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Malaysian Sewerage

Industry Guidelines

Volume III

SEWER NETWORKS AND


PUMP STATIONS

Third Edition
National Water Services Commission (SPAN)

Copyright National Water Services Commission


All rights reserved.

This publication is protected by copyright.


No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, transmitted, stored in a
retrieval system, or reduced to any electronic medium without the written authority
of the Commissioner, National Water Services Commission.
National Water Services Commission and Registered Certifying Agencies employees
are permitted to copy and use the information in this publication, for internal purposes
only.
Changes may be made periodically to the information herein.
ISBN 978-983-44456-0-7

Third Edition
January 2009

Published by
Suruhanjaya Perkhidmatan Air Negara (SPAN)
(National Water Services Commission)
Prima Avenue 7, Block 3510
Jalan Teknokrat 6
63000 Cyberjaya Selangor
Malaysia

FOREWORD
BY THE CEO OF SPAN

ince independent, the wastewater treatment technology in Malaysia have evolved


through the introduction of new systems in the industry. Since then basic sanitation
facilities as overhang latrines, pit and bucket systems and pour flush systems were
slowly replaced by more modern systems like aerated lagoons, activated sludge system,
package systems and variety of mechanical plant. However, sewage still remains as
one of the major pollutants of our inland waterways. In the 1900s, the emergent of
new treatment technologies were mainly driven by the basic need to treat the sewage
so as to control waterborne diseases. Today, the environmental regulations including
effluent discharge standards are becoming more stringent with increasing awareness
toward sustainable environmental management. Public are also more educated and
more alert on the need to preserve the water source and the environment. Hence the
introduction of more innovative design in municipal wastewater treatment technologies
is needed in order to meet the stricter regulatory requirements.

Faster approvals of sewerage system provide better development potential
within an area while standardization of system and equipment will lead to better
operational efficiencies. Thus the first edition of the guidelines for sewerage industry
entitled Design and Installation of Sewerage Systems was introduced in 1995. The
main purpose of these guidelines is to assist the developer and professionals to plan
and design sewerage systems that comply with the regulatory requirements. Certainly
those guidelines have successfully paved the road towards nurturing a more structured
sewerage industry development.

The National Water Services Commission (SPAN) has completed the exercise
initiated by the Sewerage Services Department to review and improve those guidelines.
The new revised documents were renamed as the Malaysian Sewerage Industry
Guidelines which comprise of five (5) volumes.

These new revisions incorporated invaluable knowledge gained by various
stakeholders in the sewerage sector over the past decade. SPAN would like to thank
all parties involved in the revision exercise. It is hoped that the publication of the
third edition of this volume will further improve the sewage system development in
this country.

Chief Executive Officer


National Water Services Commission (SPAN)

Table

of

Contents

Page


Section 1

1.1

Introduction
Purpose of This Volume

Related Reference Material

1.2

1.3

Who Should Use This Volume


Section 2

2.1

Planning, Material and Design


Sewers
2.1.1 Pipe Material Selection Factors

13
13

2.1.3 Pipe Selections

15

2.1.2 Pipe Materials and Fittings


2.1.4 Requirements and Limitations for Use of Certain

Pipe Material

14
16

2.1.5 Vitrified Clay Pipe

17

2.1.7 Ductile Iron Pipe

19

2.1.6 Reinforced Concrete Pipe

2.1.8 Steel Pipe

2.1.10 Profiled Wall PE Pipe

21

2.1.12 Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipe

23

2.1.9 Solid Wall PE Pipe

2.1.11 Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe

2.1.13 Sewer Design - General Requirements

2.1.14 Flow Rate Estimations

2.1.15 Sewer Cleansing Velocities

2.1.17 Design of Gravity Sewer

2.1.16 Pipe Roughness

2.1.18 Design of Force Mains

2.1.19 Vacuum Sewerage System

2.1.20 Computerised Sewer Designs


2.1.21 Design of Inverted Siphon

2.1.22 Structural Design of Sewers

18
20

21

22
24
24
25
26
27
29
31
45
45
46

2.2

2.3

Manhole

50

2.2.2 Manhole Location

52

2.2.1 General

2.2.3 Pipe Lengths from Manhole

2.2.4 Structural Design Considerations for Manhole

2.3.2 Load Class

55

2.3.3 Material

2.3.4 Dimensions, Marking and Surface Finish

2.3.5 Seating

2.3.7 Protective Coating

2.4

2.3.6 Casting

2.3.8 Water-tightness
2.3.9 Safety Features

2.3.10 Product Certification

Design of Network Pump Stations

2.4.1 Specifying of Network Pump Stations

2.4.2 General Requirements

2.4.4 Pipework Requirements

2.4.3 Buffer Requirements

2.4.5 Wet-well Requirements


2.4.6 Dry-well Requirements

2.4.7 Structural Requirements

2.4.8 Ventilation Requirements

2.4.10 Requirements for Lighting and Electrical Fittings

2.4.11 Acceptable Pump System (Fixed Speed Pumps


Only)

55
55

55

56
56
56
56
57
57
57

58
58
58
59
60
60

61
61

62

62

63

2.4.14 Requirements for Alarms

64

2.4.16 Maintenance Considerations

65

2.4.18 Other Requirements

65

2.4.9 Odour Control

55

2.4.12 Valve Requirements

53

55

2.3.1 General

53

Manhole Covers and Frames

50

ii

2.4.13 Requirements for Level Controls


2.4.15 Requirements of Hydraulic Design and Performance
2.4.17 Hazard and Operability

64

64

65

Interceptors

68

2.5.2 Grease Traps

68

2.6.1 Concrete

2.5

2.6

2.5.1 Oil Interceptors


Concrete and Reinforcement Requirements
2.6.2 Cement

2.6.3 Steel Reinforcement and Falsework

Section 3

Construction and Installation

Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling

3.1

3.2


3.3

3.4

3.2.2 Pipe Handling at Site


3.2.3 Pipe Storage

3.2.4 Pipe Damage


Trench Excavation

3.5

74
75
76
77

77

3.3.3 Bored Excavation

80

3.3.2 Excavation Requirements

78

Pipe Laying

80

3.4.1 Pipe Bedding

3.4.6 Backfill of Trench

73

3.3.1 Protection of Affected Services, Structures,



Pavements and Vegetation

70

73

3.4.4 Concrete Pipe Support

69

3.2.1 Pipes and Fittings Delivery

69

73

3.4.2 Pipe and Fittings Placement

69

Introduction

68

3.4.3 Pipe Jacking

3.4.5 Pipe Cutting

3.4.7 Other General Requirements

Pipe Jointing

3.5.1 Flexible Joints

3.5.2 Solvent Weld Joints


3.5.3 Flanged Joints

3.5.4 Steel Pipe Welded Joints (Field Welding)


3.5.5 Polyethylene Butt Welded Joints

80
81
82

83

83
84
84

85
85
86
87
87

88

iii

3.6

3.7

3.8


Special Requirements For Sewer

88

3.6.2 Pipe Restraints and Bulkheads on Steep Slopes

89

3.6.1 Thrust Blocks for Pressure Pipelines


3.6.3 Pipe Embedment and Overlay

89

3.6.5 Rocker Pipe Connections to Manholes

90

3.6.4 Sleeving of Ductile Iron Pipe


Reinstatement

Connections to Public Sewers


3.8.1 General

3.8.2 Junction Connections


3.8.3 Saddle Connections

3.8.4 Manhole Connections

Section 4

Sewer Testing

Testing of Gravity Sewers

4.1

4.3

4.2
4.4

4.5

4.6

4.7

4.8

93

98

4.5.1 General

100

Low Pressure Air Test

4.5.2 Procedure for Testing

4.5.3 Procedures for Handling Air Test Failure


Low Pressure Water Test
4.6.1 General

4.6.2 Procedure

4.6.3 Handling Water Test Failures


High Pressure Water Test
4.7.1 General

4.7.2 Procedure

High Pressure Leakage Test

iv

92

100

92

Testing of Manhole and other ancillaries

Test for Straightness, Obstruction and Gradient

4.10

91

99

91

Testing of Force Mains

90

97

4.8.1 General

4.9

90

General

88

4.8.2 Procedure

CCTV Inspection

4.10.1 Objectives of CCTV Inspection

100

101

102

102

102

103

104

104
104
104

106

106

106
106

107

107
























4.11





4.12

4.10.2 Technical Requirements and References


4.10.3 Equipment Specifications and Test Devices
4.10.4 CCTV Inspection Requirements
4.10.5 CCTV Inspection Implementation Procedure for

New Sewer Network
4.10.6 Interpretation Of Results From CCTV Inspection
4.10.7 Follow-Up Action to Be Taken
Infiltration Test
4.11.1 General
4.11.2 Procedure
4.11.3 Handling Test Failures
Water-tightness Test
4.12.1 General
4.12.2 Procedures

107
108
108
110
111
112
114
114
114
114
114
114
115

List of Tables
Table 2.1a
Table 2.1b

Table 2.2
Table 2.3
Table 2.4
Table 2.5
Table 2.6
Table 2.7
Table 2.8
Table 4.1
Table 4.2

Normal Pipe Roughness for Gravity Sewer


Normal Pipe Roughness for Force Mains for All Pipe
Materials
Typical Roughness Coefficient, ks
Typical Manning Coefficient, n
Typical Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C
Condition/alarm of the station equipment
Minimum Manhole Diameters
Final inspection and testing
Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations
Test Duration
Defect Grades Descriptions

Appendix A

Typical Drawings/Diagrams

Figure A1
Figure A2
Figure A3


Figure A4


Figure A5


Figure A6


Figure A7


Figure A8


Figure A9
Figure A10
Figure A11

Figure A 12
Figure A13(a)

Standard Manhole Cover


Plan View of Typical Manhole
Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2 m Depth < 2.5 m
Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdrop
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2 m Depth < 2.5 m)
Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5 m Depth < 5 m)
Typical Medium Precast Concrete Manhole with backdrop
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5 m Depth < 5 m)
Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5 m Depth 9 m)
Typical Deep Precast Concrete Manhole with Backdrop
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5 m Depth 9 m)
Typical Details of Large Diameter Manhole (LDM) Type
Typical Induct Vent Detail
Details of Household Connection to Main Sewer
Reticulation Pipe for V.C. Pipe
Typical Details of Concrete Thrust and Anchor Block
Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer

vi

27
27
28
28
29
45
51
57
66
101
113

119
120
121
122
123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131

Figure A13(b)
Figure A14(a)


Figure A14(b)
Figure A15
Figure A16(a)
Figure A16(b)
Figure A17
Figure A19(a)
Figure A19(b)
Figure A20(a)

Figure A20(b)
Figure A20(c)
Figure A21
Figure A22


Figure A23
Figure A24


Figure A25
Figure A26
Figure A27
Figure A28
Figure A29

Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer


Typical Details for Force Main Scour Valve and Receiving
Manhole (Sheet 1 to 2)
Typical Details of Force Main Air Valve (Sheet 1 to 2)
Typical Detail of Force Main Crossing
Standard Pipe Beddings (Sheet 1 to 2)
Standard Pipe Beddings (Sheet 1 to 2)
Vacuum sewage collection system
Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel
Example of vacuum station with housed collection vessel
Collection chambers with interface valves vented through
breather pipes
Collection chamber with interface valve activated by float
Multi-valve collection chamber
Vacuum sewer profiles (not to scale)
Example of vacuum sewer profiles for uphill and downhill
transport (not to scale)
Y-branch for vacuum sewer
Method of joining crossover pipes and branch sewers to
vacuum mains
Typical details of dry-well pump station
Typical detail of wet-well pump station
Buffer Zone for Pump Station with Super Structure
Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure
Standard Symbols and Abbreviations

Appendix B

Tables

Table B1

Classes of Rigid Pipe Required for Various Depth

Appendix C

CCTV Format and Codes

Appendix C 1
Appendix C 2
Appendix C 3
Appendix C 4
Appendix C 5
Appendix C 6

Report format for CCTV Inspection


Report format for CCTV Inspection
Report format for CCTV Inspection
Report format for CCTV Inspection
Report format for CCTV Inspection
Modules

132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139
140
141
141
142
143
143
144
144
145
146
147
148
149

153

157
158
159
160
161
162

vii

Section 1
Introduction

Introduction

1.1

Purpose of This Volume

This volume sets out the requirements of the National Water Services
Commission (SPAN) (referred to as the Commission in this document)
for the design, construction and testing of sewer networks and network
pump stations.

The owner must comply with the requirements set out in this volume
when submitting an application for the approval of the Commission.

This volume generally does not cover internal plumbing systems within
buildings. However, some guidelines are provided on the provision of
interceptors to protect public sewers from the discharge of oil and grease
from garage workshops, hotels, restaurants, canteens or any premises
that collect such matter.

1.2

Who Should Use This Volume

This volume is primarily intended for owners, developers, consulting


engineers, sewerage contractors, manufacturers, planners, and Public
Authorities who have a direct interest in the planning, design and
installation of sewer networks and/or network pump stations.

1.3

Related Reference Material

This volume does not cover all aspects of design and construction of
sewer networks and network pump stations. Where information is not
covered in this volume, the designer shall follow the requirements given
in MS 1228.

MS 1228 shall take precedence over other foreign standards in the event
when there are discrepancies on the requirements.

The following documents are also referred to in this volume.

a) Malaysian Standards
i)

MS 28

ii)

MS 29

iii)

MS 144

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Specification for test for water for making


concrete
Specification for aggregates from natural
sources for concrete
Specification for cold reduced mild steel wire
for reinforcement of concrete

Volume 3

Introduction

iv)

MS 145

v)
vi)

MS 146
MS 522

vii)

MS 523

viii)

MS 628

ix)

MS 672

x)

MS 740

xi)

MS 822

xii)

MS 881

xiii)

MS 922

MS 923

xiv)

MS 979

xv)

MS 980

xvi)

MS 981

Specification for steel welded fabric for the


reinforcement of concrete.
Specification for hot rolled steel bars for the
Specification for Portland cement (ordinary
and rapid hardening)
Specification for concrete including ready
mixed concrete
Specification for unplasticised PVC (uPVC)
pipes for water supply
Part 1 : Pipes
Part 2 : Joints and fittings for use with
unplasticised PVC pipes
Specification of rubber seals in water supply,
drainage and sewerage pipelines
Specification for hot-dip galvanized coatings
on iron and steel articles
Specification for sawn timber foundation
piles
Specification for pre-cast concrete pipes and
fittings for drainage and sewerage
Part 1 : Specification for pipes and fittings
with flexible joints and manholes
Specification for concrete admixtures
Part 1 : Accelerating admixtures, retarding
admixtures and water-reducing admixtures
Specification for joints and fittings for use
with uPVC pressure pipes [delete]
Part 3 : Mechanical joints and fittings,
principally of uPVC [delete]
Specification for unplasticizes sewerage pipes
and fittings
Part 1 : Pipes of diameter 100mm and
155mm
Part 2 : Pipes of diameter 200mm and
above
Specification for safety signs and colours :
Colorimetric and photometric properties of
materials
Specification for safety signs and colours :
Colour and design

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Introduction

xvii)

MS 982

xviii)

MS 1037

xix)

MS 1058

xx)

MS 1061

xxi)

MS 1195

xxii)

MS 1227

xxiii)

MS 1228

xxiv)

MS 1347

xxv)

MS 1292

xxvi)

MS 1389

xxvii)

MS EN

xxviii)

