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Dato' M. SHANmughalingam • Poet. . Harvard and Oxford University. • Studied at University of Malaya. novelist.The Poet .

the grandchild asks questions to his/her grandfather and grandmother .The Meaning In Stanza 1.

Grand dad did you breathe before air cons were invented Meaning: The grandchild asks his grandfather if he was able to breathe before air conditioners were made. .

.was it hard staying alive without modern inventions? Meaning: The grandchild asks whether his/her grandfather found it difficult to live without modern gadgets.

Grandma weren't you flustered as you fluttered with paper fans? Meaning: The grandchild asks his grandmother whether she was angry when she had to cool herself with paper fans. .

Could you communicate before faxes and long distance calls became basic necessities? Meaning: The grandchild wonders how his/her grandparents communicated before there were no facsimile machines and telephones. These are considered basic needs in our lives. .

In Stanza 2. the grandfather/grandmother responds to the questions posed by his grandchild in Stanza 1. .

since they were not educated.Grand child we lived before your age. traffic jams destruction of forests. •However. we did not know pollution. streams and hills Meaning: •The grandparent says that they lived at an earlier time than the grandchild. . they didn’t have to deal with pollution. stress. Because of our ignorance. stress. traffic jams and the damage of the natural environment.

We feared God and nature Meaning: We were afraid of God and respected nature. .

Now nature fears you and Money is your new God Meaning: Now. nature is being threatened by you and money has become your main focus. .

.Moral Values • • • • • Take care and appreciate the nature Use technology wisely Do not be blinded by money Appreciate God’s creation Be religious. Do not forget your responsibilities.