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Binary Selection The binary selection structure is represented by IF statements in pseudocode. In a flowchart, the decision symbol is used with the TRUE path branching to the right and the FALSE path branching to the left.
Multi-way Selection The multi-way selection structure is represented in pseudocode by the CASE statement. In a flowchart, a decision symbol is used with the options branching from a single line attached to the bottom of the diamond symbol.
Guarded / Pre-test Loops Guarded loops are represented by WHILE or FOR in pseudocode. In flowcharts, a decision symbol is used. The TRUE line flows down from the bottom of the diamond symbol, looping back up on the left side. An arrow should be used to show that the flow of the program is going up (against the norm). The FALSE line connects to the right of the diamond and runs down the right side of the page before returning to a central point. The condition (decision / question) is tested at the beginning of the loop. This means that the code within the loop may not run at all.
Unguarded / Post-test
Unguarded loops are represented in pseudocode using REPEAT... UNTIL statements. In a flowchart, the FALSE line (which continues the loop – note: this is opposite to the pre-test loop) flows from the left point of the diamond and up the left of the page. This line then joins the central line above the loop processes. The TRUE line (ie: the loop exit) flows from the bottom of the diamond. The condition (decision / question) is tested at the end of the loop. This means that the loop always runs at least once.