MS ISO/

Specification for fire safety signs, notices and


graphic symbols.
Specification for sulphate-resisting Portland
cement
MS 1058 Specification for polyethylene (PE)
piping systems for water supply
Part 1 : General
Part 2 : Pipes
Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints
for drains and sewers
Code of practice for structural use of
concrete
Specification for Portland pulverised fuel ash
cement
Code of Practice for Design and Installation
of Sewerage Systems
Cathodic Protection : Part 1 Code of practice
for land applications
Specification for rubber seals water stop
for sealing joints in concrete Specification
of materials
Specification for Portland blastfurnace
cement
Specification for general criteria for certification
bodies operating product certification.
General requirements for bodies operating
product certification systems

b) British Standards
i)

BS 65

ii)

BS 915

iii)

BS 3416

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Specification for vitrified clay pipes, fittings


and ducts, also flexible mechanical joints
for use solely with surface water pipes and
fittings
Specification for high alumina cement. Metric
unit.
Specification for bitumen-based coatings for
cold application, suitable for use in contact
with potable water

Volume 3

Introduction

iv)

BS 3692

v)

BS 4147

vi)

BS 4164

vii)
viii)

BS 4248
BS 4515

ix)

BS 5153

x)

BS 5480

xi)

BS 5911

xii)
xiii)

BS 5975
BS 6076

xiv)

BS 7123

xv)

BS 7874
BS 8007

xvi)

BS 80102.1

xvii)

BS 8666

ISO metric precision hexagon bolts, screws


and nuts. Specification.
Specification for bitumen based hot applied
coating materials for protecting iron and steel
including suitable primers where required
Specification for coal-tar-based hot-applied
coating materials for protecting iron and steel
including a suitable primer
Specification for Supersulfated cement
Specification for welding of steel pipelines
on land and offshore.
Specification for cast iron check valves for
general purposes.
Specification for Glass Reinforced Plastic
(GRP) pipes, joints and fittings for use for
water supply or sewerage
Part 1 : Precast concrete pipes, fittings
and ancillary products. Specification for
unreinforced and reinforced concrete pipes
(including jacking pipes) and fittings with
flexible joints (complementary to BS EN
1916)
Code of practice for falsework.
Specification for polymeric film for use as a
protective sleeving for buried iron pipes and
fittings (for site and factory application)
Specification for metal arc welding of steel
for concrete reinforcement.
Method of test for microbiological deterioration
of elastomeric seals for joints in pipework
and pipelines.
Code of practice for design of concrete
structures for retaining aqueous liquids
Code of practice for pipelines. Pipelines on
land : design, construction and installation.
Ductile iron
Specification for scheduling, dimensioning,
bending and cutting of steel reinforcement
for concrete.

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Introduction

xviii)

BS EN
124

xix)

BS EN
295-1
BS EN
295-7

xx)
xxi)

BS EN
545

xxii)

BS EN
598

xxiii)

BS EN
681

xxiv)

BS EN
682

xxv)

BS EN
752
BS EN
1091
BS EN
1561
BS EN
1563
BS EN
1982
BS EN
10025
BS EN
10220
BS EN
10224

xxvi)
xxvii)
xxviii)
xxix)
xxx)
xxxi)
xxxii)

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Gully tops and manhole tops for vehicular


and pedestrian areas. Design requirements,
type testing, marking, quality control
Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints
for drains and sewers. Requirements
Vitrified clay pipes and fittings and pipe joints
for drains and sewers. Requirements for vitrified
clay pipes and joints for pipe jacking
Ductile iron pipes fittings and accessories and
their joint for water pipelines requirements
and test methods
Ductile iron pipes fittings and accessories
and their joint for sewerage applications
requirements and test methods.
Elastomeric seals. Materials requirement for
pipe joint seals used in water and drainage
applications.
Elastomeric seals. Materials requirement for
pipe joint seals used in pipes and fittings
carrying gas hydrocarbons fluids.
Drain and sewer systems outside buildings
Vacuum sewerage systems outside buildings
Specification for flake graphite cast iron
Specification for spheroidal graphite or nodular
graphite cast iron
Copper and copper alloys. Ingots and
castings.
Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural
steels.
Seamless and welded steel tubes. Dimensions
and masses per unit length.
Non-alloy steel tubes and fittings for the
conveyance of aqueous liquids including water
for human consumption. Technical delivery
conditions.

Volume 3

Introduction

xxxiii)

BS EN
10277

xxxiv)

BS EN
10278
BS EN
13725
BS EN
ISO 3766
BS EN
ISO 3506

xxxv)
xxxvi)
xxxvii)

c) Australian / New Zealand and Australian Standards


i)

AS/NZS
1260

ii)

AS/NZS
1477
AS/NZS
2566

iii)

iv)

AS/NZS
3518

v)

AS/NZS
3582

vi)

AS/NZS
4323

vii)

Bright steel products. Technical delivery


conditions.
Part 1 : General
Part 2 : Steels for general engineering
purposes
Part 3 : Free cutting steels
Part 4 : Case-hardening steels
Part 5 : Steels for quenching and tempering
Dimensions and tolerances of bright steel
products.
Air quality Determination of odour
concentration by dynamic olfactometry.
Construction drawings. Simplified representation
of concrete reinforcement.
Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant
stainless-steel fasteners
Part 1 : Bolts, screws and studs.
Part 2 : Nuts.

AS 3725

PVC-u pipes and fittings for drain, waste and


vent application (refer to uPVC profiled wall
pipe only)
PVC pipes and fittings for pressure
applications
Buried flexible pipelines
Part 1 : Structural design
Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS)
compounds, pipes and fittings for pressure
applications.
Supplementary cementitious materials for use
with portland and blended cement
Part 3 : Amorphous silica.
Stationay source emissions
Part 3 : Determination of odour concentration
by dynamic olfactometry.
Loads on buried concrete pipes

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Introduction

viii)

ix)
x)
xi)

d) German Standards
i)

AS 3750.2 Paint for steel structure Ultra high-build


piant.
AS
Paint for steel structure Alkyd/micaceous
3750.12
iron oxide.
AS 3751 Underground mining Slope haulage
coumplings, drawbars and safety chains.
AS 3996 Metal access covers, road grates and frames
AS 4060 Loads on buried vitrified clay pipes

DIN 16961 Thermoplastic pipes and fittings with profiled


outer and smooth inner surfaces
Part 1 : Dimensions
Part 2 : Technical delivery conditions

e) International Standards
i)

ISO 1083

ii)

ISO 3506

iii)

ISO TR
10465

Spheroidal graphite cast irons Classification


Mechanical properties of corrosion-resistant
stainless-steel fasteners
Underground installation of flexible glassreinforced thermosetting resin (GRP) pipes
Part 1 : Installation procedures
Part 3 : Installation parameters and
application limits

f) Water Industry Specifications (U.K)


i)

WIS 0432-15

ii)

WIS 0424-01

iii)

WIS 0432-14

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Specification for PE 80 and PE 100 spigot


fittings and drawn bends for nominal sizes up
to and including 1000
Specification for mechanical fittings and joints
for polyethylene pipes for nominal sizes 90
to 1000
Specification for PE 80 and PE 100 electrofusion
fittings for nominal sizes up to and including
630

Volume 3

Introduction

g)

American Society for Testing and Material


i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

h)

ASTM
3262
ASTM
2321
ASTM
894
ASTM
3350
ASTM
3212

D
D
F
D
D

Specifications for Fiberglass Glass-FibreReinforced Thermosetting- Resin Sewer Pipe


Practice for Underground Installation of Flexible
Thermo Plastic Sewer Pipe
Specification for Polyethylene (PE) Large
Diameter Profile Wall Sewer and Drain Pipe
Standard Specification for Polyethylene Plastics
Pipe and Fitting Materials
Standard Specification for Joints for Drain and
Sewer Plastic Pipes Using Flexible Elastomeric
Seals

Other Reference Materials


i)

Simplified Tables of External Loads on Buried Pipelines UK Transport Research Laboratory

The Commission will, from time to time, specify additional standards to be used in
the design and construction of sewerage works. These standards shall be referred
to as appropriate for the design and construction of sewer networks and network
pump stations.
All standards used in the design and construction of sewerage works shall be the
latest or the most updated. When any one of the above mentioned standards is
withdrawn or superseded, the latest or updated standards shall be referred to as
appropriate. This shall be the same for any applicable act, guideline, by-law, etc.
related to sewerage works endorsed by the government.
Other Guidelines in This Set
The Malaysian Sewerage Industry Guidelines comprise of 5 volumes:
a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

10

Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume
Volume

I
II
III
IV
V

Sewerage Policy for New Development


Sewerage Works Procedures
Sewer Networks and Pump Stations
Sewage Treatment Plants
Septic Tanks

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Section 2
Planning, Material and Design

Planning, Material and Design

2.1

Sewers

2.1.1

Pipe Material Selection Factors

The following considerations are the important factors to be considered


before selecting or approving any pipe material and pipeline system for
sewer networks:

a) Resistance to acidic condition of which is prevalent in sewer networks


in tropical climates.
b) Resistance to sulphate attack from aggressive soils and groundwater.
c) Resistance to corrosion in contaminated soils.
d) Resistance to severe abrasion from sewage flow and usual cleaning
methods.
e) Resistance to groundwater entry (infiltration) and sewage escape
(exfiltration) through joints.
f) Resistance of the joint material to corrosion and microbiological
degradation.
g) Structural damages and other damages that may occur during
handling.
h) Handling, laying and jointing care and difficulties.
i) Methods of pipe embedment to ensure good structural performance.
j) Maintenance of structural strength and performance in service.
k) Methods of maintenance and repair.
l) Cost of supply, transportation and installation.
m) Range and suitability of fittings for smaller diameter sewers.
n) Previous local experience.
o) Local availability.
p) Pipe pressure ratings.
q) The design life of a pipe shall be at least 50 years.
r) All bolts and nuts shall be stainless steel (SS) 304.
s) Where necessary, special tools and trained personal shall be made
available during the handling and installation of pipes.

Additionally, the following factors should be considered before selecting


or approving any pipe manufacturer and supplier.

a) Compliance of products to standards.


b) Compliance to additional material and product requirements specified
by the Commission.
c) Quality control and assurance practised by the manufacturer and
supplier to ensure good pipe product quality from manufacturing to
delivery.

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Planning, Material and Design

2.1.2

Pipe Materials and Fittings

There is an extensive range of pipe materials available in Malaysia to


be used as gravity, pressure and vacuum sewers. The materials and the
standards which the pipes are required to conform to are as follows:


a)





b)







c)



d)




e)



f)






g)






h)



i)

14

Vitrified clay (VC)


i) MS 672
ii) MS 1061
iii) BS EN 295
Reinforced concrete (RC)
i) MS 881
ii) BS 5911
iii) BS 7874
iv) BS EN 681
v) BS EN 682
Ductile iron (DI)
i) BS EN 598
Mild Steel
i) BS EN 10025
i) BS EN 10224
Stainless Steel
i) BS EN 10220
Polyethylene (PE) solid wall
i) MS 1058
ii) WIS 04-32-15
iii) WIS 04-32-14
iv) WIS 04-24-01
Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) solid wall
i) MS 628 : Part 2 : Section 2
ii) MS 923
iii) MS 979
iv) AS/NZS 1477
Polyethylene profiled wall
i) DIN 16961
Unplasticised polyvinyl chloride profiled wall
i) AS/NZS 1260

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Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Planning, Material and Design


j)




k)

Glass reinforced plastic (GRP)


i) BS 5480
ii) AS 3571
Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS)
i) AS/NZS 3518

Marking of all pipes shall comply with Malaysian or British Standards


where applicable. Additional requirements to those given in the above
standards may be specified from time to time by the Commission.

2.1.3

Pipe Selections

Except where otherwise specifically approved by the Commission, the pipe


materials to be used for a specific type of sewer are listed below:


1) Gravity sewers
a) Rigid pipes
b) Flexible pipes
i) VC i) GRP
ii) RC ii) Ductile Iron
iii) HDPE (Profile)


2) Force mains (Rising mains)
i) Ductile Iron
ii) GRP
iii) ABS
iv) HDPE (Solid)
v) Steel


3) Vacuum sewers
i) ABS for internal use
ii) HDPE (Solid) for external use


There are specific requirements such as pipe class, joint type, linings
etc. which the above approved pipe materials must meet in order to
suit the above applications. Also, there are certain limitations for use of
each pipe type. These requirements and limitations are specified in the
following sections.

From time to time, the Commission will publish sewer selection guides
which will provide more detailed direction on the selection and use of
sewer materials.

For other pipe materials not listed above, their use will be given
considerations in special circumstances. However, only pipes and fittings

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

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15

Planning, Material and Design

from manufacturers and suppliers approved by the Commission are


permitted to be used for sewerage applications.
2.1.4

Requirements and Limitations for Use of Certain Pipe


Material

Unless the exemption is granted by the Commission, the following


limitations or requirements shall be followed when selecting the pipe
materials:

I)

Gravity Sewer


a) VC
i) Only size 150 mm or above shall be used.
ii) The minimum size for public sewer shall be at least
225 mm.
iii) Pipe shall not be used in unstable ground.
iv) Flexible joints are recommended.

b) RC
i) Pipe protection linings are required.
ii) Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed in compliance to
the policy.
iii) Flexible joints are recommended.

c) GRP
i) Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high
concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade
the pipe.
ii) Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive
discharges that may affect the pipe integrity.
iii) Pipe shall be used only when no fittings are required.
iv) Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed.

d) DI
i) The use is only allowed for applications needed high pipe
strength.
ii) Pipe protection linings and coatings are required.
iii) P o l y e t h y l e n e s l e e v i n g i s r e q u i r e d f o r a l l b u r i e d
applications.

e) HDPE
i) Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high
concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade
the pipe.

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ii) Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive


discharges that may affect the pipe integrity.
iii) Only pipe with profile wall is permitted.

II) Force Mains


a)



DI
i) Pipe shall not be used in unstable ground.
ii) Pipe protection linings and coatings are required.
iii) P o l y e t h y l e n e s l e e v i n g i s r e q u i r e d f o r a l l b u r i e d
applications.
iv) Flexible joints are recommended.


b) GRP
i) Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high
concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade
the pipe.
ii) Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive
discharges that may affect the pipe integrity.
iii) Fittings shall be made of ductile iron.
iv) Only sizes 600 mm or above are allowed.

c) ABS
i) Where VC or RC pipes are not suitable.
ii) Only for nominated projects or as permitted by the relevant
authority.

d) HDPE
i) Pipe shall not be used in ground contaminated with high
concentration of chemicals such as solvent that can degrade
the pipe.
ii) Pipe shall not accept any industrial or other aggressive
discharges that may affect the pipe integrity.

e) Steel
i) Pipe is allowed only for sizes 700 mm or above.
ii) Pipe protection linings and coatings are required.
2.1.5

Vitrified Clay Pipe

Vitrified clay (VC) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters of


100 mm to 600 mm and lengths ranging from 0.91 m to 2.50 m. Larger

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17

Planning, Material and Design

diameters of VC pipe are imported. VC pipes are classified according


to the pipe ring crushing strength which depend on the manufacturing
process and quality. VC pipes and fittings can be produced either unglazed
or glazed on the interior and/or exterior. When glazed they need not be
glazed on the jointing surfaces of the spigot and socket. VC pipes which
are available in Malaysia are normally manufactured with spigot-socket
flexible joints. Most manufacturers offer rubber ring seals. However,
polyurethane seals are sometimes offered by some manufacturers.

Vitrified clay pipe has extra chemical resistance that is suitable for
sewerage applications. The VC pipe may be used even under very
corrosive sewage environment. However, the potential for infiltration is
great and must be minimised by careful laying procedures on site.

Vitrified clay pipes are permitted for gravity sewers. The minimum
permissible size for public gravity sewer shall not be less than 225 mm
and for service connection shall not be less than 150 mm.

