99 DICTIONARY RELIGION OF the administration of be value with whatever they may tain Churches of all sorts mainthought to contain. The 3. old clothes' depots. 5. probably from Gaul.therefore. to laymen chosen Speaking generally. Wilson geUstic work " system. clergyadhere to simplerforms of worship. and sacraments ARMY. responsiChurch matters to be managed by the are Council elected by an annual church meeting parochial of parishioners who are members of the C. came under its direct control. England is geographically divided into parishes.but who are not of uniform status." mined in England with relations to the state deterat by parliament since the breach with Rome the Reformation. above all the nobility. the incumbents of which have the rightsand duties of "corporations. and also of lands and other vested in the hands of the "Ecclesiastical propertiesnow Commissioners.theological. dispensariesand an extensive emigration CHURCH with Rev. Methodist. and other state functions.drivingthe Britons before them.and constitutional changes. The ritual of the Church of Elngland is laid down in the "Book of Common Prayer. Christianity. founded the Church by Carhle. The presentation of patrons.

chieflyin land. The main 8. AngUcan also is wholly voluntary and advisory."i. in the of local churches." CHURCH OF THE LIVING GOD. hay. Most of the secondary schools receiving government grants are under pubUc control and undenominational." The title assumed by several independent reUgious bodies holding to precisedoctrinal views which prevent them from desiringfeUowship with the largerdenominations. In the early 19th.012members) . Synods. to speak common. support of the clergy is derived from the tithes which are rent charges all the land of the country. These acts gave rise to "passive resistance" on the part of people who refused to for reUgious teaching of which rates pay they Walter F. It is more or however. " CHURCH " " New OF THE NEW Jerusalem.457 of God members).Church of A England DICTIONARY OF RELIGION other denominations." The theory and practice of ecclesiastical organization. Finance. and in 1891 free.administered by the ecclesiastical commissioners." The Presbyterian church in Scotland which was made the established church by the Act of Union of 1707. " " CHURCH OF GOD. Apostolic (1. two smaller bodies Workers for Fellowship (13. though this is by far the best attended occasion. In a somewhat more generalsense. Education. A rough calculation suggests that the communicants in the Church of England are about equal in number to those of the Nonconformist churches. the co-operationof the different By this is meant denominations under more less organized central or in certain tasks. A. although arrangements vary in the different local federated churches.050 members) . At the Reformation. of local reUgious groups Federation is most monly comwhere the competo be found in small towns tition between number of Protestant a considerable churches has been deemed and expensivefinanciaUy inefficient spiritually. It may is open. Church CHURCH FEDERATION." See DuN- EARDS.. religious The Education Act of 1870 created school boards for building and maintaining schools all the country at the pubUc expense except that a over small charge was made the parents. See also Minister Pastoral and Ministry." nance In addition to the tithes for the maintethere of the clergyand other church expenses are properties. century the Church of England provided elementary schools. tithes of parisheswhich had been held by the monasteries amounting to about one-third of the whole were given to court favourites and other laymen as privateproperty. however. The most important with membership (in1919) are the Church of God in Jesus Christ (Adventist)(3. the Church (EvangeUstic) (12. bury 7. pew in some rents churches. . but. tian Chriscomprising. Theology. and in the several dioceses with their persons " " " AND ETHICS 100 "Provided" that is the AngUcan and other denominational schools were granted an equal share of aid from the rates with the Non-Provided or Council Schools." The Episcopal church in Ireland which was the established state church until 1871 when it was disestabUshed under the " Irish Church Act." clergy who were it has come about that the clergyman of one parish is a "rector. the Church of God and Saints of Christ (a colored body) (3. is designated "rector" of his parish. which. endeavor to meet and this is a voluntary arrangement But not be said that practicallythe universal. the Church of God as Organized by Christ (227 members) of God in N. and of the "great tithes." A smaU of colored Christians in the United States. Therefore communion it is impossibleto furnish any statistics of the communicants in the of a AngUcan church correspondingto the members mate Free church." various local endowments. from who come whom Some they keep a roll of communicants in private from time to time. General Eldership ."The new holders of these as tithes became "lay rectors. The higher education is mainly 9.and at type of religious the same time "British Schools" were provided by the supporters of undenominational teachings." bringingtogether local or JERUSALEM. commonly known as "National Schools. itis customary to speak of the church federations of different towns. In 1876 on school attendance made was compulsory. The two convocations of Canterand York meet for the to advise legislation church." in which it gave its own teachings. to estiAttempts have been made the number at by counting the attendance the Easter Communion. maintain Thus. can only be enforced by Diocesan synods discuss their own ParHament. moneys from "Queen Anne's Bounty. sect " bishops.311members). At the same time grants of public funds were made of of the Church to the managers schools.. although and undenominational there are some nonconformist schools. wool. Order. Deacons. local affairs and deal with practicalquestions of church of the work and the spiritualconcerns diocese.the members case the constituting receive members constituent bodies may of their as faith and order and make contributions to their own respectivedenominational work. The "Church Congress" is a voluntary association in meeting annually to hear addresses and engage discussions on the religiousproblems of the time." and the spiritual was charge of the parishesconcerned given to Thus therefore called "vicars. The process of denominationally organized bodies of Christians. of such co-operatingbodies as Federal Councils or Church See Federal Council Federations. Priests. Shailer Mathews CHURCH GOVERNMENT. the Church similar to the Dunkers) (25.847 (doctrinally members). Such federation differs from organic union in that the federatingbodies their respectiveexistence. tithes of corn.in 1919. CHURCH OF THE BRETHREN. and General Assembly. In England and other denominational in London 1902 and 1903 in the country the " CHURCH OF SCOTLAND. where they have not on The holder been commuted by a capitalpayment. There are essentiallythree forms of church in use.e. and offertories at the services. of Christ Churches THE of in America. 3. each claiming to follow the government primitivepractice.000 members). CHURCH OF IRELAND. Adeney disapproved. Once ten a Pan-Anglican synod is years every assembled.necessarilysome habitual attendants would not be present. Bishops. in the hands of the Church of England." See of. the Church (Dunkers) (929 of God members) . Actual administrative authority rests locally with the parishclergyactingthrough the Councils mentioned above. No.generallyevangeUstic management social. an action known "the great pillage. representativeof all branches of the church This throughout the world." and the clergyman of another a "vicar. administrative have no They power.

statement obliged to be circumcised the Lutheran a (Gen. universal. The practice differs from the magic circle in that there to be no idea of protectingthe objectinvolved. They together constitute decide matters the Session and of ecclesiastical The whole denomination business.who is now is made the ordained minister and preacher. (3) Bishops. The as a bishops have the sole right of 1.except among known and observed Europe and Asia. or two operations on the female genitals. 17:23-27)..This is an attempt to reproduce Testament the practicesof the New churches in of elders. (I Sam. etc. but be a book of liturgies. . the purpose Its office is at in international churches nearly every other people to certain peace.as a necessary prerequisite and in the for church membership. See Congregationalism. priestsand 70 Fifth Ave.the entire district being known diocese. seems It was the Hindus. (2) technically. or to a state.. The of practicing circumcision custom is almost non-Semites in America. The the laityas associates of the minister in the spiritual age at which ately leadership of the congregation. church and church necessities for the services and order. (Josh. Synod. governmental authority.g. Yahweh's as Theodore G. or may usuallydesignatingthe book in which are registered it.and other of the eastern churches have a superiorrank (notorder)known as the Metropolitan has wider territorial jurisdiction or Archbishop.all many settled by the vote of the members. do the bishops constitute a separate allocation nor order of clergy. arch altar. v. who number of dioceses generally comand governs a prised in a major poUticalunit. See PresbyOP " AND ETHICS Circumcision the provisi3n"pf prop^rldy.and the Gentiles denied it.removals. The and Greek Anglican church.in which a body of bishops is elected to each bishop supervisethe work of the denomination. but among the Hebrews churches are loosely organized into associations. CIBORrUM. and baptisms. It is held that the New recognizes three orders of the clergy: (1) are men Deacons.exercisinglargepowers. the among TERIANISM. Indewere independence. Congregational.funerals. when established (Gen.5:9).the legislation powers. surgicalmethods of performing the rite.and tribes exclude the uncircumcised WARDEN." In the Episcopal CHURCH churches the United admit no one either to their councils or to the rights in the British Empire and of inheritance unless he has submitted to the rite. American 3. Scares adults." A ritualisticaUy significant of the male surgical operation for the removal prepuce. 12:48). over an supported canopy. and the General Assembly. distinctive mark of Jews. ing (2) A vessel contain- the host. It was reproach Confessions. and the ruling elders who are laymen selected by the congregation for their abilityin leadership. when in even a charge (2) Priests.. " ." A church book which CHURCH today circumcision is required of a soldier or an official. The Roman lic Cathochurch completes the hierarchical system with the pope. it The oppositecircuit is of ill-omen and when deliberately indicates ill-will and disrespect. 12:6). but their purposes on the ordained ministers but have no Preachers as are whole are substantially the same. While no certain statement be made as to its originit is probable that it is connected with the observation of the movement of the sun.. CIRCUIT. having oversight of a considerable number of parishes. Congregational the rite was performed was almost always immedibefore or at puberty. . CIRCUMAMBULATION. . In the early church the Judaizers declared of accounts. who is the ruler of the entire church. tne' maintenance of " . congresses. When indicates an the The object or circuit practice of (usuallythree person is made respect. ordination " and of confirmation. 2." See Station. It was the ancient Egyptians. (1) An " by four pillars." of a man African the Turks and Malays. See Roman Church. The ceremony of OF WOMEN. Deacons are elected from 1. among can CIRCUMCISION. 29). among York City. which usually makes he was of the agreement of the State church with intermarry with Israelites. who generally young serving kind of apprenticeshipand limited in authority a of church. is organized in a series of ecclesiastical bodies having and judicial the Presbytery. being assignedfrom time to time to the oversightof But he has no diocesan certain groups of churches. Some among from society. Church. burial ground within the enclosure. There are local church is a self-governinginstitution. in Madagascar REGISTER. Reasons miUion dollars by Andrew with two endowed Though circumfor circumcision." walking around times).marriages.which var}^ matters are from the above definition.A 101 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION ment TestaEpiscopal. the Hebrews. Subjectsof circumcision. States.as See Union. CHURCHING CHURCHYARD. it was of which is to interest the stricted rewas a Carnegie. Among some is conditioned on circumcision. some Indians.a lay officialwhose duties are the care of the " " " .the clergyin charge of parishes. : ." (1) The enclosed piece of the ground adjacent to a church. peoples the legaland social 28. Whenever covenant was . council the Gentiles won their case records of discipline. Presbyterial. 14:3). e. status CHURCH UNION. 5.the genesis of which the Levitical purification was ceremony (Lev. New classes. the Roman CathoUc. A modified form of episcopacy is maintained by the Methodist Episcopal churches in the United States. but retain complete and his household Abraham cised circumpendency. loyalty and sun-wise reverence." An 31:4. 34:14-24). sometimes (Acts 15:1. lic CathoChurch England.'Upon the theory that each Mohammedans. Greek Orthodox Church. consisting of a board of trustees cision 2. - . births. Celts especiallycommon among and Greco-Romans though found also in America done and the Semites. Distinction which there was a plurality between the teachingelder. Extra-Israelitish peoples such the Philistines as called "the uncircumcised" PEACE CHURCH UNION. organization were founded and Judg. birth. it was set for male children on the eighth day after conventions. and some African and Polynesian peoples."The ORDER ecclesiastical constitution a CHURCH foreignerwished to join with Israel in the observance of the passover of a German (Exod. except Ishmael. ancient Egyptians." thanksgiving after the birth of a child. followed by various for an Israelite to remain uncircumcised ecclesiastical regulations. among warriors had to accept the rite.

" The is used term in a signifythe organizedco-operative activityof a group of churches usuallyof the same communion of a city. " . monastic order. certain and attendant municipal consciousness of community sense responsibilitythe recognition CONSTITUTIONS See that there are social problems peculiarto great OF. CITY technical MISSIONS.direct. indicating (q.v. When ministries become have effective certain more performed by City Missions will be undertaken Sears Hatch in a largerfellowship. The entrance of other agenciesinto the field has modified from time to time the distinctive task of the denominational City Mission organization. This is frequently its use in CLAIRVOYANCE.an influential exponent cityconditions is now of liberal orthodoxy. These the tasks of denominational are City Mission undertaken in the attempt organizations. irrehgion and FREEMAN bred in the laissez faire atmosphere are JAMES (1810-1888). giving to traditional the desire and City Missions is dependent upon consistent with doctrines spiritualinterpretations to abilityof the churches of a given communion some denominations AND term meaning." Terms Inner the Episcopal Church. Success in Baptist theologian. which has been carried over Unitarian from country village Influential American preacher and into the complex growing city where economic scholar. WILLIAM (1841-1912). prescribed. centuries the Cistercians were most and influential.g. Female connected with any religious observance." A festival Jan. These are numerous. the slavery Great and the work is Ten place and where the checks and restraints.and from Church Federations in that usually they are denominational. of Constitutions Clarendon.v. in churching new be kept that the institutions of rehgion may to the requirements of rapidly growing communities.philanthropic.founded a monasat Cistercium. problem.'Theories Tlhe " more Ira M.educational. City Missions are differentiated from the work of an individual citychurch. His best known individual sense of the obHgations of neighborliness Religions. to include only benevolent sense charitable work." A R.-'"(3X a'prepfi^tio^ 8e?!rit. cities which will not of yieldto rural methods content social distreatment. (8) sacrifice circumcision is rarely to a tribal deity.who interpretedreligionin a broad cosinterested in applying well-beingand respectabiUtyon the one hand and mopohtan spiritand was misery and crime on the other. in Americanizing and Chrisnew-Americans especiallythrough the mother-tongue of a particular people. broadly cathoUc in spiritand non-sectarian in much of the work which they undertake. (5) a tribal distinction." CLARENDON. a Benedictine. CITY-GOD. "3. (7) mark (6) initiation into a Hebrew of Israel's covenant relation to Yahweh. though often. plausibletheories are: (1) a sanitary for marriage." and out. (3) con))i*oviis6h. Price FEAST OF THE. to objectifythe principles taught by Jesus Christ and to reincarnate his spiritin intimate.. A rigidobservance of the as Benedictine rule was the 12th.as here defined.). See Shiva." See Assize have grown out of a op City Mission organizations CLARENDON. in commemoration of the of Jesus. The evolution of City Missions during the past generation has been essentiallyas follows: in palUativeand remedial efforts in behalf of the very ing met to an increaspoor whose physicalneeds are now table degree by the municipahty or by specialchariorganizations:in redemptive effort to reach and the "fallen. particularlyin giVA." necessityof organized social effort to meet pecuUar American being recognized. From to the 15th." CLARKE. or ASSIZE OF. community.'ono' the generaiive*^owers. Denominational City Mission organizations into being about fiftyyears ago in began to come found to that social compunction which response expression a few years later in organized charity and stilllater in the social and social settlements service of the municipahty itself.whence known Bernardines. ideallyall the and of a given communion of a city its churches in being municipal Missions suburbs.or of a city and its suburbs. (4)a condition of social and legalstanding. 1st. up although such church activityoccupies a relativelysmaller part of the attention of the City Mission organizationsin the older and larger tianizing cities than formerly.each seeks its own Christianityto social problems. Clarendon.ecclesiastical.Circumcision. ameliorative efforts in behalf of the poor unfortunate. observed on circumcision CISTERCIANS. or public institutions. In sense to acquired this technical the ETHICS 102 associate in co-operativeundertakings in behalf of the rehgious hfe of the city. in that there are representative of a group of churches. from Home rather than national in its field of service. of the country villagemay The be found. The rise of the mendicant numerous orders involved the decline of Cistercian influence. where they rout of the churches from communities needed is impracmost but where self-support are ticable and local leadei'ship inadequate a work which City Mission organizationshave not many Several denominations are ing spendyet undertaken. cils Through interdenominational City Mission CounChurch "the twin sins of overFederations lapping or and neglect" in City Mission work are and in a few instances two or more being overcome been denominations have brought into definite Church shall Federations co-operation. also known the Grey or White as Monks." the "Flotsam the "down Jetsam" of societyespecially through Rescue Halls denominationa and Homes which are now quitelargelyon an interties communibasis. considerable in organized City Mission sums work. A " patron deity of a deity who was regardedas the over particularcity as Athena Athens. e. or along educational.). rehgioushues. CIRCUMCISION.and City Missions is power used in the narrow dead. dating from 1098 when tery Robert. not NEWTON CLARKE. In Lutheran CLAIRAUDIENCE.and philanthropic ministries.largelya in checkingthe development of recent years. Poverty. Feast A of the DICTIONARY RELIGION OF of-iki vrigin. There stillexist about 100 monasteries of the order. social.C.)has about the same of the to hear and to see disembodied spirits CityMissions. Rapid development ensued because of the influence of Bernard of Clairvaux often members of the order are (q. usage connotation connected with Mission as spirituahsm (q. Charles " not has In others it is used in a more restricted sense to refer only to certain ministries of mercy.v.

" A feature UNCLEAN. sigticd the brief in 1773 by which the Jesuit order was solved. the influence church. Clement there is no recognitionof orders beyond the official was widely read in Greek well Christian and Jewish in as certain and as act of appointing a man literature. 1309. and Clement ^Pope. the spiritual tion development and educaClement V. Clement tion world resulted priesthood in the Graeco-Roman Antipope. the Roman. the early Christian Churches had no clergyand laity. See Stoicism. Pope. On the basis of these giftswere officialswhose business was Clement I v.Teachers. the clergy is still further divided into the regular clergy or monks Clement XIII. to Zeno leader of the and carry on in general the work of the successor as century b. The and Roman churches occurred. of various other privileges. Pope. In the Anglican Church." Pope. demerit A7F. 1670-1676. See Charismata.sought reunion with the Greek church. Privilegeswere corded acDuring his pontificate them of the Vulgate was ture completed and Catholic literaEmperor and through by the Roman the Middle Ages they constituted an estate distinct Bruno's execution expanded. The hterature includes the socalled Second Epistleof Clement.head of the as priests. (or woman exhibited remarkable minister and pastor. Pupil of Pantaenus holyorders are preservedand the clergyare regarded dist. and The Christian Doctrine of God. of the laityand were possessed Clement XI. Clement entrance to which was F///. The Miscellanies. which Pope. did much to prepare the way for Christian theology.A 103 modern and DICTIONARY OF RELIGION ing knowledge. had been istic charactermembers. Unigenitus into two man classes. The meetings of the class are designed to promote rehgious development and to give opportunity for maintaining discipUne. A magnificenthymn to Zeus church. gifts. the of others in the local groups of Christians." of 14 popes and 2 antiequal privilegein the presence of approach to God.strovefor unity with the Armenian Evangehsts.d." who are in holy orders. orders they are regarded in law as possessingcertain His principal works The were Hortatory Address legalrights. encouraged art and literaIn the Roman Cathohc ture. conditioned upon the divine election through the church and the possessionof Clement VIII. Clement //.d. in which oppositionto the authority of the church officers had developed. Holy. Methocatechetical school Alexandria. Strictlyspeaking. Reformed. Church.c." See ETHICS Clergy to the Greeks. He sought to relate Christianity to Generally such persons are formally inducted into the best elements in philosophy and in this way Like ministers in holy office after examination. leading Christian scholar and writer.two Epistles on Virginity.including all in 1713 againstJansenism. 1342-1352. A within the Christian group Church appointed and usuallyordained particularly Stoic philosopherof the 3rd. the distinction between the strong effort to deal with the Reformation. welfare of the members of the spiritual of his class. developed.They were divided Pope. and Deacons. the (ca. They were exempt from the jurisdiction Clement Z. Baptist and other dissentingreligious from paganism. his In certain Reformed CLASSIS. Clement III. but all Christians possessed The name CLEMENT." the other. churches. 150and teacher of Origen.a. author of Epistle of the Church at Rome to the Church at Corinth. priesthoodand the universal VII. 1046-1047. a. the Homilies and and the ApostolicConstitutions. 40-97). His most important works are Outline of Christian Theology.insignia. reveals his See Order. A at convert bodies. 95 to restore order in the Corinthian church. began performing specific duties in the church the great schism in the west. 1758-1769. AND CLEMENTINE LITERATURE. 1187-1191. religiouspower. 1769-1774." includes the priestswho have parishesand are not Pope. century. a scholar. to serve he found it.and the lower clergy.d. practically papal administrator under Leo X. marriage." Writings ascribed to Clement of Rome. 1730-1740.and of letters. d.and the secular clergy. He left Alexandria in a. as. administer the sacraments. 215)." to conduct public worship.a. By the 2nd. in any monastic order. acolytes. purporting to represent Petrine teaching as Clement said to be a was discipleof Peter. side and the town's people on Clement IX. The Tutor. 1394. narrow the CathoUc He made was churches. 1700-1721." Pope.d. CLEANTHES. 1265-1268.promulgated the Bull. an ecclesiastical court.. comprising ministers and ruling " elders. of celebrating AND " " " " " " " .includClement XII.. Goodspeed CLEMENT OF ROME (ca. disof the In the Protestant churches." Pope.the higher clergy. tributed although differingaccording to the divinely disF"opes. 1592-1605. to be regarded as constituting clergycame an order. 1305-1314. Edgar J. Recognitions. and they began to assume and the powers of priests. 1667-1669. 1523-1534. 1425-1429." Antipope. obtained the readmission transmitted of Jesuits who had been expelledfrom of through the succession grace France. 203 and died between 211 and 216. In the Lutheran. the revised edition Bishops from the Apostles. His literarystylewas charmwritingsspiritually inspiring. but himself a weak. as hospitahty to truth wherever denominations). As dress.correspondingto a Presbyterianpresbytery and a having a status between consistory and synod. removed These came to be known papal seat to Avignon. proclaimed a crusade of the Old Testament in 1343.exorcists and other minor officials. Defilement CLERGY. CLASS-MEETING. His elecin the separation of those in 1378 in opposition to Urban VI. and the English during his reign the schism between clergyand others."Fope. Pope. as Bishops or Presbyters." Pope. VI." The third head of the Roman church. of Methodism whereby a congregation is divided into groups or each with a class-leader who has the oversight classes. ing Bishops and Priests.Pope. written about a.the position clergy with relation to other church members CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA varies somewhat.the laityincreased. Giordano was from that of the nobiUty on the one in his reign.the Epistleto James.d. CLEAN AND Purification. from the rest of the church Clement F//. both Greek and especially no pope. as well as Apostles.that is. school. for example.Who is the Rich Man that can be Saved? and the (now- lost)Outlines.

v. and with the New Testament. the mainspring of religiousvitality in Europe. Luke.Codex. found and Testaments Old New of the church. century parchCODEX ment however. Bartholomew's day (q. religiousthinking early in the Franks. and includingwith the Old Testasomewhat R. frequently had become of the Cluny order. used particularlyin Testament New manuscripts. mostly of freedom. presidedover CONGREGATION by the abbot fessor Prohe became 1650. fifty cardinal priests and The cardinals elect the fourteen cardinal deacons." within the CODEX ment a rehgioushouse. REGULAR.Christmas a wide influence on the protector of the church. during an interregnum. the end of III John (Latin only)." The name CLERKS given by the Sinai. Also called the Sacred College. in Greek. century. The Cluny Monastery was founded in 910 by William I. idealistic philosophy he expounded rehgion on the and rational principlesin contradistinction basis of moral to the appeal to external authority. OR COLLOQIUM. Hence common apostles of Jesus. in a text of remarkable Testaments excellence. But Cluniac life. church. conceived COLLEGE.containing except for a few gaps. church to clerics who are engaged in the regular now fragmentary. in a text curiously mixed.hence the name of St. (2) In the Roman in 1790. the order is in every respect independent. as University of Cambridge. and the Testaments It contains the Old and New worth. Many leaves of the that the church is the supreme authority ordained parchment were lost and the rest reinscribed with a by God. strove to of houses adopted the manner Several Benedictine obtain religious hberty. APOSTOLIC" of persons the task. and liberalizing of and thus aided in the vitalizing Christian ideals. " " and in 511 the council of Orleans. the Epistleof Barnabas and part of the Shepherd of rule of a community. the Pious. and most of Acts and Latin. A R. century parchment BEZAE. French admiral and Huguenot leader.and Testament. CODEX ALEXANDRINUS. especially grouped.. clericalism is inclined to sacrifice all other Greek version of treatises of Ephraem the Syrian. the premisesof ecclesiasticism be admitted." A 4th. born." COLIGNY. convoked the stimulus of German Under 19th. before the reading the prayer which comes liturgies. the monastery within area manuscript (so called from having belonged enclosure. contains various scatthat the manuscript now social and political life has developed tered Since modern so ism portions of its originalcontents. body. -In OF COLLEGE church the council or senate which is composed of six cardinal bishops. By her influence Clovis was baptized as English poet and philosopher. It was solved only one dissentence. the ecclesiastical administration continue pope. 1603." See manuscript A 6th." because it epitomizesor collectstheir teaching. If. clericalso largelyon the basis of religious the New has been regarded as an obstructive force.in 1859.century parchment manuscript in uncial letters. a Burgundian Christian TAYLOR SAMUEL (1772-1834).the enclosing wall of A 4th. CLERICALISM. was GASPARD DE (1519-1572). the R. CLUNY. In Bremen. Epistlesof Clements in a text of moderate CARDINALS. so designated COCCEITJS." of the monastery at Cluny. and which is customarily at the beginning and end. then. died. a on language and. Originally. He became CLOISTER.C. certain apocryphal to the time conform clerical duties and at the same writings. of clericahsm is only an especiallyconsistent way manuscript of great textual excellence of the in Greek.).C.and act as the papal advisory body. by securingthe supremacy St. the Hebrew important. Starting from faded by the 12th." (1) A brief prayer. is an extreme Clericahsm containingthe Old and New Testaments originally distrustingand discreditingall secular forms of belief in Greek.which decadence one zeal." See Socialism. August 9. princess. but becoming dilapidated and probably the social organization." A 5th. was killed in the massacre Benedictines.the quadrilateral since the end of the 15th." A 5th. the Old and New covered ambulatory connectingthe various buildings. Mathews The pohcy of controUing and administeringthe essential functions of social and pohtical life by the clergy as officials of the CODEX EPHRAEMI RESCRIPTUS. after a distinguishedcareer works He published of Theology at Leyden. has received sinister meaning. considerations to that of ecclesiastical supremacy. more treatise upon theology in which he set forth the Federal Theology (q. . COLERIDGE." Hernias. century parchVATICANUS. supphcating for some wealthy and had lost its religious or AngHcan specificblessing. called from so having belonged to " an Amiatintjs. " CODEX AMIATINUS.)." King of the Franks." conference for the discussion of there are points of matters.C. Leyden. CLOVIS (ca. so-called Covenant or COLLECTIVISM. 1669. Catherine's Tischendorf at Convent. latterly. and with him 3000 Christian. order OF. divinely authorized form of ecclesiasticism. who married Clotilda. in Greek Its text is the erratic type It is now known in the libraryof the Western. It contains the gospels (Matt. century. Mark). where COLLOQUY CODEX as formal (1) An intheological differencQ. century to the Vatican a rehgious house about which the buildings are provided with a Library). The rise orders effected the of the Cistercians and mendicant COLLECT. law meant a group Coite^iumin Roman co-operatingin a application to the authoritative CODEX A manuscript in book form of large round characters (uncial). From 910 to 1157 Cluny and was ruled by a succession of strong men. JOHANNES. of the Gospel and Epistlefor the day. ment. century Greek parchment manuscript. Theologian.v.so called from having once belonged to the patriarchateof Alexandria. Mt. John.who exercised a 496. 466-511). Shailer ETHICS AND 104 Theodore De Beze (Beza) from 1562-81. the name a SINAITICUS.A Clericalism but set DICTIONARY of the churches in the eyes are OF RELIGION simply laymen apart for the performance of certain duties in of the church the furtherance life.

