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^RAND MCNALIY

Historica
Atlas of the

Afe' On. (sx0j^s^^9jh~~


Manager
MacDonald

Editorial Project

Charles
Digital

J.

Cartography Project Manager

Thomas Vitacco
Manual Cartography Project Manager
David Zapenski
Digital Cartographer

Rob

Merrill

Manual Cartography Compilation and Editorial


Robert K. Argersinger
Gregory Babiak
Jill

M.

Stift

Contributing Editors and Consultants


Janet Abu-Lughod-Neu' School of Social Research
Guy Allito- Universit}' of Chicago
Ralph Austen- University of Chicago
George Grantham-Soc/fl/ Studies Liaison
Alan YsAala- University of Chicago
James F. Maxxan- Chairman Emeritus, Social Studies,
David Northrup-5o5roAi College

New

Trier

High School

R.R. Palxnex- Princeton University

John Ruedy-Georgetown University


John Woods- University of Chicago

Cover Design
Donna McGrath
Cover Photo Credits
Images provided by 1997 PhotoDisc,

Inc.

Production
Robert Sanders

The Afro-Eurasian Trade Circuits inset map on p.29 is adapted from "Before European Hegemony"
by Janet Abu-Lughod. Copyright 1989 by Oxford University Press, Inc. Used by permission of
Oxford University Press,

Inc.

The maps "The Kingdom of Mali"-p.22, "Trade Routes between Africa and India"-p.22, "The Maya
World 300-900 A.D."-p.23. "The Inca Empire"-p.23, and "The Aztec Empire 1463-1532"-p.23 are
used with permission of Houghton-Mifflin Company.
Copyright

1997 by Rand McNally

&

Co.

2001 Printing

work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any


means electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by information stor-

All rights reserved.

No

part of this

age or retrieval system except by permission of the publisher.


Printed in the United States of America

Rand McNally & Company


Skokie, Illinois 60076

9-RM-02

C*RAND MCNALLY

Historical
Atlas of the

World

4^^iflfeLvi*L&rfl

Table of Contents
Introduction

iRA

I -

Revolutions in the Atlantic World


1776-1826

The Beginnings

ot

Human Societ

Human hmergence on

54-55

North America/ Revolutionary War


State Claims to Western Lands/
United States 1775-1800
Westv?ard Expansion 1800-1850
Latin America about 1790
Latin America 1800-1900
Latin America After Independence
1821-1929
Canada 1792-1840
British

the Changing
4-5

Face of Earth

The Ancient World in the 7th Century B.C.


Classical Greece and the Athenian Empire
about 450 B.C

... .56

57
58-59
60-61

62-63

64-65

in 1850

66
67
68
69
70

in 1910

71

Dominion of Canada 1867


Ancient Persia 549 B.C.-651 A.D
Han Dynasty 200 B.C.-220 A.D
Alexander's Empire 336-323 B.C
India 250 B.C. and 400 A.D
China about 100 B.C
Roman Republic 31 B.C
Roman Empire about 120 A.D

8
9
10-11
12

14-15
16-17
18-19

Eastern and Southern Asia about


750 A.D
Trade Routes between Africa and India
The Kingdom of Mali
The Maya World 300-900 A.D
The Inca Empire 1463-1532
The Aztec Empire 1519
Africa c. 900 A.D
Africa c. 1400 A.D
Islamic World 800-1000 A.D
International Trade 1350-1450 A.D

1810
in 1815
in

Industrialization of
Industrialization of

Europe
Europe

Unification of Germany-Bismarck's

13

Roman Empire about 400 A.D

Europe and the Crusader States


about 1140
Asia at the death of Kublai Khan, 1294
Europe about 1360
European Civilization During the

Europe
Europe

Empire

72
73
74-75

Unification of Italy

Expansion of Russia in Europe


European Invasions of Russia
Expansion of Russia in Asia
Languages of Europe in the 19th
Century

76
77
78-79

20-21

22
22
23
23
23
24
25
26-27
28-29

30-31
.

.32-33

34-35

European Partition of Africa


The Civil War
Campaigns of the Civil War

Europe's Age of Discovery:


15th-17th Centuries

38-39

Europe about 1 560


40
Ottoman Empire 1529-1789
41
The Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires
42-43
in the 16th and 17th Centuries
44-45
East Asia in the 16th Century
.46-47
Eastern and Southern Asia about 1775
48-49
The Holy Roman Empire 1648
50-51
Europe in 1721
52-53
Native America 1200-1525
.

