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research on curriculum development

research on curriculum development

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OUR LADY OF FATIMA GRADUATE SCHOOL MAN 202- Curriculum Development & Evaluation 2 Semester 2009-2010



What are the criteria of a good curriculum?

The criteria of a good curriculum include the relevance, importance and priority. Its scope must have definitive amount, depth of coverage and concentration. 2. Explain the ff. anatomy of curriculum: a. Nature and significance: Many people find the term ’curriculum’ rather confusing. After all, they contend, it is used in many different ways. For example, a common use of the term refers to ‘the school curriculum’. This incorporates all the planned learning offered by the school. However, an equally accepted use of the term is to talk about the lower school curriculum or the ‘K10 curriculum”. One can also refer to the ‘history curriculum’, the ‘math’s curriculum’, or the ‘home economics curriculum’. The above are examples of the term curriculum in practice and they can be placed in one of the following categories: 1. 2. 3. A systematic curriculum A subject curriculum A school/institutional curriculum

Another way of conceptualizing curriculum is to view it in terms of the perceptions people have of curricula. Different people perceive a school’s curriculum in different ways and sometimes in multiple ways depending upon the context in which the concept is used. To complicate matters further, someone may perceive the curriculum in a particular way and use the term curriculum to describe what they mean, while other uses the same term but means something different. b. Functions: The inadequacies of “top-down” technological strategies of curriculum development, and of local-user based curriculum

development, result from a confusion of the ends, starting points, methodologies, and functions of external and user development. The function of external development is to elaborate theoretical conceptions of society, knowledge, teacher and learner, and to translate these conceptions into coherent curriculum materials, each of which serves as a clear-cut alternative available to teachers. The function of user development is to construct images of particular instructional settings by matching a variety of theoretical conceptions with the exigencies of these settings, and to translate these images into a curriculum-inclassroom use. The harmonious realization of these functions would yield a measure of progressive improvement in school curriculum practices. c. Areas of concern in curriculum development: The main curricular developments were on two fronts: establishing sets of common or essential elements that formed the "basics for all," and providing for flexibility so that students might pursue individual interests and ambitions. The new "core" of the curriculum reduced focus on academic study, emphasizing vocational and career-related development, particularly in the areas of technology, mathematics and science, problem solving, critical thinking, literacy and communication. The value of nurturing student self-direction and self-reliance as learners and of accommodating students' need to integrate and make personal sense of their learning changed expectations as to how teachers were to "deliver" the curriculum. The key phrases on the curricular agenda in the 1990s are to make schools more equitable for all the diverse student populations, more successful in preparing future citizens for the work environment, and more accountable to its stakeholders

3. How do philosophy, psychology, history and society influence the development of curriculum? Philosophy: Philosophy probably has more influence on curriculum access than development. As learning and teaching theories are developed and education as a whole changes, the way the curriculum is understood and taught and therefore learned changes. Psychology: Students have "normative needs," e.g., for health and vocational preparation, which are appreciated by adults but not by the students themselves. They have also "psychological needs," e.g., for recreation and social contacts, which are felt by the students; but even these supply rather indirect motivation, in that the students’ conscious want is only for a specific, immediate thing or action. In order to fulfill the students’ essential needs and to make operative these fundamental bases of motivation the school must constantly present to the child a situation that is cognitively well-structured, that is, one in which "the students has definite goals with paths leading toward them, is clear about what he may not do, and knows what is coming next." History: After 1965 a new permissiveness in the school curriculum was manifested by a relaxation of centralized control, a proliferation of regionally developed courses of study and a revived, but modified, childcentred thrust in elementary education. New knowledge, students' desire for more practical and more relevant schooling, a larger and more diverse school population, and tensions in society resulting from a breakdown of the old social consensus and from a questioning of traditional values, led to demands for innovation. With renewed fears of Americanization, with the rise of Québec separatism and in response to the demands of First Nations people and other minority groups for equality, curriculum developers moved to establish bilingual, multicultural and native studies programs, while also seeking to counter RACISM and sexism through more balanced and accurate treatment of minorities and women in textbooks. As the struggle over curriculum became more publicly visible, policymakers were frequently forced to respond in an ad hoc fashion to broad but often fleeting popular concerns. Sometimes demands led to

