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BASILICA OF ST.

PETERS, ROME
DOME COMPLETED BY GIACOMO DELLA PORTA, C. 1590

REALITY
Bramantes design was feminine, seeming like a snowflake
Michelangelos design is masculine and robust, with curving and angular surfaces
dome is similar to that of Brunelleschis; paired columns articulate the drum, reflected in the
interior through flat pilasters
high altar and baldachin were designed by Bernini
SPECIFICATIONS:
182.9 m interior length; 222.5 m exterior length
137.2 m interor width; 152.4 m exterior width
137.8 m high from ground up
45.7 m high nave
25.6 m wide nave

FORM
Michelangelo wanted to achieve a centralised form to emphasise and to give the full experience
his dome in the interior as well as the exterior. Madernas addition of 3 nave bays lessened and
completely defeated Michelangelos plan for the church.

MEANING
basic central arrangement gives concrete expression to the belief that this is the place where St.
Peter was buried
it is also the centre of the power of St. Peter and his successors, the Popes

FACADE AND PIAZZA OF ST. PETERS, ROME


FACADE BY CARLO MADERNA, C. 1600-1612
PIAZZA BY GIANLORENZO BERNINI, C. 1657

REALITY
FACADE
built of travertine stone
giant order of Corinthian columns
central pediment rising in front of a tall attic surmounted by 13 statues
crescendo in articulation towards the centre
SPECIFICATIONS (FACADE)
114.7 m wide
45.6 m high

NARTHEX AND PORTALS


long barrel vaulted decorated with ornate stucco and gilt
successfully illuminated by small windows between pendentives
5 portals lead into the basilica
NAVE
3 bays added by Maderna to the single bay of Michelangelos Greek cross design
PIAZZA
symbolic entrance of welcome
compact central designs of Bramante and Michelangelo were expanded by a Baroque
transformation into a dynamic but contained complex of racially ordered elements that reach to to
enclose spaces of vast dimensions
where the Renaissance building stood in self-sufficient isolation, the Baroque design relates it to
its environment
diverging wings of the trapezoid counteract the natural perspective and tend to bring the facade
closer to the observer
by emphasizing the facades height through the trapezoidal space, Bernini subtly but effectively
compensated for its excessive width, correcting thereby somewhat the weakness of Madernas
facade
SPECIFICATIONS (PIAZZA)
320 m deep
240 m in diameter
COLONNADES
the colossal Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep, frame the trapezoidal entrance to the
basilica and the massive elliptical area which precedes it
284 columns in total
88 pilasters
140 statues of saints, built by Berninis pupils, 3.20 m high, along the balustrade above the
columns
tetrastyle temple fronts terminating the ends
OBELISK
made of red granite
25.5 m tall
supported by bronze lions
surmounted by the Chigi arms in bronze
41 m high in all, to the cross on is top
PAVING
varied by radiating lines in travertine, to relieve what otherwise be a sea of cobblestones

FORM
total layout consists of two centers and a path that connects them
one center, the interior, is located under the dome, and is occupied by the main altar and
baldachin designed by Bernini
the other centre, the exterior is made up of the obelisk

MEANING
both centers convey the meaning of goal, of arrival, arrival at the end of a pilgrimage, and final
arrival at the end of our life-path under the dome of heaven

SAN CARLO ALLE QUATTRO FONTANE, ROME

REALITY
Saint Charles of the Four Fountains
designed by Francesco Borromini
the space is longer along the entrance axis than it is wide
the rectangular ordering is interrupted by cutting the corners
could also be understood as an elongated octagon
further complexity is introduced by the variation in the spacing of the twelve columns carrying
alternating round and flat headed openings, the curvature of the corners, and the inventive
balustrade
geometrical themes are reinforced by the central octagonal wellhead on an oval base and the
octagonal capitals of the upper columns
small church which can fit in one of the piers of St. Peters Basilica
elliptical dome supported on four pendentives

warped classical architecture


facade seems to vibrate, resulting in an unclear line between interior and exterior spaces
two columns mark off a change in direction of the curving walls
concealed windows which illuminate the interior
coffers on dome: octagons, hexagons, crosses

SPECIFICATIONS
20.1 m long
11.9 m high
INTERIOR
three principal parts: lower order at ground level, transition zone of the pendentives, oval coffered
dome with its oval lantern
provocative variation of a centrally planned church
a Greek cross with a central dome pressed into an oval, creating thereby a space in tension or
compression

FORM
new version of the integration or synthesis of a circular and longitudinal arrangement by fusion
and super-imposition of one on the other, resulting in transition without break
San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, compared to the Hagia Sophia, a structure where the
longitudinal and centralised layout is successfully merged, beautifully integrates the centralised
and longitudinal plan into one through the use of ellipses. There are no clear divisions between
the spaces, such as in the Hagia Sophia.