VC pipes and fittings shall conform to the requirements of MS1061.


Pipe strength is classified by the crushing strength (FN) value tested
in accordance with BS EN 295-3. The crushing strength for pipe with
DN150 shall not be less than 22 kN/m. The crushing strength of the
pipe with size DN 225 is classified by class number. All VC pipes and
fittings shall be furnished with spigot-socket flexible joints and rubber
ring seals or polyurethane seals. Glazing of VC pipes and fittings are
preferred.

2.1.6

Reinforced Concrete Pipe

Reinforced concrete (RC) pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in diameters


from 150 mm to 3600 mm. The standard pipe length is 3.05 m. RC
pipe is classified according to pipe crushing test load or the three-edge
bearing strength which varies with wall thickness and reinforcement.

Common reinforced concrete pipes are not resistant to acidic corrosion


which occurs in certain septic sewage conditions. The cement used to
manufacture concrete pipe shall be factory produced by the cement
manufacturer. Pipes can be manufactured using Portland Cement,
Portland Blast Furnace Cement, Portland Pulverised Fuel Ash Cement
and Sulphate Resisting Portland Cement. All these types of cements
are corrosion resistance, except Ordinary Portland Cement and Rapid
Hardening Portland Cement. To improve the corrosion resistance, high
alumina cement mortar lining and sacrificial lining have been used. Low
heat and super-sulphated cements have also been found in some tests to

18

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Industry Guidelines

Planning, Material and Design

improve the corrosion resistance. The inclusion of calcareous or limestone


aggregate is another measure found to improve corrosion resistance.
To resist corrosion by neutral sulphates occurring in aggressive soils
and groundwater, RC pipes are sometimes manufactured using sulphate
resistance cement and where not available, Portland Pulverised Fuel
Ash Cement or Portland Blast Furnace Cement shall be used with the
approval from relevant authority.

RC pipes are permitted for gravity sewers of diameter DN600 and


larger. Pipe shall be of Standard Strength or higher as determined from
structural design. RC pipes linings shall consist of either 12mm thick
high alumina cement or 38 mm thick (as appropriate) sacrificial concrete
lining. Other linings may be used if approval from the Commission is
obtained. Concrete pipe junctions shall be fixed to the main pipe by the
pipe manufacturer and fabricated to clay pipe dimensions. Flexible joints
which utilise a rubber ring to join a rebated joint and a spigot to a socket
are commonly used and are recommended. Ogee joint (fixed joint) shall
be used in conjunction with concrete bedding haunching only. RC pipe
when used for pipe jacking purpose, shall comply with BS 5911. The
RC pipes also incorporate rebated joints with joint elastomeric ring seals
either integrated in the unit or supplied separately.

2.1.7

Ductile Iron Pipe

Ductile Iron (DI) pipe manufactured in Malaysia for diameters from


80 mm to 1200 mm. The diameter imported pipe can be up to 2000
mm. Standard lengths are 6.0 m. DI pipe is classified according to wall
thickness. The pressure rating of the pipe increases with an increase
in wall thickness. Commonly used pipe strength is class K9 and shall
comply with BS EN 598 for working pressure exceeding 6 bars.

DI pipe is permitted for force mains and internal pipings of pump


stations. DI pipe shall be used for gravity sewers only where it is needed
to take the advantages of the high strength of ductile iron, e.g. shallow
cover sewers subjected to high live load or sewers of above ground
applications.

Pipes shall have flexible joints, i.e. spigot-socket rubber seal joints or
mechanical joints, except for pump station pipeworks and valve connections
where flange joints shall be used.

Ductile iron will corrode when exposed to certain aggressive groundwaters


and conveying certain aggressive water. Therefore, internal lining and
external coating protection are required to protect against corrosions.
Unless otherwise approved by the Commission, all ductile iron pipes shall

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19

Planning, Material and Design

have an external coating to be determined by a Qualified Person based


on actual soil condition. For internal lining of a constant full flowing
pipe, ordinary Portland cement shall be used, while high alumina cement
mortar or plastic adhesive lining is required for partly full flowing pipes.
Buried pipe shall have zinc with bitumen external coating and fittings
shall have bitumen external coating. The end surfaces shall include the
internal surface of the socket and external surface of the spigot for
flexible connection.

The finishing layer, which is normally bituminous product, shall cover


the whole surface of the applied coating and shall prevent defects such
as the loss of adhesion. In addition, the material of the finishing layer
shall be compatible with the coating.

Unless otherwise approved by the Commission, all fittings and accessories


shall be provided with external and internal epoxy coating.

Polyethylene sleeving shall be used for all the buried pipe and
fittings.

2.1.8

Steel Pipe

Steel pipe is manufactured in Malaysia in a wide range of diameters up


to 3000 mm and lengths up to 10 m. Pipe joints are normally welded
utilising either spigot-socket ends, plain ends or a collar. Flanged and
mechanical joints are also available.

Steel pipes will undergo corrosion when in contact with aggressive soil
and sewage and, thus, require an internal lining and an external coating.
Pipe internal linings normally include high alumina cement mortar, coal
tar enamel, coal tar epoxy, sulphate resistant cement lining, or bitumen.
Pipe external coatings often include coal tar enamel, bitumen enamel or
asphalt enamel and glass fibre.

Steel pipes are permitted only for inverted siphons (depressed sewers)
and internal pump station pipework. For force main larger than 700
mm, steel pipe may be used if the approval from the Commission is
obtained.

The internal and external surfaces of the pipes and fittings shall be
coated with thermosetting (epoxy paint or powder or epoxy tar resin)
or thermoplastic (polyethylene or polyurethane) material. The type of
external protection shall be determined by the Qualified Person based
on soil condition. Following the completion of pipe jointing, exposed
steel at the joints shall be protected from corrosion by manually applied
external tape wrap and internal cement mortar lining.

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Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Planning, Material and Design

A spigot and socket joint welded both externally and internally shall
be used for pipe joints except for pump station pipeworks and valve
connections where flange joints shall be used. Mechanical joints are
only permitted for cut pipe lengths, where internal cement mortar lining
at joints is not possible and where movement of the pipeline is to be
allowed for.

2.1.9

Solid Wall PE Pipe

Polyethylene (PE) pipe is resistant to sulphuric acid of concentrations


that might be found in septic sewage under the worst conditions.

PE solid wall pipe is available locally in diameters up to 1000 mm


and in standard lengths of 6 m and 12 m. This pipe is normally butt
fusion jointed. Pipe size of 160 mm or less may be flange jointed or
electrofusion jointed. PE pipe is classified by pressure rating with static
working pressures up to 1.6 MPa. High density PE (HDPE) is used for
sewerage applications.

Since PE pipes are flexible, the design of the pipe/trench system is


more critical than for rigid pipe materials. Compared to rigid pipes, the
stability of flexible pipes relies more on the side support of the earth
backfill around the pipe. Consequently, in an urban environment, where
the side support may be removed during future adjacent construction
of underground services, pipe failures could be more frequent. Ground
conditions which provide poor pipe side support are unsuitable for flexible
PE pipe.

Solid wall HDPE pipes are suitable for buried pressure sewer and buried
vacuum sewer installations. Butt fusion joints shall be used for PE pipe.
uPVC fittings are not permitted for force mains. Solid wall pipe for
pressure main application shall be of minimum PE80-PN10. The use
of specific strength shall depend on the depth and nature of the soil as
confirmed by the Qualified Person. Solid wall pipes for vacuum sewer
shall be minimum of PE80-PN8 and at least PN10 for heavy vehicle
loading.

2.1.10

Profiled Wall PE Pipe

A profiled wall pipe is a pipe with a plain inside surface and with a
ribbed or corrugated outside surface. The ribs or corrugations are normally
either aligned circumferentially or helically. These corrugated or ribbed
profiles optimise the pipe ring stiffness to weight ratio. The pipe can be
designed with double-wall profile or triple-wall profile.

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Planning, Material and Design

Corrugated high density PE pipe is available in Malaysia in a range of


size from 100 mm to 3000 mm nominal diameter and in standard 6 m
lengths. The standard joint is a flexible spigot-socket joint with rubber
seal.

Pipes from specific manufacturers in this category may be permitted by


the Commission to be used for gravity sewers where special circumstances
require the benefits of such pipes.

2.1.11

Glass Reinforced Plastic Pipe

Glass reinforced plastic (GRP) pipe is currently required to be imported


into Malaysia.

There are two principal manufacturing methods for GRP pipes, centrifugal
casting and filament winding. The centrifugal casting GRP pipe incorporates
silica sand in the wall structure in addition to resin and chopped strand
mat glass fibres. The silica sand shall have a maximum particles size
of 10 mm. The centrifugal casting GRP pipe shall be according to AS
3751.

The filament winding GRP pipe does not normally incorporate sand, which
permits centrifugal casting GRP pipe to have a much thicker wall, and
thus much higher ring stiffness than the filament winding GRP pipe. The
filament winding GRP pipe uses continuous glass fibres wound helically
about the pipe. The design of filament winding GRP pipe shall be in
accordance with BS 5480.

Centrifugal casting GRP pipe is classified by internal pressure resistance


for pressure applications and by pipe ring stiffness for non-pressure
applications. Centrifugal casting GRP is available up to 10000 N/m 2
stiffness and up to 2.5 MPa static working pressure. Filament winding
GRP is available up to 5000 N/m2 stiffness and up to 1.6 MPa static
working pressure

Centrifugal casting GRP pipe is available in sizes from 200 mm to 2400 mm and
standard length of 6 m. The inner surface of the pipe is usually finished
with a resin rich lining which is resistance to attack by sulphuric acid
that may result from septic sewage. Centrifugal casting GRP pipe has a
rubber sealing sleeve joint which is supplied fitted to one end. So jointing
is similar to a spigot-socket joint. These pipes can also be supplied with
flange joints, sleeve-locking joints and sleeve recessed joints for special
applications such as pipe jacking and pipeline towing.

Filament winding GRP pipe is available in sizes up to 3700 mm and


standard lengths of 6 m and 12 m (size dependent). It also has a resin

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Industry Guidelines

Planning, Material and Design

rich inner surface although the thickness of this resin surface layer is often
limited by the manufacturing method. Some filament winding GRP pipe
manufacturers incorporate corrosion resistant glass fibres. This feature can
be essential with this GRP pipe because its resin rich surface (gelcoat)
is thinner or, sometimes, removed for fabrication purposes. Filament
winding GRP pipe currently being offered can be jointed using a sleeve
and two rubber O rings. Filament winding GRP pipe does not have a
smooth outer surface like centrifugal casting GRP pipe. Machining may
be required for the outer surface where rubber sealing rings are used.
Flange joints and mechanical couplings are also available for special
applications.

GRP pipe is classified as a flexible pipe. It requires sufficient side


support to retain its structural integrity in cross-section in the same way
as uPVC and PE pipe. GRP pipe has lower strain limits than uPVC and
PE pipes since it is made of thermoset resin, which is brittle compared
to thermoplastic material. Due to its inherent structure, GRP pipe has a
much higher modulus of elasticity than uPVC and PE pipe. Thus, it may
have a much thinner wall than uPVC and PE pipes to achieve equivalent
ring stiffness. GRP pipe is generally available in higher stiffness than
uPVC and PE pipe.

Approval for the use of GRP pipe shall be sought from the Commission
for each project intending its use. GRP pipes are permitted for gravity
and pressure sewers. For gravity sewers, GRP pipes are only permitted
for sizes of 600 mm nominal diameter and larger where no fittings
are required. The minimum pipe stiffness shall be SN 5000 with the
appropriate stiffness determined in accordance with structural design
to AS 2566. For pressure sewers, fittings must only be of ductile iron
meeting the coating, lining and other requirements.

2.1.12

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Pipe

Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pipe is a thermoplastic pipe. It is


manufactured in Malaysia in diameters up to 630 mm.

ABS pipe is classified by internal pressure resistance. It comes in various


static working pressure ratings up to 1.5 MPa.

The most common jointing method is by solvent cementing. The cementing


jointing process is more complex than the jointing process of uPVC pipe.
A spigot/socket rubber ring joint is generally not available. Because of
the care required to make a solvent cement joint, particularly in larger
diameters, the jointing of ABS pipe requires special trainings.

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Planning, Material and Design

ABS, like uPVC and PE, is resistant to corrosion in the most corrosive
sewage environment that could occur. ABS is used in a range of
applications requiring pressure pipe. Because of its excellent resistance
to abrasion and UV degradation, ABS has found use in industrial and
mining applications and also in treatment plants for sewage and water.

ABS pipes may be permitted for force mains under special circumstances
which require the benefits of such pipes. If used, the approval of the
Commission is required. ABS pipes may be permitted for use in buried
forced mains and buried interconnecting pipe-works within pump
stations.

2.1.13

Sewer Design - General Requirements

The design of a sewerage system shall generally be in accordance with


the principles set out in this Guidelines. Additional requirements in the
Malaysian Standard MS 1228:1991 Code of Practice for Design and
Installation of Sewerage System shall also be referred to in design.

The sewerage system shall be suitably designed to carry all sewage


flows including sullage to the approved disposal point. Unauthorised
connections of surface waters or excessive infiltration to the sewerage
system are not permitted.

Unless otherwise agreed by the Commission, all sewers shall be sited


in public road reserve so that access can be gained for maintenance
purposes. Under special circumstances where the sewer cannot be sited
in public road reserve then vehicular access for the sewerline of at least
3 m in width and road bearing capacity of not less than 5 tonne shall
be provided.

Sewer pipes should not be constructed on slope or within slope failure


envelope. In the event where it is unavoidable, the said structures must
be designed not to encounter settlement or the sorts and at any time at
risk of collapse during its operating lifespan.

An overflow pipe shall be provided at the last manhole before network


pump station and/or sewage treatment plant. Otherwise it should be
located at the manhole sited at the lowest ground level.

A checklist for sewer reticulation design is given in the MSIG


Volume 2.

2.1.14

Flow Rate Estimations

Few principal considerations when selecting the diameter and gradient


of a sewer are:

24

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Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Planning, Material and Design

a) to cater for peak flow.


b) to ensure that there will be a sufficient velocity during each day to
sufficiently cleanse the sewer of slime and sediment.
c) to limit the velocity to avoid scouring of sewers.

I) Average Flow

The volume of sewage that needs to be treated per day is based


on an assumed contribution per population equivalent of 225 litres
from various types of premises where the contribution from each
premise type is defined in terms of a population equivalent. The
recommended minimum population equivalent values are given in
Table B1.

II) Peak Flow

The flow used to determine the diameter and gradient of the pipeline
is the peak flow. Peak flow is the most severe flow that could occur
on any day when considering daily flow fluctuations and infiltrations.
The peak flow is derived from the average flow by applying a peak
factor for daily flow fluctuations. The peak factor shall be estimated
from the following formula:

Peak Factor = 4.7 (PE/1000)-0.11

Where PE = assumed population equivalent

III) Infiltration

Infiltration is the amount of groundwater that enters sewers through


damage in the network such as cracked pipes, leaked joint seals and
manhole walls, etc. There are many variables affecting infiltration
such as quality of workmanship, joint types, pipe materials, height
of water table above pipeline, soil type, etc. The peak factor above
has included the contribution of infiltrations. The maximum allowable
infiltration rate shall be 50 litre / (mm diameter.km of sewer length.
day).

2.1.15

Sewer Cleansing Velocities

The principal accumulants in sewers are slimes and sediments. The


hydraulic requirements for cleansing the sediments of sewer differ from
those required for cleansing the slimes of sewer.