immediate action for which teachers, in the absence of adequate support, training and materials, were often ill-prepared. By 1980 ministries of education were reverting to centralization as demands for "accountability" led to restoration, in most provinces, of previously abandoned province-wide testing. These and other trends revealed a new interest in "scientific" curriculum development, entailing precise statements of "objectives" and the assessment of pupil "behaviours" measured by skill performance in the traditional "three Rs." This emphasis on the "basics" belied the lack of consensus on what constituted basics and on the extent to which emphasis on them had declined in schools. Ironically, in 1976 a unique external study of Canadian education by the Paris-based Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) praised the remarkable growth and the high standards of schooling in Canada but criticized the limited place in curriculum of such "frills" as music and art. This heightened interest in accountability was accompanied by a concern for curriculum "implementation," as developers sought to ensure "fidelity to the curriculum" - those programs were taught as prescribed. Increased attention on issues of implementation raised awareness of the teacher's central role in educational change - teachers are the "gatekeepers" of what transpires in the classroom. Throughout the 1980s, teachers demanded more say in shaping the curriculum, refusing to be treated essentially as technicians involved in implementing "top-down" educational policy. The professional autonomy and responsibility of teachers to shape the curriculum became more widely accepted. During recent trends (early 1990’s), rallying around a call to prepare students for the 21st century, several provinces embarked on largescale school reform. Clamour about Canada's continued competitiveness in the global economy, fuelled by international studies comparing performance of students from Canada unfavourably to other industrialized countries, and by perceptions of excessively high student drop out rates, was a major impetus for reform efforts. Also significant was a related concern to provide a more equitable, inclusive curriculum by attending seriously to the diversity of students' abilities, interests, orientations and backgrounds. Among other changes, this meant going beyond what often was mere token representation of females and other groups in textbooks to a reshaping of curriculum and instruction to engage these groups. In many provinces students with disabilities were to be integrated into the mainstream. Society:

A flood of new advocacy groups - federal agencies, human rights, environmental and consumer organizations, foundations, professional associations, labour and business groups and others who saw the school as a proselytizing agency - pressed for changes in the curriculum and directed streams of teaching materials at classrooms. What was most striking about these efforts to influence the curriculum (which continue to the present) is the implied faith both in the potential of curriculum revision to reform classroom practices and, in turn, in the power of schooling to redress social and economic inequities.

4. Explain how the three process Planning, Implementing, and Evaluating are used in curriculum development. Planning: The term, "curriculum development plan," can be used to refer to any plan involving curriculum development. It might be a plan to revise a program, a course, or even just an instructional unit. However, this term is also used to refer to plans at stipulated levels, such as plans at a district level for which a superintendent of schools is responsible. Thus, literature about "curriculum development plans" and planning may sometimes apply to district-level planning more than to planning at smaller levels. Furthermore, schools, districts, states, and countries have different goals and standards, so some examples of a good plan for one setting would be insufficient in other settings (as the plan might not address local goals). The reader is cautioned to evaluate each source of information for relevance and credibility. In planning, it should include the following: • • A mission statement A statement of goals

• A description of the curriculum council, noting the purpose, function, and diverse membership categories • Subject areas committee membership that is not limited to those teachers in the subject area • Subject area committees' purpose and tasks (but unfortunately no clear timeline) • The format and review process for the documents to be produced by subject area committees

• • •

Previously developed curriculum standards An assessment plan Forms to assist curriculum development

Implementation: Implementing the curriculum does not focus on the actual use but also on the attitudes of those who implement it. These attitudinal dispositions are particularly important in educational systems where teachers and principals have the opportunity to choose among competing curriculum packages. How should curriculum be implemented? There are two extreme views about curriculum implementation: a. laissez-faire approach or the "let-alone" approach. This gives teachers absolute power to determine what they see best to implement in the classroom. In effect, this allows teachers to teach lessons they believe are appropriate for their classes and in whatever way the want to teach such lessons. There is no firm of control or monitoring whatsoever. b. authoritarian control. In this view, teachers are directed by authority figures through a memorandum, to follow a curriculum. Teachers have no control or leeway over the subjects the are teaching. The school head exercise absolute power in directing teachers to teach certain subjects in specified ways. In other words, this approach is dictatorial way of imposing curricular implementation in the classroom. A realistic view o curriculum implementation should be between the two extremes. Teachers are expected to follow the prescribed syllabus exactly and make sure that they do not miss any topic/component. When teachers diligently follow a prescribed syllabus in teaching a lesson, then they are considered to have fidelity of use or fidelity of implementation. To promote fidelity of use, one need to identify the topics or subjects that need more focus. These subjects are are those that are more technical or more difficult. A structured approach to implementation is then followed, one on which teachers are provided clear instructions early on. Evaluation: The purpose of curriculum program evaluation is to determine the effectiveness of curriculum – what is working, what is not working, what to change, and what to keep. Evaluation is a process used to assess the quality of curriculum. In addition to analyzing student assessment data,

