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# Data Analysis

NURS 335

Data Analysis
How data will be

## analyzed depends on:

research

questions/hypotheses
research design
Quantitative
Qualitative

Statistics)
Descriptive

Inferential

## Purpose: describe data

Purpose: make

population
Statistics: frequency

distribution, graphs,
central tendency,
variability, distribution
shapes,
crosstabulation

Statistics: parametric

and non-parametric
tests

Hypothesis Testing
Use inferential statistics
Hypothesis Testing & Error
Type I Error
Believe there is an effect in the population when
there is not one
Significance level ( level)
Type II Error
Believe there is no effect in the population when

there is one
Statistical power ( level)

Inferential Statistics
Parametric
Involves estimating parameters
Assumptions
Higher LOM of variables
Examples:

Pearsons r
t tests

(independent and
dependent)
ANOVA

Nonparametric
Does not estimate

parameters
No assumptions
Categorical variables
Examples:
Spearmans rho
Chi-square
Mann-Whitney U
Kruskal-Wallis

Statistical Significance
p value: probability value
commonly compared to .05
5% probability of something occurring by
chance
One-tailed & Two-tailed tests
One-tailed test: statistical model that tests a

directional hypothesis
Two-tailed test: statistical model that tests a
non-directional hypothesis

## Qual: Data Analysis

Coding
isolating words and phrases to discover

## Black, 2011, p. 158)

Themes
Found through the coding process and

## represent main themes consistent through all

participant interviews

## After Data Analysis . . .

Findings are discussed
Discussion should include
Main findings
Interpretation of the findings
How results compare with previous research
Limitations of the study
Application to nursing

## Quick Review of Research Process

Research Process
Identification of
Problem
Determination of
Research Question
Determination of
Research
Methodology
Quantitative

Qualitative

Form Hypothesis

Determine Sampling

Conduct ROL

Data Collection

Determine Sampling

Data Analysis

Data Collection

Triangulate Data

Data Analysis

Conduct ROL
Modified from Figure 2-2 Boswell,
2014, p. 38