but also the souls in purgatory and the saints in heaven. In Protestantan ism part of the parties concerned. especially a more tent generous provisionof preaching by compepriests. Switzerland and Italy. Shakers. The societywas not economic and their "having things in common" rather was of excessive voluntary charity doubtless form a due to their expectation of the immediate return Shailer of Christ." COMMUNICATIO municationbeliefs and customs "Compresenting them of the attributes". night prayer. of the fasts. All broad be transmitted to the other in the divine-human generalizations abandoned when students to realize Christ.by which recalciBohemians accorded the rightto administer were of a the Communion in both kinds. it is interpretedto mean In Catholicism a spiritualfellowshipincluding. missionary to the Scots and of lona. see (2) Of the Roman church. COMMENIUS. SAINT COLUMBAN. nine precepts are demanded faithful.in Lutheran theology certain static groupings or rubrics arranged in a the statement of the Christological doctrine which supposed order of development." terminum. In thought and emotion. THE COMMUNION WITH DEITY. century. ECCLESIASTICAL. (3) In the Greek of the church.. three psalms.or the commitment by the collegeof cardinals to a sub-committee.g. A theory chief works the Positive Philosophy. the Anaof Munster. an antiphon recited by the priestafter the ablutions following God for sinners. Hence the become (2) popularly. August presbytery individuals. (2) The ordinance of the Lord's supper the celebration of it." (1) An adjustment of a disconcessions on the of mutual Living persons may benefit those who have departed. rehgion. of Positivism the founder (q. the hymn ante demittis. estabUshed by law for the exercise of specific offices committed to them. Mysticism. including observance of mass and church festivals. The religiousexpression of his system is the Religionof Humanity in which and distributes products of labor equally among " .of communion year. COMMISSIONS. between COMPROMISE." See Lord's Supper. under and IDIOMATUM. that of God for Christ has been doctrinal or ecclesiastical standard. (543-615). 1536. peculiarcultural and geneticsetting. His of social and COMMUNISM." See AUGUST losopher. HOLY. Lenine.105 A (2) A term formerly used in the Reformed Genevan for classis church.C.and who he was Abbot a (521-597). said that the primitiveJerusalem It is sometimes church practicedcommunism.). Communism sociahsm which holds to thus differsfrom Marxian collective ownership of capital. either ecclesiastical or theological. See Science Religion. Mathews ' more COMPACTATA. assured strict exercise of disciplineover the clergy paore and guaranteed in respect to temporalities. that of communion. COMMUNION.C.v. canon Communistic experiments have always been less in evidence since primitiveciviUzation or and communistic have been elaborated programs writers since Plato. Most notable among by many such writers in modern times have been Babeuf during the French Revolution.support of pastors and observof church regulationsin marriage. (1798-1857). Real reciprocity is possible agreement individuals in this all-inclusive sphere. OF DICTIONARY or RELIGION AND ETHICS Comte." One of the of faith expressed in the Apostles' affirmations Creed. See Bohemian " Brethren. at the Council COMPARATIVE " of RELIGION." the Hebrew (1) In Decalogue." gious (1) An interchange of reliCOMPLACENC Y. As Prime was their the monks' morning prayer. pain or a of comReHgion is variouslyconceived as a source fort through fellowshipwith God. (4) In the R.C.. He was a classical scholar and writer. exclude definite deeds or rites directed toward it may unethical.and the of private property ownership by the community SubjectiveSynthesis. but such a description is misleading. of COMMUNION. COMFORT. sect of Christians. suspicion on ethical motives.as the rightof nomination tion of the rightof elecNecromancy." Irish monk.satisfaction with or approval of a person or Love of its inherent virtue. the COMMUNION WITH THE DEAD. Complin was It consists of the General Confession. by means such When and may invoke aid from the saints." last R." That which conduces toward a condition of freedom from physical or psychical toward the of satisfaction felt need.century).g. Sacrifice. six commandments. e.as the AngUcan contrasted with love of compassion. From 563 Picts. e. COMPLIN. Various have attempts at communism been made by mendicant orders. COMMANDMENTS. Adamites in Bohemia baptists (15th." In the church ecclesiastical bodies. century). preached in France.reUgious bodies hke the Brethren of the Free Spirit (13th. so-called since the 6th." Irish monk. ance preferablyat Easter. R.Nov." Self-satisfaction. canonical The hour." the canticle "Nunc the evening and oration. The doctrine was were came employed to support the that every religionand every religiousform and theory of the omnipresence of Christ's human nature belief must be studied in its own in connection with the eucharist. to a benefice.holding to a common or object on account or group of complacency. COMMUNION OF SAINTS. the celebration of mass." See transfer of a legalright. lucis "Te Absolution. SAINT COLUMBA. Moravians.not only believers on earth. (3) A theology. It is sometimes as sung service in Church instead of Vespers. Prayer. one's action which throws departed. the conception is usually so explained as to adjustment involves the rehnquishment of principles." A method of studying reUgionswhich consists of gathering from world-wide sources apparently similar forms. Robert Owen. An agreement consummated trant Basel. the nomic ecowere organizationwhich substitutes for the right Positive Polity."French phiCOMTE. Its chief service to the religious sciences was declares that the propertiesof either nature to show the necessity may of a better method. (3) In ecclesiastical law. church. of auricular at least once a confession.the Posilivist Catechism.

public confession and absolution although auricular confession is still practised or privatelyto publicly a person .)which Used.v. of Luther and the Formula and persons CONCURSUS. previous to his fall.g. The were important those with Bavaria (1817). 1244. CONCEPTION. (2) The theoryof the co-operationof God or the First Cause with second causes in the processes of and history. the General Conference.A Conception DICTIONARY OF RELIGION collective humanity is worshiped as the "Great Being. The Lutheran and Anglican churches teach that suffices." Inordinate sexual sion.whereat individuals were the confess. The hisconcordance of the EngUsh Bible is that of Alexander Cruden (firsted." (1) A meeting of a group of in secrecy or privacy.showing passages This was firstdone for the Latin Vulgate in a. church demands the confession of "mortal" sins. in a contrast natural to capacity Uving.v. CONCORDANCE. See Future of. The canonical age for beginningconfession is In the Eastern church confession is obligaseven. and of bishops.. CONCUPISCENCE. and Pope Calixtus.C.an cussion laymen or both for disof church or deliberation concerningmatters business or theology. which that concepts or general ideas have an existence in the mind though there is no correlative existence in ments reaUty. a custom dating from 1274.the Large and Small Cateof Concord. writers Aquinas and desire in employed the term to connote sensuous the broader sense.C. From began to impose celibacyon the clergy. In New Testament confession is mentioned. and even Christians among tillthe Middle Ages. assuring it support from the State. Prussia (1821). Faith." Activityor behavior judged by social standards. and the church prescribed (q." The acknowledgment. became of securing recognizedas a means remission of post-baptismalsins.especially the election of a pope. tory. 1738) but Young's Analytical Concordance (1879-84) and Strong's Exhaustive Concordance modern (1894) are more Edgar J. between " A formal agreement or A scholastic term CONDIGNITY. Mandelkern) and in Greek (Hatch-Redpath) and of the New toric in Greek Testament (Moulton-Geden). the Epitome and the Solid Declaration.comprising the creeds. legallysanc- and woman not or not. Today the R. It is not necessary to confess "venial" sins although religious lead the penitentvoluntarilyto devotion may do so.the Augsburg Apostles'.. Life. of the Old Testament There are excellent concordances in Hebrew (Davidson. (2) The sacred when assembled for collegeof cardinals. Perhaps the most celebrated of such Concordats is that drawn by Napoleon I." pounded logical theory exby Abelard (q. Spain (1523. See Confession of CONCORD.each of twelve the first making a statement of.any cleric's cohabitation with a woman considered was cubinage. See person Ethics. _ CONCORDAT. theologians considered evidence of the depravity of human other scholastic nature. enjoined.T." of the Lutheran confession.Austria (1855. Conceptions CONDUCT. tioned Cohabitation. Goodspeed EngUsh works. 1851. Concordats have been made all by practically most European nations. Shailer Mathews 1904). con- CONCLAVE. 1640. 1737. CONCUBINAGE. promulgated in 1580 with a view to uniting the various parties embittered within Lutheranism who had become by doctrinal dissension. Bagster. and Pius VII.d. Nicene. 1860. nature sovereign and country. but that it is possibleonly for those who have acquired certain spiritualpowers and characteristics due to divine salvation.)as a mediating position stated nominahsm and between realism. It consists of two parts. CONDITIONAL IMMORTALITY. either entitled to hear. In the R. chief provisionsof the seventeen The articles of this agreement those making the Roman were Catholic Church amenable the to civil regulations." The view that immortality is not possessedby all by virtue of their humanity. other CONFESSION." and an elaborate ritual is enjoinedembodying various successive consecrations vidual to service for humanity. the Apology of the same. 1122) drawn between Henry V. church the name applies to a conference of priests. countenanced in the O. and the sections. repealed 1870). though clandestine marriage condemned was as early as the time of Ignatius the time the Catholic Church Martyr. annual confession was In the Hebrew an religion required on the Day of Atonement by the chief also enjoined to priest. reducing the number remained This Concordat in force until its repeal by the French Republic in 1905." indicating that with supernaturalaid man may Uve in such a way as to merit for meritorious life." CONCORD." A CONCEPTUALISM. 1753.of sinful or criminal action.v. (1801). or treaty the Pope of Rome intended to formulate to the disputed a decision as Catholic Church in the sovereign's rightsof the Roman some (1) The doctrine of Augustine Calvin that man. CONFERENCE. and that these concepts are the instruof knowledge. especially in which each all the occurs.)whereby the penitentscould penance accompUsh reconciliation. Bible. was served prein spiritual perfectionby the aid of God. In Methodist polity it designates the official assemblies of the church. e. relinquishingthe Church's claims to property sold during the Revolution. The oldest of such agreements is the Concordat of Worms (September 23. and moral thus rendering a or liable to approval or disapproval. The collective documents BOOK OF. second giving the argument for. of a man vaUdly married Such cohabitation was (seeNe Tbmere)." plete comof the Lutheran confessions." THE Conception." An alphabeticalarrangement the of the words used in any work. of the inoi- AND ETHICS 106 German states (1824-39). eternal denotes congruity (q.by which there was ended the so-called War of Investiture. and Athanasian the Confession." In assembly of ministers Protestant churches. as well as among the Greeks and Romans.Lutheran doctrines. paswhich Augustine and various R.C. (3) Also the apartment in is kept locked which which the cardinals convene until the election is complete. The most FORMULA OF. Schmalkald chisms Articles.although only occasionally With the development of church fession condiscipline. Immaculate See IMMACULATE.

set particularsense appeared the Confessio Taboritarum martyrs were said to be confessors in that they testified pubUcly forth the extreme This positionof the Hussites. Faith which was been drawn made authoritative through all the by the churches up ans Lutherchurch.A 107 DICTIONARY RELIGION AND ETHICS Confession of Faith positionof the ecumenical creeds. The Greek Church. In 1530 at the Diet of Augsburg Melanchthon divisions both of the Greek Latin churches have also issued confessions. more or 2. OF the High Anglican eral " " _ detail. towards formulas regardingthe Lord's Supper which that of Cyril Lucar (1629)in favor of the Calvinist would not be too hostile to the Calvinists. Miihlhausen. and in 1531 his Brief by the Pope. however. certain adherents of See Confessional.which opinions pastors. century and possibly its membership. In the first the chief doctrinal positionsof the Lutherans are stated in set forth in some detail their teaching. as issued subsequentlyby the same The term is also used for the simpleavowal of the most group. constitute for the of which the most important probably is the Formula the standards authoritative orthodox doctrine. American the creeds. In 1530 Zwingh issued a confession of gave in compact form the various modern had which been condemned faith to Emperor Charles V. It was the separation of some less dissatisfied II. " _ " " forth the fundamental positionof the church regardingthe Catholic faith. while almost without exceptionaccepting the gen- of France. Subsequently various cities hke Basel. which to preaching of the give direction and content Syllabusof Errors issued by Pius IX. of other confessions well as a number ear her). Zurich Other East Friesland . This Philaret has successor replaced the confession of Peter Formula authoritative in most Mogilas in Russia.also put out by Luther and Melanchamong Church.). the Decrees of the Vatican Council issued in 1870 which and Clear Expositionof Christian Faith to Francis I. Margrave of Brandenburg in groups than is regarded as indispensable for salvation. Refor7nedConfessions. and 17th..although the Full Catechism of of Concord (q. in 1655. centuries the Lutheran of Jeremiah (1576) and the Confession of Dositheus (1672) churches produced a number of doctrinalstatements. The earhest reformed The Roman Catechism (1566) is less a confession confession was than a syllabusintended to assist the clergyin their the Sixty-sevenArticles of Zurich issued by ZwingU Catholic in These of the Roman correspond 1523. was developments in the Greek or Roman Confession (1578) which crypto-Calvinist II. at the Diet of Augsburg." A and 1.v. cumstances This Augsburg Councils. reaffirmed In 1431 properly be called may In a more which a creed.while others like that of Peter Mogilas The (1640-43) are During the pohticaland ecclesiastical struggles opposed to Protestantism. This was opposed by the Saxon Visitation also Church issued in 1564 a Profession of the Tridentine confessions have Articles (1586). preferringthe unchanged form. 3. subsequent independent groups. Lutheran confessions. in turn was followed by thirty-four to their faith in Jesus through their death.v. include presented to George. those of early reformed confessions were (1528) and the Four Cities (Tetrapolitana)drawn up for presentationto Charles V. The Roman Church. Bohemia. It contains articles of abuses in the in seven Church. the decrees of the Council of Trent. directly as a basis for subsequent confessional issued a formulas. 1532 (resivedin 1535). These in turn were by the Articles of and naturally were carried into very considerable T organ (1530). accept the Augsburg Confession. Early dissentingconfessions.). the edition being period modified by Melanchthon Greek known confessions were hke the of them in which is there as made. After the Reformation in 1540. and latter work together with the Answers 17th. and I. of the 16th.perhaps the most Technicallyspeaking confessions of faith differ important of from the creeds in that they belong to particular which are the so-caUed First Bohemian Confession rather than to Christians generally. Roman This confession was subsequently twenty articles and seven arguments for the truth of Christianity. and the Second Bohemian more and are not used in pubUc worship. the great confession which to Charles drawn up a creed beyond those to was of the Ecumenical become the basis of Lutheranism. Other summaries to the theses of Luther. Lutheran of Denmark. centuries. some a movement Variata. of Concord became of the German Other eastern churches have issued a number troversy states.Among the Lutherans group from a parent body. CONFESSION OF formal FAITH.The oldest of the important confessions is doubtless that of systematic organizationof the religiousbeUefs of Christian group for definingits purpose the Waldenses and determining a (the 14th. followed They have been made a basis for church discipline. Various and thon. faith in God or Christ. but as the theologicalconof confessions approving or rejectingvarious docdid not cease it was followed by the Nassau trinal churches.have published frequentlyin very considerable detail their theological positions. and are intended to make there have been a series of confessional pubUcations. by Luther and intended to up define the position of the German reformers as Generally speaking.and in this sense is antecedent important of which is that of the Waldensian Confession to the organizationof what in 1855. generally and various other teachingsof the Roman Church. confessions as distinct from the creeds are the result of the Reformation over againstthat of Zwingh. in 1907 which set forth the positionof set the church relative to modernism. In most and cases Confession (1575) in which both Lutherans Calvinists addressed to milian Maxithey have been the result of controversy born of agreed. in plain the position of the newly formed group distinction from it that of the body from which In 1529 appeared the fifteen articles of the Marburg Conference drawn separated.which appeared in 1577 as the of several other attempts at unity. in 1864. While the Greek Saxon elector and other German princespresented Church has never V. The Marburg Articles later enlarged and presented to the Lutheran and the consequent organizationof State were and Churches princes as the Seventeen Articles of Schwabach. III. in the name of the reformers drew the up. but served more in a way doctrine appeared during the 16th. The Bodies Various of Protestants. position. The first of these is that drawn and in the second part is the at twenty-one articles. Lausanne. It consists of twelve articles which explain Poland. and Hungary.and the Papal Syllabus of Pius X. up in 1453 by Gennadius the request of Sultan Mohammed condemnation II. Cathohc The Roman (q. The most In 1532 a Synod at Berne formulations by important modern intended to the Roman Cathohc Church voluminous was doubtless the are statement. Bohemian fessions conof faith. teaching. under various cirdifferent sections of the church have Confessionis in two parts.

although in 1902 the Presof America. In conseEngland. centuries. under Henry of the Church the entire field of of thirty chapters and covers which and ecclesiastical interest. Not mention the to Testament.. This was a Church followed by the Oberlin Declaration of 1871. however. In 1552 was that of the latter. does the Book of Common Prayer. submitted to the clergy for subIt consists of thirty-tlu-ee of Religion were 1647 with proof texts. in the form Testament and Congregationalism John Wesley'sNotes on the New of his sermons.one generally is not issued the the PhiladelphiaConfession. 1906. in America.perhaps the repudiated the Prayer Book Articles of the Church of England. than of the 20th. theological did not oppose the Catholic doctrines. but present the reThe faith from the point of view of Calvin's following year appeared the Institute of a Christian Man. which. With the Westminster Confession On the accession of EMzabeth. After the separation greatestof the Protestant confessions. the BelgicConfession(1561). It is probIn the reaction imder Mary. interpretation Various branches of the Methodist Baptist confession is that of the Seven Churches in Church. in London and Mr.). repudiated the Pope. the HeidelThe King's Book. the church's doctrine should be joined the Larger and the Shorter Catechism was pubhshed in the Catechism in 1570. Free-will Baptist as so extreme ConfessioRhaetica which attempted to give some churches have issued various declarations and conin Switzerland. or Bishops* Book in which The number of these confessions is large tory purgasystem. (1646^7).the most tant imporare which attached a heavy of them being the Gallican Confession (1559). merits the of In 1539 depend solelyon the product of State churches. Welsey never the first series the Thirty-nine or Amsterdam. Because of their historythey repreChurch in the United States of America sent no singletheological but.twenty-fiveof the Thirty-nineArticles of confessions earUer of the Anabaptists and of England. The United Pres17th. again reaflfirmed the Catholic doctrine. VIII. These The Westminster in catechetical form. and in April to ParUament scription. Methodist Arminian ment moveSpace will not permit a detailed discussion of confessions of other Calvinist groups. In 1536 appearedat Basel the used in the north than in 1833 and is more ments of the grand docuFirst Helvetic Confession. the When the Methodist was organized creed drawn held in Baltimore. It will be in the organized its beliefs most effectually which led to famous the Synod of Dort enough to mention a few of the most important.but the National has always been less interested in formal orthodoxy Council of Congregational Churches issued in 1865 than in the spreading of the Gospel and the conversion of sinners. protest Churches ment the c) CongregationalConfessions. and in 1571 of the Confeswhich reproduce the generalteaching sion appeareda revision of the Articles of Faith. passed a Declaratory Statement regarding certain of both the Lutheran with phases the confessions and those dealing the of its articles. Articles.Confession of Faith A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS 108 issued The New Hampshire Confessionwas church." Confession modified to meet the BapProperly an enclosed seat tist and the where the priest' hears confession through a grill position relative to the sacraments " " " ^ . The Congregalays emphasis tional denomination immediate and in America at the present time more experience of God upon has no authoritative confession. appeared the Six Articles. doctrines. of them of national import. 1784. London Protestant and the Free Methodist From that time as the Methodist of Baptistchurches articles of faith. The fession generallythey differ more as regards church zation organiPhiladelphia Conwhich was Shailer than doctrine.This last confession was first submitted and the Forty-two Articles In 1553 the Catechism^ December 1646 without. the Scotch Confession(1560). but Catechism (1563).Speaking generally. and the Kansas City Creed in 1913.although Calvinist confessions of faith resemble The somewhat under the influence of Lutheranism. and his work Cambridge Platform of Church Doctrines (1648) is the most important for New was quence never predominantly theological. were the the Church Mennonites which all possibility of a rituaUstic considerable revised so as to remove probably won in the 16th. as sion ConfesThirty-nine the doctrinal the Prayer Book Articles and has been adopted by the Presbyterianchurches are basis of the AnglicanChurch in England and the throughout England and America. and has never byterian Protestant EpiscopalChurch in the United States been seriouslymodified. issued a number of local confessions. and 17th. fessions sort of imity to the Protestant movement fession settingforth the Arminian rather than the In 1566 appeared the Second Helvetic ConCalvinistictheology. a convention was missioners by a body of twenty-five comup in 1883. unlike movement. made the most complete presentationof the Calvinby the reformed faith were temporarily lost. (seeFive Articles). Browne's State(q. It consists of England from Rome. Among the early Methodist standards of doctrine issued consisted fundamental of of CongregationalPrinciples(1582) was of a catechism. however. are susceptible thought more byterian in interpretation. Mathews adopted in 1742 as the basis of the is practically the Philadelphia Association Westminster CONFESSIONAL.v. 1543. be said that the Thirty-nineArticles tend it may of America Church and the Cumberland Calvinistic point of view than to express a more what PresbyterianChurch have issued their own somemodified editions of the Westminster Confession. particularly Reform of wide variety of theological characteristic of the Churches. The First the Canons of the Synod of Dort (1619) which organized authorized in 1549 the five points of Calvinism in opposition Book of Common Prayer was and is Lutheran as to the Arminians regards the Lord's Supper. formed fundamentally the Zwinglian. Its Calvinism of reformed faith. and at that time the first Disciof the Methodist EpiscopalChurch was adopted. berg Formula penalty of violation of the Cathohc Helvetic Consensus (1675). and the Westminister Confession From that time on the process of reformation moved toward the Calvinistic view of the Lord's Supper.the King issued in 1536 Ten Articles. drawn by Henry Bullinger. Of these. and New England. Many and some was repudiatedand salvation declared to are Christ. but speaking the great movement their own have on was Calvinistic in theology. numbers in the Anglican or Roman the oldest sense. relations in Associations.known the Thirty-nineArticles. The 5.one of the up 4. istic doctrine. a Union issued in December Statement pline 24. the gains ably chapterseach with several subdivisions. Anglican Confessions. issued confessions. had an authoritaThis Disciplineconstitutes one element of the theological tive 6) Baptistchurches have never creed but have drawn Church confession of the Methodist number of conwhich a fessions up of faith chieflyfor the purpose his Notes on the New of fixing also includes Wesley's sermons. and the Savoy the Methodist movement Declaration (1658)for Great Britain. such which appeared in 1644. century. Declaration of Faith in some detail.