the vertical curriculum teams will respond to these four interrelated questions: 1. Is the curriculum design one of quality? 2. Is the curriculum being implemented as designed? 3. Are students mastering the core conceptual objectives and performing at a high level on the application level assessments identified in the implemented curriculum? 4. Is the curriculum effective in accomplishing the overall goals, mission, and vision of our district? Evaluation will also occur as a result of the review and the degree to which the goals set annually in each content area is accomplished. A systematic approach to curriculum evaluation can result in better alignment among the district’s written, taught, and tested curriculum. The data and information gathered through the new, comprehensive evaluation procedure can also be used to make improvements in instruction, assessment, and staff development. 5. Compare and contrast the Nursing curriculum commonly used in the Philippines with other Asian countries. Allow me to share my views on the present nursing curriculum and its impact on our nurses’ education and global competitiveness. The present four-year nursing program includes three summers. If a summer is equivalent to a semester, then the present nursing program is actually five-and-a-half years long. Therefore, the proposal of the Commission on Higher Education (CHEd) to add one more year to what is at present a four-year course—that is a five-year course without summers—is better for two reasons: (1) nursing students can enjoy a much-needed respite during summer, and (2) their parents will be given time to save money for the following semester. However, we should not worry so much about the length of the program or the tuition fees to be paid. Let’s rather focus on the proper implementation of the curriculum per se. The present curriculum is a well-researched program that was carefully developed by our country’s dedicated deans and noted nursing academicians in consultation with different nursing sectors and specialty groups. In fact, our nursing curriculum’s conceptual framework has been hailed as a blueprint for excellence and has been adopted by many Asian and western countries. And it has been presented at numerous international conventions and accepted by our nursing colleagues globally. Given its content, the

curriculum can be said to be in parallel with the global standards of nursing care and practices. As one of the many Filipino nurses given the chance to teach nursing subjects in the United States for more than 15 years, this is my observation: even though the US nursing program has two entry levels, the predominant one is the Associate Degree in Nursing (ADN), a twoyear nursing program with barely 600 actual nursing hours in the clinical areas; and it yields amazingly and consistently a very high passing performance in the nursing licensure (NCLEX-CAT) examination. As to the Filipino nurses’ global competitiveness, to this day they remain the number one choice of other countries trying to make up for their acute nursing shortage. Our nurses may be noted for being inherently caring, respectable and compassionate, but more employers (nursing homes and hospitals), especially in the United States, are now so concerned that the nurses they hire are truly trained in the western nursing practices and standards, or “globally competent.” Nursing competence (not the BSN degree or passing or topping the mandatory examinations) is very crucial in the effort to prevent and totally eliminate nursing malpractice/negligence. It’s a known fact that the United States is one of the most litigious countries in the whole world and yet it is a favorite destination of our nurses for long-term work tenure.

BACHELOR OF SCIENCE IN NURSING Prototype 4-Year Curriculum FIRST YEAR First Semester Course Code English 1 Course Name Communication Skills I Lec 3 Lab 0 Units 3

Filipino 1 Chemistry 1 Math 1 Psych Science PE 1 NSTP 1

Sining ng Pakikipagtalastasan General Chemistry (Organic & Inorganic) College Algebra General Psychology Biology Physical Education 1 National Service Training Program

3 3 3 3 3 2 3

0 2 0 0 2 0 0

3 5 3 3 5 2 3 Total = 27

Second Semester Course Code English 2 Filipino 2 Ana/Physio TFN NCM 100 HA PE 2 NSTP 2 Course Name Communication Skills II Panitikang Filipino Anatomy and Physiology Theoretical Foundations in Nursing Fundamentals of Nursing Practice Health Assessment Physical Education 2 National Service Training Program Lec 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 3 Lab/RLE Units 0 0 2 0 2 1 0 0 3 3 5 3 5 3 2 3 Total = 27

SUMMER Subject Code Physics Logic Physics Logic and Critical Thinking Course Name Lec 2 3 3 Lab 1 0 0 Unit s 3 3 3

Socio/Anthro Sociology with Anthropology

Total = 9

SECOND YEAR First Semester Course Code Course Name Lec La b/ RL E Uni ts

NCM 101

Care of Individuals and Family with Maternal and Child Health Community Health Nursing Microbiology and Parasitology Philosophy of the Human Person Health Economics Physical Education 3