I) Sediment Cleansing

For the removal of sediments, the traditional design approach has


been to set a minimum velocity to be achieved at least once daily.

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

25

Planning, Material and Design

Minimum velocity values at full bore of 0.8 m/s are commonly


specified. However, it has been found that larger pipe diameters
require higher velocity to cleanse the sediment. This is mainly due
to higher sediment depths in large diameter pipes

The movement of sediment is mainly a function of shearing stress


needed to dislodge sediment off the pipe wall. Similarly, shear stress
is a function of pipe diameter. The type of sediment (i.e. grain
size, specific gravity, cohesiveness) also influences the movement
of sediment and, thus, the amount of required shear stress. For
design purposes however, only a single sediment type needs to be
assumed.

II) Slime Cleansing

The removal of slime depends on the stress needed to shear sections


of slime from each other or from the pipe wall. However, the shear
stress required to remove slimes is not a function of pipe diameter.
The necessary shear stress depends on the thickness of slime to be
removed and the pipe material. The degree of removal of slimes in
any pipe material varies with the sewage velocity.

Removal of large portion of slimes requires high sewage velocities.


It has been found that 85% or more of the sulphide producing slimes
are removed when the grade of the sewer is 2.5 times of that for
sediment cleansing. In many instances, it may not be practical to
design a sewer to achieve such velocities due to the excessive cost
of constructing such a deep and steep sewer. Although increasing
the velocity up to the critical velocity will increase the amount of
slime being sloughed off, the rate of sulphide production remains
substantially unaffected by the thinner slime layer. Therefore, the
selection of steep gradient to achieve velocities for full slime stripping
is not a design requirement.

2.1.16

Pipe Roughness

Except for very high velocities, slime will always be present, which will
increase the pipe roughness. Abrasion by sediments will also impart a
permanent increase in roughness. Pipeline roughness decreases as the
velocity increases. However, there is insufficient data to accurately
determine the pipeline roughness for a wide range of velocities or at
small incremental changes in velocity. In addition, the velocity of the
sewage flow varies due to the factors such as daily fluctuations, different
type of catchment, different stage of catchment maturity, etc. Therefore,
it is not possible to select the pipe roughness with great accuracy.

Conservative roughness values as given in Table 2.1 shall be referred to


when determining sewer discharge capacity.

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Table 2.1a Normal Pipe Roughness for Gravity Sewer


Roughness, ks (mm)

Pipe Material

Vitrified Clay
Concrete:
Plastic

New

Old

0.06
0.15
0.06

1.5
3.0
0.6

Old and new roughness values shall be used to determine the sewer
cleansing and maximum design velocities respectively.

Table 2.1b Normal Pipe Roughness for Force Mains for All
Pipe Materials


Mean Velocity, V (m/s)

0.8 V < 1.5


1.5 V < 2.0
V 2.0

Roughness, ks (mm)

0.6
0.3
0.15

2.1.17

Design of Gravity Sewer

Unless special arrangements have been agreed for the structural protection
of pipes, the minimum depth of soil cover over the sewer shall be
1.2 m. Sewers are not to be constructed under buildings.

The minimum size of public gravity sewers shall be 225 mm in diameter.


The minimum size of domestic connections to the public sewer shall be
150 mm in diameter. The maximum design velocity at peak flow shall
not be more than 4.0 m/s.

The design shall be based on the worst case scenario. The selection of
the gravity sewer diameter and gradient to cope with the peak flow shall
be based on the following equations:

1. Colebrook - White Equation


9 = 

N
J'6 ORJ V
'


J'6


'


ZKHUH
9
6

'
J
NV

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations








YHORFLW\
K\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQW PP 
NLQHPDWLFYLVFRVLW\RIZDWHU PV 
LQWHUQDOGLDPHWHU P 
DFFHOHUDWLRQGXHWRJUDYLW\ PV  
URXJKQHVVFRHIILFLHQW P 

Volume 3

27

Planning, Material and Design

Typical ks values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table
2.2 below:
Table 2.2 Typical Roughness Coefficient, ks

Material

Roughness Coefficient, ks (mm)

Concrete

0.3 to 3

Cast iron

0.26

Asphalted cast iron

0.12

Ductile iron

0.046

2. Manning Equations
9


ZKHUH

5    6  
Q

9
6
5
Q






YHORFLW\ PVHF 
K\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQW
K\GUDXOLFUDGLXV
0DQQLQJFRHIILFLHQW

Typical n values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table
2.3 below:
Table 2.3 Typical Manning Coefficient, n
Material

28

Manning Coefficient, n
Good Condition

Bad Condition

Uncoated cast-iron

0.012

0.015

Coated cast iron

0.011

0.013

Ductile iron

0.012

0.015

Vitrified clay pipe

0.010

0.017

Concrete

0.012

0.016

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Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Planning, Material and Design

3.
Hazen - Williams Equations

9 &56

ZKHUH

9
6
5
&







YHORFLW\ PVHF 
K\GUDXOLFJUDGLHQW
K\GUDXOLFUDGLXV
+D]HQ:LOOLDPVFRHIILFLHQW

Typical C values for various types of sewer pipes are presented in Table
2.4 below:
Table 2.4 Typical Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C
Material

Hazen-Williams Coefficient, C

Top quality pipes, straight and smooth

130 to 140

Smooth masonry

120

Vitrified clay

110

Old cast iron

100

Old cast iron in bad condition

60 to 80

Colebrook-White Equation has been deemed to give the most accurate


results. However, the other equations, such as Hazen-Williams Equation
and Manning Equation are easier to use and may be used too. Various
design charts and tables have been developed elsewhere to aid the manual
computations.

2.1.18

Design of Force Mains

The minimum diameter of force mains (also known as rising mains)


shall be 100 mm diameter. There shall be no reduction in force main
diameter with distance downstream.

All bends on force mains shall be securely anchored to resist lateral


thrusts and subsequent joint movements.

Air release valves and washouts shall be provided at appropriate locations


along the longitudinal profile.

For long and undulating force mains, hydraulic pressure transient analyses
may be required to ensure that the force main can cope with water
hammer pressures.

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Planning, Material and Design

Retention times in force mains must not exceed 2 hours without special
precautions to mitigate septicity.

All force main shall be designed to withstand at least 1.5 times the
working pressure. Approval from the Commission is required if any
force main is to be designed to withstand pressure less than the pressure
stated above.

Where retention times in the force mains exceed two hours and where
concrete pipe are laid downstream of the force mains, an induct vent
shall be provided at manholes receiving pumping discharges.

Friction losses are normally calculated using either Darcy-Weisbach


(Colebrook-White) Equation or Hazen-Williams Equations. The forms
of the equations are different from the equations used to design gravity
sewers. The equations are listed below:

1. Darcy-Weisbach Equation

I/9 
 J'

=

KI
ZKHUH

K I
I
9
J
'
/








)ULFWLRQORVV
&RHIILFLHQWRIIULFWLRQ
9HORFLW\LQWKHSLSH
$FFHOHUDWLRQGXHWRJUDYLW\
(TXLYDOHQWGLDPHWHURIWKHSLSH
/HQJWKRISLSH

The value of f is known to depend on the Reynolds number, Re, pipe


roughness, ks, and pipe diameter, D, through the Colebrook-White equation
as
 follows:



I



ORJ NV

'

 
5H I




The Reynolds number is defined as follows:









5H





9'
Y

where v is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid, typically equal to 1 x


10-6 m2/s for sewage.

The above equations together with the Moody Diagram are used to

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Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Planning, Material and Design

determine the coefficient of friction, f.


2.
Hazen-Williams Equation


KI

9
= 
&



/
'




ZKHUH

K I
&
9
/
'







)ULFWLRQORVV
+D]HQ:LOOLDP&RHIILFLHQW UHIHUWR7DEOH 
9HORFLW\LQWKHSLSH
/HQJWKRISLSH
(TXLYDOHQWGLDPHWHURIWKHSLSH

Force mains shall be designed to handle the full range of flows from
present minimum to future peak.

The design velocity shall fall within the range of 0.8 to 3.0m/sec over
the full range of design flows.

The hydraulic resistance of force main fittings and bends shall be included
in the hydraulic design.

2.1.19

Vacuum Sewerage System

The design requirements of this Guidelines are the minimum requirements,


and do not constitute in themselves a comprehensive design guide
sufficient to ensure a correctly functioning system. Every system must
be individually designed, based on the design parameters of the system
employed; where proprietary systems are employed, it shall be designed
in compliance with the requirements of system manufacturers.

2.1.19.1 General

Specification of a vacuum sewage collection system shall only be


considered where the life-cycle costs of a conventional gravity sewage
collection system are clearly shown to be higher.

This Guidelines assumes that all sewage transportation modes have


been identified, their respective feasibilities evaluated against technical,
environmental, financial, economic and other relevant criteria over the
design life of the asset and that vacuum sewage collection system has
been confirmed as the best option. The Commission may request for
net present value (NPV) calculations for all options prior to approving
construction of a vacuum sewage collection system.

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Planning, Material and Design

I) Application of Vacuum Sewerage Collection System

Consideration shall be given to the use of the vacuum system in


one or more of the following circumstances:

a) Flat or undulating terrain.


b) Obstacles to the sewer route eg utility services, waterways.
c) Poor ground subsurface eg high ground water table, rocky
terrains.
d) Isolated, low density communities.
e) Where it is necessary to minimise the impact of construction
work.
f) Where it is necessary to minimise the environmental impact.

II) Unit Processes

Typical unit processes for a vacuum sewerage collection system is


shown in typical drawing in Appendix A. The unit processes shall
comprise of, but not limited to, the followings:

a) Collection chamber for housing vacuum interface valve and also


forming a sump from which collected sewage is evacuated.
b) A vacuum sewer network for the transport of sewage collected
in the collection chambers to a central vacuum station.
c) A central vacuum station where the vacuum pressure is generated
which allows the sewage to be collected and forwarded to a
receiving gravity sewer manhole or a sewage treatment plant.

III) Description of System

a) Collection Chamber and Vacuum Pipeline

When the volume of sewage draining into a collection chamber


reaches a predetermined level in the sump, the normally closed
interface valve opens. The differential pressure between the vacuum
sewer and atmosphere forces the sewage from the collection chamber
into the vacuum sewer via a crossover pipe. Typical crossover pipe
connection is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. After the
sump is emptied, the valve closes. Air is admitted simultaneously with,
or after, the admittance of the sewage. The sewage is driven along
the sewer until frictional and gravitational forces eventually bring it
to rest in the lower section of the pipe profiles. The characteristics
of the vacuum sewerage system ensure that peak discharges into the
sewer are rapidly attenuated.

The vacuum sewer discharges into the vacuum vessel at the vacuum
station. The vacuum is maintained by vacuum pumps at a predetermined
level. The sewage is generally pumped from the vacuum station by
sewage discharge pumps.

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b) Vacuum Station

The vacuum station is similar to a conventional pump station with


the addition of vacuum pumps and a closed vacuum vessel. Typical
vacuum station is shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. The
levels of the sewage in the vacuum vessel are monitored by a set
level detection probes which activate the sewage discharge pumps.
If the sewage rises too high in the vessel then a high level detection
probe stops and locks out the vacuum pumps to prevent the flow of
sewage into the vacuum vessels. The vacuum in the vacuum vessel
is maintained within the operational range by pressure switches.

c) Warranty of System Performance

Since the vacuum system involves proprietary design and equipment,


specialised system designers shall be accountable to the performance
of the entire vacuum system including both design and construction
aspects. The specialised system designers shall also specify clearly the
specific maintenance and operational requirements of the system.

2.1.19.2 Collection Chamber


I) General Design Requirements

Collection chambers shall have sufficient capacity to store sewage


discharged from all connected properties for at least 6 hours in the
event of a valve failure or similar emergency, which is sufficient to
cover the Services Licensee emergency response time.

The overflow storage time shall be based on the ultimate sewage


design flow that will enter the collection chamber. The volume that
can be used for emergency storage shall be the volume contained in
the collection chamber from the base of the collection chamber up
to the lowest ground level at any point served by the chamber as
well as the volume contained in the gravity lateral sewers entering
the collection chamber.

Separate chambers shall be provided to serve properties at different


elevations where there is a likelihood of sewage from one property
flooding another property.

The chamber shall resist external forces and internal water


pressure.

The preferred material of construction for collection chambers is

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pre-cast concrete. The two sections (the valve compartment and the
collection sump) may be mounted vertically one on top of the other
as shown in typical drawings in Appendix A. The diameter of the
sections may be as small as 1200 mm or as large as 1500 mm.

The collection sump requires a benching section that allows a


scouring action from the sewage as it enters the suction pipe, thereby
rendering the sump self-cleansing. The internal surfaces of the sump
shall be both strong as well as resistant to corrosive attacks from
the collected sewage.

Where the interface valve is situated over the collection sump,


a working platform shall be provided for allowing maintenance
personnel to stand on when carrying out scheduled maintenance to
the interface valve.

The sump shall be sufficiently vented to allow the intake of air


without causing a noise nuisance and to ensure that the operation of
the vacuum system does not unseal the water traps on the gravity
drainage system.

II) Number of Properties Connected

The location of each collection chamber and the number of properties


connected to each collection chamber shall be specified in the design
drawings / calculations.

Sewage flow from the maximum number of existing or future properties


that are proposed to be connected to a collection chamber shall be
quantified, and the retention time of the collection chamber can be
then established. The retention time shall exceed 6 hours.

III) Maximum Flows to Collection Chambers

IV) Breather Pipes

34

The maximum sewer design flow to a single vacuum interface valve


collection chamber shall not exceed 0.25 l/s. Where single point
flows in excess of 0.25 l/s occur, multiple vacuum interface valves
shall be installed. Typical multi-valve collection chamber is shown
in typical drawings in Appendix A.

Some vacuum interface valves inhale and exhale air during their
operation. This is accomplished through a screened air pipe known
as a breather.

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While breather bells are generally mounted inside the collection


chamber, it may be necessary to mount them externally.

Each breather pipe shall be fitted inside the breather bell located
at the top of the collection chamber in an accessible location to
allow their removal for maintenance purposes.

V) Covers and frames

Collection chamber covers shall provide an access opening of at least


600 mm diameter. Covers and frames shall be installed in accordance
with the requirements stipulated in Clause 2.3.

2.1.19.3 Vacuum Interface Valves


I) General

The interface valve shall fail safe in the closed position and shall
prevent backflows from the crossover pipes to the collection sump.
When the valve is open, the flow path shall not be obstructed by the
valve mechanism. The valve shall evacuate at least the batch volume
each time per cycle. Valves installed in the sump shall be capable
of operating when submerged provided that the breather pipe is not
submerged.

The valve shall be installed in the collection chamber using demountable,


re-useable No Hub couplings suitable for vacuum service.

II) Level Sensor

The valve shall be equipped with a sensor to determine the level of


sewage in the collection sump; this sensor shall be designed to be
fouling resistant. Level sensor pipes shall not be less than DN/ID
45.

III) Interface Valve Controller

The controller shall open the valve only if there is a minimum partial
vacuum of 0.2bar below atmospheric available and shall maintain the
valve fully open until at least the batch volume has been evacuated.
If the design provides for the introduction of air after the sewage
has been evacuated, the controller shall maintain the valve open for
a further period. The controller shall be adjustable so that a range of
air to sewage ratios can be obtained. Controllers installed in sumps
shall be capable of operating when submerged.

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IV) Explosion Proof

The valve mechanism and controller shall be explosion proof if


exposed to potentially explosive atmosphere.