humility.and the suggestionshe retired from public life and devoted ordinarilyinvaUdates absolution of a partner in guilt. universaUty. as Edward the Confessor. Living in the periodof distress when the ancient destroysmoral autonomy. The supreme which seems the Creed.v. and was itinerant advisor of neighboring provan inces Roman but findingthe rulers unwillingto follow his legislation punishes solicitationwithin the confessional. and other churches it is an initiatory knowledge the states would be properly governed. work. undertake educational general confession.in the Roman the church after an interval of about In ten years. Modern make confession and absolution (q.and the sacrament (q. If the priest as energiesto the task of bringingpeace to the empire. sponsors.It is explained and is now words: "Jiii is to love all men" and "Do not prepared for full communion. and makes he devoted his feudalism was possiblea secret and ultimatelyforeigncontrol in breaking down private and in poUtical affairs.lessens the power of selfdirection. adherence demand. spirits. Religious The Protestant reformers made private confession church. tain ceron persecution. Duty is elaborated on the Protestant churches employing the rite it is postof ruler and subject. With nature cance: families properly ordered through self-controland (1)In the Roman Cathohc.C. A. penance and confession has CONFLICT OF DUTIES. priest.).humanity or benevolence to include justice. monastic parishes of the Anglican communion middle of the 19th. and The emperor should be a sage appointed by Heaven rite." See Duty. fucius' in Conassumed for himself the baptismal vows filial by his pietyand righteousness. sacrament in which every unit must peculiar perform its own function of the whole. The earliest type was the Pusey private confession has been revived in many or religious of England since the brotherhood in the 8th.and is in Many points in the early history of confession controverted. some philanthropic. B. Under the leadership of E.)prerequisites trade of mediaeval guilds which were to the receptionof the Eucharist in the Church of the patronage of a saint. after instruction in the Ten brother. "I and to be found by faithfulperformance this-worldly without covers " . the harmony to secure Virtue is natural and human CONFIRMATION. W. See Catholic under Societies. knowledge yourself. beginning. Heaven secured with holy chrism in conjunction with a formula life are Peace and equihbriura in human of consecration.or pastor. CONFUCIUS expert.younger Comthe candidate. the Roman Missal since the 11th." A word of two-fold signifiis good. usually or associations in the R. (2) An appellationbestowed of the past. century. renews courage. In the Greek church it doing the duty belonging to his status." brotherhoods a week. prayer and immortality. are present R. with ecclesiasticalsancoi^tional. Heaven.v. Antiochene and Alexandrine also what goes on in the confessional. of. there is danger of lowering the public offices in his native state standard. He held." etc. nature and man a solidarity of penance. and the modern tendency to consult the sincerity. the celebrant liturgies." See China. judge gives the benefit of the ethical doubt (see His life was comparatively uneventful.C.109 A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Confucius confess to Almighty God. indifferent to the C. Greek. It imprints an indelible mark of the social whole knowing and by each member the recipient's soul. Lutheran. and the the Lord's Prayer. supplemented in those parisheswhich daily communion by -urge advice to confess ordinarilyonce CONFRATERNITIES. pubUc and for grave Originally developed along lines of safety. In the early The word touching the other person." (1) In the ancient church.and is preUminary to the as land EngEaster dutyof receivingHoly Communion.reverence. exalt a creed or a confession of faith as the standard of all his efforts by the apparent futility of Christian faith. self-knowledge. Religions new contrition. with distinction.friend and friend. records with of showing how the the purpose W.loyalty. regarding the supernatural. The confraternities opment develare a attempt to century. simple duties connected with the church. tion.consistingof the impositionof hands because of his virtue whose by bishop." He disposition to prosperity to China. or by anointing under the control of Tien.C. Rockwell. wish done to not What do to others what exact divine giftis conveyed in confirmation you would is a question which receives various answers. Beckwith rites of religion. and Germany where there is a state church. poned basis of the five relationships until the fourteenth or sixteenth year when and wife." such (1215). requiredby Scripture. Anglican. (q. confession. return to propriety. Probabilism). husband mandments." He laid great stress upon but it was the pragmatic knowledge of social (2) Confirmation signifiesalso the assent of He was the election duties and how to perforinthem. formula of General fession. century. Annual confession is a minimum See Non-Conformity. frequentuse. Protestants say that the confessional is not (551-478 B. The supreme ConCONFITEOR. His system is typical of the naturalism of Chinese holy men are (3) A R. Advantages claimed for confession include a CONFUCIANISM. Over two centuries later the Han dynasty recognizedthe value of his political CONFESSOR. namely It is found in of penance began the Mass with such a G. to that church. offences. virtuous rulers of the past had secured peace and The died defeated and discouraged CONFESSIONALISM. and usuallysubstituted therefor a public composed of laymen who. elder and parent and child. to help his native land.C.C. England is unauthorized. Evil upon follows baptism in the same is a disturbance of order and is overcome by a service. love.v. implying a example and correct prayer strengtheningof the soul by the Holy Spirit.). agnostic constituted authorities by which of bishopsis ratified by the church. (K'UNG-FU-TSE) renowned One of the most teachers of China. Annual secrecy been required in the West since the Fourth Council of the Lateran In countries CONFORMITY. priestwho has power to administer the thought. a philosophy and exalted him to the position of he has held for over teacher of China which two martyr or one who confessed his faith in the face of thousand years. virtue is jin." A blessedness and the complete life are so-called from the beginning word. Civil law safeguards himself to the collection and editingof the ancient the secret of the confessional.). performance of duty would keep the whole realm In the Greek and Roman churches it is the second of human affairs in harmony with the cosmic order of the sacraments administered Destiny.

the whole assembly of Israel. Congregationalism Continent.There are also sharing the same general features are ministerial associations. Congregational churches mostly in the northern states. great results followed emphasis after the Han dynasty the classics the sacred books of public education and became established. (2) the Burial Hill Confession societies. and activity control of missionary organizations. and again of toleration. In the Connecticut and Massachusetts Bay colonies 1664 and 1693 respectivelysuffrage was until_ fication restrictedto church members. Congregationalists. AND iftythousand. under the "Act of Congregational Education Society (1816)." The Massachusetts "Puritans" Bay Colonists who left England (1628) for religious reasons. (3) a have appeared: (1) the Colonial.415 members. municipal reform. Scrooby Mass.the Christian connecpast twentyfive years greatgainshave been made in co-operative Disciplesof Christ. theological II. the Separatists of Great Britain who became gradually the Congregational Sunday School and Pubhshing Congregationahsts tion distinctive features attained independence. the American of their history (1846). the Congregational Building Society are (1)the definitionof their poUty of Ministerial Board and doctrine in distinction from the Presbyterians." (1) An assembly of people. Congregationalism America. Theology and Creeds. ^A portion of the "separatist" of church at Leyden emigrated to Plymouth. on the few Congregational in Gerchurches many. Norway.as gation of cardinals. in 1620. Two (1630).influenced by the Plymouth church founded Congregationalchurches in Salem (1629).(2) The New England theology temper. yet " " with CONGREGATION. In the tion.'(2) the Half. Holland churches. (2) the right conferences associations state (1) autonomy (semi-annual). Chief (annual). Robert movements. After "Separatist"and "Puritan" the churches. English is composed of representativedelegates of which and several History. churches international council (occasional). There Hungary. This is expressed in local councils. churches and to promote their common interests and formed in Norwich Brown a church (1580).C. for worship and Levitical the religious instruction. church 2. Missions.. The Missionary AssociaSociety(1832).and Scrooby (1606). and missionaryextension. creedal expressionshave been formulated: Union of Scotland (1) the (1812). polity this is defined by two principles: of the local church. persecution.the London Missionary (1795) and the Colonial Missionary (1836). the Congregational scientific method. (2) Under law.of tion Cambridge Synod (1648) and the Savoy DeclaraEngland and Wales (1833) with its Declaration of the Westminster Faith (declaratory (1680). Portugal. " 1. of high clerics charged church (a) a committee the congrewith the conduct of church business. Eustace Haydon and private worship. by an arrangeSinging in ment which assembled with the Presbyterian the whole congregation participates. church. In the early identiof church and state arose the "Half.Sweden more hundred thousand one III. in the home field through the varying fortunes of toleration. centrahzing the term ists. Boston and in neighboringtowns before 1640. Foreign missionarywork is under two Confession. Poland. Congregational Home (1688).050 with 808. By 1700 Congregationalchurches had spread over nearly the whole of New England. (4) The given the whole Reforming party in the second half of the 16th. The a Christian bodies. this of Christianity.(b) a committee of bishops in which conference the agenda. Fellowship. London. its (1865) and the Commission Creed (1883).v. missionaryinterests of the (1602). The two last emiin 1606 and 1608 respectively denomination cared for: in foreign fields by to Amsterdam are Board the American of Commissioners for Foreign the Scrooby church removing again to Leyden in Missions With 1609. Churches and her dependencies number about six thousand disturbed the churches: (1) the witchcraft delusion colonyunder " _ " " " " " " " " " with membership of about seven hundred and (1688-1692). Corresponding to these types.the national council (biennial).v. other colonies went' out from these: the Connecticut Thomas Hooker (1634-1636). embodying substantially only). work in national "international and interdenominaafter. CONGREGATIONAL SINGING. Soon tional organized at Gloucester. until (1918) they of form As a number CONGREGATIONALISM.and defining of the firstmentioned of these history denominational chief agent consciousness.the Haven New colony under John Davenport (1638).and Universalinterest in social reforms. of Ireland (1829)." In the firsthalf of the 19th. and were designatedas "Pilgrims. Three types of thefrom revival.Way Covenant (q. ." Bury St. 1. has nearly a score of free than a thousand with over members. (1853). (2) the leavening of their reUgious life by experience ology derived the Methodist 4.A DICTIONARY Congregation RELIGION OF of social duties in whatever status the individual of is found. Switzerland. (q.)by which for more than a century reckoned "unregenerate" persons were as many church members. and Gainsborough The grated 3. Controversies. Fellowship is fostered by County Unions. Baptists. in " History." ETHICS no intention of rupture with " the " mother church.but not by by a common Scotch name vows. 1750 modified by Calvinistic. few churches element of worship common to the history were an organized west of the Hudson river.v.). their leaders being known of the Congregation. the "Lords as century. ." 6. (3) In the R. in Great Missionary societies. Fellowship and Missions. resultingin denominational consciousness. and the Congregational Relief (1907). (1810).whether organized or not. There 110 are schools for eighttraining students. a are " . and duty of fellowship and an with sister churches.)from 1750 to 1900 Arminianism. Several controversies have Britain 6.century) forbade it. dissolved in 1852 and the formation although the council of Laodicea agreement was of (4th. the divine right of virtuous rulers was exalted to divine rank and The sage himself was has through the centuries received both public A. Its aim is to foster the unity of the beginning in 1526. 1.Way Covenant" (q. (c) a a arranges order bound religious rule. (3) the insular work is under the Church and Home Kansas City Creed (1913). rapidly increased. "The is the incarnation holy man in the service of humanity ' ' (Knox ) righteousness Confucius looked As a professed conservative back to the good old ways of the peacefulpast when the rulers of China acted as the earthly of the cosmic law and were embodiment examples from this Two to men. Edmunds. the Toleration" Mission Society (1826).to about modification of individualistic in favor of a social Calvinistic. Unitarians. Origin in this movement Council has been the National Congregationalism.(3) transition to the historicaland 2. More designates the specifically activity.other churches were relations. century.

So far as the content cerned. the case of the polyandr"usTodas For example. Catholic Congresses are R. The of and in reorganizingthe States of the church. 6. the AustraUans. and is able to perform certain lower ethical actions.both but as ties between cipline. century. 1. Empirical theories seek to explain conscience the acquired knowledge that certain acts or as attitudes are visited with disapproval and punishment. sympathy and social regulation. this acquired knowledge may come ERCOLE CONSALVI." of the divine co-operationof the CONGRUITY. 2 The scholastic definition between distinguished synderesis(by which is meant a generalrecognition of the authority of moral law). of conscience is conthe Red Indians. a of John Wesley. incorporated into the title of an independent referred to the New nection Conchurch. not as ties between individuals. It is desirable that a man distinguishedfrom affinity. while others are approved and rewarded. See Moral Sense. Intuitionist theories assume to conscience be an innate faculty of moral judgment. Many Christian teachers have regarded conscience as a divinelyimplanted " faculty. frequently Socrates spoke of the demon within him whose guidance he must foUow. Principal Facts. Assemblies of conferences or for purposes of deliberation discussion. (6) the Andover controversy (1882-1893). Others have held to a general native of moral obhgation. Sheldon Conscience whom a performed during pregnancy ceremony determines which of the husbands of the mother is to be considered. The religiousconceptionof an invisible and the mysterious power or presence watching over enforcement of what is morally right is characteristic of primitivethinking. blood feuds are almost among groups. The great loyalties which admire ship it. Thus we are of General New Baptists. 1. was any other emotional reaction. used to designate This term has been hke that under the headship circle of societies. There is no more elusive word in the vocabulary of ethics. degrees of relationshipare distinguished." The perception of moral distinctions accompanied by the feelingof jiersonal obligationto do what is morally right. and The Church name Congress is given to such gatheringsof the Church of England the Protestant or Episcopalchurch of the U. The existence of a feeUng of obUgation is CONSANGUINITY. but the explanationsand applicationsof this sentiment are so various as to cause perplexity. Education.L. H.)which Catholic^ arose dealt with "cases of conscience. the as father of the child. which may for and no less mysterious than is the reason The more membership in a clan or other similar group. term Such feehng is indispensableto highapplied to all hcit or minded we as blood-relationships. Rivers instances of India. seem power inward He proved his ability of state to Pius VII. 686-687. and consdentia.v.). which lacked the status of a church Quite as frequently. and the Wesleyan Methodist H. Thus the precise dictates of different social conscience differ widely among nothing unless sociallyratified." the discussion of duty in coni. (1) A term in scholastic ology the- to indicating the natural capacity of man acquiremerit." The grace effectivetheory that the ness is conditioned by the recipient. 4. Out of this distinction casuistry (q.usually Such national in character. secretary of the conclave at of emotion. Beckwith lands.A.A Ill OF DICTIONARY RELIGION England theology (q. Morgan. II. besides many collegesand seminaries in foreign C. by emotional and imitative processes. and secretary It may like a divine the outbreak of the French revolution." Italian rational character may be lost sightof because of the cardinal and statesman . CongregationaUsm has from the first fostered education.however. sponsorship. It is thought of as the voice of God in the soul. HuTTON Webster CONSCIENCE. (2) The later scholastic doctrine that human has of itself a meritorious fitness for the grace of God. comprehensive than affinityis Why mankind should persons). be traced in as a voice.S. it has been proper. The child. gatherings. has been Connexion." The undeniable. religiouscongresses usuallymake ecclesiastical or theological pronouncements for the body which they represent. but have admitted that sense conscience must be educated like any other faculty of judgment. so that its (1757-1824).than is admissible in a called a purely congregational poUty.v. More be established be so constituted as to experiencethis feelingis no by common kinship. I.v. since the middle of the 18th.it may for littleor count certain attitudes. the married (excluding that between This is the fact of conscience. a group of ecclesiastical units. The actual existence of the sentiment of moral obhgationis admitted as a fact of experience. moral CONNEXIONALISM. Hving. name a " . such first to show that among 2.e. in contrast to the merit achieved by supernatural aid (condignity. See Marriage. various peoples. ConConnexion. Occasionally." ETHICS obedience. and that he should feel pleasureat duty performed. " representativepersons CONGRUISM. Consanguinity.whether illicit. nature AND The of rather loosely-definedpoUty. crete instances where circumstances are pecuUar. Conscience is developed when the sense of inner obUgation binds one.C. more closely interrelated through some form of general authority. 3. which acknowledges the duty of specificacts of . eight theologicalseminaries in the United States..Too close consanguinity ment to marriageaccording to various religious and civil regulations." sideration. and the Polyit seems to be largelythe product of social as nesians. is not necessarilythe decisive factor in the formation of is an impedirelationships.an artificial relationpresuppose created by adoption. Even is recognized. by sympathetic imitation and as a result of dissocial classes or where to is emotionally and mentally committed sanguinity congenerations. When the fact of social sympathy is taken into conCONON. A. Historical Conceptions op Conscience. (4) the (3) the New Universalist and Unitarian controversy (1780-1825). Pope. Horace Bushnell (1842(5) the controversy over 1870).). but its genesis can human diplomat and organizer in securing the restitution experience. C. following these than fortyother colleges with more and universities.founding Harvard College (1636) and Yale College (1701). Tribal or family obUgations thus surrounded are by the dread of what may occur if these are not fulfilled.the Methodist nexion. for all social purposes.q. Conscience would thus be infaUible. " CONGRESSES.then. or intermarriage should feel uneasy in the presence of duty unfulfilled. American the anthropologist. Some exponents have gone so far as to regard conscience as inherentlycapable of determining what is right in each instance.

(Nov." See Age of Consent. The evening meal of Monks was decreed by the synod of Angers (453)to be a consolation for the loss of sisters. Since the moral consciousness is demonstrably of our content derived from experience. The Fourth Council (8th.v.See Trinity." The religiousact or ceremony of separating. church buildings and utensils. Among primitive peoples certain persons and objectsbeing considered as set apart for sacred tabu were (q." The ethical task is to develop motives or conduct. May 30. 1415. The name Constantine I.v."In any "conscience" should not be so isolated as to of moral ideas which prevent the modifications case enlargingexperienceought to bring. ecumenical) in 381 re-affirmed the Nicene formula and re-dealt with the Arian controversy. Steadiness or immutabihty of CONSTANCY. vigorously condemned 3. but formulated by Thomas was Aqmnas.ecumenical) in 680-81 Monothelite dealt with the controversy. burial and grounds. the latter of which condemned Mathews Shailer images in churches. and the tyingon of amulets.- An ecclesiastical coxirt: papal consistory consists of the college of cardinals over which the pope presides and (1) The ETHICS AND 112 formal ratification of measures." of conscience.)is an ethics of conseevalucutingconduct in terms of results. but ought equally to make that he does not sure identify conscience with sacred religiously a mere inherited emotion his which reason criticizes. for reforms as were mended adopted or recomsuggestions were ignored by Martin V. The purposes. also held at Constantinople in 692 Councils were the use of and 754. was of two popes: CONSTANTINE.Donatists. one of authoritative Catholic doctrine. It was by and the Emperor Sigismund to Pope John XXIII. and Jerome of Prague.DICTIONARY A Conscientiousness OF RELIGION in some communities. 1418). and thus invests the loyaltiesof moralitywith superhuman significance. deposed two Benedict XIII. The second and possiblythe most cils important of the various so-called reforming Counsummoned of the 15th. Anglican consistory convenes (2) The for Dutch row (1) The alleviation of sordisappointment. Second CouncU The (5th.or Birnet Smith Loyalty to the faithfulness to duty. failed to end the reli1416.Cyprian and Ambrose. to Christianity. in the sacraments. John Huss was condemned burned July 6. to end consider the reform the rival Popes. abdicated. In the Christian connected with the consecration ceremonies are dedication of persons elements used to holy offices. constancy in right modes evil.objects. 1414" Apr. gious This action. person.the designation of certain stringentmoral ideals based on the New Testament seek especialhoHness and commended to those who that are in distinction from commands obhgatory The distinction appears in the all Christians. ethics. defeated by the Council to reform the Church were Such higher clergy. character of moral recognitionof the empirical ness judgments would obviate the dogmatic stubbornThe of many "conscientious objectors. of thought and action.and that the latter should be summoned regularperiods. First Council of Constantinople (2nd. In such conscience case a points social sympathy. used also to denote the the act of bringing consolation. Shailer Mathews Council op. It established four doctrinal canons which were accepted by the Roman and Greek churches. ecumenical) in 553 and the Third Council (6th.places. 306-337. religion talismans. (5)An has jurisdiction in a diocese. and three disciplinary canons which were accepted only by the Greek church.C." or OF COUNCIL CONSTANCE. collective and CONSENSUS The PATRUM.or settingapart as sacred certain persons. sels. rival Popes third pope The Gregory XII. century. mothers and friends. patriarch of Constantinople. Reformed consistory corresponds to the session in Presbyterian polity. (4) The Lutheran consistoryis officially appointed by the state. A man ought always to foUow conscience. During the post-Nicene Arian controversy and in deahng with the Novaserve tians. and thoughtful individual may earnest particularly in the interest lead to a defiance of existingcustoms of an ideal.and others. 4. UtiHtarianism quences. Popular questions concerning conscience should be answered in the light of the facts. granted of religionby the so-called the Christians freedom Edict of Milan. See Basel. etc. Arianism. CONSILIA EVANGELICA. on writingsof TertulUan. suggestingreligious beyond mere loyaltyto a higher order. Analogously consecration is used of any solemn dedication such as to one's country or to a cause. results of a . loss or sacrifice. be educated. AGE OF. blowlaying-on of hands. 313. A religious interpretation of life brings conscience into relation with the divine wUl.it is always Conscience not only may the product of education. participationin a ing. CONSOLATION.not recognizedby Catholic " " " authoritiesas a legitimatepope.includingthe direct means unusual work of the god or consecratingagency. branding or singeing a the use of names. sacrifice or sacrament. especially the Cardinals.reUgion or agencj' an being frequently (2)A compensation for agency. finally CONSISTORY. " " The efforts of the controversies in Bohemia. Cardinal Oddo Coloma was elected and Pope as Martin V.ecumenical) 869-70 dep9sed Photius." unanimous Fathers of the teaching of the Church of the firstfive centuries of the Christian era.his pohcy was to preby an opportunistpolicythe undivided church. meteorological occurrences. a layman before his election by a faction. 5. (3) The French Reformed consistorycorrespondsto the presbytery in a presbyterialbody. tates dic- CONSECRATION. and in opposition toward CONSTANTINE.dedicating. The recognitionof imperfectionsin existing moral standards suggests a higher morality than of a The conscience that of prevaihng custom." COUNCILS CONSTANTINOPLE. The decided amenable that to Council Popes were at Councils. Pope 708-715. Pope 767-768 . conscience is not infallible. By his order the council of Nicaea convened in 325. and John XXIII. and to pass on the schism between teaching of John Huss with the attendant disorders Council The of the in Bohemia. the of the Church. sources CONSENT. the saying of charms. The OF."The CONSEQUENCE the conduct line of conduct in distinction from itself. of consecration are varied.) or dangerous. He converted 312. Constantine II.however.and times.and decided that Constantinople should be the first of the four eastern patriarchates. animals. . Gerald CONSCIENTIOUSNESS. and are in others. (q." EvangeUcalCounin R." Roman Emperor. 22.

e. The Baptismal Confession used by Cyrilof Jerusalem. In ancient 3.. losophers used the term the king's declaration of indulgence but for what is accidental in contrast with what is logically passed a "ReUef Bill" permitting worship to nonconformists necessary." A term appUed the Lutheran doctrine of the Lord's Supper." a highestgood in Buddhism. 4.000. CONTUMACY. to Concentrated CONTEMPLATION. in the particularly West." In R. about garb. CONVENT. as conducive ing not as was derogatory to the Established Church.thousands of Scotch Covenanters were fined or imprisoned for attending conventicles.involvingmotives. canon This means " an CONVENTICLE ACT. Mode R." An act passed (1664) in greater numbers than four. Rockwell CONVENTICLE." A third offense was from induced either by or punished by deportation quiescence. conversion describes a radical change of moral character.who instituted the firstChristian monastic under the charge of his rule. G.. Enclosure.). W.). a or function. Immuring." branch of the A Contempt of authority. especially ing in cehbacy. thoroughgoing change or condition A profoundly altered in moral to converted man is in or disposition mental attitude.v. causing to another. is from the Coptic. put a nunnery " sister. change from transformation. Basil convents in the East. In EngUsh law contempt of the ecclesiastical court is religiousorder of Franciscans (q. The Scholastic phiParliament only in their homes. theology." i. This continued to be springingfrom the highestmotive. Not all nuns 2.C. Shailer Mathews CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON. The Egyptian Pachomiua (died346).repentance Allegianceand subscribed to the doctrinal articles of the Estabhshed Church. W. CONTINGENCY.. CONTEMPT.A 113 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION The forCREED. the punishment of burial alive is said to be legendary. (1) CONVERSION. In the reign of Charles II. are "enclosed. Benedict. attending services "in CONTENTMENT.ideals. in its popular convent will be taken In this article the term sense. and of women founded were under that of St. They number 2. the certain R. of sixteen years and upward.the meetings of dissenters from the established church. is really the formula adopted by the Council of 381. When moral the realm for seven act (1670) A second or religiousexperience.though it is "convent" Strictly. the older law fallen nuns mured. In Ethics. after the words of institution. Conventicles were the early church and in the schools of WycUf. There has been considerable speculation the Nicene to whether as Creed. P.v. In the absence of preciserecords. according to which. This Decree became widely known as the Nicene Creed. which the church beUeves obligatoryfor those involved. the substantial body and blood of Christ become united and with wine the bread sacramentally which unchanged. the pope of Rome. lowed Severe Self-restraint in regard to persecution therefore folthe passionsand appetites. The French Revolution and conditions of work in Protestant countries have brought about widespread relaxations of the ancient enclosure." mula held in the Council Constantinoplein 381. imposed fines upon officialsfor neglectin enforcing CONTINENCE.v. until in 1672 the king interposedhis dispenssexual passion. the union subsisting remam only until the purpose of the consecration has been fulfilled. it is probable that this matter of will always be one Creed is very similar to the conjecture. The machinery of the Roman church is adequate to remedy abuses. signifying the Rule of St. so-called.forbidden to leave the grounds of their convents. and under lapsed from virginitywere " PAPAL. who took the Oaths of Supremacy and CONTRITION.because it was regarded as expressingthe views of the Council of Nicaea held in 325. however. (2) In Great Britain. CONSTANTINOPOLITAN adopted by supposedly AND ETHICS perfectlyproper Conversion speak of to a of men. Abuses."from the color oi their statute of taking the place of the older custom excommunication. lessened the penaltiesof the ear Her enactment but highly commendable.v. which had restricted the social work of nuns very The word nun Under "clean.)by Henry 11.the love of God and genuine sorrow for sin." the statute.definingthe spheres of the civil and the ecclesiastical courts." Enactments CONSTITUTIONS. . meditathe attainment of the types of mysticism such as school of Hinduism and employedfor means certam Yoga orders. either of nature a man Changing state one or Broadly.often unsocial ethical or religious object or person considered as An expressingitself as attitude toward inferior. tion." " a of a is used of a branch flexible form religious order. 1.C.).aims. contrasted with the status of nonconformist worship until in 1812 attrition (q. have led to demands for Rumors the state inspectionof convents.dating as a Sometimes 1517. (2) the buildings occupied by such a community. See Penance. punished by a writ de contumace they are separate order from capiendo.not of part of the more of organization called a congregation. the Conventicle Act was repealed. an ideal emphasized in monasticism as by granting to the nonconformists power licensed meeting placesfor worship and such preachto purity of hfe." " largelyto keeping boarding-schools. Rise of convents." faction other manner than is allowed of satisA mental state by the Liturgy." CONVENTUALS. Popularly the word is restricted to female rehgious. The rule that nuns be given two or three times must a year the opportunity to confess to a priestother than their regular confessor gives opportunityfor the denunciation of malfeasants in office." secret (1) A private or held in meeting for worship.it is regarded as years. of England in 1164 in his Becket strugglewith Thomas (q. an against persons word has The two meanings: of women or reUgious commvmity of men viewed in its corporate capacity." Roman Catholics were Possibihtyof an occurrence permitted to meet not predictableby any In 1673 annulled disrule. this called "Black Franciscans.C.pure." attitude of despising." A body of laws promulgated at the Assize of Clarendon (q. Rome vestals who buried aUve. viz." to be "imwere "shut up within four walls" (closeconfinement). of to be CONSUBSTIANTIATION.