82
83
84
85

Balkan Peninsula to 1914


Europe in 1914
Resistance to European Colonialism
1870-1917
The World about 1900
Asia 1900
Europe 1922-1940
The Pacific Area in World War II
European Theatre-WWII 1941-1945

86-87

88-89
90-91
92-93

94
95

i:*:i.i^.i!Tsi.m!Tsi!frfmmwmafcna
Eastern Mediterranean Area 1945-1990

36-37

Renaissance

80-81

The Korean and Vietnam Wars


Post War United States, Caribbean,
and Central America
Political and Military Alliances- 1990
Economic Alliances- 1990
World Gross Domestic Product
World Literacy
World Languages
World Religions
The Physical World Today
The Political World Today
Index

.96-97

98
99
100
101

102
103

104
105
106-107
108-109

110-112

Introduction

is compiled, stored, and made accessible in a variety of ways. One


maps. Historical maps provide a chronology of important events
and show the impact these events had on the places where they occurred. Historical maps
support and extend information from primary historical resources such as letters, treaties,
and census data. Historical maps are summaries of past events presented in graphic form.

Information about the past

of these

ways

is

historical

The maps

in the Rand McNally Historical Atlas of the World portray the rich panoply of the
They show how cultures and civilizations
were linked and how they interacted. These maps make it clear that history is not static.
Rather, it is about change and movement across time. The maps in this atlas show change
by presenting the dynamics of expansion, cooperation, and conflict.

world's histor\' from preliterate times to the present.

Benefits of Using the

Rand McNally

Historical Atlas of the World

Events gain fuller meaning.


Knowing where events took place gives them fuller meaning and often explains causes and
effects. For example, the map showing Russia's expansion in Europe clearly illustrates a major
territorial goal of the czars was to access warm water ports that would connect their realm to
the world's seas

and oceans.

Connections among events are clarified.


Through the visual power of historical maps, the links between and among events become
clearer. The maps showing diffusion of languages and religions are good illustrations of this, as
is the map of Native Americans that details the rise and fall of indigenous peoples of North and
South America.
Similarities and differences become apparent.
The maps in this historical atlas provide the opportunity to compare and contrast places over
time. The maps of Africa in the 1 0th and 1 5th centuries present time capsules of human migrations. They also act as an inventory of the continent's resources in two specific time frames.

The influence of sense of place is conveyed.


Maps in this atlas can convey a people's sense

of place at a particular time in history.

The map

is a good illustration. The cartographer has deliberately centered


the continent so the map's projection reflects the extent and ambition of Europe's exploration

of Europe's Age of Discovery


at the

end of the Renaissance.

Trends emerge.
Another benefit of using this historical atlas is that trends emerge. Maps of the westward
expansion of the United States show how the nation was setded, what technologies were used,
who was displaced, and in what sequence. In another example, the map of the Mogul Empire
in India under Aurangzeb reveals how a dynasty can become powerfully established in little

more than

a century.

^JAiX

is- is

a
.

niiiih

ALEXANDER'S EMPIRE:
336-323

B.C.

c.

^..^^
\

'

"

Aria

i:^'^f\

Ari""^^***

"'

1*^
.

^icba-

a b

>'^-^^]

'"^^

*l\

to

CISAlP/N

*^^

'""""iRubicoV

^MBi
CORSICA

<^
^ad^C ^'^I'Wa

Roman
ROMAN NAME

City

Names and Modern

MODERN NAME

Equivalents

ROMAN NAME

Caesar Augusta

Bologna
Bordeaux
Saragossa

Maiaca Caesarea
Mediolanum
Moguntlacum

Camiilodunum

Colchester

Nemausu$

Bononia
Burdigala

Carales

Cagllarl

Ollslpo

Colonla Agrlpplna
Deva

Cologne

Eburacum
Emerlta Augusta
Gades

York
Merida
Cadti

Patavlum
Salmantica
Thessalonlca
Toletum
Tolosa

Hispalls

Seville

Valentia

LIndum

Lincoln

Chester

Vlndobona

MODERN NAME

Kayserl

Milan

Mainz

NImes
Lisbon

Padua
Salamanca
Salonika

.Toledo

Toulouse
Valencia

Vienna

i:(*)rwn by

iMd

IKNally

1 Onpny.

CapeTowf^.

