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I.

Vocabulary List

scatter plot

regression

correlation

line of best fit/trend line

correlation coefficient

residual

residual plot

observed value

predicted value

Researchers, such as

anthropologists, are

often interested in how

two measurements are

related. The statistical

study of the relationship

between variables is

called regression.

relationships. A scatter plot is a graph with points

plotted to show a possible relationship between

two sets of data. A scatter plot is an effective way to

display some types of data.

Is a scatter plot

discrete or

continuous?

discrete

1. The table shows the number of cookies in a jar from the time since they were

baked. Graph a scatter plot using the given data.

for the scatter plot.

The x-value represents the time since the cookies were baked and the

y-value represents the number of cookies left in the jar.

Plot the ordered pairs.

A scatter plot is helpful in understanding the

form, direction, and strength of the relationship

between two variables. Correlation is the

strength and direction of the linear relationship

between the two variables.

scatter plot.

As the average daily

temperature increased,

the number of visitor

increased.

There is a positive

correlation between the

two data sets.

plot.

As the elevation in Nevada

increases, the mean

annual temperature

decreases.

There is a negative

correlation between the

two data sets.

If there is a strong linear relationship between two

variables (positive or negative), a line of best fit,

or a line that best fits the data, can be used to

make predictions. This is also called a trend line.

Helpful Hint

When drawing a line of best fit, try to have about

the same number of points above and below the

line of best fit.

Ex. 1: The scatter plot shows a relationship between the total amount of

money collected at the concession stand and the total number of tickets

sold at a movie theater. Based on this relationship, predict how much

money will be collected at the concession stand when 150 tickets have been

sold.

Draw a line that has about the same

number of points above and below it. Your

line may or may not go through data points.

b. Based on the data, $750 is a reasonable prediction of

how much money will be collected when 150 tickets

have been sold.

The corresponding y-value is 750.

y = mx + b

Points (120, 600); (150, 750)

Find the slope: 5

y = 5x

Ex 2:

Albany and Sydney are

about the same distance

from the equator. Make

a scatter plot with

Albanys temperature as

the independent

variable. Name the type

of correlation. Then

sketch a line of best fit

and find its equation.

Step 2 Identify the correlation.

Notice that the data set is

negatively correlatedas the

temperature rises in Albany, it

falls in Sydney.

Draw a line that splits

the data evenly above

and below.

For this data, you might select (35, 64) and

(85, 41).

Step 5 Find the slope of the line that models the

data.

Use the point-slope form.

Point-slope form.

y y1= m(x x1)

y 64 = 0.46(x 35)

y = 0.46x + 80.1

Substitute.

Simplify.

The correlation coefficient r is a measure of how

well the data set is fit by a model. In other words,

how well it fits the line of best fit.

graphing calculators!!!

linear regression and find the correlation

coefficient r.

To display the correlation

coefficient r, you may have

to turn on the diagnostic

mode. To do this, press

and choose the

DiagnosticOn mode.

Press enter, and then press

enter again to activate it.

Anthropologists can

use the femur, or

thighbone, to estimate

the height of a human

being. The table shows

the results of a

randomly selected

sample.

Example 2 Continued

a. Make a scatter

plot of the data

with femur

length as the

independent

variable.

shown at right.

line of best fit. Interpret the slope of the

line of best fit in the context of the problem.

Enter the data into lists L1

and L2 on a graphing

calculator. Do this by

pressing STAT and then

1: Edit... Use the linear

regression feature by

pressing STAT, choosing

CALC, and selecting

4:LinReg. The equation of

the line of best fit is

h 2.91l + 54.04.

and r, you did not

correctly turn on

DiagnosticOn. Try it

again.

increase in femur length, the predicted increase

in a human beings height is 2.91 cm.

The correlation coefficient is r 0.986. What type

of correlation does it have?

Strong positive

mans height.

The equation of the line of best fit is

h 2.91l + 54.04. Use the equation to predict the

mans height.

For a 41-cm-long femur,

h 2.91(41) + 54.04 Substitute 41 for l.

h 173.35

The height of a man with a 41-cm-long femur

would be about 173 cm.

Example 2

based upon engine horsepower is given in the

table.

a. Make a scatter

plot of the data

with horsepower

as the independent

variable.

The scatter plot is

shown on the right.

best fit. Interpret the slope of the line of best

fit in the context of the problem.

Enter the data into lists L1

and L2 on a graphing

calculator. Use the linear

regression feature by

pressing STAT, choosing

CALC, and selecting

4:LinReg. The equation of

the line of best fit is

y 0.15x + 47.5.

increase in horsepower, gas mileage drops

0.15 mi/gal.

indicates a strong negative correlation.

engine.

The equation of the line of best fit is

y 0.15x + 47.5. Use the equation to predict

the gas mileage. For a 210-horsepower engine,

y 0.15(210) + 47.50.

y 16

about 16.0 mi/gal.

Example 3

on the number of grams of fat and the number

of calories in sandwiches served at Daves Deli.

the number of grams of fat in a sandwich with

420 Calories. How close is your answer to the

value given in the table?

as the independent variable.

The scatter plot is

shown on the right.

equation of the line of best fit. Draw the

line of best fit on your scatter plot.

The correlation coefficient is

r = 0.682. The equation of

the line of best fit is

y 11.1x + 309.8.

with 420 Calories. How accurate do you

think your prediction is?

420 11.1x + 309.8

110.2 11.1x

9.9 x

The line predicts 10 grams of fat. This is not close

to the 15 g in the table.

IV. Residuals

value of the response variable (the actual

data point you were given) and the value

predicted by the line of best fit (the y

value you would get if you substituted x

into the line of best fit equation).

In other words, it is the measurement of

how far the data fall from the line of best

fit.

Residual = observed y predicted y

Residual Plots

A Residual Plot is a scatterplot of all of the residual

values. They help us assess the fit of a regression

line.

If the regression line captures the overall

relationship between x and y, the residuals should

have no systematic pattern.

indicates that the regression line

fits the data well, so the line is a

good model.

This will help you on your FR ?

relationship is not linear.

the line. The response variable y has

more spread for larger values of the

explanatory variable x, so the prediction

will be less accurate when x is large.

Ex 1: Complete each table using the given values. A calculator will be very

useful. Round answers to one decimal place. Construct the residual plot. Be

sure to label the independent and dependent variables, along with the units.

3

y (Observed

Value)

13

22

26

27

31

Predicted

Value

Residual

Value

Residual

1

0

-1

-2

-3

Explain.

2 3 4 5

Ex 1: Complete each table using the given values. A calculator will be very

useful. Round answers to one decimal place. Construct the residual plot. Be

sure to label the independent and dependent variables, along with the units.

3

y (Observed

Value)

Predicted

Value

8.7

Residual

Value

-2.7

13

13.6

-0.6

22

18.4

3.6

26

23.3

2.7

27

28.2

-1.2

31

33.1

-2.1

Residual

1

0

-1

-2

-3

Explain.

Yes, because there is no pattern.

2 3 4 5

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