century on." The native Egyptian distinguishedfrom that of the Greeks churches of Egypt.observed on Thursday after Trinity Sunday. the radical change was and the man henceforth had a "new heart" which was both guarantee and source of the transformed hfe. Thus it was possible like the revival of vegeto say that the process was tation after the deadness of winter. occasions. CORPUS DOCTRINAE. the experience is associated with Historically.SalHerbert A. The act was suspended from 1689. or as a S3Tnbol of purity." sense This experienceof guiltin the sightof God has been characteristic of some leaders of the spiritual in Christianity. strugglefor papal domination. By some sacramental or other duly authenticated plished.C. Edgar J. or that it was hke the buildingof a hut which the man knew to result from his own exertions. but not on sacerdotal. but not abohshed until 1769. genuine repentance. In the latter case be a Creator. collections of doctrinal century formulas put forth as representative of statements specific types of faith or of churches.).451). Some was mythologiesposit a cosmic egg from which the world developed.d. In O. AND or or an The act or process discipline (q.v. miraculous as a "work divine act by which a man brought from a was condition of eimaity toward God into a state of salvation. CONFRATERNITIES the members of which wear associations.See Regeneration. was accepted by the Copts who adhered The to the Monophysite doctrine.v." mogony Costhe birth of the world. but both words are now apphed to the varitheories which have been advanced concerning the originof things. like the Titans against Zeus. The conversions of Paul and of Augustine a strikingexamples. Smith Gerald Birney COPE. A piece of linen spread altar when the Eucharist is handled. to personifyforces external to itselfis so inveterate that mechanical of early theories does assume the most of the gods.Coptic Chrisdivergedfrom Catholic beUef. designed to remove tion of rectificaa wrong error." The designationof certain 16th.the kosous mos).C. Commonly. this is the Babylonian myth accordingto which the means . as the indispensablecondition of salvation While instances of Christian there are by grace.and involving profoundly altered spiritand conduct. of the originof the gods themselves was soon and Night It is difficult to say whether the Chaos of the Greeks placed at the beginning which some first conceived of as personal or not. Since the forces of the world are often in conflict cosmogonies describe rival and contending many Parallel to gods. Bishop of'Li^ge. accomagency." An the over act mulgated pro- by the Enghsh parhament compeUing all members of municipal bodies to receive the Holy Communion in the Anglican form. A semicircular cloak used in the R.T. With Lutheran the Formula of Concord (q."a specific. Christian a religious Wlien Europe became liturgy In the was arranged for coronation ceremonials. Modern theologydescribes conversion in terms of the laws of ethical and rehgious transformations. so-called from the the head. in a more general it may be appliedto a social group as well as to sense individual. century. commonly attending a change of belief. history on placingof the crown anointed kings were by the priest and crowned. Youtz CONVICTION of OF personal sinfulness inward SIN. " CORPORATION ACT OF 1661.conversion is a radical spiritualand moral change.but by social." R.it is nevertheless a typicalfeature in many conversions. Church as a on liturgicalvestment ceremonial. originatingwith Robert. Repentance. logians conceived Conversion was by the older theo- of grace. Cosmogony is more usually applied to the mythologicalexplanations. moral conversion involves this moral change In religion. The fact of rehgious and ethical awakening is a matter of of conceiving common experience. various religions. COSMOGONY AND COSMOLOGY. century. Goodspeed 114 Pope. "a change of heart. This the existence however only pushes the inquiry further back for the question raised. in the former this was there must but the tendency of the mind not so essential. Augustine. The familiar meaning refers an more are to individual conversion in the Christian sense.Moreover.). When men began to inquire how the world in which they found themselves to be they gave came either in terms of external nature the answer in or of human terms experience. CORPUS of the Real CHRISTL" A R.the importance of collections declined. and Luther. festival in honor Presence in the Eucharist. it is probable tianity that Chrisdid not reach the native Egyptians much before the end of the 2nd. a cord or a cincture in commemoration of a saint.C.especiallythe and Calvinistic collections." the 1st. The manner the change and is a of effectingthe conversion field in which rehgiouspsychologymust speak with vation. CORD. itself through the Coptic church has maintained Moslem occupation of Egypt and stillconstitutes a small fraction (nearly 700. martyred by the emperor and exiled 251-253. The rejection of the Eutychiandoctrine by the Council of Chalcedon not (a. authority. and the Coptic church can hardly be said to have had a separate existence until by the adoption of Eutyches' doctrine tianity of the singlenature of Christ. While dition Coptic tratraces an unbroken succession of patriarchs from CORNELIUS. See Sin. conversion was regarded instantaneous in which the miracle as an occurrence of transformation occurred.the claim was that the by the pope.though the adjustment of the whole hfe to the inner change might be gradual. psychologicaland ethical laws which it is the task of scientific study to trace and set forth. The divine which effects the change is power regarded as operating not lawlessly. Holy Spirit. GaUius.1246 and becoming ecumenical in 1264 by a bull of Urban IV. It has been emphasized in evangehstic preaching in America during the 18th. cosmology to the more philosophical. and 19th." An leads to such as " COPTIC church as and other CHURCH. Religiously.000)of the population. CORONATION. ETHICS OF THE. " CORPORAL. with some impUcation of the divine power that has wrought the change.A Conviction of Sin DICTIONARY OP RELIGION changingfrom an evil or indifferent to an earnest attitude. other Lutheran CORRECTION. experiencewhich do not involve this profound sense of sin.and cosmology the descriptionof the world (or universe. A ceremony arch whereby a monis inaugurated in office. a custom Emperor must be crowned broken by Napoleon. notably Paul.

Council of Nicaea g) The Second (787) which favored the use of images. the lower the vault of the making the earth. the period of the Reformation the most See Evolution.Constance (q. c) The First Council of Ephesus (431) which condemned Nestorius and aproved the use of the "Mother of God" term (q.C. the successive acts of creation form an dogmas of transubstantiation ascending scale culminating in (4 Lateran 1215). Council of Chalcedon d) The (451) which declared the presence of two natures in the one person Christ.v.how2. from the account probably borrowed Babylonia. making that the 11th. These are generallyknown as conventions. fully are now brought into the six to end the schism between the Greek and the days of the week.)." cil for the purpose 1542-1563 of undertaking See Basel. representingthe The bodj^of the defeated Tiamat ordered universe. than the former. In ascertainable laws. some theory of cosmic evolution in which physical and Basel (q. he commanded stood fast. composed largelyof eastern (dhamma) and discipline established with the assistance of These clergy with only a few from the west.). Her body was splitinto halves. of the Son with the Father.however. (1) A coimcil held at Ragagriha under KaSyapa in Their membership was the law when 447 B. possiblythe most strikor difference being that the latter is more local less authorityholding sessions at regular intervals. /) The Third Council of Constantinople(680Monothelitism 681) which condemned (q. ing Protestant bodies have such meetings with more Synod is not easy to draw. (3) A council at Pataliputra under Asoka about " . God spake and it was of the clergy" the 12th. the rocks being his bones. Councils.v. well to call attention to the fact every and he avoided anthropomorphism.the his veins.). which decided regarding certain practices a) The (325) which formulated the belief in the consubstantiabihty of monks of that place not provided for by the law. It will appear councils did not proceed far in the development of the fundamental Apparently the idea of a creatio ex nihilo is not beliefs as contained in the Apostles'Creed. P. may In modern times cosmogony takes the form of including those of Pisa (q. century councils were and it cerned condone. offspring. brought up mud from the bottom of the primeval ocean that the ecumenical and thus created the dry land.). synods for the purpose difference between The the Council and the Most correctingheresy or working out reforms.v. The creation is likened to the work of the cultivator who of other councils. (j)inaya)were councils are: Ananda and Upali.C. The Fourth Council of Constantinople (869-70) is sometimes reckoned as an eighth ecumenical Where a creator god is credited with the making of the universe he is not always thought to be the of the more one unique One or even important divinities. church liststwenty councils as ecumenical.)which was convoked COUNCIL OF BASEL. AND ETHICS Councils (Buddhist) h) The which First Council of Constantinople(381) restated the position of Nicaea and demned con- ApolUnarianism (q. meet we a sky.v. In this (priestly) account the see we development of a group of authoritative beliefs as be product of a strong religiousfaith working on material organized in councils and synods." AssembUes (q. redeems the desert by watering and held dealing with various questionswhich were planting it. These the Council of Lyons (1274) attempted unsuccessacts man. held in the The earliest of of a succession of councils early of presuch meetings is the so-called Council of Jerusalem centuries of Buddhism for the serving purpose but held for the purpose of adjusting the relations between the law and discipline of the movement the Pauline and the Jewish group of Christians.v. A very large number ever. This material was originally of the decisions of these councils in detail. the upper similar conception. The other Hebrew in the church. Tiamat is conquered by Marduk. is impossible confident assertion regarding them 1. 1) seems with a watery chaos on which the early church might be said to be found in the the Almighty exercises his skiU. clergy. in order that the sanctityof the Sabbath Latin churches. plants. council was H. It would impossiblein the space at our disposalto give any mythological. ences.). He might be one of the smaller animals Indian myth tells insect. important R. the councils of the 15th. Shailer Mathews some of a group. The Ecumenical the best attested. the vegetationhis hair.v. account in its earUest form does not affirm creation The R. (2) A council at Vai^ali in First Council of Nicaea 377 B. But Hebrew writer rigidly excluded polytheistic It is. The in number and were never thoroughly ecumenical. It assumes but those not mentioned above a desert land already were wholly in existence but without animals or composed of R. definite territory.v. The Vatican Council held in senting repreChristians of some defined the dogma of papal infalhbility.v. and of doctrine in view of the progress of the COUNCILS Reformation AND SYNODS." of policy or belief were decided. in which decision 1869-1870 locality is made relative to the doctrine or administration The Protestant groups have also held innumerable of the group of councils and represented. Counreform both of the matters of administration OF. Second e) The Council of Constantinople (553) which condemned the Three Chapters (q.v. from its inception held meetings in which matters COUNCILS There is evidence (BUDDHIST). conferCouncils are by no means Umited to Christians. century councils showed allusion. has almost as a religion Christianity. An American or even an how the muskrat council. In American or practicethe for the history of Buddhism word Council commonly is used for meetings called abounds in records of the meeting of representativepersons for special decisions while Synod is used as an to deal with heresy or undertake official designation for the authoritative to organize correct views body of to be held by the clergy and their fellows.and all animate beingsare their watery name. Smith that of Trent (q.C. in the strict sense. associations. The Hebrew readily grasped by primitive man. and Earth streams are Again Heaven husband and wife.C. In this account discover with the relations of the papacy largely moreover we with the church and with the development of the an evolutionaryelement. Elsewhere accordingto which the earth is the body of a giant.were largelyconcerned with the forces shape the universe in accordance with scientifically reforming of the administration of the church.).).especially the morals proceed from a spoken word. first three are These are seven at present. furnished the material out of which the world consists. account In fact the entire history of to start arose (Gen. very decided each act of the drama intention to reform the church.115 A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION chaos personified by as a monster.). century be emphasized by the divine example.C.

by a common weapons In covenants and deities the rehgious between men is the ceremonial symbol which an expresses in exchange of duties. as the rainbow Covenants constituted important factors in the reUgion of Israel. In modern times turning away the term is employed in the military of fearlessly sense of resofacing danger. A. The commoner are symbols of such covenants eating the sacrificial meal. Methodism with an provides a judicialcommittee appeal to conferences. Juhus Echter alone. The most important by far was the Council of Trent (1545-1563) (q. and the Spanish Nethernew and Bavaria of France The were crowns in maintaining the strenuous discipline"cujus nots. visitation (S. 25). A. in Canon Law. gave Canisius. ceased. but withal quite as effectively. ECCLESIASTICAL. EtrSTACE Hatdon OF PERFECTION. Reagan are " of the cardinal virtues in COURAGE. ^A custom certain primitive among peoples of putting the father to bed after the birth of a child. Bishop'sCourt dealt with testaments infraction here being sin.). was kinder than Pius and his reform ran smoother. II. The authority of councils came from the conof the Buddhist sensus most claimed to preserve of elderly saints who the originaltradition of Buddha. Otto of Walburg. demand which had already begun The reformingactivity.21).6). " COVENANT. Charles Borromeo. more . than 62. despite the tolerant inclination of Maxiwithstood the Reformation. was "Inquisition" be more vigilantand exercise its power under the fideitridenbishop in each diocese. ments.000 Protestants to Roman authoritative The procedure began with the of cardinals by pope appointment of a commission drawn Paul III." term monly comapplied to the reaction in the R. or or utensils.which. frequent diocesan and parochial regulation of ecclesiastical benefices (S. 18). the synod. from the middle the 16th. but the mediaeval and contracts.It was a turned the attention relief when Sixtus V. church had Reformation. J. simplicityof clerical dress and life (SS. stillin force. and the covenant is symbolized by mutual drinking. Sometimes " meteorologicalphenomena are regarded as in Gen. infusion or smearing of blood as in the bloodcovenant (q.brought back more communion. It denotes in Greek philosophy the capacity of a man to control impulses and to subordinate emotions in the interest of the rational end prescribedby wisdom. and other Oratorians.v." The persecutionof the Huguemew's of St.C. restoration of monastic discipline(S.Counsel A of Perfection DICTIONARY OF RELIGION had the character of real ecclesiastical by the king. happily drew up provided a AND ETHICS 116 of Catholics to literatureand art. missionaries like the Franciscan Fidelis of Sigmaringen. Vincent de Paul by his congenial active charity. tina was executed the laws of Trent. faith in Italy." Congregational internal disputesand moral offenses soon developed the Bishop's Court which obtained fixed procedure when synodal legislationcame (4th. was milian Austria.worship or giftsfrom men return for some boon from the god. Hosius of Ermland. One Greek Christian and in mediaeval ethics. an Night (1572). 24). The Presbyteriancourts are the session. See Theology. 7).v. with Catholic princeslike William IV. See Virtues Vices. Gregory unflinchingly XIII. N.persistently had In its effort to correct the abuses which vened brought on the Reformation. COVENANT GRACE. the R. which has perhaps than anything else brought about concord more and proper understanding of devotional practices the point whence the Reformation started.and totemistic rites. The covenant is usuallysealed by means of symbolism. See " OF WORKS. Bishops like Francis de Sales. The professio Pius V. and the founding of an alHance. the council enacted "reformatory decrees" providing in teaching Catholic for more efficient methods exact theology and philosophy (Session5). the General Assembly.Spain. 6 and 23). the highesttribunals The Sacred Penitentiary. incidentally. to the middle of the 17th. with slightmodification. frequent seminary discipline(S.and an important development of Protestant based on the conceptheology was tion of Covenant a between covenant God and man. which authority backed A COUNTER-REFORMATION. Prominent men among task themselves the to were: Ignatius. and in a social sense lutely facing disapproval of others or personal disadvantagefor the sake of loyaltyto principles. of continued for a hundred years.effectively lands. with had aim of reclaiming those who the twofold and of corabandoned the church for Protestantism recting the the abuses which had brought on who the Reformation. and Caraffa in zealous The 1537. and other Jesuits. Christian moralists emphasized the fearless fortitude of martyrs and saints and the persistent from temptations. of bishops and pastors (SS.) Besides anathematizing the teachers and teachings of Protestantism. c. century. The ApostoUc Synatura. introducingreform in the study of Scripture. ceremonies in which the blood of the sacrificial victim is the vehicle. OF . 14 and 25). which against the Protestant serious-minded aroused to the painfulconsciousness men of widespread depravity and urgent of reformation of both clergy and laity. the presbytery.C. 23.in recognitionof paternal obligation. Inquisition. it is said. Covenant COVENANT Theology. courts: beingthree Roman The Sacred Roman Rota. to be required of all CathoUcs.generally under stopped the spread of the Dominicans. regioillius religio. and correction of the misuse of excommunication (S. Bartholoculminating in the massacre effect of their zeal. Cardinal Bellarmine.by their sincerityin preaching and writing. Cardinal Baronius. more the duty of diocesan synods (S..C. To protect the faithful from dangerous reading it and the Index librorum prohibitorum^ the safe guide in Catholic doctrine m The to Catechismus Romanus. insistingon residence. Philip Neri. church conits bishops in numerous synods and enacted decrees for the reform of the clergyand disciplinary laity. Christie action on COUVADE. In covenants between the purposes men include the adoption of a stranger into a tribe.the making of peace between enemies. The appeal from the bishop is to the archbishop. of Bavaria. to carry out the programme up by cardinals Contarini. 242 B.by an interchange of names. century). Protestant procedure varies with the denomination. Constantine (321) allowed episcopal arbitrate in civic cases courts to belonging to This soon state courts. and in Liturgy. Morone. care in the ordination and installationof clerics (S. F. garmeal.25). ^Any formal and solemn agreement between individuals or two two or groups between individuals or groups and a god or gods. as it were. the production of kinshiprelationship or of friendship or of identity of interests." See Consilia COUNSEL EVANGELICA. So the reformatory was thorough and far-reaching work of the Council of Trent that the church has since that time done little more than apply and enforce its decrees. 9 : 16 covenant-signs. and " COURTS.

" EngUsh hymn-writer.used by the monks " of certain R. v." A type of theology in which relations of God and man are presented under the form of a covenant contract or (Joedus) Cocceius The (q." hardship or danger An attitude of shrinking from such as to lead one to evade ETHICS AND Creed" it involves discomfort or peril. A creed in the strict sense of the term is usuallyUmited to the Christian rehgion. CREED. (1731-1800)."English translator of the Bible. p. that the Apostles' Creed makes reference to the love of God. but were weakened with Cromwell's with the victory.v. in war. Newton poet and THOMAS CRANMER.) be traced from at least the beginning of the can creed. Elements of beUef are." First Protestant archbishopof Canterbury. Shailer Mathews COVENANTERS. is of fact.) is theologian Johannes commonly regarded as the founder of this type of of fact. was the mainstay of Henry VIII. Forty-two articles were burnt at the stake for his Protestant he was views during the temporary reversion to Roman Catholicism in the reign of Mary. or Christian moraUty. duty when COWL." A party holding to the in principlesof the Reformed church. Covenant of Works. and acts Christ is the Son of God for those for whom he was to be the representative and head. (2) The doctrine that human soul being begins life with a new every created by God.v. His translation was the first complete Bible pubhshed in English (1535. again as representativeof the human thus brought upon humanity the race. and the Prayer-books of Edward tually Evenchieflyhis work.pilgrimages. federal theology. For them he suffered. was at first a priest. The Covenanters cal life from 1638 to 1651. In 1638 there was of the covenant a renewal of 1581 in opposition to the attempt of Charles I. The covenant of grace includes various subordinate covenants that of Redemption made God and between as: Christ that God should give Christ spiritual seed.). thus becoming the federal head of the elect humanity. WILLIAM COWPER. in Christianearlychurch believed was fundamental It is to be noticed. of course. entered into the Solemn League and Covenant (q. This covenant works Adam. broke. originating Scotland. and the leader of the reformation in England. so-called. as opposed to traducianespecially ism (q.whose evolution through Creed Rule of Faith the old Roman or (q.and lost their power accession of Charles II. . 1779. (1) A cloak with a hood attached or simply the hood of such a cloak. In it is possibleto find creeds in a wider sense of the great reUgions. or According to the covenant God is represented as having estabUshed nants covetwo with man.)with the Scots for the establishment of the Reformed church in both countries in return for miUtary dominated Scottish politihelp. movement masses repudiating celibacy.v.especiallyafter they have come in contact with the Christians or have been brought into conflict with some other reUgion. to be found in other reUgions.and God then subsequently made a penalty of death. the promise was made of salvation to those who believed in Jesus Christ. e. is readilyseen to be contemptible. COWARDICE.A 117 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION FEDERAL THEOLOGY COVENANT or the THEOLOGY. Covenant The theology thus starts from the generalpoint of view of Calvin. 1.however. and prayers for the First and Second VI. The Christian reUgion. promised Ufe and happiness as a reward for obedience and death as of the penalty of disobedience. century. then Austin an afterwards converted to Protestantism." (1) The doctrine that the originof the material universe is due to a creative act of God.or in a looser sense as any formulation of beUefs.the covenant of grace exists only between those elected by God for salvation. orders. The dead. to the saints. or the representative of his people. is supposed to 2. notably in the Four Noble Truths of Buddhism. of Trent Council more or The condemned the Covenant especially theology. is the only one in which there has been any authoritative formulation of faith as the basis of membership in an organization.C. To this end. See Courage. As a matter God's relations to man under the form of a contract not unknown to writers before him. The Apostles' Creed." See Cosmogony. It 2nd. (1489-1556). the creed which As a matter commonly used in the churches as the Nicene Creed is one probably adopted at the Council of Constantinople (381). of a conditioningthe right to be a member " given reUgious group. In less dramatic ways it insidiously prevents a positiveespousal of moral ideals and thus contributes to the breaking down of social morality. be that adopted by the Council of Nicene 325 a. second covenant Covenant of Grace with Christ. the representativeof the was human This covenant race. after defeat in the civil war.even most . friar. (1488-1568). CREATIONISM. or made with Adam. although was he may fairlywell be said to have given the theology its first systematic form. in the separation of the EngUsh church from the church of Rome.however. any no theory of atonement." Inordinate desire for the acquisitionand possessionof anything. is the oldest Christian doubtless found its originin some baptismal formula of what the and may be regarded as the summary ity. CREATION. the first.and playing an important part in the Scottish and English history of the 17th. In 1557 and again in 1581 these "godly bands" covenanted to resist the encroaching of the Catholic church. Cowardice anti-social and in times of is thus essentially great social need.however. form of the creed adopted at to get at the correct in Ught of its being quoted in Constantinople. The Nicene Creed. MILES COVERDALE. It is significant that this type of theology has found not wide those acceptance except among reformed churches which belong to countries in which the idea of the covenant in poUticalaffairs is less familiar. the Abrahamic declared to Abraham and his as descendants.) COVETOUSNESS. By it. The Christian creeds as distinct from confessions of faith are held by Christians generally and are used in public worship. and Laud to foist the English Uturgy Scotland. According to this new covenant. usually regarded as opposed to the evolutionary hypothesis. making expiationfor those whom he represented. he became incarnate in order to unite the deity with humanity.however.the conception of theology. joint author with John of the Olney hymns. It is impossible. The statement of fundamental gious relibeUefs which the group holding them regards essential to salvation. In 1643 the leaders of the English on parUament.. century.g.

for Christians. Shailer Mathews "Holy Cross" has its specialchurches." a worship Creed {Symbolum Quicunque) 4. Christie to represent a theological atmosphere of the Latin ecclesiastical ornament. however. On CROSS. of one and Attis. Lord. but one and His stern zeal created the Irish problem by his the same Son. property of each nature being preserved. lituus. accordand the same to the Manhood.unchangeably. hatred of political narrow a conception of liberty. but rather the from who men curring fought only for religiousfaith. of Thor's hammer. of England." fall upon subconsecrated to Attis was be said to be "begotten" and "of one may and served the same mas the blood of the as The Nicene Creed also contains anathepurpose bull in the taurobolium those who differ from its formula. The Creed of Chalcedon (451) was adopted for the purpose of setthng disputesconcerning the trine of Jesus. festivals. symbohzing emblem book. all with one consent.however." See Death and churches and Practices. with separate authors. upon " " . parted or divided into two persons. TEXTUAL. without sin. (q. and the to maintain church with state Puritan Creed of the Holy Fathers has handed down to us. as a mystic or before that time. widespread among generallyfor morning services. As head of the state his poUcy was Lord Jesus Christ himself has taught us. consubstantial with the Father according to the Godhead. teach and the same to confess one Son. only begotten. inconfusedly. century. in heraldic devices. suppression of his CathoUcism. While in its present form an instrument was it does not date from earher than the 9th." Lord CROMWELL.Cremation A DICTIONARY OP RELIGION AND ETHICS 118 The visible part of the moon CRESCENT. Only-begotten. to be acknowledged in two CRITICISM. indivisibly. See Biblical formed enclosure distarce apart buried in prehistoric within which the dead were times. and North It churches tinctive disof a bishop. ing added to the Nicene formula. by use until perhaps the beginning of the 9th. " BIBLICAL. truly God and trulyman.but the crucifixion of Jesus attached to by the Augsburg Confession. one Christ. An Africa. our Lord men and Jesus Christ. The probabilityis that it arose in the have staff. or as a phallic of the United States Protestant Episcopal Church symbol. God of God. As the Lord's inseparately. Its present form and significancedate from the 5th. The burial places within are often marked by cairns. The best known example is Stonehenge. a Protector example of supreme Puritan faith in the divine guidance and of Puritan or rehgious tyranny joined with natures. cenIt is very probably composed of two parts.the distinction of natures being by warrior against Charles I. "We believe in Essential elements of this creed are: See Penology.the Athanasian it in As into church. followthe holy Fathers. or originallysimply the elder's haculum." It has been claimed by many in 451.BuddCatholic Church hists it seems to have been used Roman and Its use was Europeans.and conin one Person and one chieflyIndependents opposed like himself both to Subsistence. ing born of the VirginMary. frequently made of wood. he protected rather generally that this is incorrect.Son. it undoubtedly is made significance use it has been the recognized symbol of Constantine promising represents the trinitarian positionin its most uncomof the Christian rehgion. CROSIER. Of late years its use has been restricted was in the Anglican church symbol of the four winds. From it new the time of the creed. Spain. the same perfect in Godhead also perfectin manhood. then. Creed from the prayer omits the Athanasian or as an As an instrument of punishment and It was held in high respect by Protestant theologians destruction. there is no the matter by the intersection of hnes transversely. Creed found its have originated. ensigns. the Turkish CjtH of Jei'usalem.that is of the substance CRIOBOLIUM. it may Whatever whenever or rehgious symbol and as an instrument of punishment. in Chalcedon its first or last quarter. A ceremony of the Father." etc. lightof light.being formally adopted Whatever ritual Christian. itself. symbolical of Gaul or North been a Christian adaptation of the Roman churches Africa and developed augur's tury.the central words of which the devotee stance.Indians. upon " 3. of a reasonable soul and body.mostly in Advent Indians.v. are power. nection performed in convery God substance with the cult of the Great Mother. It may form. LOWER. of suffering. the cross is preof the Reformation a consequent emblem period. toleratingnon-conformists attributed to Athanasius held but it is now was Personally in sympathy with complete toleration Jews and liberated imprisoned Quakers. stone Norway and the British Isles.a damnatory clause possibly in the middle indicatingthe point of junction. Criticism. and in these latter days. in Gaul. The cross two or more as uniformity of opinion. The significance American either as a and Lent. and so-called fragments have It has been placed on flagsand been venerated.Chinese. he recruited his troops taken away no means by the union. Hence but these questionsthus opened metaphorically. CROMLECH. or Muhammadanism not settled to the satisfaction of all scholars. ginningruthless the Lord Jesus Christ. A figuremade of authorship. the Mother of God.dolmens. God the Word.not monarchy and the establishment of Presbyterianism. This creed organized the docperson of the incarnation. HIGHER." Lord Jesus Christ. century. The Athanasian only of a Puritan type.. and in ancient times was used for centuries it probably was in its essence put to two uses. or as emblematic The and pointsof the compass. It is in form a shepherd's never was adopted by the Greek church in its precise of pastoralauthority.are "We. " by large standing A circular stones set some OLIVER (1599-1658). as the prophets from the beslaughter of captives. all things Uke unto us. It seems F. for us and for our salvation . These in France. CRIME. Funeral CREMATION. and division of estates among (have declared)concerning him. the symbol on the Turkish creed was that of that the Nicene-Constantinopolitan standard. The ram whose blood was allowed to with the Father. and the soldiers. The form. A.like Easter and passiveelements in nature. associated with the four pretty largely to certain of the active Whitsuntide. and only begotten. begotten not made. or mounds so that it is probable that the largeenclosure was for the a place intended of rites connected observance with the cult of the circles are found dead.the son of God.). Cybele of very God. begotten of one the Father. the the of the western In a rehgioussymbol pre-Christian use appears way times among the Egyptians. begotten before all ages of the Father according to the Godhead. Its essential phrases. and conin substantial with us according to the Manhood.