PEOPLE

Cape of Good Hope'''^

THE KINGDOM
OF MALI
Kingdom

of

Ghana.

Gulf of Gu,
1

1th century

Trans-Saharan trade n

Maya

civilization

ATLANTIC

^.,

OCEAN

Umoyyad.

Rustamids

"\v.

ISLAMIC WORLD
Sunni 'Abbasid Caliphate
under Shi'iteBuyid Control
I

Other SunniTerritorie
Capital Cities

C.

BBS

1000
_,.,.^

AD
<

..

Shnte ^Fatimids
^.

</

Shi'iteHamdanids
Shi'ite

Oarmathians
QARAKHANIDS

UMAYYAD
.ADPHATE<,

30^'

G42AMW05

^\oK,

X>e^

pi?

AT ,

'"

KiL.f'

il

Of
a""'

\,

"'

Vs.

<

LPS

....

>'^~-.

.\s,
f\\

CHARLEMAGNE'S EMPIRE
Showing

^^^.::r^'
J.

PIUSSIA

DOM
O

'

^&^

l-A'

Thclon.ci

<,

7U'OU3C)0

--

''"flona

CAUPHate

'

'S

Saragossa

^';;'
<

-^-_.-

^
a*

,1.

N f^

-c:^

y \^

St*-*

Of

814

Division by Treaty of Verdun 843

^^:

^--

CYPRUS
(i

CRETE '^^^^::?5i^

EUROPE'S AGE OF DISCOVERY


15th-1 7th CENTURIES

GMgraphical Society

A II A \

OCEA:

SPAIN

^"

THE OTTOMAN, SAFAVID,


AND MUGHAL EMPIRES
INTHE 16TH AND 17TH CENTURIES
I

Ottoman Empire

to 1360

Ottoman Empire

to 1481

Ottoman Empire and its Dependencies


in the 16th and 17th Centuries
Safavid Empire

Kingdom

of

or

the 16th Century

Babur

Mughal Empire

Towns

in

in

in

1525

''

1^^^

Area Disputed with


Safavids and Uzbeks

Ottoman Capitals
Safavid Capitals

Towns with Large Portuguese Population


Date

Area Disputed with Uzbeks

1635

Mughal Capitals

^i"i"'

Area Disputed with Safavids

\//y\

Settlements

of Control

after 1635

the 16th Century

'.

Main PortugueseTrade Settlements


a

in

Mughal Lands Conquered

Uzbek States

Site and Date of


'fiu" Important Battle

k.

0--

Ooa.

n
m

&"'

MING
EMPIRE

Bay
of

INDIAN OCEAN

OC^

...^,._.,>'

...^,^

_,-

'
I

EASTERN AND SOUTHERN ASIA


About 1775

"

'/'

'^

Z-\ :rz^Q^ ^ri^--.-^'^^v^

---^

EUROPE

IN 1721

After the treaty of Utrecht, 1713,


and Associated Treaties

Boundary

of Holy

Roman Empi

Dutch Barrier Forts

r^i

r-^^t|

il

^-'V"

^f^

^'tW

IN

REVOLUTIONS
THE ATLANTIC WORLD,

i^

A^ >=

*>**

1776-1826

lyon<>

<,"'"o

o^X-

^T^fH

^-

03

'sJ

til

LANGUAGES OF EUROPE
In
Miies

the 19th Century


loo

"

2^

iDDSDIDI

so
<
LU

Hi

"

Q.

DDDDDDD

'

i^^u

RESISTANCE TO EUROPEAN COLONIALISIVl


1870-1917
I

Belgian
British

HH

Danish

Dutch

SOUTH AFRICA

French

German

Italian

Portuguese
|

Russii

Spani

SPHERES OF INFLUENCE
United States

frn,J, resi'stance

CD

British

HD

German

IDIAN OCEAN

WZEAlANb'

'*^"

-%,.
,

%.

/?
HonqKonq
HongKg^^
(/
-^ -^--^

OWnawa
Mar-Apr, 1945

W
IwOJimB
Feb. 1945

'hilippine

!.

Sea

June

1944^
^"

Wake Island

1|f Dec. 1941

Saipan, Tinian,

& Guam

,Jun&July1944

Truk Islands

Kwajalein
Jan. 1944

Tarawa

Hollandia

tAK^944

N.