MEANING
overriding meaning of interior and exterior space is that of integration of seemingly conflicting
elements into an organic whole

SANT IVO ALLA SAPIENZA, ROME

REALITY

Saint Yves at the Sapienza (University of Rome)


sapienza means wisdom
built by Francesco Borromini
situated at the rear of the courtyard of a monastic college/university
generally regarded as Borominis masterpiece

EXTERIOR
exterior is complementary to interior
two-storey entrance facade is a continuation of della Portas Late Renaissance arcades of
superimposed Doric and Ionic orders
in totality, the exterior synthesises the Renaissance dome with the gothic tower
INTERIOR
plan is based on a star-hexagon and shows an alternation of apses and convex recesses, the
typical concave-convex rhythm
continuous wall and dome articulation unify the broken-up space
basic intention of S. Ivo is the idea of attaining vertical continuity by carrying the complex shape
of the ground plan without interruption into the dome
dome has lost the traditional character of static enclosure and seems to be undergoing a process
of expansion and contraction, a process that gradually comes to rest towards the circular ring
under the lantern
in spite of its novel, rich shape, the interior of S. Ivo is one of the most unified spaces in the
history of architecture
facade was made concave to make a continuous arcade

form was derived through the intersection of 2 equilateral triangles, creating the Star of David
(Star of Solomon at the time, meaning wisdom)
lower two levels are concave
drum doesn't support the domethe dome is inside the structure
concave buttresses and lantern
convex dome
the dome is not classically a hemispherical one but follows the shape of the plan then flattens out
at the apex
drum is made up of windows which, when seen outside, emphasise the verticality of the drum
paired pilasters are used to mark off the ends of a curving wall, with another pair of intermediate
pilasters in between
the room seems to be expanding outward and pushing inward at the same time, making the
space dynamic through the use of concave-convex curves
SPECIFICATIONS
27.1 m long
25.9 m wide

FORM
dynamic, centralized, vertical space
use of the spiral form in architecture may be considered as one of the efforts to reconcile the
vertical and the horizontal
in the interior and exterior spaces the concave and convex movements work against one another
like motifs in the polyphony of Bach, with whose music Borrominis architecture has often been
compared

SAN LORENZO, TURIN, NORTHERN ITALY

REALITY

adjacent to the Royal Palace of Turin


designed by Guarino Guarini
the plan consists of a narthex, a centralised nave, an altar, a dome, a sacristy
plan is based on an octagon inscribed in a square, where on each side, there is an arc that
curves inward; in perimeter, the niches push outward
dome rests on four pendentives; not classical due to the presence of ribs
dome above altar is cellular with hexagonal geometry
outer drum encloses the dome to provide vertical windows that penetrate through the cellular
dome
no Westwork, like those in Romanesque churches
windows have alternating triangular and semicircular patterns is typically Renaissance in style
(Michelangelo)
dome consists of interesting stone ribs; very ornamental
complex but essentially logical geometry of its plan, successful structural system, an hist
fascinating, interwoven succession of spaces make this church a masterpeice of architectural
history
at the corners and at the centre of each side of the square nave the massive walls, supported by
slender columns, bulge inward vigorously as if seeking to occupy the central space
central space presses back forcefully as if seeking to gain back the space on the lower level
momentarily endangered balance of forces between space and mass is victoriously reaffirmed by
the unifying spaces above, in the revolutionary dome and lantern

NARTHEX
as wide as the church
CENTRAL NAVE
inscribed in a square
CHOIR
oval in shape
VAULT
annular (ring-shaped)
located behind the choir
DOME
interlaced network of 8 slender ribs
instead of a web at the intersections of the ribs, there is only space and light
where one would expect mass to strengthen the structure, Guarini placed a well-lighted opening
ribs of dome form an abstraction of interconnecting, grotesque and mysterious human faces
dematerialized by defining but not limiting interior space
Guarini uses purely architectural means to put gravity at defiance, creating the typical Baroque
feeling of mystery and infinity
dome of the Mosque Al Hakem in Cordoba, Spain, was used as inspiration