On request for aid from Byzantium. gained who.possessionof Jerusalem. it. a campaign led by himself. the holy places of Christian crucified Jesus. weighed I.v. It is carried in ecclesiastical by processionsand used as a personal ornament word watchThe ecclesiastical dignitariesand others. Sepulchre.also.." The deliberate infliction of suffering inefficient equipment and leadership.had caused a brief but forceful revival of the conquering power its glory and power. See Symbols. e. more ticularly parpapal.Lionheart.of England.having overstrained the Byzantine church it begin to slipaway.despitepoor organizationand CRUELTY. resistance of the Moslem world at its lowest ebb. Philip Augustus of France. Gregory VII. that the degenerationand rapid of Islam.and not the papacy by the fosteringof trade and commerce. the Byzantine church CRUCIFIX. of England. but presently. especially in the direction of Byzantium.) origination It was Without a magnificentconcept. in the heart of western as before.making room in Europe. and This was due to general cultural superiorityof rossa Richard I.now again reaching the is evidence of a growing humanitarianism. Modern legislation aiming at the most tangible objective." At one CROSS-ROADS. at (2) The death of Jesus Christ on the cross the power of By unusual good fortune. less securelyin or THE. (the last powerful Hohenstaufen) . seven. dimensions of an expedition similar to or greater than the first (some count others twelve. The most distinctlymediaeval was as institution. to gain control of the Holy Byzantium's frontier. led by jFrederick I. by a more themselves such as children. AND of Byzantium. characteristicallymediaeval of Peter the Hermit with the (The connection of the crusadingidea is a legend. like all else in the mediaeval Frederick II. though excommunicated Holy Land. prevention of cruelty to those unable to protect stream or less constant July 1099. S. but.).). than in any other individual or destruction. famines. a mode this program with that of the Moslem war holy oriental countries.on altars erected at cross roads.g.fitiding Calvary. the crusade of long standing. Christian hands for almost relations between half of the eastern and western exactly 100 years and some the Mediterranean world (with interruption). the birth throes of and importance to readers of the EngHsh tongue. arms. defectives. met more seriouslyestranged than ever information its way to hastened about and concern for all the things the Byzantine empire was on for that counterthrust mentioned. this first expedition. Barbaas Europe as the 11th. had planned a project very like the later to safeguard Crusades. A with cross an image of the reunited with Rome.v. The stress placed on the significance death of Jesus in Christianityhas led to the use of for atonement the word "cross" as a synonym (q. etc.especiallyon the lower strata of society. Christendom. distress was Feudal organization. yet appearing so hopelessas a few centuries later. It was under Pope InnoIII. The economic distress of western ope Eurcommon would be alleviated. rule.and added to the plaints of pilgrimsfrom the West. The and of work continues to be a sign of suffering cross done in sympathy with an alleviation of suffering.gained its and pain. dispossession of Jerusalem prevalent at home. the Red A. cross. national developments. had arrived with Gregory VII. Meanwhile economic by diplomacy what could not be got by force of for a brief space. world. the papacy. and of reinforcements." The infliction of the death (1) in the establishment would be made of the of naiUng or binding the victim penalty by means Christian civitas Dei on the earth. century approached its end. decay of the crusading idea set in.) and sometimes for the Christian reUgion. practisewas criminals. out of the the incipientdisaggregationof the second (and last)of which grew a crusade of interest Germanic Roman Empire. Disunited over Europe papacy to be imified in a great movement was against a foe. stripsof the Syrian during the Middle coast were be held about a century longer.A DICTIONARY 119 OF RELIGION ecclesiastical utensils. Louis of France.Jerusalem remained more CRUSADES. izing jeopardhis dignityby attempted personalleadership Urban of the quietly asserted the supremacy all Christendom. characterized by military invasions told in detail. which is properly called )ody of men East of the Mediterranean the Seljuk Turk the Ottoman Empire (improperly Turkey. attained its The most distinctly mediaeval institution of western in and with the crusading movement Europe. Cross Society (q. The crusading The of this thrust helped to create new diverted from movement war was against nonpressure difficultiesand disorders on the northern frontiers Christians in and for the Holy L^-ud to warlike " t'ust . the Byzantine Empire saved and perhaps reconstituted. The performance of healingsand other is miracles through the employment of the cross it was to which evidence of the magical purposes of the put. still keenly felt on occasion.and incidentallyto effect a reunion of the churches.followed by speedy conversion Turkey in Europe).apparentlyat the zenith of absorptioninto the Mohammedan world.perhaps in a measure permanently. The project was dropped when Gregory presently involved himself in political difficulties at home. Not long after his death Cluniac Urban the great French II. of Germany.. punishment employed in many QihcLd)is striking. of Islam against Europe. And thus a splendid beginning CRUCIFIXION. (1198-1216). An ancient Teuton to offer human frequently sacrifices. was more Christendom. As for the other heavily. ETHICS The lappingwaves Crusades. Hence the originof the earUer Christian practiseof burial. or cent and invasion. and animals. origins be brought under Christian. the method of disposition of the bodies of suicides and executed criminals. it took on religious. WOODBTJRNE time BURIAL AT. The more Palestine by Christian armies. In it. that of Edward with which the Crusades schism The between and the Byzantine Rome were begun: purposes relieved at distress of Europe was Church the economic wound the body politic of was a recent on least temporarily. greatestpower. the crusades of St." "to take the of the Crusades was The making of the "signof the cross" as a ceremony implyingdevotion and truthfulness is of earlyorigin. theologicalcolor: the by the pope. How. important and well known of these expeditionsare: the one lure of the Levant The generallyknown was strong in western the third Crusade. and the writings of Tertullian from as appears Augustine. in a happier collocation of similar circumstances set in motion the first Crusade." A warlike episode in the etc. the Holy Sepulchre loomed large in social and men's minds..had set on foot the most movement.cannot of Ages.saw (Hildebrand) nearly or quite at its apogee. fitting. The similarity of of capital to or impaling him on a cross. Th" of its floodtide disturbed Jerusalem.

The found in forms Similar are are life-givingpower.John insubordinate Lackland of against the HohenEngland. They are held to furnish an understanding CULT. Thus humanized deities of all the Greek cults stand in marked contrast to the dark. philosopher. The cult is thus seen representationof the QUDRAS. The positive cult includes ceremonies to insure the prosperity vault subterranean ^A hidden CRYPT.. To name precise moral or religiousvalues Durkheim has emphasized not only the fact that ished diminor created. from touching blood. They prohibitthe sight of certain things helped in its distinctly. viz. against non-Christian peoples on frontiers of Germany. and with connection such tabus the negative cult France during. have filtered in from must many of the new-born child. ceremonial India and America. divinity. " See Sttdras. certain churches are ployed emfor burial. to the more to be applied primitiveand less familiar hear of strange cults and Land.their deities. and sacred food against each other. but that they reappear periodically. these movements of their devotees of leaving a fair number holdingthat there is no cult of ancestor worship a way but only rites of burial the Australians broadminded in the end. evil and good effects are some. England. interdictions. spectator the presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper. the distinct decline of papal sovereign power of the mediaeval effective crusading movement was no type. These interdictions restrain the uninitiated from imfavorably influenced in their development. common.A Crypt DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS 120 a family likeness. The rites are often cruellypainful. of the great gods of Greece had his own Each performance of the rites but the myths or beliefs moral freedom. againstthe movements schismatic stantinople. types of religion. That very cultural indifferent.have given a new cults.unctions. The the world was historic outlook life and primitivecult as Durkheim on an attained by mediaeval expounds and illustrates it in terms of the Australian Europe.lustrations nation. centeringin a sun-hero of gods. and to the Holy thereafter actuallystarted on its way " " " " of a cycle of romances. felt to depend upon the enactment are These sacred beings are subject to the rhythm of An opprobrious term CRYPTO-CALVINISM.chapels. of overcoming such means the Crusades developed into a great.festivals and is a in whole in part by the Crusades or difficult perhaps an ceremonies. the name CUCHULAIN. Correctand persistent is more carefully in ceremonial minutiae . people show marked kinship. century to denote a Calvinistic year is no disinterested animals perish. of the cult.and the reahty of be more than a dramatic growth in nature of growth for means of life. Ascetic practicesare M.g. Luxuries became of livingwas the standard perceptibly tribes includes a negative and a positive side. intelUgenceand of a spiritual the eternal reaUty of moral ideas. meaning to religious scholars. a corpse. which are shared by other or human gods and CUDWORTH. As a cult is a system of rites and beliefs so a religion like the Egyptian or Christian religion comprehends within the stages of its sects a variety development and within its differing tends of cults. most to processes men. or of the animal or vegetable species serving the used those in the catacombs chamber. and supports this view from parallelsin other peoples. specifically their sacred These totems clan as totems. These main each center of any one god disclose resemblances justas the different character and legends ascribed to him m In primitivestages the same. The_ "crusade" staufen ended. the same name.the reaUty was of a supreme world. Greeks of Conplaceshave against heretical Albigenses in the south of France. in touching the sacred objectsused in the ceremonials. indeed. bearing a strikingresemblance acter Such thrive. e. with a ANSATA. An CRUX Egyptian cross them the processes of their production to make to the loop handle. " cult and there was in fact a local cult for Zeus in cults of his worship. goes without saying. The word cult. These views. them upon he imitates He sheds his blood for them in the rites. The cult is complex. well ordered.in the complete destruction of this dynasty. Germany. Some were countries. avowedly fanatical purpose. Thus we speak of the cult of Dionysus. The system of beliefs and practices of the natural origin and development of religion ness or specific and of the birth of the gods in the social consciouspertainingto a particularsocial group generated by the performance of the cult. and he therefore seeks to help them. Vegetation dies every used in the 16th. impossible task. Man and many in regard to conception held by certain Lutherans life His of these depends changes. It involves not only the the cult of Osiris.enhanced the cult is a system of diverse rites. Something like more among and mourning. A few fairlywell balanced benefited objects. bad. the eastern against an Christian prince. sandal cord called in Egyptian by the same of ceremonies that the group and show its origin. It is the very "The gods would die if their cult has made Harrison rendered.Spain was In certain circumstances. established. Sprengling mediaeval time and type. magic of individuals and the public. ful powermagic of religionis that the latter is more and and is directed toward the welfare of men In Irish mythology. performances are magical in charname.We oriental cults. also. He makes much of this in the East. cult includes the tabus The negative raised. gained.confessionals. Italy. Begun with an had the criticism of animism as a stage of religion.it has been to the Egyptian Whatever religionas well as the black arts of privatepersons Semitic world the symbol of life or of and eastern the difference between full of magic. grotesque gods of Hinduism." English renowned of the Cambridge His chief reUgiousand ethical doctrine Platonists based upon a prioriprinciples. speech under efforts to throw off African (Moorish) overlordship. The very life of their gods as cemeteries. good. but it marks. its historic claims in the Levant are of this and benedictions. RALPH (1617-1688)." Jane not were the same interpretationin Greek religionand has traced the originof the god Dionysus to the cult This she regards as typical which pertainsto him. It is also noticeable that the cults of the various deitiesamong a given the bright.of rites of birth but not of a cult rather intangible..and those under objects. necessities.and in considerable measure through barriers.For example one speaks of marriage rites but not elements. which accompany fundamental the action and external details are more ness than the beliefs or myths." renewal and decay. includes Among these are abstinences.in common usage. and of a marriage cult.

they are naturally conceived of as (2) Canonically. " See Blessing and Cursing. that is. PRESBYTERIAN CUMBERLAND A sect of Presbyterians which separated from in 1810." or "social habit. standards.which is a relativelypersistentmode of activityin the from individual." or system of officials who comprise the years. Ellwood ^A Phrygian goddess whose cult CYBELE. all-producing earth while her consort Attis represents the vegetation which dies and is reborn. The synod drew fied was a modiup a confession of faith in 1816 which Calvinism. In 1906 a re-union atonement with the Presbyterian Church in the U. " " conception of a cycle or "Great dramatically. calendric Bronze.S. and values) plays an equal part. though nearly half the membership in the union. its beginning and end papal government. more subjective side of custom caUs customs Sumner mores. sec.A 121 DICTIONARY RELIGION OF more easilyobserved than individual fact this is the case throughout the higher stages of the religionsof civilized man. Custom is to be distinguishedon the one hand from hahit. G. being marked by the appearance of all the planetsin " " " " CYCLE.and on the other hand usage. ritual after and wine appear in the Hebrew Meal tillersof the where they became they enter Canaan Other in soil and vine growers. See desses. at the end of which cycle of nameable be begun anew. in the officialcult of China in which the this is seen elaborate and the officials maintained emperor intended to take the place ceremonials which were of the local cults. there were many sacredness and a consequent varietyof cults.Later it was performed by selected A strikinginstance of individuals for the group. and the center maize for the American Indian. Catholic See Pope. Thus is the basis of both custom law and morality in human society. barbarian. It has been supposed that the child should be given the stimuli corresponding at a given time. the French frequent basis for the computation of cycles is cur^. Ajmes Edward EPOCHS. tradition (thehanding down through oral or written language of knowledge. in the spread of Buddhism S. Silver. in the U. the Nile and the Sun Egyptians. has had a great The theory of recapitulation influence on education. lated Emascugrows.A.a habit which has become mon comand more to a social group less sanctioned or by it." The name CULTURE given to the race. a holder of a benefice who was of the older mythic cycles. being built upon the basis of acquired habit. tion for ministers necessitated the ordinathe demand of inferior educational standards which of men led to dissension and separation.at the beginning of a new order of being. Iron Age. of members care the same of 365| days upon astronomical year nomical for the "curia RoCURIA. OF SOULS. and second. She is the symbol of the fruitful. The most the measures responsiblefor the "cure" of souls.cereals among The bear is sacred to the Ainu agriculturalists. such as the classical division of world-history into a Golden.which proceeds largelyby the method of accumulating and modifying acquired habits in individuals. through which the race has passed. The usual term date. an CUNYATA. Charles A.A. which took place at the end of 1460 astroThe Babylonianscomputed a great mana. without the normative character of custom. the sheep for for the ancient Hebrews. Scares Theodore CHURCH. tom Cusis. in astronomy to give mensuris sufficient progress able covered. whom and interests of the people among The central objectsin it are likelyto be the features of most in which of the environment are concern the staple practical life. was consummated. changes occur of observing the cult. priestsperformed the wild ceremonies of the absorbed that of many cult which other similar deities in the empire and developed elaborate mysteries of resurrection giving hope and assurance the individual initiate. CUSTOM. held their main interest. Changes also occur by transfer of cultures as may be seen of cults through contacts in China and Japan. Its foundations in virtually all two: cases are first.semi-civihzed stages primitive. of the group. being indeed essentiallythe in the group.a notion of periods or ages.can scarcely be said to exist in the lower social animals. Rice for the Malay. As soon as See Buddhism. of his cult.S.therefore. great stages in the development of the human The term is often used in connection with the theory that the individual in his growth from infancy to adulthood actually passes through the cultural savage.000 years. in its by the entrance middle by a characteristic development. (1) A minister or priest who vast and these eventually assume vicar of a parish. See Presbyrefused to participate guarded and beliefs. disseries of years the calendric cycles are is CURATE. myths belong to cosmogonical and culture-history there older stratum of speculation. a in cosmogony doctrine of Ages of the World. matters " An Cycle attitude in ecclesiastical exaltingthe papal authorityas supreme. Church. out has been developed independently in several centers of civilization. Frequently these are food objects. and Round" computations resulting in a "Calendar or dates. Custom. CURSING. which is a mere "folkway. " The Year" of time marked . Cf. the and around spread widely in Asia Minor Mediterranean during the Greco-Roman period. Custom is also the basis of cultural and historical continuityin human although groups. rejecting predestination. A phrase used in the R. III. members participated. the activities The cult reflects in interestingways it arises. the discovery of the synodic periodsof the heavenly bodies. the Presbyterian Church Owing to a great revival in Kentucky and Tennessee. Roman cycle of about 33. the TERIANISM. It is to trace modifications of the cases possiblein many cult under the influence of conquest and migration. as or assistant to the rector an proportions.while primitive itselfmainly with the maintenance religionconcerns of custom. the of the New to designate the spiritual Sothic cyclerepresentedthe recurrence and Anglican churches Year's day of their civil year of 365 days and their of a congregationby the clergy. GodMother to Mystery Religions.Umited and originalsin. A norm of voluntaryaction that has been developed in a social group. and at the close by a more less cataclysmic finale wiping or all that has passed and completing the tale. CURE According to the Egyptian notion.but it is all important in human evolution. and in culture history.C. In all of these of centers peoples. In " " " AND ETHICS CURIALISM. their Emperors for the Chinese and the Romans. the series must Commonly.animals among hunters. At first all the manner at least all initiated males. to the culture epoch in which he was This theory is now severely criticized. however.

found in Japan.the participantsfeelthe rhythm of music. But of all such cycles the vastest those computed by are of the years of the four ages the Hindus. The dance is a unihuman expressionof powerful emotions.v. martyr and saint in the R. Damasus II. He favored DAEVA. As an art it as combines modes of esthetic enjoyment. the sum of a "Day of Brahm" reaching the vast period of 4. such social joy or reUgious exaltation. His cauldron of plenty. their name or coming from that source quite as CYRIL OF ALEXANDRIA probably from the Cynosarges. Dis-Pater oi the continental was The of Atonement in which he modified the trine docof a penal satisfaction in the direction mystical doctrine of vicarious suffering. the ultimate truth or reality. The name of two popes. religion. They are important as the Father. among Grosse emphasizes the social importance of of dancingfor small primitive groups. the members " " . He noted was a preacher and a strong administrator. ROBERT WILLIAM DALE. tippus Arisheld that prudence discriminates between pleasuresand guides to ethical conduct. Damasus mass. celebratinghigh god.and the brothers translated the New Testament be in ultimate harmony with reason.d. " the bodies of the by birds according DAMASUS. An agriculturalgod of the Irish of Celts. " DAI NICHL" Absolute The in the Shingon Buddhism of Japan around which all things. developed in oppositionto Novatianism(q. the sun-goddess of the old nature religionof Japan. Celts. their Athenian (376-444). Demonic enemies of the gods in Vedic of a goddess. defended the Nicene creed united episcopate of apostolicsuccession. dedicated in 1252 both seated a." He power supplies of corn. I. " DAKHMA.probably a god of agriculture. Significance of dancing. H. 200-258). while the corresponding "Night endures through a thousand of Brahm" times this same computed zodiacal a number. Through his CYRENAIC" A post-Socraticschool of Greek by Aristippus of Cyrene. versal 1. 9.C." See Deva.d."Bishop of Alexandria and Church place of meeting. church over the alb and cassock when " DAGOBA. milk and fruit. Cyrildied 869 of the human will and and Methodius emphasized the freedom 885. Diti." Enghsh Congregational divine and theologian." See Stupa. He made person regrettableuse of the true philosopher.the progeny and of similar nature to the Danavas and Asuras.real and Dai Nichi is Buddha phenomenal. Cyprian'scontribution to Catholic thought his formulation of the doctrine of the one CYRIL OF was JERUSALEM (ca. DAGDA. They who were originating "apostlesto the Slavs".a doctrine during the Arian controversy as a result of which he twice deposed and reinstated." "Creator. By the common as and so with people it is identified with the sun Amaterasu. perhaps the principal deity.). Epictetususes cynic one in Christ. center. was a denial and neglectof social virtues. influence both religion and ethics were standardized and the primacy ecclesiastically of Rome was greatlyadvanced. in height. The Maya of Yucatan cycle of nearly the same length." philosophers brothers Two between Socrates and the Stoics. Pope. (1829-1895).320. a noted dogmatic forerunners of Stoicism. was Bishop of Carthage. -A class of demons in Vedic reli- gion. They also began the use of Slavonic The dog was for certain portions of the liturgy. zealous in Pope. Alexander AND ETHICS 122 toleration and the readmission of penitents. was discoveringand adorning the tombs of the martyrs. They are 53 feet and 49 feet 7 inches figuresand. respectively. philosophy founded CYNICS. 366-384. Towers in which dead are exposed to be devoured to the Parsi custom. popularly regarded as their emblem. The two so as spectators see the plasticmovements many swiftlychanging pictures. was pagans. Their individualism and certain portions of the Old Testament into Slavonic. OF CARTHAGE CYPRIAN and the power behind the strife in which Hypatia (ca. and champion Roman of a Christology that insisted on two natures Empire the word had not gained the opprobut brium later associated with it. July 17-Aug. " " " DANAVAS. The two most notable are that of Nara erected about 750 and that of Kamakura a. 315-386). the sole ark of salvation.or communicative like gestures.) was His strength with reference to the treatment of those who had as a pastor is evidenced by his great work addressed to catechumens. lapsed duringthe Decian persecution. His best known theologicalwork A Phihstine " Colossal images of Buddhas DAIBUTSU. heretics and as the description the chief opponent of Nestorius (q. He was worshipedin parts of Phoenicia and in Babylonia. DAITYAS. who took an active part in political and educational affairs. calendar. In the earlydays of the theologianand defender of orthodoxy. those as distinct from which are merely useful like running. of the encouraged the preparation by Jerome Vulgate edition of the Bible. people dancing Among civilized has become but merely a frivolous amusement. DAGON." "Lord Great had the over Kjiowledge. called "Good God. B. whose main tenet was positive hedonism." church.A Cynics the DICTIONARY OF RELIGION sign. Dancing includes all bodily movements of an artistic character. of his power in the persecutionof Jews." murdered. A loose garment worn by deacons of the R. DANCING.000 years. Cyril invented the Slavonic absolute individualism in morals. 1048.C. unciviUzed folk it has often a serious meaning. Morality must script.bound by one Bishop of Jerusalem.based of day-signs in orders deterthe recurrence mined upon by various calendric factors.v." A school of Greek CYRIL AND METHODIUS. He is probably was always a source the Irish god of fertility corresponding to the " under-world See Danxt. DALMATIC.

deacons anity regarded as belonging to the clergy. the ritual or sacred dances have 2. always Deaconess on the side of theological DEACON. One of the mmor officers in the church. century a.and a pioneerin Great Britain ip the field of Old Testament dress.or as recoglingered longest in the higher religions. hunting. deacons are to be found in by Greeks. AngUean) the deacons are the lowest of the three mimetic sacred orders. are DASYTJS decided Of late years.history. Their were as F. The imperial deacons are regarded as an order (in so far as the Methodist is directlyinstituted by God and not church recognizesorders) in that they power God's wiU fulfilsitself by both state elected and ordained. Their duties are essenare by the pope. Both and They have the rightsand duties of formal dances may be classified. His first poetic effort. She is probably an underworld administer baptism or celebrate the Lord's Supper. the fruit of his last Shailer Mathews DEACONESS.Certain point The Protestant Churches have usuallyhad some to a cult of human sacrifice connected with her.as festive.given probationary work and training Scottish theologian. Mimetic dance is histrionic rather than saltatory.the pope reveals the path to enjoyment they are not pastors. they wear AND ETHICS his influence being moderation. These were and thought reveals also the wrestling society. They are Hutton 8th.warhke." but by the 4th." Names applied to the darker-skinned peoples of India conquered by the development of deaconess's work in the Lutheran.ritual." are licensed.Christinized retained the dance in its rites as late as the workers in some form of charity.as in the buffalo dance of the seven of the Plains Indians. life by the hoped for the regeneration ofltaUan Congregational order.DICTIONARY A 123 OF RELIGION which in amity and move meet rhythmicallyin accord.they usually language. funereal. century. led to In the early church the activityof women reflectingthe theology and cosmology of the scholastics and the recognitionof some series of judgments upon of them class with a men as a and events. There are.an intricate allegory in generalco-ordinate with the Deacon. for instance. the deacons are chosen and of the restoration German of the imperial authority. to indicate that the office servant. have invading Aryans. poor and the sick. and formal dancing. with the idea that the in number. allegorizes an image of divine truth. Of these. In America. ordained.the deacon is an assistant of the pastor and is chosen by the church the Beatrice lost to his love into Niuwa. chosen by the churches. The words the double Reformed and Episcopal Churches. originatedin the employment of persons costumes to perform and they act out a narrative. as develof this sort forms the germ oped. the above all possibility of envy and greed. A. and after passing an examination was an authority on are the Hebrew admitted into the office. tially and church. chief duties life. He for two years. endured privationsin Paris and North Italy tillhe In Presbyterian Churches deacons sometimes are found refuge finally(1317) with the ruler of Ravenna. strictly is also speaking. Having (served his city for a longeror shorter period. His chief duty is the in war and government in troubled times he was administration of charityand the generaloversight a victim of factional strifeand in banishment (1302ff. They DARWINISM.but apparently did not seem religionof the Irish Celts. but they are not members of the governing enthusiastic Ghibelline he In churches of the an Living in exile. The mimetic 2. traditions form symbol of fertility.Japanese. (1831-1902). Christie to minister to the women of the church as a class were DANU. The Divine Comedy. appeared usually seven real animals would in various churches throughout the Roman thereby be attracted to the Empire.matrimonial. figure and hence an Earth-mother." Dante's among who become social service workers of the Inner poetry and prose mirror not only the life of his native Florence but the whole mediaeval Mission (q. Webster not ordained as preachers and so are not.but strictlyspeaking are not regarded as an order. Holy. it is not and perform other duties which women desirable deacons to for the perform. appointed for the general administration This inspiredhis De Monarchia of spiritualneeds of the church and have care (1317) which argues that the peace needed for human be the poor among welfare can its members. wear a " " " " . See Order. Greek and intermediate instances. there has been a very (DASUS). At the present time.and Hindus. Some legendary or historical. civihzation of his time. Magical pantomime of the drama. of the gods in the ancient The mother of assistants to the deacon. offered only by a 4. In the Reformed Churches. In the Lutheran are Churches. In the Methodist universal elevated monarch Episcopal Church.) of the spiritualinterest of the body of the church. The formal dance does not attempt to enact anyaU forms of organized Christianity. widows.if not earlier. The monarch man's the same secures as the ordained minister.Purgatory and Paradise. less As a school of "soHdarity. Their chief office seems to have been to care for the neighborhood of the camp. the Vita 3." See Evolution. there is a marked meaning of enemy development of the deaconess's Candidates work especially the Methodists. pastors. Here the (Acts 6:1-6).v.ancestors. Church 1. or deities. earthly except that happiness.and the Uke. Thereafter. the scenes of a buffalo-hunt. body of the local church. is a poeticdescriptionof the three realms of Hell. the priestexcept those of pronouncing absolution according to their from sin and in the place in primitive life. of God. 3. groups of performers represented buffaloes and reproduced similar officials." it has doubtbeen a noteworthy factor in the evolution of culture. (1265-1321). In the course of time. of woman officialwhose business it is to care for sick She is giverof wealth and plenty. Those who take part are usuallymen masks and . The word is derived from the Greek diakonos. In some they cases. There a tendency ALIGHIERI Lutherans to build up fraternities of deacons DANTE. but the term deacon is not there used. courting. Varieties of dancing. This powerful image of the mediaeval known at first as "the peculiarduties. to have been ordained.). among ANDREW BRUCE DAVIDSON. have identified these originswith the appointment Such a dance has often a magical character. In the Cathohc (Roman. thing.d. consecrating the elements eucharist. and slave. The uniform other Protestant exegesisand criticism. and would seem to represent animals. of course." A woman officialin the church years. they of a great heart with the problem of human known deaconesses. it is purely saltatory. certain services for members of the church.