Bougainville

nov.i943

9*1

%t Coral Sea

250

miles

melers

500

750

500
1000

1500

EUROPEAN THEATRE-WWII:

^.'

"^'s'

Israel allei

Warol Independence

19489

22

occupied by

Territory

Israel,

1967

Oil pipelines

Selected holy cities and shrines

1 Muslim J

Christian

Jewish

Religious composition of populalionl 1 978)

Muslim

^^

Jewish

Christian

day
April

1986

Net importers of

oil

oil

T Others

production.

>CT)

1985

Category

400

GDP
Under

BilllllDI
'NV3doan3'OaNi-

iiina

DDIID

106

World Physical

World Physical

^^^^^*;^^0^^-4^^^m^:

107

ISO-

165

150-

Chicago.

UNITED STATE?
Los Angeles" _^

-^ouston.

!20

105'

30

I'^fr

>

"'jreUMHJlV

""

a-r^

CUTAIU

/ SDMIIAMt

t^ f

:^L5*""

'

COLOMBIA

V V

1=^

igUo de Janeiro

ftrnmy

Santiagoe
-*

1000

Buenos*

^\

2000 Miles

Aires

"^^1^)

International

V.

Boundary

Oriomls.
(U.i.l

12

Casablanca
/

ATL^NTI

m
OCEAN

15

?^^Jh%TS?D.C.

Mexico City*

'

^-

TBS*

'v

'-

"""

135

150'

135'

12&

105'

90

75'

60

45'

30'

tS'

u X

^ik'^

ER yBSl
r"s"^^R

'

Ai,

^-'S

Mumba..'

r^'\

'

f^*^;

(Bombay)

X V fLT^'X

nuaui

PHIllpPmES

V)
MUlYSI(l

M n

;'
I

*^^^\i^

,..,j>

o/c E

AN

AUSTRALIA

'/Slit!"

<5'

16

60'

17

75'

IS

90'

19

105'

a)

120'

!i

I35'

22

ISO'

23 165

24

C E

Index
The following index
the

maps

lists

important place names appeann

in the Historical

Alias of the World. Countries

regions are indexed to the several


areal

and

political

development

at

maps which

portray

Ih(

successive periods. In
j

al.

each index entry includes a

map

reference key and the

page number of the map. Alternate names and spellings a

added

in

parentheses.

CIcvcs (Oeve). duchy

of:

C.164S
Coblenz (Koblenz)

Cochin China:
c.

c.

IT75

IWO

Coelesyria

Colombia:
in

in

1819

C3
D4

4S

.07

47

F7

91

E4

10

G3

54
63

1850-1900
.Grcal

Colonialisni. itsblaiKC

48

E5

64

Lunda

Lung Yu
Kazan

Kcdah

Kcmptcn
Kerala

Kham
Khmer empire
(Kambujadesa)...

Khwarezm
Kiangsi
Kilara

.-.

Kokand

Kongo
Konkan
Korea: C.1775

1910

in

Korean War

Koryo (Korea)
..B3

Kuannei

Kuban

B:

Ku'bar
Kublai Khan, dominions

of.

Kurdistan:

in

Ottoman empire

in

1914

D'

in

1921

Gl

Kushan empire

A(

Kuweil (Kuwait)

Kwangsi

e;

Kwangtung

Hi

Kwcichow

E'

Kyushu

CS

L
Labrador

C'

Laconia

....D2

Ladakh

C4

Langkasuka

G"

Laos:

La

in

1900

F7

G5

1790

Plata: c.

1800-50

in

Latin America:
in

1800-1900

in

1821-1929

c.

Latvia: in 1940

1790

C5

Lebanon
Lc6n, kingdom of

D2

Liberia

El

Libya: in 1922-40

H4

Lingen

C3

Lingnan

D8

Lippe:c.l648

(3

1867

C3
D7
B6

c.

Lithuania:
c.

c.

1360

1560

inl721

88

c.

1795

in

1940

D2
D5
D9
A6

Little

Poland

Livonia: c. 1560
in

1721

Locris, Ozolian

Lombardy:
in
in

c.

814

1815

1859

Lorraine:

c.

1360

88
C3
C8
D4
A5
E4

c.

1648

F3

in

1721

E5

in

1871

D3

Louisiana Purchase

Luba
Lubeck
Lucca:

in

1847

84
B5

0""70609"83969""i

ISBN:

528-;