6 3 3 3 3 2

6 0 1 0 0 0

12 3 4 3 3 2

CHN Micro/Para Philo Health Eco PE 3

Total = 27

Second Semester Course Code Course Name Lec Care of Clients Across the Lifespan with Mother, Child, Community and Family-atRisk/Problems Nutrition and Diet Therapy Teaching Strategies in Health Education Pharmacology Lab/ RLE Units

NCM 102 NuDiet StratHealth Pharma

6 3 3 3

6 1 0 0

12 4 3 3

Bioethics PE 4

Bioethics Physical Education 4

3 2

0 0

3 2 Total = 27


Course Code NI English 3 Biostat

Course Name Nursing Informatics Speech Communication Biostatistics

Lec 3 3 3

Lab 0 0 0

Units 3 3 3

Total = 9

THIRD YEAR Course Code NCM 103 First Semester Course Name Care of Clients Across the Lifespan with Problems in Oxygenation, Fluid & Electrolyte Balance, Metabolism and Endocrine Functioning Community Development Life, Works and Writings of Rizal Philippine Literature Lec RLE 6 6 Units 12

ComDev Rizal English 4

3 3 3

2 0 0

5 3 3

Total = 23

Second Semester Course Code NCM 104 Course Name Care of Clients Across the Lifespan with Problems in Perception, Coordination and Maladaptive Patterns of Behavior Philippine Government and Constitution with Taxation and Land Reform Philippine History Nursing Research 1 Lec RLE Units





3 3 3

0 0 0

3 3 3 Total = 25

PhilHist NRes 1


Course Code NCM 105 AsianCiv

Course Name Related Learning Experiences Asian Civilization

Lec 0 3

RLE 6 0

Units 6 3

Total =9

FOURTH YEAR First Semester Course Course Name Lec RLE Units

Code NCM 106 Care of Clients Across the Lifespan with Problems in Inflammatory and Immunologic Reactions, Cellular Aberrations and Acute Biologic Crisis with Disaster/Emergency Nursing


8 (with IV Therapy) 0 0


NRes 2 CA 1

Nursing Research 2 Competency Appraisal 1

2 5

2 5 Total = 23

Second Semester Course Code NCM 107 CA 2 Course Name Nursing Leadership and Management Competency Appraisal 2 Lec 8 5 RLE 8 0 Units 16 5

Total = 21

COURSE SYLLABUS OF FUNDAMENTALS IN NURSING Course Description This is a theory based course that introduces the student to basic nursing concepts. The emphasis is placed on scientific nursing practice, basic human needs, and the care of clients with diverse needs. Students are encouraged to examine issues central to contemporary nursing practice such as: wellness, health promotion, disease prevention, effective communication, ethic and holistic approach to nursing care. The nursing process is the organizing framework for the care provided to meet human needs. In conjunction with co-requisite (nursing 208 ) students will culminate strong baseline of nursing knowledge and skills for future nursing practice.

Textbook Title Author(s) Publisher Year Edition Book Website Other references Fundamentals of nursing: Concepts and procedures. Kozier B. et al Addison-Wesley Pub. Co (2004) (7TH) WWW.PRENHALL.COM/KOZIER /

Teaching & Learning Methods • • • • Lecture Group discussion Case studies Audio-visual

Course Content Week No. 1 2 3 Class Title Orientation Nursing Development and professionalism Health, Wellness, and Illness Ch 1 Ch11 Topics Chapter in Textbook (handouts)

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Individual, Family, and Community Health Communication Nursing Process and Critical Thinking Nursing Process- Assessment: Nursing Process- Diagnosis Nursing Process- Planning Nursing Process- Implementation Nursing Process- Evaluation Documenting & Reporting Teaching and Learning Health Promotion Hygiene Vital Signs Vital Signs Asepsis Asepsis Wound Care Fluid and Electrolyte Nutrition Nutrition Urinary Elimination Fecal Elimination Activity and Exercise Stress and Coping Pain

Ch 12 Ch 24 Ch 15 Ch 16 Ch 17 Ch 18 Ch 19 Ch 19 Ch 20 Ch 25 Ch 8 Ch 31 Ch 27 Ch 27 Ch 27 Ch 29 Ch 29 Ch 34 Ch 45 Ch 45 Ch 47 Ch 46 Ch 42 Ch 40 Ch 44

29 30 31

Rest and sleep Ethics and Values Legal Aspects of Nursing Practices

Ch 43 Ch 5 Ch 4

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