of the dead. by ordeal (q. whose cults appear in the pre-Christian against danger of being snatched away in the Germanic and Celtic provinces of the (when the soul readily leaves the body) by the era these "wakes" associated with Roman are ghost. excluded from these bishop or archdeacon.and in the latter case he is often laid on straw. have become stereotypedas a custom. to definite customs. dressed.). death imposes on the survivors pollution the Roman DEAN. four great events Naturally it childbed. those who die evil deaths. Since at crouchingin the lower civiHzations. Since due pro3.by certain and marriage.as well as food and drink. It is regarded as the result are from various usual restrictions and of disobedience to a divine command. dirges. In view of the fear find practices with the belief that water forms a barrier which attaching to death we occasionally which savour to us of cruelty.particularly when repeated on set S3rmpatheticmagic often plays a part. The 6.. death and the disposalof the corpse varies widely.as by suicide. made of his own status)by being broken.as in dreams and often in corpse.probably that the spirit abandoned. Very frequently the grave upon death and funeral. AND FUNERAL PRACTICES other manifestation of divine DEATH or by lightning Like !.often house in which death has occurred. The grave. AngUcan churches who is: (a) chief official in a The church .). During the time between this toilet and the funeral the corpse is usuallywatched night and day.Deae denominations of training DICTIONARY A Matres are women OF establishinginstitutions for the esses who. the bodies of his wives. . casting into water. or to protect the living DEAE MATRES. windo\vs are often opened (sometimes only for a other-world. and of dread.. however. (PRIMITIVE). being.e. attempts and kings. or not.thus severinghim completely from the of providingeven for the livingand civiUzation. they are disguisedso that the spirit corpse.cattle. In general occasions. being bound often have funeral of a whim careless act of some or animal. or various obstacles are etc. wiU be unable to take them with him. or (i. (6) the assistant to 4." anger. 2.v.and the spiritmay be bluntly position(squatting prone) which it is finally of work religious among " " " " dying _ " " " " .as being a thing games. by drowning.and those with peculiarawe. The funeral. Disposal of the corpse. Frequently Occasionallythe corpse is bound or mutilated in the dying man from his house or from his such a way as to prevent the ghost from returning ia removed to distress the living. ing merely caususuallywith a view to acquiring escape th desirable c[ualities of the deceased. modification of the older removal be either scattered or grouped. Naturally. the dead by showing the poignancy of sorrow which Thus the corpse is frequentlytaken from the house his decease has caused. wicker-work. and healthy. soul. i.slaves and England. whether to keep the illness).death is one of the in or smallpox. the ground or in trees. or he may be buried and with his family. or by certain specialobligations.. lest he take the livingwith him to preservation the realm of the dead. children. cathedral or collegiate object of the funeral rites is (a)to give rest to the dead and (6)to a spiritualand temporal. the eyes are closed (perhaps to prevent the ghost from seeing) along the road by which the dead body has been .. slaves.). Mother-goddesses.as by inhaling the last breath or by calling or hide.often to deprivethe dead of allhis earthly of the frequentdifficulty.are inof his decease and are with the sometimes have been which pollutedby contact put in mourning. the very poor.debtors. Food and drink are frequentlyprepared. either on the chance that the wizard who has caused the death may be caught. in savage a part. eflfortsare made or painted. closely akin to house-disposal.or (most usually)to witchcraft (q. or because it is stilla member of the household. the dead body frequentlyhas the protection efforts are sometimes of wood.as a rural dean. bed.although occasionally state. women birth. Where empire. etc. or In any event primitive holds rites widely divergentfrom those of ordinaryfolk.e.strict rules are death the soul is believed to leave the body permaoften observed as to the direction of the head of the nently (not temporarily. leprosy in the life of man. 6.v. ^A clergyman in of varying extent and manifold taboos. of revenge. Earthin sleep Mothers."occasionally even universal. frequently of the dying. etc. their inthe frequent interred in various destruction of a are straw. and the dead man's bees.. they from the house.initiation. thus paralleling positions. and implements short time. vision be made must for the escape favorite animals.slain to serve him in the of the soul. holy men to explainit.in view habitation. 7). Treatment disposal in caves. Graves may this being substantiated by the burning of the contain many mates may corpses or only one. or to guard the dead body or its soul from demons. The dying may be prevents the ghost from returning. (c)a bishop in matters free the survivors from the pollutionof death.being exempt made the other hand. Here economic also play cremation. and many is viewed On guiltyof such offenses as sacrilegeor treason. living and unitinghim with the departed. intended to placate funeral rites show a mixture of fear and affection.usuallyin unfrequentedplaces.through a hole broken way of the corpse it is usuallywashed to confuse the for the occasion). etc. The corpse is disposed of in several ways: by of the soul (temporary escape cannibalism (q. The lapse of time between Wailing and destruction of property. whether known as deacon- for their chief duties the care and children and the women Shailer Mathews ministryto the poor. tain Cerminister with pastoral duties who acts as deputy of a categoriesare.g.or a hole made in the house. inhumation. whether whole. and removal from the bed is apparently a elegance. (d) the dean ecclesiastical court in infants and young an rites.seem. merriment. man It may be due to the permanent it to be unnatural. See Wake.etc. As being the home to be fear of underlying motive seems the grave is often fitted out with much death. (seeSec. pottery. in regard to choice of time of day for such disposal these ceremonies. are practically Apart from natural grief.g. lest the spirit of various kinds. Before the final disposal in an unusual (e.those of the arches presidesover especially uninitiated in tribal or religiousrites.besides the corpse. also called Matronae and worshiped with funeralto be parallel in triads. and the body is placed in the told that its to or carried. in the house. Explanation of death. Between contains. in most cases. and also various articles trees. what was once a common necessitymay mummification. have RELIGION AND ETHICS 124 the corpse is seated in take. or "killed" return).etc. and the shape of the grave varies according it to return.v. they seem etc. diseases. made of a coffin. executed criminals. ghost so that it may be unable to find its way back placed to its earthlyhome. or of a curse.and in its best attire and with its ornaments. stillremain in his home even may considerations may aUve.. e. formed in miniature models. exposure on to the direct act of a supernatural or illness).

Feriod.pen and inkkey or bracelet are put into the coffin or the face. but frequentlythey are intended as abodes of the L. wrapped Hindus " in " practicea rude form of cremation. Very frequently there is a reversal of the ordinary garb e. and then receives its final disposition.M.were devoted to great men by vote of the Senate. and on reaching home Women well as men honored they purify themselves as were by an official from the pollutionof death.g." This differs from the Egyptian way.the intention may be (6) this was followed by a crowd of both sexes. out near were that of St." Classical The funeral solemnities Greeks held to be religious. as being an essential part of him may be tabu. The and former. i.(5) of the corpse borne on men's shoulders. desire to have a lock of hair or some trinket.or (in the latter case)provisionfor a place for him to visit or to reside in his earthlyabode. or D. require the house and belongings of the or purification. 8.and wrapped in linen clothes. and a metal or strewn on glass disk is laid on the navel to avoid swelling.or even seven days and more. by the deceased. 10. Where blood isshed in these rites and was pre-announcedby a herald. The motives seem to be of the spiritfrom the hving and the final severance his admission to fuU rank in the other-world. 9. Among peoples the many corpse is taken up after a longeror shorter interval. ^Relatives must bury their dead. of which laid in sarcophagus. III.usually with Buddhist rites. is so held that it may be Very often this ceremony for largenumbers of dead.. " (DEVELOPED). . The flames were sacred liquid put out by pouring some them. this being the custom to especiallywhere the spiritis beUeved remain near the corpse tillall the flesh has decayed. In India the Parsees place their dead on "towers of silence" that birds devour all the flesh. the mob would at times extort from heirs their expense at these anniversary feasts and were games. and bathing. epitaph. to a skeleton. Upon eyes are closed by the nearest kin. friend. Burial Other Lands. one of them imitatingthe deceased's words and of the deceased. or to noble citizen's cortege came by warmth through the Forum.and bodies sealed and inscribed. of funeral combats and games seem in originto be intended to drive the ghost away. the intention in part (2)of bearers of at least to be the wish to have a corporeal ancestral images kept in the home-hall. Upon death. In some these are mere are cases memorials. In particular the name of the dead man. The funeral cortege grave. except that of a bridegroom. repast ended the ceremonies.often of an excessive funeral degree. e. and where hair is similarly made up (1)of hired mourners. Second funeral. as miles Appian Way. but was the firstthree days that friends might see that open the dead did not come death the to life.. Sacrifices were even ants slain. closed by a near relative. of the deceased from followingthe mournthe spirit ers. while at least some of the dances are designedto awaken the procreativeinstinct in antagonism to death. on Funeral rites lasted for three. To be buried without garments is a disgrace. but burial often is delayed during several locate a to "lucky geomancers years to allow China one grave. While that the body might lie in state before the rostrum keep the ghost away. as writing tablet. Calixtus wherein laid in rock-hewn a was few a niches of the dead were Mourning periods in memory fixed by law. Sometimes an was inscription the departed is beUeved to partake.includingthe name Both pubhc and private burial grounds are found. before or during the funeral. which were placedobjectsdear to the deceased. elsewhere Christians were under Emperors placed their pagan dead in catacombs. A distinguishedman's by manifestations of grief. In China the dead are may buried. The body was borne on a bier to the funeral pyre. Gray spirit.etc. Mourners threw grass behind them was on leaving the cemetery.M. Where fires or hghts are burned actions.while attendwailed and chanted during the burning. games. Hebrew Thoughts Burial and of Death. Campus Marlius Campus Esquilinu^. mutilations. the body placed on floor to retard decay. and even villages. in the family sepulchres not immediate tillreduced but the corpse was left in its chamber then itsbones were collected. players. clothed in white laid on and Around couch. " " Manibus Monuments the over erected bearing some and a list of virtues.a son or brother.or magistrate appointed by the Senate. performedsimultaneously The bones may then be buried or may be kept in the houses of the survivors." This makes huge graveyard. 7. Funeral feastsand games. H. Objects favored stand. The funeral is charpracticedboth burial and burning from early times. Before or after the A corpse not burned was placed in its marble funeral it is very customary to hold feasts.g. often attended by and gladiatorial shows.A 125 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION AND ETHICS Death and Funeral Practices acterized The Romans no longer desired. Women and singingdirges. Not only individuals. Mourning and tabus.as in the converse clad in black. was cut. deceased may be destroyed. which demanded a trial of the deceased. Death imposes on the survivors a wide varietyof tabus.lamenting possible. Burial of the poor was outside the grave II.(4) then of dancers.. It came to be the rulo to cover grave.S.mimics. but humanity The requires that no body be left unburied. The bier was borne ging set chanshoulders of barefooted friends. black instead of white apparentlyas a form of sympathy with the dead and to denote that the persons wearing it are under a ence. of everyday existspecialtabu which is the reverse tion just as death is the reverse of life. A either to help the spirit and Hght. The bereaved tore out their hair to strew the corpse. etc. is the case in Korea also. returning from the funeral various means often adopted to prevent where "a eulogy" was are pronounced by a relative.but houses.especially by fumigation "eulogy.one on with another to allow this honor to as many as preceded the bier. a this friends raised loud laments. Charred bones and ashes were over gathered into an urn A funeral to be buried or entombed.Very often effigies of the departed made.e. that of a widow being ten months. tomb left not was immediately covered. The as Japanese use both cremation and burial. ^ Sacrum. Effigies." or Esquilinegate.and burial expenses the corpse caused to fall on the or on were defrayed by the city.. and in some the coffin with the letters. is presence " " " instances these feasts are of the nature of farewells The wide-spread custom to him. The body is then washed. and distribution of food. Anniversary feasts memorializing the date of death observed at the grave. upon animals.(3)relatives seems bond of union with the departed. D..the eyes were The cori)se was washed in hot water and anointed. Either burning or burial was practiced. or hired mourners took this part accompanied on the flute. Diis " " DEATH AND FUNERAL PRACTICES I. the chapel. The duraof these tabus varies extremely.abstinences. Interment of Palestine. is held closed by a band drawn the mouth over sand or salt the cheekbones. and anointed with fragrant oil.

a of constitutions or form permanent ordinances. That the Decalogue is not now in its original form is clear from the name OP DEFENDER THE A title conFAITH. The ascriptionof universal appHcation to the Decalogue came DEDICATION. There is absolution is pronounced over at the grave. a tiny bag of earth (to serve the Holy Land under the head. The Christian of the Decalogue has always made it interpretation universallyapplicableand treated it as the Magna Charta of ethics.500 a. of God whereby he has predetermined a or person purposes the sick-room with the Viaticum.and 9th.a funeral ^Authoritative ecclesiastical and burial ritual is provided.). A final Roman Cathohcs were suspended. Later papal decrees are for example. of the Hebrew community for certain basal principles Decretal became later a term for the collections of of conduct.. laws.d. was intended to prohibittheft by one found in collections of Bulls and Briefs (q.. Calvinistic theologians and grants extreme unction to the dying.)arose.or last sacrament. and Chappuis'collection of and significance. This decretals from John XXII. e. and a thi-ee-toothed fork to be used in digging a subterranean wooden to the Holy Land on Resurrection-day." Roman emperor. J. When is dying a priestvisits the dead. A formal authoritative statement.. A. whatever is to transpire. AU these quincy l. 20." (cf. Christie applicationto the conduct of Hebrews toward non-Hebrews See False Decretals. in favors utmost the objectbeing the reinstatement of the old Roman simplicityand economy funeral necessities. FALSE. but only relative appHcation. As a result of controversies due to this of the death-day of parents. (1234).852). and Masons and Odd Fellows. Fraternal orders. Quite generally councils and decisions made by popes either in the ^in rural regions burials are from the home. The DECRETALS Methodist.A Decalogue anew. as compared with other early Semitic reUgiouslaw. 1150) which with the official collections carries with it the necessary conclusion that the of Gregory IX.g. While burial is the rule. decrees adopted on the advice of cardinals. referred the course of historyand the ultimate fate V.)and others Future op added in a later Spanish collection wrongly the. Shaddai hand resembled (the Almighty). burial of the dead must be from DECLARATION OF INDULGENCE." Jews With modern DECIUS crated Respect for the person who has died calls for consewho (201-251). Hebrew. to Sixtus IV. the The title was refutation of Luther. priest meets promulgated by Charles II. and Lutheran churches. of England in 1672 church conducts the and it to door of the communion whereby penal laws against non-conformists and rail. the coffin. upon form in Deut. The original in 1521 for his work the seven in sacraments on words have undergoneexpansion in most cases." Corpus Juris Canonici. of England by Pope Leo X. Boniface VIII. tied together like a DICTIONARY mummy OF and RELIGION solemnly interred. all of which would be accuratelydescribed by the Hebrew term for word.or burial to hold "The Month's Mind" with Mass at from the pope. originallyhad not universal scope (1313). 14:21). the gloryof which is in its rightestimate of the supreme importance of ethics in reUgion. Sinai.7th. the conduct of funerals is a matter of the Catholic church law consists of canons voted by individual minister's practise.. a ritual of prayers (though not a Church rule) a month. A small stick was laid in the crossed hands of as a cane). It was to bend the thumb of a corpse so that the whole the word. Church of England and Protestant Episcopal.bishop of Seville.g. after usage emanating. the practiceof which would enable laws made imder papal auspices like the Decretum them to live togetherharmoniously. is the relativelylarge place given to ethical precepts as over against ritual. from an ecclesiasticalcouncil. Also year-by-year the church. Hebrew from another and had no F. cominandments Clement V. recurrence persecutionNovatianism (q. form the that such a precept as "Thou means shalt not steal. among denominations which For use a prayer-book. Catholic Burial Rules. DECISION. With other denominations documents. brief sermon is preached.v. The striking characteristic of the Decalogue. burial "is not religious. AND ETHICS 126 old form is preserved in the 6th. Jewish sentiorganized a systematic persecution of Christians. Such an origin Gratiani (ca. ment ground and a simple ritual. at the grave in large numbers.8th. the character of the reUgion of the prophets. and neighbors attend encyclicals instructingbishops in particularcases. Predestination. (1298).when way A towel and all Jewish dead will arise in Paradise. Powis Smith to visit cemeteries to sleep custom a hold communication with the dead. for believed to be still semi-conscious and they were sensitive to the words and behavior of the very livingaround them.which is represented This is in keepingwith only in the Sabbath-law. Pseudo-Isidorian famous collection ("False Decretals") The Ten Words probablyarose out of the need produced in the Prankish church (ca." a The eternal judgments anniversary Mass DECREES. as of individuals to these decrees. Roman Except in contagiouscases. See Abbot Roman Dionysius (ca. See Consecration. worship. revoked by It was there and " " " " . Praying for the intercession of the dead was an tomary cusearly practice. Hexateuch. IV." and from a comparison of the Henry VIII.use elaborate religious decretals strictlyso-called. laws. DECRETALS. "the ten words. Deut. See and the forged decretals made many also Law.v. Conceptions were attributed to Isidore." ferred givento it in Hebrew. e. Burial Practiced Protestants." The Ten Commandments said materials enriched by the forgedDonation of Constantino to have been revealed to Moses at Mt. . Decretals were first joined to canons by the cremation is steadily growing in favor. Life.as the dedication of a church as a place of human brotherhood." An act The the body at the the church. dowd DECALOGUE. See Election. Then follows the requiem Mass. It is the common DECREE." The act of selectively ing determinbeside the body so that the of conduct glass of water were where alternatives are a course soul might bathe when it returned to it." The rite or process of solemnly only after the prophets and sages of Israel had succeeded in leading Israel consecratingto reUgioususage or to the service of a of monotheism to think in terms and of universal deity.which as are interpretive rituals at the cemetery. M.. presented. there is observed an continuous memorial to as DIVINE. It is customary to honor the religion. 5 with that in Exod.

such as the slayingof the totem animal. the title of "god" clear disany between physicaland spiritual uncleanness. although Hobbes DEGRADATION. All three of the above writers raised and criticized the biblical material questions DEICIDE. it may be said to have taken its readmission to sacred the rise in the works of Lord Herbert through of Cherbury in rites. The process Biologically. and in the case of material things. life. by sacrilege. as emblematic Defilement of power. armies of and as repentance from sin. but to whole groups. but restored by parliamentin 1544. deity. but were ticularly parChristianity and women is commonest such peoples as personal among skepticalas to any immediate " " _ . analogously. characterized Enghsh which movement the efforf (3)Rare. of a spiritualcondition.by fire. by shaving and depila. H. help which the worbeheves the deified person. of penance. rewards punishment^ The warriors. independent of any particularcult and Along with the use of these go priestlyoffices revelation. the need of purification. the next step was heroic men DEFILEMENT AND PURIFICATION.127 A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION Paul III. Purification. was higher Christianity fundamentally forms of religion. century. of miracles.and has continued to be a designationof English monarchs. The deification of men as logicallytenable.basis by discoveringin humanity a so-called natural among tion. the crucifixion of Jesus Christ.confession.v.withdrawing all the rights of orders from them.become of purifying the defiled. revelation. the deistic regarded as incarnations of the deity. The tion deificaof natural phenomena is frequentamong by childbirth.). This penalty ceased with the Charles Blount still further developed the deistic rise of the doctrine of the indelible character of holy bility weight to the possipositionalthough giving more orders in the 12th. the In historical show that lustrations. by the changes tive primiof life. by sexual intercourse.prayers." The natural after death should attain idea of defilement.as with the Roman in its more ancient forms." The elevation of men and the supernaturalas an essential element to remove Christianity the phenomena of nature. was Worship.religionbecame phase of political of behavior. the undergoing in accord with natural rehgion. thought of the classical poets and philosophers.or to seasons. in that many of its representativesundertook to sacrifices. who philosopher the harvest season. In the latter part of the 17th. the expressionin theology and a great of the social mind that in the politics of the 17th.). very attempt to put faith in God upon an a American Indians. Egyptiansand Indians where gods were pictured in vivid anthropomorphic symbols. or pollution. as a defilement. and God's relation to humanity as great advances chieflyin expressed although it is present also in the through universal natural law rather than through Christianity.as a social evolution of a universal needed Deists differed in the being to obtain some shiper reaction to natural laws. of purification transferred from tW As certain prerogativeswere are by bathing or sprinklingwith consecrated sacrificial blood. were and the firsthalf of the 18th. power or object extent to which they recognized the teaching of might be able to impart. If gods acted hke men.contact war or the supply of a certain animal. pertain not only identification of worship with morality.it is is naturallyconceived or cleansing. the relationship of God as less immediate. women." The murder of a god. Speaking generally.as anti-supernaturalismof Lord Herbert's position the house in which death has occurred. Defilement in primitive forms. such as exorcisms. (1)In certain of all accounts of the to the historicalaccuracy as lower animals who or rehgionsthe slaughterof men supernatural. Such a position. of course. to individuals. constant and personal. the Choephorae and Deism is distinguished Eumenides of Aeschylus.one of the most frequent forms being with disease. Alexander as traced all religionback to the primitive of ~fear from which arose nature anthropomorphic conceptions DEGENERATION. we see as a physicalor magicaltaint rather than a The latter conception. deism included five fundamental positionsT* the more and the existence \of God. even that people frequentlyidentified itself with the of the old and new. by fumigawater or king to the nation. so the deist came to conceive of tion with incense or anointing with oils. whether in crime or a god or goddess of fertihty. of sacred and profane. century. deUnquent clergy. lower animals or in religionand to conceive of any religion.but in large part conceived in the practisesof totemisra (q.by bloodletting.the act or of reduction from a higher or more the God thus created was process complex a part of the social lifeof to a lower or less complex type.from theism in that it conceives gives way to the moral.by the sweat-bath." of placating of natural forces.it represented the part of the philosophersand some preachers on DEIFICATION.it was incurred again by disease or contact peoples. while the first half of the 17th. and 18th. also as primarily a physical process.for from atheism in that it example. Romans. centuries develportion of the rites exacted of individuals in primioped tive in character. a peopledepended on sacrifice. appears DEISM. reUgion. and again to places. incurred by contact See Emperor with the dead. the a give some sometimes meted which ante-dated some out to of the efforts of rationalism punishment which was itself. sin itself was animal and treated it with special reverence. Where the existence of broken tabu. centuries. During the latter part of the 17th.in which the ritual element it is dualistic. century. especially emetics and scientific common cathartics.v. In some instances." In ancient canon of them rationalistic interpretation law. defilement or impurity. A philosophy spiritual and theologythat repreonly with sent in religiousideas. or Deism use wal drugs. a peoples.deterioration different communities and in more highlydeveloped from a higherto a lower ethical standard life. being studies of the sin and purification affirmsthe existence of God : from pantheism in that of Orestes.. was given the hving sovereign. in religion does not. advanced the was by Hobbes. the purpose included. became movement sophical (2) The mimetic one phase of the generalphilorite in connection with the mystery rehgions (q. by the God as a creator who permitted his creation to of herbs administer itself through natural law. the primitive conception. B. incantations.or even nations. As organizedu^ important means eventually the ideas of sin and repentance replace by him. and finallyrenewal of religiouslife As a system. In a sense the movement was apologetic and ceremonies. the duty of worship. make of tinctionemperors the Augustinian age. To a very considerable extent. the constitutional monarchy Forms religionsare purificatory in EnglandI. AND ETHICS Deism the the Greeks. abstract qualities to the rank of deities. left no room for miracles undertook to in the strict sense.