V) Life of Valves and Membranes

Every interface unit, comprising the interface valve, controller and


sensor shall be expected to last in excess of 25 years. Manufacturers
shall clearly specify scheduled maintenance, thus allowing the operators
to keep the interface units in tip-top conditions at all times.

2.1.19.4 Vacuum Sewer Design


I) General

For a completely flat area, the length of a single sewer branch


shall not be more than 3 km. However, the maximum limit of the
pipe length would vary according to the gradient achievable in that
line. Specialised system designer shall provide a detailed hydraulic
calculation for the vacuum sewer network.

Vacuum main routes shall be selected to:

a)
b)
c)
d)

Minimise lift.
Minimise length.
Equalise flows on each vacuum main.
Provide adequate access for operation and maintenance.

II) Sewer Depth

Vacuum sewers, branch sewers and crossover pipe connections from


the collection chambers, shall have a minimum cover of 0.9 m to
withstand the stresses arising from traffic loads.

When sewers are not buried, they shall be protected from extremes
of temperature, ultra-violet radiation and possibility of vandalisms.

When sewers are suspended underside walkways or bridges, they


shall be rigidly supported so there is no visible sagging between
supports. Supports shall withstand all static and specified dynamic
conditions of loading to which the piping and associated equipment
may be subjected. As a minimum, consideration shall be given to
the following conditions:

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a) Weights of pipe, valves, fittings, pipe protection materials, and


medium in the pipe.
b) Reaction forces due to the operation of isolation valves.
c) Wind loadings on outdoor piping.

III) Sewer Profiles

Pipeline profiles shall be self cleansing and prevent the accumulation


of solids. Typical pipeline profiles are shown in typical drawings
in Appendix A. For crossover pipes, the minimum distance between
lifts shall be 1.5 m. Vacuum sewers shall have a minimum gradient
of 1 in 500. Where the ground has a gradient of 1 in 500 or more
in the direction of flow, the vacuum sewer may be laid parallel to
the surface as shown in typical drawings in Appendix A.

a) Design Tolerances

The chainage and invert levels of the pipeline(s) shall be determined


to the following levels of design accuracy and specified in the Design
Drawings:

i) Sewer chainage to the nearest 0.5 m.


ii) Sewer invert levels to the nearest 0.01 m.

b) Lift Design

To provide for efficient vacuum transport to sewer extremities, the


size of individual lifts shall be kept as small as possible. Many
small lifts are preferable to one large lift. The change in invert at
each lift shall not exceed 1.5 m. For vacuum sewers, the minimum
distances between lifts shall be 6 m.

c) Crossover Pipe Connection

Crossover pipe shall initially fall away from the interface valve
and shall connect into the top sector of the vacuum sewer contained
within the angle of 60 about the vertical axis as shown in
Appendix A.

d) Branch Connections

All branch connections to vacuum sewers shall be by a Y-junction


connected to the sewer above the horizontal axis as shown in
Appendix A. In plan, the angle of the Y-junction shall ensure that
flow towards the vacuum station is generated and backflows are
minimised. No connection shall be made within 3m of a lift.

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e) Water-logging

The profile shall ameliorate water-logging at any change in gradient


even when a prolonged power failure occurs (both TNB supply and
standby genset fail), and the vacuum interface valves continue to
operate and admit sewage until the vacuum level reduced to the point
when they will no longer open. When the power is again available,
the system shall be capable of recovering to normal operation without
intervention by an operator.

IV) Pipework and Fittings for Vacuum Sewers

The recommended material from which to construct vacuum sewers


is minimum PE 80-PN 8 rated solid wall polyethylene pipe. Pipe
fittings shall be PE 100-PN 8. Pipes shall be UV stabilised with
carbon black which shall give the pipe a black colour throughout.
The polyethylene pipe is selected because it is both structurally
strong and compatible with potentially chemically aggressive and
abrasive flows in the sewage.

a) Pipe Size

The suction pipe DN/ID shall not be greater than the DN/ID of the
interface valve. The minimum diameter of crossover pipe shall be
DN/ID 50 and shall be greater than the DN/ID of the suction pipe.
Vacuum sewer shall have a minimum diameter of DN/ID 80.

b) Jointing of PE Pipes and Fittings

PE pipes and fittings less than DN 160 shall be jointed using


electrofusion fittings. Pipes and fittings DN 160 and larger shall be
jointed with electrofusion fittings or butt fusion welding.

c) Warning System

To act as a warning to an excavation possibly carried out at a later


date, the use of a marker tape laid 300 mm on top of the pipe is
recommended. This shall be a 150 mm wide polyethylene and printed
with a descriptive warning of the pipeworks below.

V) Isolation Valve

38

The isolation valve clear opening shall be not less than the DN/ID
of the pipe, and be capable of sustaining a vacuum pressure of -0.8
bar(g).
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Isolation valves shall be resilient seated gate valves with the body,
bonnet, gate and bridge fabricated from ductile or cast iron. The
stem shall be stainless steel, and the gate shall be encapsulated with
Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer (EPDM). End connections to
the valves shall be flanged.

a) Isolation Valve Installation

Each isolation valve shall be located in a chamber, which shall


contain a dismantling arrangement for replacement of the isolation
valve if needed.

When isolation valves are buried, they shall have extension spindles
and surface boxes.

b) Isolation Valve Location

Means of isolating lengths of vacuum sewer to permit repairs or to


locate faults shall be provided at distances of not more than 500 m
and on branch sewers longer than 200 m.

2.1.19.5 Vacuum Station Design


I) General

It is desirable to have the vacuum station located as centrally as


possible within the sewer network. This lends itself to a system with
multi-branches hence giving added operating and design flexibility.
Ideally, the design capacity of a single-vessel vacuum station shall
not exceed a population equivalent of 8000 persons.

A dual-vessel station, or more than a single-vessel station that is


completely isolated, shall be provided when the population equivalent
exceeds 8000 persons.

II) Vacuum Station Layout

A typical vacuum station layout is shown in typical drawings in


Appendix A. The vacuum station shall be divided into two main
areas, an above ground plant room and a below ground dry well.

The floor level of the dry well shall be designed to suit the invert
levels of the incoming sewers, the vacuum vessel diameter and the
dimensions of the selected sewage discharge pumps.

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Planning, Material and Design

The vacuum vessel, the sewage discharge pumps, valves and pipework
associated with the sewage discharge pumps and a small sump to
collect washdown water shall be located in the dry well.

The plant room shall contain the vacuum pumps, control panel,
standby diesel generator, vacuum pressure gauges, and moisture
trap.

III) Vacuum Vessel

Vacuum vessels shall be designed to meet the requirements of ASME


Section VIII Division 1 2004 Edition. The vessel shell shall be
constructed from mild steel or any other approved material.

Sewer inlets shall be provided with short radius elbows inside the
vessel to direct the sewage inflow away from the sewage discharge
pump suction connections and the vessel walls.

A vacuum vessel may have up to five (5) incoming vacuum sewers


connected directly to the vessel. No inlet pipes shall be connected
below the system emergency stop level. Sewage discharge pump
suction connections shall be provided at the invert of the vacuum
vessel. The vacuum vessel shall be fitted with an externally mounted
sight glass which is suitable for operation in a vacuum and is easily
removed for cleaning without decommissioning the vessel.

The vacuum vessel shall be provided with a DN 600 access opening,


and the cover shall be provided with a lifting eye. Wherever possible,
the opening is preferably positioned on the top of the vessel in order
to minimise the size of the structure necessary to house the vessel,
this conserves valuable resource, reduces the footprint of the building,
and thus allows adjacent residences to enjoy more buffer spaces.

During the inspection or maintenance works, safe entry procedures


shall be adhered to, according to the Department of Occupational
Safety and Health (DOSH) codes of laws, by trained certificated
operator, and that the vessel is decommissioned, with the access
opening removed and discharge pipeworks at the two (2) draw-off
points dismantled, and a forced air ventilation is applied.

It is important to ensure that the system would operate continuously


in the face of having the vacuum vessel temporarily out of service
during an interval inspection. The incoming sewage shall manually
be bypassed to a mobile vacuum tanker via a flexible ribbed pipe.

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The pipe is of an adequate length to reach the bypass valves safely.


Typical bypass valve arrangement is shown in typical drawings in
Appendix A.

VI) Moisture Trap

When mechanical vane vacuum pumps are selected, moisture trap


shall be provided for the vacuum pumps.

Baffles or moisture removing material shall be fitted inside each


vessel to assist with moisture removal.

V) Vacuum Pumps

Vacuum pump capacity (Qvp) shall be rated. The selection of


appropriate size of vacuum pump is determined by the following
four factors:-

a) The peak flow of the sewage to be collected.


b) The length of the longest single sewer within the sewer
network.
c) The total volume of the sewer pipework within the network.
d) Air to liquid ratio employed (ratio not less than 3).

a) Evacuation Time

When the vacuum pumps, collection chamber and vacuum vessel


have been sized, system evacuation time for an operating range of
0.55 bar(g) to 0.65 bar(g) shall be calculated using:

 9YV + (9YY 9R )+ 9PW 


W=
4YS
:KHUH
W V\VWHPHYDFXDWLRQWLPHPLQXWHV

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Planning, Material and Design

NOTE: In normal operation it is assumed that the vacuum sewers will


be approximately 1/3 liquid filled.

The system evacuation time, which is defined as the time period between
the vacuum pump start and stop, shall be between 2 and 5 minutes.

b) Selection of Vacuum Pumps

Vacuum pumps shall have sufficient capacity to serve the system. A


minimum of two vacuum pumps of equal capacity shall be installed
such that one pump can be removed for maintenance without the loss
of system capacity. Vacuum pumps, where used, shall be suitable for
both continuous operation and for a minimum of 6 starts per hour.

c) Vacuum Pipework

ABS pipes and fittings shall be used for interconnecting pipework


between the vacuum pumps and the vacuum vessel within vacuum
stations.

Pipework shall be fully supported.

VII) Sewage Discharge Pumps

Two sewage discharge pumps of equal capacity are recommended


for use in a vacuum station. Each pump shall be sized to discharge
sewage at a rate at least equal to the calculated design peak flow
for the vacuum system. Sewage discharge pumps shall be capable of
pumping unscreened sewage and suitable for immersed operation in
the event of the vacuum station dry-well flooded. In normal operation
the dry-well will not contain water.

Pumps may have a vertical or horizontal configuration.

Sewage discharge pumps shall be suitable for a minimum of 6


starts per hour. Equalising lines connecting the discharge side of
the centrifugal sewage discharge pumps to the vacuum vessel shall
be installed if required to prevent cavitation or to ensure that the
pump inlet is always flooded.

Sewage discharge pumps shall be fitted with isolation valves to allow


removal of the pump without disrupting the system operation.

Discharge pipework for each pump shall be fitted with a non-return

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valve and a resilient seated gate valve on the discharge side. Where
the discharge pipework is manifold, the final discharge pipe shall
also be fitted with a non return valve. The valves shall be able to
be operated from the vacuum station floor.

VIII) Vacuum Gauges

150mm vacuum gauges calibrated to read 0 to -1 bar to an accuracy


of 2% shall be fitted to the vacuum vessel and each incoming
vacuum sewer. Vacuum gauges shall also have bottom outlets fitted
with lever-operated ball valves. All gauge diaphragms shall be
suitable for use with sewage gases. The gauges indicate the vacuum
pressure within each sewer and enable pressures within the sewer
network to be monitored.

IX) Fire-fighting System

Fire-fighting system using carbon dioxide at the genset / fuel room


shall be provided at every vacuum station in accordance with
Bombas requirements.

Odour Control

X)

Effective odour control system shall be provided to treat air vents


from a vacuum station to prevent malodour impacts being imposed
on downstream residential areas.

Biofilters is one of the systems used to remove the odours from


the vacuum pump exhaust gases containing toxic and odorous
compounds by passing the gases through a natural biologically
active filter medium.

XI) Noise Control

Vacuum station shall be acoustically designed and fitted with noise


control measures, as required to control noise to levels that comply
with local councils regulations.

XII) Controls and Telemetry

a) Vacuum Level Control

Vacuum levels in the vacuum vessel shall be controlled by vacuum


switches with operating range of 0 to -1 bar(g). Their purpose is
to control the operation of the vacuum pumps and to maintain the
vacuum within the vessel inside the operating range. A minimum
of four vacuum switches shall be provided to operate the duty and
assist pumps, and to provide a high and a low vacuum alarms.

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b)

Level Control

The level detection probes shall be mounted on the vacuum vessel.


The purposes are to control the operation of the sewage discharge
pumps and to maintain the sewage within the vessel inside the
operating range.

Probes shall be manufactured in one length without any screw joints


along their length. Any form of float switch, including magnetic and
ultrasonic types shall not be permitted.

The level control system shall respond to the following sewage levels
in the vacuum vessel:
Emergency stop level

- stops vacuum generation;


- sewage discharge pump operates;

Start level

- starts sewage discharge pump;

Stop level

- stops sewage discharge pump;

c)

The controls shall permit the selection of duty, duty assist (where
provided) and standby vacuum pumps and sewage discharge pumps
and shall provide for the automatic introduction of the standby units
in the event of failure.

The electrical controls shall allow sequential operation of all


pumps so that running times are equalised. The standby pump shall
automatically cut-in should the duty pump fail.

d)

Valve monitoring and station telemetry systems are optional, but,


shall be implemented for larger schemes comprising more than 50
interface valves.

The open and closed status of interface valves shall easily be


detected by the use of a remote control via infrared/radio signals.
Alternatively, system suppliers may install a signal cable to relay
this information to a display panel within the vacuum station. All
monitoring components installed at the collection chambers shall be
robust and suitable for use in sewerage application.

Large schemes shall also include a telemetry section with volt-free


contacts for each condition/alarm of the station equipment as shown
in Table 2.5

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Valve Monitoring System / Station Telemetry

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Table 2.5 Condition/alarm of the Station Equipment


DESCRIPTIONS

INPUT / OUTPUT

Station power

Failed / OK

Vacuum pump power

Isolated / OK

Sewage discharge pump power

Isolated / OK

Vacuum pump overload

Tripped / OK

Sewage discharge pump overload

Tripped / OK

Vacuum level

Low / OK

Vacuum level

High / OK

Sewage level

High / OK

Intruder alarm

Activated / OK

Fire alarm

Activated / OK

XIII) Emergency Power Generation

A back-up diesel generator shall be provided to adequately run the


station in the event of an electric power disruption. The generator
shall be capable of providing 120% of power for at least one
vacuum pump and one sewage discharge pump and other necessary
equipment.

2.1.20

Computerised Sewer Designs

Manual computations for the hydraulic design of a sewer network can


be avoided for many aspects using proprietary computer software or inhouse computer programs. However, there are many variations possible
for the different aspects of hydraulic design, i.e. flow contributions from
different sources, quantity of infiltration, quantity of inflow, sediment
cleansing requirements, pipeline roughness coefficients, etc. It is therefore
necessary that the computer software or programs adopt the hydraulic
design requirements as detailed in this guideline. Some proprietary
softwares may not permit certain adaptations required to conform to the
hydraulic design requirements given in this guideline. As such, these
software would be unsuitable.

2.1.21

Design of Inverted Siphon

Inverted siphons are introduced along a gravity sewer line in order to pass

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Planning, Material and Design

under an obstacle (e.g. railway line, stream, culvert, etc). An alternative


to an inverted siphon for bypassing obstacles is a pump station. But such
an option may be economically not viable. The profile of an inverted
siphon encourages solids settlement and accumulation and therefore
they require more frequent cleaning. They must be avoided as much as
practicable.