FORM
plan consists of two rectangular blocks placed next to each other
larger block contains the main central, domed space and the narthex
smaller block holds the oval choir for the altar and the annular vault behind it
main central interior space and the choir are literally carved out of the squarish block with almost
no relation to the outside, which illustrates the interest of Italian Baroque architects in molding
interior space
synthesis between central and longitudinal arrangements
character of skeletal construction

MEANING
attempt to bring several conflicting spaces together expresses the ardent desire to resolve the
conflicts of the age in an ultimate unity
unresolved contradictions in the spatial arrangements reveal a sense of dynamic exuberance
and mystery while the complexity of the interior space conveys the complexity of the Baroque
and the following civilizations

VIERZEHNHEILIGEN PILGRIMAGE CHURCH, NEAR BAMBERG,


GERMANY

REALITY

Basilica of the Fourteen Holy Helpers


located in Bad Staffelstein, Bavaria, Southern Germany
designed by Balthasar Neumann
basic themes of the history of Christian architecture are unified in a last magnificent synthesis,
made possible by Borrominis introduction of the unified spatial element, by the ars combinatoria
of Guarini, and by the Late Gothic wall-pier system

EXTERIOR
fuses Baroque rhetoric with medieval verticality
Westwork of Gothic configuration
convex-concave facade
flat towers
INTERIOR
modified Latin cross plan
has a crossing where four vaults collide
no dome
has more windows, not seen in earlier churches of this style, which illuminate the space, creating
a diaphanous effect
no distinction between the verticality of the arcades and the horizontality of ?
altar of 14 saints
walls of nave undulate, as if pushing inward and outward at the same time
Rococo ornamentation (exaggerated and profuse, almost as right angles)
boundaries are eliminated by the curves of the walls and the ornamentation
no boundary between ceiling and wall
curves are not simple and compound
integral calculus was discovered by the German and the English around the time the church was
built, which helped in the derivation of the curves used in the structure
blurring boundaries between vertical and horizontal elements, interior and exterior spaces
everything is created to produce a magical, theatrical effect
grand Baroque illusion is utilised to increase religious fervour and experience
last Gesamtkunstwerk of Western Christianity, in which genuine works of sculpture and painting
are totally integrated with the architecture

FORM
irregular beats/rhythm in architecture
syncopated music
unexpected architectural elements
two systems combined: a biaxial organism and a conventional Latin cross
as the centre of the biaxial lyour does not coincide with the crossing, an especially strong spatial
syncopation results
total space is more defined by the baldachins overhead than by the ground plan, resulting in a
complex syncopated integration
space is both differentiated and integrated, infinite and contained

MEANING

as a pilgrimage church, it conveys especially the meanings of mans life path and his arrival in the
world beyond

PALACE AND PARK OF VERSAILLES

REALITY

biggest palace in Europe


palace was designed by Louis Le Vau
park was the work of Andre Le Notre
palace first started out as a small hunting lodge (1623)
major avenues converge at the major apartments
site slopes down (palace is elevated, gardens are at a lower level)
fountain of Apollo
Grand Canal
Louis XIV used the national treasury to finance the building of the palace

PALACE
Gallery of Mirrors
War room
Opera
Royal Chapel built by Mansart (classical on lower level, baroque in ceiling ornamentation)
GALLERY OF MIRRORS
10.5 m in width
73.0 m in length
12.3 m in height
GRAND TRIANON
summer palace
where the king can entertain his visitors in private

PETIT TRIANON
most likely built for Marie Antoinette
appearance is imitated often, especially by English buildings

WHAT MAKES VERSAILLES BAROQUE?


The repetition of the structural bay in the exterior suggests boundlessness, which is a defining
characteristic in the Baroque style, as shown in the interpenetration of the interior and exterior
spaces. The repetition seems as if it can go on indefinitely without any marks of termination at
the ends of the structure.

FORM
radial avenues, the central one linking the palace with the city of Paris, converge on the palace
the avenues intersect in the kings bedroom, which doubled up as audience room and state
chamber, making, therefore, the bed of the king the climax of the total layout
straight line is the principal element of form used here, in two interpretations: the approaching
line stars in Paris and ends in the kings bedroom, and the departing line starts from the kinds
bedroom, continues through the vast park and goes into infinity

MEANING
palace symbolizes and conveys the absolute power of the king and centrally organised authority
radiating lines, symbolizing the rays of the sun, conveyed the essence of the Sun-KIng, as
Louis XIV liked to be called