too speculativein method to of criticalscientific with the advance hold their own tional method. point clearlyto an ultiborn of analogies the doctrinal formulas which relation of these in Babylonia. chaps. an city near those deaUng with of doctrines especially a number their purpose to his favorite Sit. more pletely comIts outcome.an ardent Lutheran. of working days in length of working day. the bibhcal story.(or Par-) God. tutional democracy is largelythe outgrowth of the constidevelopment of England and the United States due to the rise of the middle class. in many current religions. On the other hand. The ideal is now being extended to industrial relations and may be said to have entered into a Various theories for such second phase of influence. Mystery demons are usually assigned a hostile r61e. Japan and Northern Protestant churches." German DELITZSCH. Indian traditions.). but it is so heavilycolored rule as a of superhuman beings (seeSpirits) who by mythicalelements that no great account can be Demons are thought to be enemies of mankind.in China. 2100. DELPHI. from the supreme (see Animism). extent They were. the one hand from gods and be distinguished on may lying the story lies in a comparative study of the underthe other from ghosts (q. Babylonia. and was id goods of various kinds. The real contribution of deism to the development in its particular of thought lies not so much tenets as in the fact that the deists anticipatedthe and to some studies in comparative religion modern the historical criticism of the Scriptures.v.. with the classical Greek (the of mind in politicsand industry is very unlike legend of Deucalion able wanderings of which can be traced with considerthat from which orthodox theologyemerged.the goddess of spirit.and the Atonement. Gordon op." See Oracle. while others are mythical church assembhes. are had a very considerable The deistic movement influence on the development of French philosophy. capable Literally a craftsman is widely Belief in the existence of demons used of creatingobjects. advanced. The term had an earlier usage in the Greek city of the occasionally in governments states. and is now placed beyond all doubt In such recastingas has already been monarchies. See Demons.although unfortunately exceptionsbeing Arabia." The story has probably grown demon word The DEMONS. See Greek regarded as friendlytoward mortals. At times the ghost on moral and rehgiousideas. In the pohticalsphere it is fairlywell understood because of the constitutional development of the past century and a half. This is vitalizing both the churches but Ea Persian vealed rethe ancient Gulf. Jesus Christ. together attitude that in many respects this new also. The results of this growth have been felt in modifying the governmental ideas and practicesof most nations to such an extent that sovereigntyis regarded as vested in the people of a state who have power to choose and laws their own government pass their own through elected representatives.misfortunes. Egypt.v.the people had the right of self-deterIn its modern political sense. and their religionwas too devoid of emowarmth to compete with a rationalistic Shailer Mathews orthodoxy. number control of productive the week. extension have been establishment Communism. FRANZ (1813-1890). always.C.and dire calamities. of which wit hin of monopolized privileges the democratization the gods sent a flood to destroy Shurippak. Switzerland. a creature though by no means human of the other world rather than a disembodied DEMETER.who are gion. They cause disease. Mathews Shailer iwithhis wife and certain of his people." (from the tradition of a tidal flood. and of the industrial process. saved himself who on a ship. however. See Socialism. etc. Many laymen and women various parts of Greece). by the decipherment of the originaltablets. prevailingly Religions. The source be made rnore drawn from oriental monarchies can traditions was already manifest from the fragments effective in a world that no longer permits such of Berossus. there is a very certain number embody reminiscences of separate toward the participationof marked movement local inundations (e. thereafter. The story belongs in a cycleof similar traditions The bearingof these developments upon religious ous widely diffused over the world. Indians the American not be overIt must looked. See Assyria and deport itselfnot unlike a demon but the latter may Alex R. In contrast with angels (q. In Greek rehgion. in France was atheisticthan in England.and animals POSSESSION. which overwhelmed "apportioner") is used to designate a lower order of Shurippak. while the adherents of even powers social the most DEMOCRACY. however. God.accompanied by a some Greek word daimon. a scholar rabbinic and in the post-biblical. organizationin which the individuals of a group. of the in a secondary element flood described and the priestlysections of narrative Yahwistic Gen. being called the "Christian Talmudist. DEMIURGE." An ideal of political highly developed ethnic faiths frequently or give a largeplace in their thinldng to demonology. Some certaintyby way of Phrygia and Syria)and the readjustment will undoubtedly be necessary by mate later E. Religion is generally.America.Franz if especially working of God or DICTIONARY it OP RELIGION involved miracles revelation. and in ecclesiastical affairs." AND for the biblical usual The term DELUGE. processes. theologian. Of these traditions a Asia. together . Reliagriculturaland civilized life. N. however. and of Middle Ages where. probably signifyingoriginally the neighborhood cyclonicstorm. as regards sanitary arrangements.some attempted there is an increasingemphasis upon Here it is related date from B. The chief value of taken of itshistorical significance. DEMONIACAL DEMONIAC. and other central stances inexplanationsof natural phenomena. of translated to dweU with the gods "at the mouth round "he jivers. In Gnostic speculations.g.Savages have always of the world as distinct to designate the creator peopled the world about them with hosts of demonic See Gnosticism. as in the case of the cantons mination.). how and society. in some bodies have passed resolutions in support of a larger influence Christian colored by (as among share on the part of the worker in self-direction in and South Sea Islanders).napishti. conventions. " ^ " " " . not sufficiently In all reaUzed by the churches. free and able to direct the affairs of the group.pohticalor industrial. ETHICS 128 whether it be large or small. Central Africa. much interested in the conversion of the Jews to Christianity .A Delitzsch. the most conspicuthinkinghas been profound. division of profits. 6-8. however. The of industrial at least the determination democracy would mean by the workers of the conditions under which they should labor. of great renown talmudic hterature.

to J. religions. the distinction Greeks. 13.they seek religiousecstasy. Theologically the equivaregarded all demons as by the Christians.).and the Senussis.that Jesus (Matt." Scottish DENNEY.A 129 In ancient times DICTIONARY about speculation demons OF RELIGION throve ETHICS AND DEPARTMENTAL Design GOD.and other theological organic life. they do not appear in history before the 11th.Jesus and the Gospel. The used explanationof instances of for ethical science. as. of the essential part of the interpretation came an identified with DESCARTES. expellingthe demon by callingto their aid other These obscure references reflect a behef. 16:10. See Evolution. 12.to adjust Christian as from a sacred to a secular usage. education or this subject was agriculture. Mohamof a Mohammedan gious reliArabic. "In which also Enoch went marked writings were by profoimd mysticismand and preached to the spirits in prison.either under (253-60")or emphasized (as in the Gospel of Nicodemus) andXeMaximian (285-305). quoted in Acts 2:27. Familiar examples of this type of belief. philosopherand . 9 as Are- the patron death of Christ as a ransom to It was become an Satan. 4 : 9. century he Dionysiusthe was opagite... natural. a stone. century in HANS DENCE. (ca.a member bining similarlyelaborate.and the Persians. that of the Babylonians and as degradation (q. 3:19. the Babylonians.. clergy. they took death and resurrection. the profaningof a temple or sacred vessels.v. a deityregarded as presidingover a specific particularly among Hebrew the Assyrians. The ancients gave much attention to the probwith the theological lem supematuralism of the Middle of the evil spirit. ." The DESCENT OF theory that all Presbyterian theologian. Thus Jesus credited his success to the assistance suggested by Ps. over Jewish views were extensively of tastes and impulses. Exorcism)." In ancient ecclesiasticaldiscipline an periods of their history the Jews developed^ removal from office meted extensive demonology resembling in many quent out to delina lars particuthe Persians.v." French the mathematician. however.). the leadership of evil powers organized under Satan (q. upon but during the Persian and Greek to the exile. M. demands the of modern doctrines to thinking.d. furnished in many which is current are religions. chieflyhypnotic." The visit of Jesus to the art of practiced with greater or less success the under world described in I Pet. especiallyto the antediluvians is perhaps explained by the especialinterest shown in the 1st. Jesus' discipleshad attained Eph. in gods of paganism to the demonic sphere. 12:28). First bishop of Paris. known as "father of modern philosophy. natural dwelling-place The of evil spiritswas and desolate parts of the lower regions." By various means. ablest leaders among whose the Anabaptists (q. related to earlier forms. DEPOSITION. with possessed by an persons Christian friars. amend the text to read.for belief in it element of the Apostles'Creed.v. comparatively simple previous e.similar to belief in evil spirits as it did ancient Arabic _ " " with derived features from both Judaism and Christianity. probably more powerful spirits (see Magic. world of the dead and preached to them. Some scholars however. of ridding the possessed one exorcists magicians and appeared who Many DESCENT TO HADES.g. medan {Darwish.). At present they are the lodges and clubs of the lower classes. thinking department or subdivision of human affairs. J. a designationsometimes DESIGN." because he began the method of appeal to rational inquiry in contrast Markl:23ff. from conservative theology. while his enemies ascribed between his death and his resurrection visited the it to collusion with Beelzebul.and hence man." One of the their spiritualdestiny.or being. 4:6. is venerated on Oct. 3:11.g. SAINT. They have complete initiates.comdemonology was Drotherhood of mystic ascetics. also lay members similar to_ Christian "tertiaries. 1495-1527). The idea that the Messiah of exorcizingin his powerful name. Legends trace their origins to the patriarchal age of Islam and to the prophet. In a biography of the 9th. author of The Death of is derived from and Christ. meaning "discourse on duties" . only a reference to Enoch's mission to the passage fallen angels described in Enoch.22. sacrilege. Many orders have flourished and still flourish. but their sphere of actual operations included practicallythe whole universe. an argument fre" " is paramount. of Jesus' encounters accounts by the New Testament evil spirit (e.). used for the existence of God. dealing especiallywith the doctrine of the He attempted. century a. A characteristicform of demonic a human the that of "possession. virtue.the chief of demons. Best known in the west are the Mevlevis (dancing dervishes). 31 of God ("Thou wilt not leave my soul in Sheol").be reinstated withalso among the Belief in demons out common was reordination.Rufaifs (howHng dervishes).who lent of original sin (q.)." In the historyof the Egyptians. an animal.martyred DENIS. genetically works.Fakir). Christians also consigned all the DERVISH. Subsequently. 9:17"f. Ages. Case of Christians.denoting a conception of ethics adaptation in nature Isy reference to a conscious quently in which duty rather than goodness. Goodspeed Edgar JAMES (185"-1917).or remote the earth.a Persian word."in which activity was demon assumed to reside within the individual was thus under the control of this foreign who was impelled to various forms of strange power and was conduct. They about credited with abilityto move were unseen and might lodge in a tree. yet they did not draw between good and evil spiritsso sharply as did the DEPRAVITY. 34.v. up the practice would of demons xmknown not For several centuries the exorcism tinued conpreach to the departed was the Jews. ture ing The act or process of divertDESECRATION. chaps. Sprenglinq _ RENE (1596-1650). when 10 perhaps refers to the same of the their belief in his exaltation to a positionof superiority interpretation interval left by the gospelnarratives between Jesus' in the world of heavenly spirits.or right and deliberate plan of action. ^A confirmed moral corruption taken Jews." From the Greek. DEONTOLOGY. That Jesus should have preached to occupy a prominent placein the attention among S.at firstthe same A deposed cleric may. MAN.."and find in the deep spiritualinsight. He saint of France. without radical deparatonement." In the early church the descent to Hades -^Mis Valerian at Paris.Kalandaris (Calendarsof the Arabian Nights). 5:lff. therefore.

of Ormazd. century.the enemies of men lead lead the way toward So i.g. "body of the law" or of the We not say. LITERAAND is an essay in this direction.is an as as has Brother Lawrence the devil.g. of mediaeval mysticism. and an endeavor to see It is akin to the things whole. by Henry Drummond. In religion. God.by Robert Leighton.prayer for forgiveness.or duty. by Austin Phelps. mountain contemplation of a landscape. the Buddha possessing three bodies" and incidental religious while devotion experiences. processes. power Fosdick. The Imitation of Christ. Poets and painters help us to appreciate nature." from devotion of all beings. Devotional devils. controlled by existing encouraged and comforted.is a pieceof Scottish Among the Jews this prince of dernons duction Introdevoutness is usually called Satan the early Christians from the troubled 17th. or " " " " " " " " " " " " " . Primitive his own to express experience. and be regular and naturallyresponsive to sumThe may mons. All the evil spirits gods and faiths have personalizedthese forces of good and Psalms. of Religionin the Soul. cosmic law See ultimate Dharor order or truth. designed. for God in Hindu The general name DEVA. RECHT experience. called the sambhogakdijaor "body of bUss. famiUar English manuals. pro(1780-1849). psychological Ghost. Devotional leaders. illusoryform appearing entitled his work. endowed devout soul. modem realityis a desideratum.by Jeremy Taylor. and his man early became conscious of the fact that nature book becomes the classic for those who seek to share sometimes hostile." unhurried. This leadership have the great manuals come A designationfor an evil spirit.in the exercise of the power of choice the human between alternative courses of conduct.by Richard Baxter. See also Worship. and hymns belong to it.and was Idndly and sometimes of good and what he has found. is a typicalwork god to a place of supremacy tianity. at Basel.by George Matheson.MAKAYA. hierarchical arrangement a their head. A few of The Soul's the great works be mentioned. 3.." The Struggle with temptation Buddhology of some and doubt." The Brother Lawrence." tion.to be filledwith the Holy conditions. common.and The Rise and Progress but his prestige has realistic personage. M oral freedom is thus held to be a delusion. Chrisalso tend to assume k Kempis. Within the range of subjectivereligious experi. Holy Life. J. to be or external. It is the "quiet hypothesis that the hour.critical attitude both subjectiveand objective. 4. nirmdnakdya. pietyand service. to elevate one evil. Religionis always Adopting a free. is absolutely spiritexpects to be spoken to. The Greatest of evil. It is The DETERMINISM. Devotion an escape is a deliberate withdrawal from the world.).by Francis of Sales. dharmakdya. in Zoroastrianism. Case somewhat in modern times. The becomes the more The Rule and Exercise of Holy the latter term been noted above." Audit is the spirit of receptivity." Devotion is a condition of spiritual relaxaSee Doceticism (Buddhist). spirits e. The Saints' Everlasting for Luther he was of the Middle a Ages. by Philip Doddridge. theologian. sambhogakdya. whence DEVIL.). Like all other experiencesit develops by practice. of a transcendant Buddha. It is the endeavor to get God's point of view. approaching the study of doctrine from the side of feelingand morality. gloriesand powers 2. the giftedsouls lead the mediocre.though it may be brief. primitivetribes in Africa. DEVIL-WORSHIPER. as e. Among the numerous modern works are The Still Hour. DHARMAKAYA. Satan and sometimes refer to him sometimes to the Devout Life. More often the saint is simply constrained the chief of demons (q.and where there is a disposition may above all other good Progressin God. devi). or This is not to eUminate to devotion." When after holiness.he devout virtue. of devotion may he cultivated. it came religiousexperience divorced from active mean human service is evident. The danger DHARMA. DESTINY.v.though one or the other may at any moment be in the ascendancy. In a healthy religiouslife these are mttmately united. good men and term is applied to devils. be a withdrawal assumed to be in control of both human and cosmic Ufe in order to go back the more strenuouslyinto life. and even Rest.A Destiny DICTIONARY RELIGION OP AND ETHICS 130 from the tensions of life. religion(fern. In the Zoroastrian reUgionthe musicians stimulate our love of harmony. and science. and at other times to divine (2) An inscrutable and immutable power agency. and books conducive to such WILHELM MARTIN DE LEBWETTE. "I will now enter upon may "truth. in Gautama. of course. the determination referred to human.Asia and America. this ultimate realityassumes longing or "reality. is sometimes others to devotion. particularly of devotion. the performance of which over-emphasis on a contemplative or introgives In Buddhism the to salvation.one of the most devout of men. "the practiceof the presence of to the vision of ordinary men. tion In devohuman will. nirmdnakdya is the human. by Bonaventura. To be from healthy. ^A Hindu word meaning law. (q. thus there arose a belief in the activity historic literature is very abundant. dharmakdya.v. the Meaning of Prayer. It is called the "void" real nature heart searching. all of which inevitable to the with all the are a supra-mundane form."is the substratum or essential buddhahood "but we may say. "I will betake me and spiritual of all the Buddhas the ultimate nature struggle. of an spective justice.an he strove for a better understanding between ology theappreciationof the will of God and an active undertaking of it. (1) Antecedently determined lot being sometimes fortune. are very waned S. is stilla classic for Catholic evil spirits and Islam by Thomas Rules and Instructions for a with a chief devil at and Protestant aUke.by Harry Emerson of devotional Uterature A specific designationof the Yzedis a Mesopotamian having the note Rauschenbusch's tribe. Scares Theodore experience of quiet confidence communion with God. The experience of devotion. One who worships the My Aspirations.. ence devotion is to be distinguished for its peaceful and joyous character. ing For God and People Prayersof the Social AwakenDEVOTION DEVOTIONAL TURE.prayers. They are occasional tarian.it must.Judaism. The experience it is visible only to the spiritualvision of saints. as in all other human interests." German fessor 1. The in G. devil figuredprominently in the Christian thinking Living. painfulwrest Ung with the problems of is triniimportant sects of Mahdyana Buddhism life"-these are not devotion.a practisecommon The to many or spirits Thing in the World.but in the later history of Christianity example of Jesuit devotion.

"through four") a tinuous harmony of the four gospelsso as to make one connarrative." the "Christian Church. particularlyafter the Exile. In Greece.)originated at the time of the Diocletian persecutions. Zeus. It consists of (1) moral precepts. off DIASPORA. DISCERNMENT whether the OF SPIRITS. century." God of fertility who was brought to Greece from his native Thrace. DICHOTOMY. finally DIASIA. scatdisp"ersion. and was probably written between The firstpart of it is 130 and 150. one DIONYSIUS." Also called the Teaching of ment.. worship on the signatures.C. and the appointment of bishops and as a check on forgeries. Also the designationof a well-known hymn of the R.131 A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION DHIKR. 7-15. but usuallyconsists of some or all of the 99 names for Allah. Meilichios. scholar in the field of the Ethiopic a noted A religious DISCIPLES OF CHRIST. 16. The "."German respectively. The science of diplomaticshas to do with questions of authenticity. sense the material body and the immaterial spirit or mind. of teachers. with definite instructions DIPLOMATICS. Another mistaken tradition identified St.especiallythat composed by in (q.dates etc." body of language and fiterature. good and evil spirits theo(1823-1894). century certain Greek works of a Neo-Platonic mysticaltheological ascribed to him. Donatism (q.more popularly." The guidance of toward the acquirement of spiritual CathoUcism such direction well-being. In the latter the theory that man is divided into two parts.perhaps were exceedingin number their kinsmen of Palestine. The territory of the churches under led by Thomas movement the administrative In certain sections of the country it is known as ditional authorityof a bishop." or the "Church for the episcopaltitle to be custom was but for co-operation in polity. 1-6.being somewhere The letter refutes idolatryand Judaistic ritualism. Christianity. of Hindu Meditation." The study of ancient hfe. entreated. DIOCESE. In the 6th. the as to baptism." Latin. although criticism type were shows that these could not have been composed before the 6th. Goodspeed Edgar DIES IRAE. By the beginning of the Christian Era the Jews of the Diaspora. The huge snake representing " which the underworld power was - was to ward the diocese. uncertain. " A primitive social rite of Greece in made to underworld offeringswere powers associated with the dead." But the rites were the offerings abandoned were wholly to the dreaded deities and their chief purpose evil from the living. and origiLord's Day. and makes a vigorous defence of Christianity the ground of the morahty of Christians and of on the revelation of God through his own Son. EPISTLE TO. The traof Christ. to be found in all the lands about the Mediterranean.and proves come of the last to be a document of Jewish Christianity quarter of the 1st. individuals ing A book containCATHOLIC" DIRECTORY.e. (2) a manual of mens church PAPAL. originating prayer. reorganizedthe Roman church after the Valerian persecution."Day of Wrath" or Day of Judgment.a division into two parts. however. chap." An early Christian of the writingsof the ApostoUc Fathers. " DHYANA. ence The work in its present form shows abundant influof the Gospel of Matthew. but it has come to be appliedspecifically to the distribution of the Jews among the Gentiles. The maintained however and religiouscharacter was in the comedy many elements of the ancient fertility DID ACHE. DIOGNETUS. such as primitive The practicearose in communities CHRISTIAN FRIEDRICH where good and evil are referred to DILLMANN. These treatises were of great influence on later Christian thought. fasting.and not " . coarse satire and fertility symbolism his rites are similar to many vegetationcults. church. church for the mass and office for each day of the year. ecstasy." Pope. AND the 2nd. to guide Christian conduct.an ancient Christian docudiscovered in 1875 and published in 1881.engaged in a doctrinal controversy with Dionysius.. century.apostles(i. In Roman be given by the church. who instituted the longestand most severe persecution of Christians in the empire. THE. chaps. In the originalform of dancing. which has based on an earher form of the Didache to fightin a Latin version (1900). the winter and springfestivals.so-caUed from its opening words. The religiouspractice and Buddhist in which one groups the mind concentrates a singleidea in order upon to arrive at that complete poise of mind leadingto suppression of the senses. the deacons. DIONYSOS (DIONYSIA). officialdocuments in the papal chancery.but in modem times the title is frequentlyattached to the diocese." A convert the preaching of Paul at Athens (Acts 17:34)." Technically. known the Rural and the as Great or City Dionysia. A religious ritualused by the Moslem dervish fraternities to assist in remembrance of God The verbal form varies and to glorifyhim. 259-268. apology. the regulations of the R. bishopof Alexandria.chaps.v. It is congregational attached to the see where the cathedral is. in preparation for baptism. 284-305.) Disciplesof Christ to DIONYSIUS AREOPAGITE. Denis of Paris with to Tatian ETHICS in later times displaced by the Olympian god. J." (Greek. developed into stately ceremonies. treatment missionaries). the Eucharist. " DIATESSARON." Roman emperor. must DIRECTION.C. tradition adding that he was martyred there. The rude dialogue and dancing of the revelers clad in goat-skins transformed into were the classical tragedy and comedy of Athens. DIOCLETIAN. nated prophets. "Easy -to-be somber and gloomy. by other writers said to be the first bishopof Athens. SPIRITUAL. (3)an eschatological conclusion. to be taught to catachumagic persisted. and the date between 150 and 300. ment which has grown Protestantism out of a American and Alexander Campbell. century. quiet joy and indiflference to joy or sorrow. and visitingbrethren. under the euphemistic name. The term means tering.a logicaldivision whereby a genus is divided into two species. AUGUST Lutheran logian." The ascertaua- allegedsupernaturalactivityof an "inspired"person is due to the Spiritof Christ.v. Twelve Apostles.uthor is unidentified. THE under Christianity Dionysius.

The experience at Basel. sambhogakdya. century. It is the endeavor The DETERMINISM.v. the determination referred to human. by Henry Drummond. the latter term common. theologian."is the substratum or essential buddhahood may "but we may say. They are occasional tarian. spirits e. this ultimate realityassumes longing or "reality.by Francis of Sales. gloriesand powers 2. is usually called Satan the early Christians (q.the enemies term lead toward So Jthe devout lead the way virtue.Asia and America. or " " " " " " " " " " " " " .in the exercise of the power of choice the human of conduct. of a transcendant Buddha. service cosmic ultimate law or order or truth. of Religionin the Soul. DESTINY. 3." tion. In the Zoroastrian reUgionthe musicians stimulate our love of harmony. by Robert Leighton. It is to get God's point of view. all of which inevitable to the all the with are a supra-mundane form. Religionis always Adopting a free.." Struggle with temptation Buddhology of some a. by Bonaventura. Among the numerous modern works are The Still Hour. Devotional leaders. historic 4.is an Satan and sometimes refer to him sometimes as as has Brother Lawrence the devil.by Jeremy Taylor. dharmakdya. The Greatest The of evil.by Harry Emerson of devotional Uterature A ^a Mesopotamian specific designationof the Yzedis having the note Rauschenbusch's modem tribe. are very S.). and his man early became conscious of the fact that nature book becomes the classic for those who seek to share sometimes hostile. in The G. Chrisk Kempis. LITERAis an essay in this direction. Devotional devils. with a chief devil at hierarchical arrangement a their head. or to devotion. painfulwresthng with the problems of is triniimportant sects of Mahayana Buddhism life ^these are not devotion.to be filledwith the Holy conditions. In a healthy rehgious Ufe these are intimatelyunited.^ devil figuredprominently in the Christian thinking Living. RECHT experience. encouragedand comforted." human will. Devotion an escape withdrawal from the world. ofdevotion.one of the most devout of men. Primitive his own to express experience. realityis a desideratum. designed." general name Poets and painters help us to appreciate nature. religion(fem. human interests. and books conducive to such DE LEBWILHELM MARTIN WETTE. "the practiceof the presence of to the vision of ordinary men. have the great manuals come 'A designationfor an evil spirit.is a pieceof Scottish Among the Jews this prince of demons duction Introdevoutness from the troubled 17th. and science. of mediaeval mysticism. The experience it is visible only to the spiritualvision of saints. DEVIL-WORSHIPER. by Austin Phelps. dharmakdya.g. "I wiU now enter upon "truth. See DharWithin the range of subjectivereligious experience devotion is to be distinguished for its peaceful and joyous character. To be from healthy. primitivetribes in Africa.though it may be brief. All the evil spirits gods and these forces of good and faiths have personalized Psalms.or duty. It is the "quiet hypothesisthat the Andit is the spirit of receptivity. is stiU a classic for Catholic also tend to assume evil spirits and Islam by Thomas Rules and Instructions for a and Protestant ahke.v."German fessor 1. ^A Hindu word meaning law. Like all other experiencesit develops by practice. psychological Ghost." When prayer after holiness. in Zoroastrianism.critical attitude both subjectiveand objective. "I will betake me and of all the Buddhas the spiritual ultimate nature struggle. as in all other the giftedsouls lead the mediocre. and even Rest. The Saints' Everlasting for Luther he was of the Middle a Ages.by George Matheson.but in the later history of Christianity example of Jesuit devotion.and where there is a disposition above all other good Progressin God.devi)." One who worships the My Aspirations. A few of The Soul's be mentioned. It is called the "void" real nature heart searcliing.it must. The Imitation of Christ. the performance of which over-emphasis on a contemplative or introgives salvation. be a withdrawal assumed to be in control of both human and cosmic lifein order to go back the more strenuouslyinto Ufe. the great works to elevate one may evil. pietyand service. pro(1780-1849). famihar English manuals. God. Holy Liife. in Gautama. Scares Theodore experience of quiet confidence communion with God. good men and of men is applied to devils. nirmdnakdya is the human.and The Rise and Progress but his prestige has realistic personage. for forgiveness. mountain contemplation of a landscape. In devotion hour." unhurried.by Richard Baxter.a practisecommon to many Thing in the World. the Meaning of Prayer. Tliis is not to eliminate from devotion of all beings. of Ormazd. The DHARMAKAYA. and at other times to divine (2) An inscrutable and immutable power agency.Judaism. called the sambhogakdijaor "body of bliss. In Buddhism it came the to religiousexperience divorced from active mean human is evident. and hymns belong to it. as e. to be between alternative courses controlled bj^existing or external. often the saint is simply conMore strained the chief of demons (q. and an is a deUberate endeavor to see It is akin to the things whole. processes. by Phihp Doddridge. (1) Antecedentlydetermined lot being sometimes fortune. whence DEVIL. power or spirits Fosdick. be regular and naturallyresponsive to sumThe mons.A Destiny DICTIONARY RELIGION OP AND ETHICS 130 from the tensions of life. the Buddha possessing three bodies and incidental religious while devotion experiences. and nirmdnakdya. for God in Hindu The DEVA.nd doubt. The danger at any moment DHARMA. Moral freedom is thus held to be a delusion. is a typicalwork god to a place of supremacy tianity. of an spective justice.though one or the other may be in the ascendancy.and was kindly and sometimes what he has found. ing For God and People Prayers of the Social AwakenDEVOTION AND DEVOTIONAL TURE. is absolutely spiritexpects to be spoken to.). to the Devout Life. is sometimes This leadership others to devotion." The Brother Lawrence. endowed devout soul." Devotion is a condition of spiritual relaxaSee DocETicisM (Buddhist). J. The The Rule and Exercise of Holy becomes the more been noted above. illusoryform appearing entitled his work. of devotion may he cultivated. "body of the law" or of the may We not say. of good and thus there arose a belief in the activity literature is very abundant. of course. particularly of devotion..an he strove for a better understanding between ology theappreciationof the will of God and an active undertaking of it. In religion. approaching the studyof doctrine from the side of feelingand morality.g. Case waned somewhat in modern times.prayers. See also Worship.