Inverted siphon shall consist of at least two or more parallel pipelines


(or barrels). The minimum pipe size of a barrel shall be 225 mm, and
shall be provided with necessary appurtenances for convenient flushing
and maintenance. There will be an inlet chamber designed to divide the
flow among the pipes by allowing each pipe to come into operation
in succession and an outlet chamber designed to prevent eddies from
carrying solids and sediments back into the siphons.

Longer siphons shall be provided with hatch box with access for
maintenance and cleaning. These siphons shall have independent washout
facilities.

The manholes shall have adequate clearance for rodding. In general


sufficient head shall be provided and pipe sizes selected to secure flow
velocities of at least 0.9 m/sec for average flow. The inlet and outlet
shall be arranged so that the normal flow is diverted to one barrel, and
so that either may out of service for cleaning. Its choice should be taken
into consideration the operational and maintenance aspect of siphons.
The siphons shall not have sharp bends, either vertical or horizontal.
The horizontal leg of the siphon shall have a negative gradient of 8
to 10, whilst the rising leg shall be limited to 30 to 45 should space
permitting. There shall be no change in pipe diameter along the length
of the barrel. Pipes and pipe joints used for siphons shall be designed
at the appropriate pressure rating.

2.1.22

Structural Design of Sewers

The structural design of a buried sewer can be divided into the following
two categories:

a) Rigid pipe.
b) Flexible pipe.

All two structural designs shall take account of how the sewer is supported
to determine the loading which the sewer can safely withstand.

The structural design of a buried sewer normally considers only the


structural integrity of the pipe cross section. Although not as critical as

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the structural integrity of the pipe cross section, the considerations for
the ground conditions and sewer installation practices that will affect
the longitudinal structural integrity shall not be omitted.

There are many design approaches for each of the two structural design
categories. However, there are only minor alterations among these
different approaches. Some design approaches tend to give a more
favourable prediction of performance for a particular pipe material than
other approaches. The use of standard design approaches given in this
guideline will prevent the selection of a particular design approach purely
to favour one material over another. Also, the following recommendations
are only meant for general design aspects. Any design aspects that are
not covered by this Volume, the designer shall refer to BS EN 752 or
any other standards deemed appropriate by the Commission.

a) Rigid Pipe Structural Design

Pipes which are classified as rigid are:

i) Vitrified clay (vc) pipe.


ii) Reinforced concrete (RC) pipe.

The failure of a rigid pipe normally occurs by pipe fracture. Thus,


for structural performance, the determination of the pipe ring crushing
strength / load is required. This strength is determined using three
points loading test as described in the respective Malaysian Standards
for the above pipes. Both VC pipe and RC pipe can be made to
achieve different ring strengths as defined in the Standards.

When a buried rigid pipe is supported, the load which the pipe can
safely withstand is higher than the load which caused failure in the
three point loading test.

The improvement in load resistance provided by different pipe


support designs is defined by the bedding factor. Where the sewer
is supported on granular material, such as crushed rock, the bedding
factor becomes a function of the density of the granular material
and the height to which the granular material is placed above the
sewer.

By varying the pipe ring strength and the pipe support, different
load resistance can be achieved.

The pipe support designs permitted by this Volume are limited to those
in typical beddings in Appendix A. They include the following:

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47

Planning, Material and Design

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Granular bedding design shall be adopted wherever possible. Concrete


support or arch designs should be avoided. This is due to the difficulty
in achieving full contact of the concrete support with the pipe ring.
A higher strength pipe in combination with crushed rock support is
preferred over a lower strength pipe in combination with concrete
support or arch designs.

It is important that the pipe bedding should be properly constructed


to allow for the flexibility at the pipe joints and to ensure uniform
pipe supports. Point supports or loads which may lead to pipe failure
must be avoided.

The soil load to which a rigid pipe can be subjected to shall be


determined from Martson Load Theory. According to the theory,
the soil load on a rigid pipe differs from that on a flexible or semi
flexible pipe. The load on a rigid pipe is a function of trench width,
backfill soil type and trench depth. In a narrow trench, trench wall
friction reduces the load applied by the soil backfill. Therefore,
wide trench gives a more conservative loading and shall be used to
determine the load on rigid pipe.

Where vehicles will pass over the sewer and the sewer is laid with
a cover depth of less than 2.5 m, the sewer will be subjected to
additional loads from such vehicles. The Boussinesq Theory should
be used to determine the loads from vehicles in the design.

The ultimate vehicle load to which the sewer will be subjected to


shall be used for structural design. Where the sewer may be subjected
to construction traffic or may have temporary shallow cover during
installation, structural design must examine such loading conditions to
ensure the sewer can withstand such temporary vehicle loadings.

Determination of vehicle loading shall be in accordance with AS


3725 (Loads on buried concrete pipes) and AS 4060 (Loads on
buried vitrified clay pipes.)

Loads on buried rigid pipe for field conditions and for main roads
can be found in Simplified Tables of External Loads on Buried
Pipelines published by the UK Transport Research Laboratory.

48

Granular
Concrete
Concrete
Concrete

bedding/ Crusher rock.


cradle.
arch (with granular bedding).
surround.

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Planning, Material and Design

b) Flexible Pipe Structural Design

Pipes which are classified as flexible are:

i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

The mode of failure of a flexible pipe is usually by excessive pipe


ring deformation, except for GRP pipe which may be by excessive
pipe ring strain. The occurrence of such a GRP pipe failure depends
on the wall thickness.

Normally a standard long term allowable ring deflection is applied


for all flexible pipe. A 5% long term deflection limit has been the
most commonly adopted limit and shall be used except for steel pipe
with cement mortar lining. For steel pipe with cement lining, a 2%
deflection limit shall be used. Where surface settlement is critical,
a lower allowable deflection limit may be adopted.

The resistance of a flexible pipe to ring deformation is classified by


pipe ring stiffness. The stiffness classification is derived from a two
point short term loading test. It is a function of the loading force
divided by the specified test deflection. Flexible pipe can be made
to achieve different ring stiffness by varying the wall thickness. For
PE pipes, the ring stiffness can also be varied by varying the wall
structure.

Similar to rigid pipe, the loading which a flexible pipe can withstand
can be increased when the pipe is supported. For flexible pipes, this
external ring support is more critical. Without it, a flexible pipe
would fail under the loads applied by usual soil cover for gravity
sewers and under vehicle loads for shallow cover force mains.

By varying the pipe ring stiffness and surrounding


different load resistance can be achieved for flexible
pipe must be completely embedded in crushed rock,
to be finished at 150 mm over the top of the pipe.
will give a uniform support around the pipe.

The soil load used for structural design for flexible pipe support shall
be the prism load or the weight of the column of soil directly above
the pipe. Marston Load Theory mentions that this column of soil

PE pipe
GRP pipe
ABS pipe
Steel pipe

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

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soil stiffness,
pipe. Flexible
with the rock
Crushed rock

49

Planning, Material and Design

is partly supported by friction provided by adjacent soil. Therefore,


this frictional support of soil column causes the load on the flexible
pipe to be less than the weight of soil directly above the pipe. This
frictional support may be lost with time and the design using prism
load represents a conservative design.

Where vehicles will pass over the sewer and the sewer is laid with
a cover depth of less than 2.5 m, the pipe will be subjected to
additional loads from such vehicles. The Boussinesq Theory should
be used to determine the loads from vehicles in the design approach
in this guideline.

The ultimate vehicle load to which the pipe will be subjected to


shall be used for structural design. Where the pipeline may be
subjected to construction traffic or have a temporary shallow cover
during installations, structural design must examine such loading
conditions to ensure the pipeline can withstand such temporary
vehicle loadings.

Granular bedding design shall be adopted wherever possible. Typical


details of granular bedding for flexible pipe is given in Appendix A.
The structural design of flexible pipe support must be in accordance
with Australian Standard AS/NZS 2566, which uses a modified form
of Spanglers equation for the determination of pipe deflection. This
Spangler equation incorporates Leonhardts factor to account for the
change in support provided by surrounding soil stiffness when the
trench width is varied.

For force mains with shallow cover, structural design of flexible


pipe may not be necessary. However, when the structural design of
flexible pipe for such a force main is undertaken, the re-rounding
effect of internal pressure should be ignored to allow for the worst
case design, which occurs when the line is out of service.

2.2

Manhole

2.2.1

General

Pre-cast concrete manholes shall conform to MS 881 and BS 5911.


Manholes shall be constructed with pre-cast concrete sections surrounded
by an in-situ concrete surround. Protecting lining / coating shall be
provided to prevent corrosion of the concrete due to sulphide attack.
Walls shall be either rendered with sulphate resistant cement mortar at
least 20 mm thick or lined with PVC, HDPE or epoxy coating. PVC

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or HDPE lining shall be at least 5 mm thick. Continuity of the lining


shall be provided by means of welding or fusing each individual sheet
to the next prior to the concrete curing. The epoxy coating shall either
be high build tar epoxy system complying with AS 3750.2 and applied
in two or more coats to give a total dry film thickness of not less than
500 m; or high build micaceous iron oxide pigmented epoxy system
complying with As 3750.12 and applied in two or more coats to give a
total dry film thickness of not less than 250 m. The benching shall be
protected with epoxy coating, high alumina cement mortar, or equivalent.
Only materials and application processes approved by the Commission
may be used.

Brick manholes shall not be used, due to the high risk of excessive
infiltration.

Details of manhole types and construction are shown in Appendix A.


Straight back type taper top shall be used while reducing slabs type are
acceptable as alternative. Any other type of pre-fabricated manhole will
require prior approval of the Commission.

The minimum diameter of manhole chambers constructed from pre-cast


concrete rings shall be as given in Table 2.6 below:
Table 2.6 Minimum Manhole Diameters
Depth to Soffit from
Cover Level (m)

< 1.5

> 1.5

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

DN Largest Pipe in
Manhole (mm)
< 150
225 to 300
375 to 450
525 to 710
820 to 900
> 900
< 300
375 to 450
525 to 710
820 to 900
> 900

Volume 3

Min. Internal
Dimensionsa (mm)
1000
1200
1350
1500
1800
Subject to designers
requirements based on
site condition
1200
1350
1500
1800
Subject to designers
requirements based on
site condition

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Planning, Material and Design

Note:
a) These sizes apply to straight-through pipes; larger sizes may be
required for turning chambers or chambers with several side branches or
where specific maintenance requirements are necessary, e.g disconnecting
traps.

An induct vent shall be provided at manholes receiving pumping discharges


where retention times in the force mains exceed two hours and where
concrete pipe are laid downstream of the force mains. The induct vent
shall have a diameter of approximately one half of the force mains but
shall not exceed 300 mm in diameter. The top of the concrete support of
the vent shall be built up above flood level. Details of the induct vent
are shown in Appendix A.

Provision of back-drop manhole shall be based on the following


criteria:-

a) For pipe size equal to 225 mm or less, back-drop manhole shall be


provided when the difference in invert level is equal to 900 mm or
more.
b) For pipe size more than 225 mm, back-drop manhole shall be provided
when the difference in invert level is equal to 1000 mm or more.


2.2.2

Manhole Location

Unless otherwise agreed by the Commission, all manholes shall be sited


in public road reserve so that access can be gained for maintenance
purposes. Manhole shall be provided for the following locations:

a) The starting end of all gravity sewers, this may be replaced by a


terminal layout
b) Every change in direction or alignment for sewers less than 600 mm
in diameter
c) Every change in gradient
d) Every junction of two or more sewers
e) Every change in size of sewer

Unless adequate modern cleaning equipment is used for the maintenance


of the sewer, the spacing between manholes shall not be more than 100
m for sewers less than 1.0 m in diameter. For sewers with diameter
larger than 1.0 m, the spacing between manholes shall not be more than
150 m.

Where site conditions prevent manhole construction on the existing public


sewer, a manhole shall be provided on the connection pipe as near to
the public sewer as possible.

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The connections, details, and methods of manhole construction not covered


in this Guidelines shall be in accordance with MS 1228. In addition, the
current policies of the Commission with respect to safety and operation
shall be strictly followed.

2.2.3

Pipe Lengths from Manhole

To prevent the differential settling of the manhole and the connecting


sewer from breaking the sewer pipe, rotational flexibility in the sewer
close to the manhole is required. A single flexible joint placed immediately
outside the entry to the manhole is not sufficient to solve the differential
settlement problem, unless graded (governed by gradient permissible
range) to connect directly to match invert level of manhole channel, if
unable to match invert level. A short length of rocker pipe having a
flexible joint at both ends shall be provided. A 600 mm length short
rocker pipe is sufficient to provide the rotational flexibility required
for most circumstances in small diameter pipelines (300 mm). For larger
pipe, a 900 mm length short rocker pipe shall be provided. Refer to
drawings in Appendix A.

2.2.4

Structural Design Considerations for Manhole

a) Concrete used in situ shall be 25Mpa Portland cement unless shown


otherwise by the qualified person.

b) A cement blinding with a minimum of 50 mm thickness shall be


placed before pouring the concrete manhole base.

c) The base of the manhole shall not be less than 300 mm thickness,
which is measured from the channel invert.

d) Channel inverts shall be laid accurately to meet entry and exit pipe
inverts.

e) The channel invert shall be graded evenly between the entry and
exit pipes.

f) Flexible joints shall be provided at the exit and entry of the manholes
and shall be placed immediately outside any poured-in-situ concrete
surround.

g) Joints between the pre-cast chamber rings shall be sealed with suitable
mortar, which can be high alumina cement mortar or equivalent.

h) The top of the benching shall be sloped at 1 in 12 towards the


channel.

i) The finish surfaces of cast in-situ concrete structures shall be


trowelled smooth without poke holes or exposed aggregate.

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Planning, Material and Design

j) A minimum of 150 mm thick Grade 25 concrete in-situ shall be


encased to the precast concrete section. Brick manholes shall not
be used.

k) Box outs sealed with bricks or equivalent shall be made for any
proposed connections.

l) Drop connection pipes and fittings in the manhole shall be of the


same diameter and material as the connecting sewer.

m) A factory pre-cast intermediate slab shall be provided at every 3


meters depth and placed at half of the manhole depths. The slabs
must have holes for ventilation.

n) Pre-cast reinforced concrete landing, cover slap and flat tops


undersides shall be painted with 2 layers of coal tar epoxy.

o) Manhole covers in roads shall be set to the road profile and shall
be flushed with the road surface.

p) Manhole covers in unimproved areas shall be set at an elevation to


prevent entry of surface water.

q) Manhole frame surrounds shall be filled with non-shrink cementitious


material or premix.

r) Field coatings to manhole covers and frames shall be applied to


surfaces that are clean, dry and free from rust.

s) Bolted-in steps are not permissible in all manholes. Provision shall be


provided for portable ladder for access. The lightweight removable
ladders shall be used in manholes where they can easily be inserted
and secured from the surface, in order to deter unauthorized access
to sewers.

t) Manhole structures shall not be constructed on slope or within slope


failure envelope. In the event where it is unavoidable, the said
structures must be designed not to encounter settlement or the
sorts and at any time at risk of collapse during its operating life
span.

u) Maximum depth shall be equal or less than 9 meter and all manholes
deeper than 6 meter are subjected to the Commissions prior
approval. Depending on the catchment area and size of sewer
pipe, manholes deeper than 9 meter may be considered for the
Commission approval.

v) Precast or cast in-situ concrete base of minimum Grade 25 with 1


layer of A6 BRC, 400 mm thick or to qualified persons design
shall be provided under poor soil condition including piling, if
necessary.

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2.3

Manhole Covers and Frames

2.3.1

General

Manhole covers and frames shall comply with the specifications in this
Guideline and BS EN124. Where the specifications in this Guidelines
contradict the specifications given in BS EN124, the specifications in
this Guidelines shall take precedence.