ST. LOUIS DES INVALIDES, PARIS

REALITY
designed by Jules Hardouin-Mansart
independent spaces
clearly defined Greek cross in plan
plan is similar to the Taj Mahal
4 satellite chapels
more neoclassical than Baroque
instead of using curves, the architect uses gradually projecting planes
like in Il Gesu, the plane project toward the centre, and the facade becomes more sculptural as
one nears the centre, creating a gradual increase in architectural intensity toward the center
pilasters turn to columns toward the centre
increase in architectural intensitycrescendo
Napoleon Bonapartes sarcophagus lies in the crypt

ST. PAULS CATHEDRAL, LONDON, ENGLAND

REALITY

built by Sir Christopher Wren


vaults are domical-pendentive
hemispherical dome resting on octagonal base, supported by four piers
looks more like a secular, government building
dome is inspired by that in the Tempietto by Bramante
nothing particularly Baroque, save for the spires
has a fake second level which hides the difference in heights between the central nave and side
aisles
whispering gallery
pilasters supporting the dome lean inward
Baroque in ornamentation
buttresses are perforated with openings to promote circulation
upper level is like of Boromini, while lower level is more Palladian
dome is as wide as the central nave and side aisles combined
circulation is continuous and uninterrupted

SPECIFICATIONS
157.9 m long
36.9 m width of nave
75.0 m width across transepts
111.3 m high
84.7 m height of outer dome

68.6 m height of inner dome


34.1 m diameter of outer dome
31.1 m diameter of inner dome
2 towers 67.4 m high

BELVEDERE PALACE, VIENNA, AUSTRIA


REALITY

belvederea structure designed to command a view


designed by Lucas Von Hildebrandt
nothing Classical
only Baroque in ornamentation
basic form is arguably not Baroque
land slopes downward
has atlases in the interior
Prince Eugene was for whom the palace was built
infinite perspective of the Baroque garden has been transformed into an enclosed space

UPPER BELVEDERE
vibrating, seemingly alive outside wall surface
rich interplay of volumes: transparent vestibule in the middle, the flanking three-storey apartment
and the tower-like corner pavilions

LOWER BELVEDERE
based on a conventional cour d honneur (a three-sided courtyard, created by flanking the main
central block, or corps de logis, with symmetrical advancing secondary wings containing minor
rooms) plan

VEAUX LE VICOMTE
built by the same architect who designed the Palace and Park of Versailles, Louis le Vau
owned by Fouquet, the greatest finance of his time, who was put in prison for the rest of his life
by Louis XIV
no contrapuntal motif
Grand Salon (Great Room) is the only space which shows the defining characteristic of the
Baroque stylea dynamic, curving space

OSPEDALE DEGLI INNOCENTI, FLORENCE


not Baroque, despite the repetition of a structural module
there is an attempt at termination at the ends of the structure with the use of pilasters instead of
columns, as used in the repeated structural bay

STA. MARIA DE LA VITTORIA

Baroque in ornamentation
holds Berninis Ecstasy of St. Therese
squarish room which is hardly boundless but finite

PIAZZA DI SPAGNA
Spanish Steps
Baroque urban design

WIESKIRCHE

built by the Zimmermann brothers who were rivals with Neumann

DEFINITION OF TERMS
1. BALDACHIN - an ornamental canopy of stone or marble permanently placed over the altar in a
church
2. BELVEDERE - a building or architectural feature of a building, designed and situated to look
out upon a pleasing scene
3. BAROQUE - a style of architecture originating in Italy in the early 17th century and variously
prevalent in Europe and the New World for a century and a half, characterised by free and
sculptural use of the classical orders and ornament, dynamic opposition and interpenetration of
spaces, and the dramatic combined effects of architecture, sculpture, painting, and the
decorative arts
4. ATLAS - a sculptured figure of a man used as a column
5. CARYATID - a sculptured female figure used as a column
6. CONTRAPUNTAL - a system of two voices singing the same song; curving concave-convex
surfaces of Borromini, Guarini, Neumann, Zimmermann
7. CRESCENDO - gradual buildup of emotional intensity; as seen in the Invalides, where the flat
pilasters become circular and the number of elements is multiplied
8. SYNCOPATED - unexpected accent of beat/rhythm (Vierzenheiligen)
9. SACRISTY - a room in a church where the sacred vessels and vestments are kept; also called
VESTRY
10. ROCOCO - a style of decorative art that evolved from the Baroque, originating in France about
1720 and distinguished by fanciful, curved spatial forms and elaborate, profuse designs of
shellwork and foliage intended for a delicate overall effect