to guide Christian conduct. The rude dialogueand dancing of the revelers clad in goat-skins transformed into were the classical tragedy and comedy of Athens. apology. century. (1823-1894). of Hindu Meditation. by other writers said to be the first bishopof Athens." which has grown out of a Protestantism American DIOCESE. of the churches under and Alexander Campbell. and makes a vigorous defence of Christianity the ground of the moralityof Christians and of on the revelation of God through his own Son. coarse satire and fertility symbolism his rites are similar to many vegetationcults." Latin. under the euphemistic name.and proves come of the last of Jewish Christianity to be a document quarter of the 1st. individuals ing containA book CATHOLIC" DIRECTORY. By the beginning of the Christian Era the Jews of the Diaspora.131 A DICTIONARY OF RELIGION DHIKR. DIONYSIUS AREOPAGITE. fasting. " DIATESSARON. EPISTLE TO. 259-268. but it has come to be appliedspecifically to the distribution of the Jews among the Gentiles.an ancient Christian docudiscovered in 1875 and published in 1881." God brought to Greece from his native Thrace.e. century certain Greek works of a Neo-Platonic mysticaltheological ascribed to him. century. although criticism type were shows that these could not have been composed before the 5th. quiet joy and indifference to joy or sorrow." The ascertainment allegedsupernaturalactivityof an "inspired"person is due to the Spiritof Christ." A convert the preaching of Paul at Athens (Acts 17:34)." The study of ancient Ufe.dates etc. Meilichios.more popularly. The religiouspractice and Buddhist in which one groups the mind concentrates a singleidea in order upon to arrive at that complete poise of mind leadingto suppression of the senses. originalform of dancing." or the "Church for the episcopaltitle to be custom was in polity. A religious ritual used by the Moslem dervish fraternities to assist in remembrance of God and to glorifyhim. were to be found in all the lands about the Mediterranean. prophets. In the latter the theory that man is divided into two parts. whereby a genus is divided into two species. Another mistaken tradition identified St. sense the material body and the immaterial spirit or mind.however. the deacons. DIDACHE..)originated at the time of the Diocletian persecutions.a division into two parts." Roman emperor. ecstasy. DISCERNMENT whether the OF SPIRITS. as originating prayer. It consists of (1) moral precepts. Donatism (q. must DIRECTION. chaps. The maintained however and religiouscharacter was in the comedy many elements of the ancient fertility magic persisted. " A primitive social rite of Greece in made to underworld offeringswere powers associated with the dead. church for the mass and office for each day of the year. church. missionaries).so-calledfrom its opening words. THE under Christianity Dionysius. the regulations of the R. In Greece. engaged in a doctrinal controversy with Dionysius. dispersion.. known as the Rural and the Great or City Dionysia.especiallythat composed by in (q. The verbal form varies but usuallyconsists of some for or all of the 99 names Allah. off DIASPORA.v."German FRIEDRICH Lutheran logian. developed into stately ceremonies.perhaps exceedingin number their kinsmen of Palestine." The guidance of toward the acquirement of spiritual CathoUcism such direction well-being. Edgar J. 7-15. treatment of teachers. to be taught to catachuin preparation for baptism." An early Christian of the writingsof the Apostofic Fathers. The territory led by Thomas movement the administrative In certain sections of the country it is known as ditional authorityof a bishop.and not " . division DICHOTOMY. the in the papal chancery. bishopof Alexandria." But the rites were somber and gloomy. "through four") a tinuous harmony of the four gospelsso as to make one connarrative. officialdocuments to baptism. Denis of Paris with to Tatian ETHICS in later times displaced by the Olympian god. and visitingbrethren. reorganizedthe Roman church after the Valerian persecution. the Eucharist. and the date between 150 and 300. century. one DIONYSIUS. such as primitive The practicearose in communities where Christianity."Day of Wrath" or Day of Judgment." Also called the Teaching of ment. Twelve Apostles. In the 6th. 1-6.v. (3)an eschatological conclusion. based on an earher form of the Didache which has to Hght in a Latin version (1900). theoscholar in the field of the Ethiopic a noted language and Uterature. DIONYSOS of fertility (DIONYSIA).but frequentlyattached to to ward in modem to the times the title is diocese. uncertain.being somewhere The letter refutes idolatryand Judaistic ritualism..) Disciplesof Christ DIOCLETIAN. "Easy-to-beentreated. Also the designationof a well-known hymn of the R. The huge snake representing " which the underworld power was was the diocese. DIOGNETUS. In Roman be given by the church." the "Christian Church. (2) a manual of mens church PAPAL. the offerings abandoned were wholly to the dreaded deities and their chief purpose evil from the living. The CHRISTIAN DILLMANN. The author is unidentified. worship on the nated signatures.chaps.C. 16. tradition adding that he was martyred there. 284-305. who was In the THE." (Greek. Goodspeed DIES IRAE.apostles(i. particularlyafter the Exile. AND the 2nd. good and evil are referred to respectively.chap. " DHYANA.C." Pope. with definite instructions DIPLOMATICS.but for co-operation It is congregational attached to the see where the cathedral is. finally DIASIA. who instituted the longestand most severe persecution of Christians in the empire. AUGUST SPIRITUAL. good and evil spirits A rehgiousbody of DISCIPLES OF CHRIST. Zeus. The traof Christ. and was probably The firstpart of it is written between 130 and 150." a logical Technically. These treatises were of great influence on later Christian thought. The term means scattering. and origiLord's Day: and the appointment of bishops and as a check on forgeries. the winter and springfestivals. work in its present form shows abundant influence of the Gospel of Matthew. The science of diplomaticshas to do with questions of authenticity.

however. A. in 1903." Later with much higher.which leads the world in the number superstitions divorces granted each year Webster Hutton common (in 1905.while the ratio phenomenon in the ancient world. divinatory all peoples. initiated parhamentary sovereignty. presentiments. in 1904. in both years the proportion being one divorce to six marriages in Japan.571. truth or farrago" resides no Among On the other hand. As a rehgiouspractice(haruspication. Pahnistry divorce courts. Augustus finally with connected civihzed practicallyall modern Among augury." A rightallegedto be derived there were less than the 40. DIVINE RIGHT. the rest of the Christian world. While the patientsuffers. Previous to the During the Middle Ages political authoritywas divine provision. In Germany number from God. in the natural world. as pope. derives its divine commission from The seldom rehable. Among primitive practices any intrinsic efficacy? The answer necessarily for in the for a variety of causes. and the like)it is closely the rites of sacrifice and prayer. 14.g. Divorce is a practicecommon practically among Have 5. (from Greek dokein. 6. In its privateaspects divination lingersfar into civiUzation. In The doctrine that a king derives his authority France the ratio was to every one marriages.being often under the form of the ordeal. Ellwood Charles The doctrine continued into the 20th.to "read the speal. well before the beginning of the Christian era. in the patriarchal The scientific especially stage. The folk continue to take omens from seeingand meeting animals. tives that autoscopic methods conscious the right of divorce usually rests exclusively make of subuse may of actual impressionsfrom with the wife. Birney Smith because divine.084. Uses of divination. in France. peoples.to some by Origen.and by various Usually when anity. Gerald in whole or in but only a body which seemed DIVORCE. See Family.although 1898) the divorce rate was powers the new code stillpermits divorce by mutual the emancipation of nations from ecclesiastical control sent. holder.could not have had a material body. The insistence on unconFrench government furnishes the followingstatistics in England by their stubborn ditional divine rightprovoked the revolution which regardingthe Mohammedan population of Algeria: lutist absoIn 1905. by the planchette.and clairvoyance Greeks and Romans (sporadically among has not proceeded so far that we may dismiss them wives had won the rightto divorce their husbands all with certaintyas utterlyfallacious. in 1897 there were there cajne naturallyan exaltation of the direct 124. especially continued. sorts of divorce. By the laws which one of divorces granted in The deificationof kings and emperors was a familiar 1916. of 1914 was at War completely discredited. This is especiallytrue of the United of yield but slowlyto either science or States. public legalprocedure. c'estmoi" met its overthrow though the usual ratio in Algeria is one to three marriages. taken as a whole. among or suggestions. from Shamash he promulgates. 10. statistics show that divorces in the United census the doctrine of divine rightfound fast States are increasingmore than three times as In Christianity lible the population. due to the part. and in Great Britain and Ireland.in each year the proportionbeing one in the French Revolution. countries. although among investigation the Jews).and to relyon the divining. not derived from human 65. as religiousexpressionin the conception of the infalcountries Divorce statistics from non-Christian authority of the ApostoUc Church.Divine A Right DICTIONARY RELIGION AND ETHICS 134 the assumption that it ispossiblefor man to learn small per cent of the total number of divorces in the wiU of those Powers which reveal themselves Protestant countries. Modern law recognizes to seem) to be real. absolute divorce two (a vinculo prevalent conception of matter Docetic views were held by the Gnostics. however. 67. all unstable family hfe gets recorded in the not 7. marassertion attributed to Louis XIV. which Christ. each separate case to indicate the innocent and make having now largelybeen disDivination also appears in folk-medicine as a means Divorce is important sociologically tion indicaof discoveringthe cause of the iUness from which as an of the relative instabiUtyof the family. the ratio was divorce to twelve marriages. and fortunes are stilltold by means It is significant of modern social conditions that playing cards. We have the following.marriage is not of life-long is duration. e.but with the rf DOCETISM.976). In sense. divorce to every nine marriages. divorce takes place through nized formal procedure in courts of law. "L'tltat. The belief was as inherentlyevil. The to two riages. a private Among most uncivilized Among all ancient peoples divorce was tion divinaact requiringno as well as those of archaic civilization.075 divorces in Japan or one divine authorityof the ruler. in a country like the United States books are still where divorce is relatively and astrologyflourish yet.036.821. witrequiredthe presence of seven privateUfe. that be are ordained of God. Efficacy of divination. thirty from God code of in Germany has been to every one wide-spread.147 in the same year. It forms a recogpeoples. paternallyorganizedpeoples.179 divorces.divorce statistics during the last half century have bone" (scapulimancy). conFor example.shown a rapid increase in nearly aU Christian Ancient rod to discover water or hidden treasure. represents the king as receiving one to every hundred. consent." The doctrine tha^ Jesus Christ. These to of Japan was was one regardedas endowed by Heaven rule. are however. matrimonii)and limited divorce (a mensa extent is used alone we the word mean chaeans.. Speaking generally. Maniet thoro). OF " .. known the guilty. century the dynasty of Russia and in Prussia. automatic the writing exclusivelywith the husband.the vast majority of of unstable unions show up in the divorce statistics. The Stuart monarchs to three marriages. the number The Mikado the United States reached 112. the practiceof mode of judicialprocedure. it frequentlyrests of crystal-gazing.in England four while United States in the Hammurabi. 15. The forty-four. whole "monstrous but chiefly because children failto be born. vice-regentof Christ has an authority from Japan: In 1905. Survival of divination. although holds an important place in both pubhc and in order to check the evils of loose divorce in Rome nesses. peoples divorce is common easy as respects heteroscopicdivination. hence giving absolute authority to the was 11. external objects or external minds. Hmited called "legal separation"and constitutes a very on " _ " " . 60. it is possible peoplesorganized on the basis of maternal prerogavalue whatever. The legaldissolution.of the marriage bond. is commonly sects and individuals in the history of Christidivorce absolute divorce. dream free. "The believed to rest upon a adoption of the new legalcode in Japan (July 16.860.000. consulted.569 divorces granted. granting divorce through legislative for enactments employed.

Systematic Theology. written probably between 752 and 778. a. He was an opponent of the dogma of enunciated in 1870 by the papal infaUibility as Vatican council.as e. DOCETISM AND ETHICS Donatism DOGMATICS or DOGMATIC THEOLOGY. and the personalopinions of a theologian. was a docetic treatment for this lies partly in the social mind of The reason India and partly in the teachings of the early Hindu faith itself. See Dogma. lated specuregarding the person of Buddha attributing to him transcendent and multipUed his powers manifestations it was natural to proindefinitely ceed to the conclusion that the Buddhahood behind all the Buddhas real than was more any individual manifestation. affirm.v. W. The dominant philosophy of the age taught the unreality of the phenomenal world and the sole realityof the world-essence or Brahma." A forged dogmas.v. by a priestof blameless life. He aimed to organize and train good preachers." A white Hnen cloth formerly in the R." 81-96 tical Roman emperor. Moreover. The Catholic Birnev church held that the validityof the sacraments Gerald Smith was Dominic " _ usually " " .)."Scottish theobelonged Albertus Magnus pODS." The Order of St. the church is to decide. the same that of Cathohcism.A 135 DICTIONARY OF RELIGION While the con(BUDDHIST).g.however.used of certain eminent fathers of the church on account of their learningand orthodoxy. and to assist in determining the date of Easter. to the veil worn the napkin upon or the bread was placed. by the teachers of the Prajna school such as Nagarjuna. DOMINICAN ORDER. which are ecclesiastically OF authorized." A letter used in certain ancient calendars to denote Sunday. and the official as creeds of the various Protestant bodies have served A schismatic Christian DONATISM. tians councils... ^A doctrine of theology officiallyfrom heathenism.g. and later protested against Jesuit concessions to converts insistently DOGMA. Tantric While Buddhism not properly be may called docetic it is pantheistic and practically ignoresthe historical Buddha. and Chrysostom. and Gregory the Great. IGNAZ JOHANN JOSEF VON (1799-1890). The Jerome. organized the church and committed the truths which every loyalChristian is expected to In 1910 their rehgiousnumbered 4472.v.and as a result was cated.and the Brothers of Penitence of St." of theological study which systematically expounds and organizes the dogmas of a church. MARCUS Thomas Testament professorof New Aquinas (qq. Augustine. When this was coupled with the idea of the dharmakdya (q.the dogmatic conception were of doctrine vanishes. the R. excommuniThereupon he allied himself with the Old CathoUc and leader its strove as for the party. mound stone DOMINICALE. as in the 4th._The founder. That branch DOLLINGER. SAINT (1170-1221). document. to them and (1834-1909). Protestantism rejectedthe authority of the purporting to have been addressed by Constantine CathoUc church." servative Theravadins maintained the position that Buddha teacher who had in was a real human the way of salvation for men. and consequently abandoned the the Great to Pope SylvesterI. A formed prehistoricgrave by and covering them with a whole then covered was by a " settingup slabs of The of earth. The migration transemphasis upon led to the construction of elaborate speculationsregardingthe previouslives of Buddha. In the course of Christian W. stillretained in Italy. excepting in leap-years. standards When the conception of of dogma.C. His historical study led him to take a tolerant attitude in matters of doctrine. The conceptionof scrip. is logically universal spiritual authority.stern who should beg their way mendicant as moralists. They had many troversies conExegesis and with the Franciscans principalof New College. Gregory Nazianzen.d. who caused a brief but severe persecutionof ChrisIn case of uncertaintyas to the content of doctrine. century in N. His principal (Thomists vs. A. Gautama emphasized the ultimate reality of the and dharma truth cosmic or ultimate law of karma as against the changing flux of the over the "aggregates" (skandas) of personaUty and of the world revealed and clung to nature illusory Buddhist When teachers by the senses. The first marked A to G. the Latin are Ambrose. DOLMEN.holding originating that the sacraments valid only when tered adminisreligiousauthorityis modified. in 96.. of DOMINICAL LETTER. Dominic.e. Dominic (Third Order). the Dominican Sisters (Second Order). church at the Eucharist."Founder order of the Dominicans (q. sect.).).Immaculate Conception). Basil the Great. skilful controversiahsts. with a descriptive name adjectivewas used as a title for many mediaeval scholars. According to Roman theory.v. Africa."German Church historian and leader of the Old CathoUcs (q. Rockwell historysome of them have been expressly formulated by ecclesiasDOMITIAN. Christ to the apostles from which they have been rallying since about 1850. A variety of docetic views are represented. asked Dominicans were defined and declared to rest on divine authority. They won great distinction in university logian. and to urge the independence of church and state. includes three parts: the Friars Preachers. Sakyamuni. ists. by women appliedeither worn which DOMINIC. In later years he came favorable appreciationof Luther and the to a more Protestant Reformation. The Latin word for teacher..)as the essence of realityand the "body of truth" and with the idea of prajnd or the finding of realityonly by transcending the phenomenal and rational in mystic to identify the real contemplation it was easy Buddha with this dharmakaya and to think of the historical Buddha assumed as a docetic appearance for' pedagogical reasons. the dogma of the Trinity.v.and lendingsupport CathoUc notion of dogma. friars. The Greek tors Docare Athanasius. cap-stone. a CastiUan. seven The days of the year were letter marking the first Sunday in the year designated all Sundays. A distinction is made tween beDONATION CONSTANTINE. his own life shown the drift of all later schools of Buddhist teaching toward of his human life. reunion of Christendom.C. by the trinitarian.to the papal claims of territorial possessionsand of turallyauthorized doctrines. The Catholic French Revolution dealt them a staggeringblow.). to take charge of the Inquisition(q.Edinburgh. The Dominican Order received papal confirmation in 1216.had worked in Southern France to win back the Albigensian heretics. Eustace Haydon DOCTOR. fife. Scotactivitywas in the field of Bibhcal scholarship. and Ashvaghosha and by Vasubandha Asanga.

and those who are laboringfor a league Practically of Europe were there represented. at Douai.v. century. was a Donatus. The N. HoUand. the character the sect was named.leading to inconsistent impulses and (toGod). is appUed to sanctioned certain officially variations DONUS or socially or DOMNUS" Pope. The best moral sense that both sexes should conform to the ideal ISAAK AUGUST insisting DORNER. Ethics.v.while (q.while doubt indicates merely an inabiUty but were not permitted to speak against their to affirm. In sexual morals. Accordingly a more DOUAI BIBLE." however.whence the name.with the excepof nations are seeking to bring consistencyhere into tion of those of Anhalt. believed to reside sometimes in household doors and danger is that aspirationmay be satisfied by the lower standard. Protestantism and amulets from charms doorways to inhibit demonic influences. e. 676-678.and the heavenly as the door between and lower worlds are frequentlypicturedas abodes laymen.)were punished and contrary to the doctrine of the reformed church. The Doxology also still used in that office. bearfor ilUcit unmarried condemned like significance. Assurance." Held in Dort. temple or other enclosure." A lack of clear DOXOLOGY. by EngUsh scholars in the Universityof Douai in France. to them as acceptance of authoritativelyprescribeddocfrom the Synod. 1618.of this. positionwere permitted to state their views in writverdict. characteristic The Jews used and their prayer." Sects. conscientious ever character. In Roman exit A distinction is into or DOOR. A layman's life may Conit had a sacred character for primitiveman. Catechism and the Helvetic Confession were tained sushowever.v. SimilarlyJesus 2.doubt mitted unbelief as irreligious. Catholic morals. official position or is a particularcircumstances fact. Augustine (q. In Babism women are expected to be absolutelychaste. But since this inabilityprevents any decisive is often classed with opponents." The application to a moral problem of two different standards. In political and international relations. to May 9.T. and that the Heidelberg persecuted by ecclesiastical authority. " " " " " " DOUBLEMINDEDNESS. Usually. so-called "double is symbolizedby the door as a means of entrance standard. in which soldiers are called upon to kill their fellow DORT. although offeringto answer questionssubin writing. provisionhas been made for meeting the five chief doctrines by Scripture.. War OF. the withholdfrom of bad news a dangerously ill. belief is regarded Where Synod. In extreme cases this betrays a divided personality. Doubt is to be distinguishedfrom disbeUef.a monk who takes reUgious the household sacrifices to propitiate or one arose.Donus or A Domnus OF DICTIONARY RELIGION AND ETHICS 136 That responsibilityvaries according to age. Apologetics.g. is the most strikinginstance. German theologian. all of the Calvinist Churches objectors. doubt seems to indicate a moral unwillingness expelled The Synod decided that the five Articles of the to the divine declarations.. Analogously death is portrayed rejected double morals. Holy. While is usually a well-known truth-telling duty. actions. insistingon one and the same kind of moral lifefor clergy and lifeand death. ^A hesitant or by Louis XIII. or that any surpassingof it may peoples suspend again in temple doors. togetherwith an appreor demned political ciation in the relations of individuals toward one of historical development. and the Bible prepared for the use of Roman Catholics ecclesiastical compulsion is increasingly disapproved. whereby certain individuals are held to stricter conduct than others. person "double The term morals. questioningattitude The chief business of the Synod was that of toward a propositionor idea. Modern philosophyand in the development of the Calvinistic and Arminian science recognizethat doubt in the form of critical of discovering theologies. was Smith Gerald Birney pubUshed at Rheims. and France Gerald Birney Smith the moral Ufe of men. there are circumstances in which deception ing to be a moral necessity. See Certainty. The were on Christology. 1609. There is widespread a with doors or gates and guardians. See Russian not dependent on of the ministrant.whose most important works tian Christian Doctrine and Chris3. The objectionsof honest doubters by rational defense the determining eleaffirmed by the Synod became ments of the tenets of faith. to leave the country. 1619. An ascriptionof praiseor glory doxology to conclude public example doubtless suggested The Trisagion {Tersanctus. (1809-1884). questioningis an indispensablemeans Shailer Mathews and testing the truth. and withdrew from the sessions of the attitude. {Gloriain Excelsis). The place of entrance made between the Christian precepts which all men from a house." hitherto demanded of women. in moral behavior. requiredonly of those who dedicate themselves sequentlyto especialholiness of life. e. the delegates from the latter country being forbidden DOUBT. 1. to subject privatereason Remonstrance doubters have Hence often been (q. not socially are men a of today is sexual relations.g. Being a must with its of separating the outside world obey. DOUBLE MORALS.v. century. "Holy." whereby unmarried ing into life. See Five Points of Calvinism. to developing an Quakers. Holy") of the eucharistic office dates from Greater the 2nd. Many be regarded as a work of supererogation. " convictions.)did much to heal the schism. a isfound full-formed in the Apostolical Constitutions . Finally they were trines." An English translation of positivevalue is being attached to doubt. and the O.in considering the Remonstrance proposed by the Arminians.)Bab means gate. Brandenburg. DOUKHABORS. The Synod nate marks the nearest reformation of international relations so as to elimiapproach which the reformed churches made ecumenical this dual standard. from whom prominent leader. be morally perfectif he obeys the general laws of magical and reUgious rites and customs Christian living. The moral must Guardian vows spiritsare patron deity. and the "evangelicalcounsels" which means are troubles from the inside world with its comforts. The that the latter pronounces a representativesof the Arminian definitelynegative ing. seems as. offering observe a stricter standard. SYNOD the November There is a strong tendency to demand men. another.)and Optatus (q.T. Christian usage. 1582. etc. His theology combined elements of policyof states often compels citizens to support national actions which would be conSchleiermacher and Hegel. 13.but the Donatists persisteduntil the Saracen invasion of the 7th.

also freelyused the moralityplay (q. predictsChrist's triumph over amalgamated. in the thought Much stress is placedon dreams at Oxford near the middle of the 16th. bring disease and disaster (smallpox. the Hebrew effected the death of the dragon Bel. The ministrants at the local development of drama within the Catholic church.but religionof an aboriginalnon-Aryan race this fabulous monster inhabits southern India.with earth and a few stones.following. which Sometimes is friendly. Agonistes in ancient mythologies in the form of a Greek tragedy.famine. spiritsof the dead). used the masque in Comus for E. George. are general." 1. These of them rites of the Greek religion. The village imitated. and about sixty millions speak DraS. Merrill moral instruction and wrote his Samson A term used generallyof a deified DRAGON. they have played an important part in the origin (about 375 a. earthritual.). is rather The aim of the religion the folk in an embryonic plot is stillfound among to propitiateand ward off the evil spiritswhich dramatic of children are Europe. specimen is the Christmas god (each viUage has its own tutelarydeity or play of the Enghsh mummers (now contaminated by deities)has a small shrine and altar.d. and the superiorclaims of these deities logue.and a great number of reUgious plays in Latin were are more intimatelyconnected with the happiness produced. in the village. in its later (and present)form. furnished the model There is no Various for modern universallyrecognizedgreat god.of that control by organizedideas and in Germany. an interesting etc. R. to develop developed from cults elsewhere. is earlier than the 4th.)than to worship them. Pa^an. priestly elaborate system which could be recognizedby an of them most not progressingbeyond the stage of and serve ritual dance or mimetic as a whole as action shown a unifyingforce.but the primitivecommunity turns in time of trouble to the taking the form of wooing ana marriage. In the south legend is replete with stories of there is comparatively httle Aryan influence of mixture similar heroic exploits of a St. debate. Aryan culture and and mediaeval language prevailed. and then. Hercules slew beyond the pale are gradually winning a place on the lowest fringe of Hindu the many-headed Hydra." The DRAVIDIANS.survive. E. The pantheon is stillin the making. Aryan shades off into Dravidian in such a way that no hard and fast line of demarcation DRAMA IN RELIGION. century. no especially society in season festivals of all peoples.especially A conspicuous John Bale. a Siegmund. where the two races the dragon Satan. century. in England particularly. figurein the movement was who wrote Protestant plays in English. Vishnu and Qiva represent a as religiousdrama sprang up cultivated type. two believed that of all primitivepeoples and it is now of which. Conscious The medieval processes type of play developed under the Catholic drawn church fightsleep. and the name to EngUsh-speaking Christians Bishop Ken s (1637-1711) stanza beginning "Praise God from whom all blessings flow. an ardent humanist. Plough Monday play. with a rude image or fetich its representationof a battle symboUzing perhaps There may be temples to Vishnu and Qiy^ the conflict of summer and winter. Dravidian life is essenunderlyingthe action that accompanied the Dravidians that the rural. however. comedy. positionin the popular fancy of China and Japan. a figurewidely current C. a reaction to the universe was lously seduThe thoughts of the Dravidian villagers Renaissance the forms of classic drama as a whole.and their rehgion overcame mighty hero.perhaps material but dramaticallyless developed is found in because Dravidian society is largely matriarchal Germany. Ritual drama with song and dialogueor even