2.3.2

Load Class

Manhole covers and frames shall be capable of bearing wheel loads of


up to 400 kN and, as such, shall meet the test load requirements for
Class D400 manhole covers and frames given in BS EN124.

2.3.3

Material

The material for manhole covers and frames shall be of spheroidal or


nodular graphite iron (otherwise known as ductile iron) complying with
the requirements specified in BS EN1563 for Grade 500/7.

The production, quality and testing of spheroidal graphite cast iron shall
comply with ISO 1083.

2.3.4

Dimensions, Marking and Surface Finish

The manhole covers shall be free of defects which might impair their
fitness for use.

The dimensions, marking and surface finish of manhole covers and


frames shall comply with the requirements given in Figure A1 to A4 in
Appendix A.

Tolerance on dimensions shown in Figures A1 to A2 shall be 1 mm.


The casting of markings shall be clearly legible.

2.3.5

Seating

When a random cover is placed in a random frame, the adjacent top


surfaces of the cover and frame shall have flushness of level within
1 mm.

The manholes covers shall be compatible with their seatings. These


seatings shall be manufactured in such a way to ensure stability and
quietness in use.

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Planning, Material and Design

2.3.6

Casting

2.3.7

Protective Coating

All surfaces of manhole covers and frames shall be supplied coated with
either a:

i) hot applied bituminous material complying with BS 4147 Type I


Grade C
ii) cold applied bituminous material complying with BS 3416 Type II

All cast units shall be cleanly cast and free from air holes, sand holes,
cold shuts and chill. They shall be neatly dressed and carefully fettled.
All castings shall be free from voids, whether due to shrinkage, gas
inclusions or other causes.

Immediately prior to coating, surfaces shall be clean, dry and free of


rust. The coating shall be free of bare patches or lack of adhesion. The
mean thickness shall be no less than 70 m and the local thickness shall
be no less than 50 m.

2.3.8

Water-tightness

No visible leakage shall occur between the manhole cover and its seating
in the frame when tested in accordance with Appendix E of AS 3996.

2.3.9

Safety Features

Manhole covers shall be provided with locking device and hinge to


prevent rocking due to traffic and to provide a theft proof design.

a) Locking Devices

b) Hinge

56

Locking devices shall be either bolts and nuts or a mechanism with


a special key design. The mechanism shall be able to be integrated
with the covers and can also be used as a lifting device. All the
mechanism for locking device shall be of stainless steel in accordance
with BS EN ISO 3506. Bolts and nuts for locking devices shall be
hexagonally headed, complying with BS3692.

All manhole covers shall be hinged. The hinge shall be designed


such that, when in the open position, they shall be secured by a
positive mechanical retainer to prevent accidental closure of the
covers. The opening angle of hinged covers shall be at least 100o to
the horizontal. If hinge bolt is used for coupling separate sections of
covers and frames, it shall be of stainless steel in accordance with
BS EN ISO 3506.

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Planning, Material and Design

2.3.10

Product Certification

Manhole covers and frames shall be certified as complying with the


requirements of this specification. The product testing for certification
purposes shall be undertaken by SIRIM QAS, IKRAM QA services or
other third party certification body. The approval of the product shall
be from the Commission.

The quality control of the certified manhole covers and frames shall
meet the requirements given in Clause 10 of BS EN 124. However, the
final inspection and tests and the frequency of tests/inspection shall not
be as shown in Table A3 of BS EN 124. Instead, the specifications as
shown in Table 2.7 below must be followed. All final inspection and
test documents shall be retained for at least 5 years.
Table 2.7 Final inspection and testing
Final Test/Inspection

Frequency

Markings legibility inspection

Every unit

Casting defects inspection

Every unit

Protective coating inspection

Every unit

Locking devise inspection

Every unit

Seating flushness of cover in frame

1 per 20

Measurements of all dimensions

1 per 100

Load Class Test

1 per 100

Water-tightness Test (only applicable for covers


required to be watertight)

1 per 100

Protective coating thickness measurement

1 per 200

2.4

Design of Network Pump Stations

2.4.1

Specifying of Network Pump Stations

Network pump stations shall be provided only where:

i) Sewage flow by gravity is not allowed by the topography.

ii) Excessively deep and expensive excavation for sewer installations


will be required.

iii) Sewage needs to be delivered from an area that is outside the natural
drainage catchment of a sewage treatment plant.

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Planning, Material and Design

2.4.2

General Requirements

i)

Network pump stations shall be preceded by screens to protect


pumps from being damaged or clogged.
ii) The type of pump used must be suitable for sewage application.
Water pumps must not be used as they are not designed to transfer
sewage.
iii) Drainage of dry wells and valve pits shall be provided. Drainage
lines shall be equipped with back flow protection to ensure that the
chamber is not flooded.
iv) Wherever possible, the wet-well shall not be housed within a building
structure with insufficient ventilation.
v) Where separate valve pits are used, then the connecting pipes shall
incorporate at least two flexible joints to allow for differential
settlement.
vi) The designer shall ensure that his/her designs comply with all
relevant legislation, standards, guidelines and requirements, and its
latest amendments.
vii) Access and appropriate parking shall be provided at all times
for emergency vehicles, maintenance vehicles and ancillary
equipment.
viii) Adequate protection against lightning shall be provided.

2.4.3

Buffer Requirements

In order to minimise the nuisance of odours from pumping stations, buffer


zone shall be provided at all sides. The zone shall be at least 20 m from
the pumping station fence to the nearest habitable building fence. The
presence of a pumping station in any development may draw negative
visual impacts. To minimise the visual impact of surface structures of
the pumping station, landscaping shall be provided. Landscaping shall
comprise of trees that are non-shedding to minimise maintenance. The
buffer requirements are shown in Appendix A.

Under conditions where there exists the potential of odour nuisance to the
nearest habitable building property line within residential and commercial
development despite having the minimum buffer zone, such odour shall
be minimised to the lowest possible level and in compliance with the
Environmental Quality Act.

2.4.4

Pipeworks Requirements

i)

58

Pipeworks shall be of ductile iron with approved internal lining.


Other approved material by the Commission may be used.

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ii) External surface of pipeworks in chambers and wells shall be epoxy


coated.
iii) Buried ductile iron pipe shall have polyethylene sleeving.
iv) Pipeworks shall be adequately supported.
v) Flanges shall be located at least 150 mm away from structures.
vi) Dismantling joints such as bends shall be provided.
vii) Pumping thrust shall be resisted using pipe supports.
viii) All internal pipeworks within the pump station shall have flanged
joints unless the pipe selected has special jointing requirements.
ix) Flexible couplings should be used where they will facilitate dismantling
and accommodate vibration.

2.4.5

Wet-well Requirements

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

vi) The minimum sump volume required shall accommodate the pumping
cycle as per Table 2.4.
vii) Benching shall be designed to minimise deposition of solid matter
on the floor or walls of wet-wells. The minimum slope of benching
shall be 450 to the horizontal.
viii) Benching shall preferably extend up to the pump intake.
ix) Self cleansing pumps shall be provided.
x) Access into wet-wells can be by vertical rung ladders with a maximum
height of 6 m. When the height exceeds 6 m, intermediate platforms
shall be provided with a change in direction of the ladder. Safety
cages shall be provided for ladders exceeding 6 m.
xi) Access covers shall have a minimum clear opening of 600 mm
diameter and be sufficiently large to withdraw pumps vertically.
xii) Access covers shall be capable of being lifted by, at most, two
operators.
xiii) On small pump stations (PE < 500), the practice is to provide
difference between the cut-in and cut-out levels, the storage volume

Suction channels shall be designed to avoid dead zones, i.e.,


prevent solids and scum accumulation.
Minimum hopper bottom slope shall be 1.5 vertical to 1.0
horizontal.
Automatic flushing of grit and solids is required for plants of PE
> 2000.
The difference between stop and start levels shall be a maximum
of 900 mm and a minimum of 450 mm.
The difference in level between start or stop of duty and assist
pumps shall be greater than or equal to 150 mm.

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59

Planning, Material and Design

equal to 2 to 3 times the peak flow into the wet-well in litres per
minute merely to protect the starting equipment from overheating
and failure caused by too frequent starting and stopping.
xiv) Emergency bypass shall be provided either at any suitable manhole
or wet-well. The discharge of the bypass is preferred to the nearest
watercourse and not to the perimeter drain of the pumping station.
However, if this is not available then discharge to the nearest surface
drain is allowed.
xv) All wet-well shall be opened and come with stainless steel or other
non-corrosive handrails. If stainless steel tubing is used, it shall be
in-filled with concrete.

2.4.6

Dry-well Requirements

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

v)

2.4.7

Structural Requirements

i)

ii) Below ground walls shall be waterproofed and protected against


aggressive soils and ground water.

iii) Safe and suitable access to the wells shall be provided.

iv) Internal walls shall be made resistant to sulphide corrosion by coating


with high alumina cement or equivalent coatings.

v) A penstock shall be installed upstream of the wet-well to isolate


the pump station.

vi) For safety and operational reasons, a double penstock system may
be required at specific plant.

60

The size of dry-well depends primarily on the number and type of


pumps selected and on the piping arrangement.
The requirement of pump installation is to provide at least 1.0 m
from each of the outboard pumps to the nearest side wall and at
least 1.2 m between each pump discharge casing.
Sufficient room is required between pumps to move the pump off
its base with sufficient clearance left in between the suction and
discharge piping for site repairs, inspection or removal from the pit
to the surface for repairs.
Consideration should be given to the installation of monorails, lifting
eyes in the ceiling and A-frames for the attachment of portable hoist
cranes and other devices.
Provision should also be made for drainage of the dry-well to the
wet-well.

Substructure shall be constructed of reinforced concrete with sulphate


resistant cement to resist aggressive soils and groundwater.

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vii) The penstock spindle shall extend to pump station ground level and
shall be suitably positioned to allow unrestricted operation of the
penstock.

viii) Access platforms shall be provided at all locations where dismantling


work takes place.

ix) Access covers shall be hinged with a lifting weight not exceeding
16 kg.

x) Internal walls shall be made resistant to sulphide corrosion by


coating with high alumina cement mortar lining, PVC lining or
epoxy coating. Other materials used under special circumstances
are subjected to approval from the relevant authority.

xi) Penstock greater than 610 mm x 610 mm shall be motorised and


come with manual overwrite switches. The actuator shall be located
above ground level and above flood level for easy access in the
event of flooding.

xii) Protection against falling shall be provided by means of handrails at


walkways and other working areas, where the fall equal or exceeds
1.5 m.

xiii) Edge protection by means of kick plates of at least 50 mm in height


shall be provided, where the drop is equal or exceeds 2.0 m.
xiv) Proper drainage shall be provided at the collection bin area to ensure
that liquid collected could be channelled back to the pump sump.


2.4.8

Ventilation Requirements

i)

ii)
iii)

iv)
v)

vi)

2.4.9

Odour Control

i)

Ventilation shall be provided for all hazardous zones of the pump


station.
Covered pits shall have mechanical ventilation.
Separate ventilation shall be provided for wet-wells and drywells.
Lighting systems shall be interconnected with ventilation.
Permanent ventilation rate and air changes shall comply with MS
1228.
uPVC pipe is not permitted to be used as ventilation ducting between
wet-well and dry-well.

The potential for odour generation, its impact and treatment, shall
be considered in all aspects of design.

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Planning, Material and Design

ii) Isolate odorous gasses from general ventilation exhausts by containing


identified odour generating sources with a separate local exhaust
system.

iii) Containment of the odour sources shall be by installing lightweight


and corrosion resistant covers/enclosures designed for practical
operation and maintenance works.

iv) The local exhaust odorous air shall be conveyed through well designed
and balanced ductworks by a centrifugal fan to an effective odour
treatment equipment.

2.4.10

Requirements for Lighting and Electrical Fittings

i)

ii) Electrical installations shall be water proof, vapour proof and


explosion proof.

iii) If lights are fitted outside the well, then a spotlight system may be
used to provide adequate illumination.

iv) If portable lighting is used, proper ancillaries shall be made


available.

v) Equipments shall be sited above the highest water level.

2.4.11

Acceptable Pump System (Fixed Speed Pumps Only)

The acceptable pump types are:

i)

ii) Screw

iii) Screw Centrifugal

Pumps are to be equipped with an auto restart mechanism to allow for


automatic pump restart after power supply has resumed from a power
failure. Pumps shall be equipped with protection accessory, e.g. thermal
sensor, leakage sensor, etc. Dry-well mounted pumps shall be equipped
with auxiliary services such as cooling and gland seal water supply.

Guide rail, lifting device and other wet-well fittings must be fabricated of
stainless steel, that is corrosion resistant. The use of hot dip galvanised
iron is not recommended.

Pre-fabricated pump stations are acceptable for small installations of PE


less than or equal to 2000.

62

Wet-wells and dry-wells shall be adequately lit.

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2.4.12

Valve Requirements

2.4.12.1 General

i)

All valves shall be anticlockwise opening.

ii) All valves shall be suitable for use with wastewater and shall be
designed to prevent retention of solids.

iii) All valves shall be identified by durable name plate. Direction of


flow shall be stamped on the valve body.

iv) Bodies and cover for all valves shall be made of ductile iron to BS
EN 1563: 1997. Special protective surfaces finishing by short blasting
and finished externally with epoxy corrosion resistant coating shall
be provided.

2.4.12.2 Gate Valve


i)

Gate valves shall be of the non-rising screw wedge-gate type, doublefaced ductile iron made and with resilient seated.

ii) Gate valve shall conform to MS 1049, BS 5163 EN 1074 Part 2 or


BS EN 1171: 2002.

iii) The wedge of the gate valves shall be coupled and integral to the
wedge hut in dezincification resistant high tensile brass (CZ 132)
conforming to BS EN 2287 2: 1993, ISO 2872: 1985.

iv) The spindle of the gate valve shall be of the inside screw non-rising
with machined square or acme threads and operated by a handed or
tee-key.

v) Resilient seat valves shall have Ethylene Propylene Diene Monomer


(EPDM) covered gates with inside screw non-rising stem. Stem shall
be stainless steel conform to BS EN 10088-3: 2005.

2.4.12.3 Check Valve


i)

Check valve shall be of approved by the Commission and suitable


for their intended used and shall comply to BS 12334: 2001.

ii) Check valves of non-slam swing type with extended spindle if


necessary shall be provided at the upstream of a flow detection
device.

iii) Only single disc type of check valve shall be used.

iv) The uses of internal counter weights are not permitted for Check
Valve.

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v) Type non-slam Check valve shall be of the full body type, with a
domed access cover and only on moving pant, the flexible disc.
vi) Disc of Check valve shall be of precision molded Nitrile Butadiene
Rubber (NBR) to BS EN 681-2: 2000. the disc shall be of onepiece construction, precision molded with an integral o-ring type
sealing surface, and contain alloy steel and nylon reinforcement in
the flexible use area.
vii) In the absence of check valve, the reverse rotation of the pump
shall not exceed 150% of the rated speed or limit set by the
manufacturer.
viii) Tapping (12 mm British Standard Parallel (BSP)) shall be located
upstream and downstream of check valves.

2.4.13

Requirements for Level Controls

i)

ii)

iii)
iv)
v)

vi)

2.4.14

Requirements for Alarms

i)

Either floats, electrodes or ultrasonic level controls may be used for


start-stop level of pumps. Those level controls with environmental
friendly features are recommended.
Ultrasonic level control is recommended due to its clog-free
nature.
Non-mercury type floats are recommended.
Hollow tube electrodes are not acceptable.
Level controls shall be placed where they are not affected by
the turbulence of incoming flow and where they can be safely
removed.
When floats are used, cable hanger shall be installed.

Provision of alarms shall be considered inclusive of flammable gas,


fire, high water level, bearing temperature, motor temperature, pump
failure, power failure and vandalism.
ii) An alarm system should have an emergency power source capable
operating for at least 24 hours in the event of failure of the main
power supply and shall be telemetered thereto.
iii) Where no such facility exists, an audio-visual device shall be installed
at the station for external observation.

2.4.15

Requirements of Hydraulic Design and Performance

The followings items shall be provided:

i) System curves.
ii) Pump curves.

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iii) Operating point of pumps with respect to flow and total dynamic
head (TDH).
iv) Operating characteristics such as efficiency, horsepower, motor rating
and Net Positive Suction Head (NPSH).

2.4.16

Maintenance Considerations

i)

Mechanical and electrical equipment selected shall be robust and


reliable and shall require minimal maintenance.
ii) Consideration should also be given to the availability of spare
parts.
iii) The provision of appropriate lifting hoists and beams, and lifting
eyes or similar features on heavy equipment, shall be considered.
iv) Complete sets of current general arrangement and sectional drawings,
operational, maintenance and service manuals, circuit diagrams and
parts lists shall be supplied and be available at all times.

2.4.17

Hazard and Operability (HAZOP)

i)

All pumping station design shall give consideration to all potential


hazard and operability of design.
ii) Hazop study may need to be conducted for pumping station design
to identify the hazards and operability issues.
iii) The need for HAZOP study shall comply with requirements stipulated
in the MSIG Volume 2.

2.4.18 Other Requirements




Also refer to MS1228 for additional requirements.

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66

Volume 3

mm
start/
hour

Minimum suction and discharge


openings

Pumping cycle
(average flow conditions)

A gantry with motorised hoist shall be arranged to allow items to be projected on a 1.2m truck tray and
positioned at 2m above road level truck tray.

Weight > 250 kg:

lifting beam and block

6 - 15

100

75

30

16 kg Weight 250 kg: A davit or A frame shall be arranged to allow items lifted by using manual chain
hoist to be projected on a 1.2 m truck tray and positioned at 2m above road level. In the pump station,
motorized hoist is required for lifting weight exceeding 100kg.

lifting davit

6 - 15

100

75

30

each at Qpeak

2
1 duty,
1 standby
(100 % standby)

2
1 duty,
1 standby
(100 % standby)
each at Qpeak

Wet-well

1,000 < PE 5,000

Wet-well

PE 1,000

* - Weight < 16 kg:

Manual lifting

mm

Min pass through openings

Lifting device*

min

Unit

Maximum retention time at Qave

Pumps design flow

Number of pumps
(all identical and work sequentially)

Type of station

Description

Design Parameters

Table 2.8 Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations (continued)

Planning, Material and Design

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


ave

Volume 3

start/
hour

Pumping cycle
(average flow conditions)

A gantry with motorised hoist shall be arranged to allow items to be projected on a 1.2 m truck tray
and positioned at 2 m above road level truck tray.

Weight > 250 kg:

mechanical

6 - 15

100

75

30

16 kg Weight 250 kg: A davit or A frame shall be arranged to allow items lifted by using manual chain
hoist to be projected on a 1.2 m truck tray and positioned at 2 m above road level. In the pump station,
motorized hoist is required for lifting weight exceeding 100 kg.

Mechanical and block

6 - 15

100

75

30

peak

each at 0.25 Q

* - Weight < 16 kg:

Manual lifting

mm

Minimum suction and discharge


openings

Lifting device*

mm

Min pass through openings

Maximum retention time at Q

peak

each at 0.5 Q

Pumps design flow

6 (3 sets)
1 duty, 1 assist,
per set
(50 % standby)

wet-well and dry-well

wet-well or dry-well up to 10 000 PE


10,000 PE above wet well and
dry-well
4 (2 sets)
1 duty, 1 assist,
per set
(100 % standby)

PE > 20,000

5,000 < PE 20,000

Number of pumps
(all identical and work sequentially)

min

Unit

Design Parameters

Recommended Design Parameters for Pump Stations

Type of station

Description

Table 2.8

Planning, Material and Design

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Planning, Material and Design

2.5

Interceptors

All development schemes including individual premises that involve any


sewerage works are vetted by the Commission. As part of this vetting,
a check is made on the means of protecting public sewers from the
discharge of prohibited matters such as oil, grease, petrochemicals, fats
and solid food wastes. These matters can lead to congealment, constriction
and blockage of sewers and pipelines and can also present hazards for
sewer operations and maintenance. Therefore, suitable interceptors must
be provided on the sewerage systems of garage workshops, engineering
workshops, canteens or any premises that collect such matters. The
design specification may be acquired from the Commission for such a
system.

2.5.1

Oil Interceptors

Oil interceptors shall be provided in drain lines from areas such as


garages, parking zones, service stations, machine shops and industrial
plants where oil sediments and other volatile liquids are generated.

Oil interceptors shall be designed in such a way that pollutants that are
lighter than water liquid are trapped in a chamber and are prevented from
being discharged to the public sewer. The chamber shall be normally
fitted with a device to trap sediments and heavy particles that settle to
the bottom. The removal of these sediments is required periodically.

Intercepted oils shall be capable of being drained off for storage from
suitable draw off points on a continuous operational basis.

The interceptor shall be sized to accommodate the volumes of liquid likely


to be discharged into the drainage system and the trapped pollutants.

2.5.2

Grease Traps

Grease traps shall be provided in drain lines from areas such as restaurants,
canteens, food processing and animal product or feeds factories, where
grease and fat are likely to present in wash down waters or sullage.

Grease traps shall be designed in such a way that solidified grease and
fats are trapped in a chamber prior to discharge and may be skimmed
off by means of a perforated strainer or bucket.

The trap shall be sized adequately to contain the volume of liquid to be


discharged from the drain line and the accumulated grease.

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2.6

Concrete and Reinforcement Requirements

Unless otherwise specified in other sections of this guidelines, all the


concrete and reinforcement designed for pump stations and sewer networks
shall comply with the following subsections.

2.6.1

Concrete

i)

ii) Concrete shall generally comply with the relevant requirements in


MS 523.

iii) Concrete for purposes other than manholes and pumping stations shall
have a strength grade not less than Grade C20 where unreinforced,
and not less than Grade C30 where reinforced.

iv) Structures that are designed for retaining sewage or other aqueous
liquids shall be in accordance with BS8007, which specifies C35A
concrete. Where required, higher strength grades may be specified
by the Commission.

v) Concrete exposed to a sewage atmosphere shall be lined with


minimum 20 mm high alumina cement mortar complying with BS
915 Part 2 or 2 mm epoxy coating using a method of application
approved by the Commission.

vi) Concrete and cement mortar shall be made using a cement with
sufficient resistance to sulphate attack if contacted with sewage.

vii) Approval for admixtures shall be obtained prior to inclusion in the


concrete mix. All admixtures shall comply with MS 922.

viii) Aggregates shall comply with MS 29 and shall be coarse aggregate


of maximum 20 mm nominal size.

2.6.2

Cement

One of the following cement shall be used to resist sulphate attack:

Structural use of concrete shall be designed in accordance with MS


1195.

a) Sulphate-resisting Portland cement complying with MS 1037


b) Portland pulverised fuel ash cement complying with MS 1227
c) Portland blast furnace cement complying with MS 1389
d) High silica content Portland cement complying with AS/NZS 3582
e) Super-sulphated cement complying with BS 4248

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2.6.3


70

Steel Reinforcement and Falsework


a) Steel reinforcement shall comply with:
i) MS 144 for cold reduced mild steel wire
ii) MS 145 for steel fabric
iii) MS 146 for hot rolled steel bars
b) Scheduling, dimensioning, bending and cutting of steel reinforcement
shall be in accordance with BS 8666
c) Welding of steel reinforcement shall be in accordance with BS
7123
d) Falsework shall be in accordance with BS 5975

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Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Section 3
Construction and Installation

Construction and Installation

3.1

Introduction

The correct installation of sewer systems is critical to the efficient and


effective sewer system operation. Poor construction practice causes defects
in the sewer at joints, along pipe barrels, at manholes, transition points
(e.g. pipe to manhole), etc. Adequate site supervision and certification
by consultants, with reference to approved design drawings, are therefore
also required.

The various construction and installation aspects of sewer system can


be divided into:

a) Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling

b) Trench Excavation

c) Pipe Laying

d) Pipe Jointing

e) Special Requirements for Ancillaries and Protection

f)

A description of the requirements for each stage is given below.

3.2

Pipes and Fittings Delivery and Handling

3.2.1

Pipes and Fittings Delivery

a) Materials delivered shall be from approved suppliers.


b) Pipes and fittings on the delivery truck shall be secured firmly without
damaging the pipes and fittings. Pipes and fittings shall be protected
from any damage from the chain securings by using rubber, carpet
or textile paddings.
c) Pipes and fittings shall be checked to ensure that they have not
moved during transportation.
d) The pipes and fittings shall not be stacked in contact with each other
and shall be separated by wooden spacers. The pipes stack can be
secured by strapping or crating or can be secured by chocks at the
outer pipes of each layer.
e) Sockets of pipe in adjacent layers should be placed at opposite ends.
Alternatively, sockets of adjacent pipe can be placed at opposite
ends.
f) Thermoplastic pipes (PE, ABS) shall not be supported in such a way
that will cause the pipes to be twisted or bowed.

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g) Sewer pipe and components shall be checked for damage before


being removed from the delivery truck.
h) The delivered pipes and fittings shall be checked against the design
drawings and the delivery docket to ensure the pipes and fittings
delivered are of the strength, stiffness, pressure class, length, joint
type, diameter, fitting type, etc. specified.
i) The delivery truck shall be positioned on a flat ground or in such
a way that pipes and fittings would not fall off the truck when
unsecuring the fastenings.
j) Pipes and fittings shall not be pushed off the delivery truck and
shall not be allowed to drop to the ground.
k) When pipes are delivered in crates, the crates shall be removed
intact, wherever possible.
l) Pipes and fittings shall be lifted from the delivery truck using
approved slings. Plastic covered wire mesh slings, hemp rope slings
and chain slings without rubber sleeving are not suitable. For plastic
pipes or pipes with external coating, webbed synthetic slings shall
be used.
m) Alternatively, pipes and fittings can be removed from the delivery
truck by rolling a pipe at a time down the wooden runners. The pipe
rolling shall be simultaneously controlled by ropes.
n) Uncrated light thermoplastic pipes shall be lifted manually and
carefully off the truck and shall not be dragged across the truck bed,
edges or other hard and sharp surfaces. This is to avoid the scoring
of plastic pipe.

3.2.2

Pipe Handling at Site

a) Pipes shall not be dragged or pushed over the ground.


b) Pipes and fittings shall not be dropped in any way.
c) Pipes and fittings shall not knock against each other or any other
objects.
d) The pipe lifting shall be controlled, where necessary, using ropes or
by hand to ensure they do not knock against other objects.
e) When rolled, pipes shall be rolled on smooth timber bearers, which
are free of nails, fasteners, etc., and sufficiently raised above the
ground to prevent hitting any rocky ground, tree roots, etc.
f) When rolled on timbers, pipes shall not be pushed with a machinery
bucket.
g) Pipes with external coatings shall not be rolled. Instead, these pipe
shall be lifted into place.
h) Pipes and fittings shall be lifted using approved slings
i) Pipe lifting equipment shall be of sufficient strength and reach to
lift the intended individual pipe or crate of pipes.

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j) Mechanical lifting units (cranes, backhoes etc.) shall be stable or


properly stabilised prior to lifting operations to ensure they would
not tip and damage pipes and fittings.
k) The slings or chains used for lifting the load shall be secured to
the load in the right manner to ensure the load does not slip or tilt
excessively.
l) All other safe lifting procedures not covered above shall be
adopted.
m) The lifting and moving of all the steel pipes and any pipes that
contain internal linings shall follow the manufacturer instructions.

3.2.3

Pipe Storage

a) The pipe and fittings storage area shall be away from traffic and
shall not obstruct any property access or pedestrian route.
b) The pipe and fittings storage area shall be at a location that allows
lifting machinery to position easily and safely for lifting pipes and
fittings.
c) Pipes shall be stacked on a flat and level firm ground or the base
of the pipe stack shall be made level using additional solid timbers
under base bearers.
d) There shall be no rocks, tree roots, etc. under the pipe stack, which
may cause point load.
e) The sockets shall be alternated to different ends for each pipe stack
layer. The sockets shall be protruded out of the stack.
f) The base timber bearers shall be sound and without protrusions. The
cross section of each timber shall be at least 75 mm by 75 mm. The
base bearers shall provide support near the pipe ends, but placed
behind sockets. The placement of base bears shall not be more than
1.5 m apart.
g) VC, RC, DI, Steel and GRP pipe layers shall be separated using
timber spacers of at least 50 mm wide and 50 mm thick. These
spacers shall not be placed more than 1.5 m apart. These spacers
will prevent pipes in each layer from touching pipes in the next
layer.
h) For VC and RC pipes that are not crated, the pipes shall not be
stacked more than 3 pipes high. The pipe stacks shall be wedged
to prevent them from rolling off the stack.
i) Thermoplastic pipes (PE and ABS) shall be stacked in such a way
to prevent them from being twisted or bowed.
j) Thermoplastic pipes shall be either stacked in a pyramid with no
more than 1 m high or in a square with vertical side supports for
more than 2 pipes high.

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k) Plastic pipes and fittings shall be kept under a cover that prevents
direct exposure to sun light.
l) Plastic pipes and fittings shall not be covered with plastic
sheeting.
m) Plastic pipes and fittings shall be stored away from oils, greases,
solvents and other aggressive chemicals.
n) Plastic pipe shall be stored away from sources of heat such as engine
exhausts.
o) Care shall be taken to prevent scoring and scratching of plastic pipe
and fittings.
p) Joint lubricants, rubber rings and other jointing materials shall be
stored in a secured area that cannot be accessed by the public.
q) Any safe pipe stacking procedure not covered above, but recommended
by the manufacturer, shall be adopted.
r) The rubber rings that are not delivered fitted to the pipe socket or
sleeve shall be stored away from direct sunlight or continual artificial
light. Also, the rubber rings shall be stored in a cool area that is
away from oils, greases or other petroleum products.
s) When rubber rings are delivered fitted to a pipe socket or sleeve,
the pipe ends with the rubber ring shall be shielded from sunlight
using a hessian cloth.
t) Rubber rings shall be retained in the original sealed packaging until
they are required.

3.2.4

Pipe Damage

a) Pipes, fittings (including coatings and linings) and rubber rings shall
be inspected for damage on delivery, immediately before laying and
after laying.
b) Damaged pipes and fittings shall be identified and marked with
an indelible marking of Damaged in a clearly distinguishable
colour.
c) Damaged rubber rings shall be cut through completely to prevent
inadvertent use.
d) Damaged pipes, fittings, and rubber rings shall be set aside and
separated from the undamaged components.
e) Pipes or fittings shall only be repaired if they can be restored back
to a satisfactory state. Approval for repair shall be sought from the
Commission before the repair.
f) Pipes or fittings that are damaged and are in a repairable state shall
be repaired according to the manufacturers instructions.
g) Damaged pipes and fittings that are not permitted to be repaired
shall be removed from the site as soon as possible.

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h) PE and ABS pipes with damage in the barrel, shall have the damaged
section and at least 100 mm either side of the damage cut from the
barrel.
i) Repaired pipes and fittings shall be used only after the approval for
reuse from the Commission is granted.

3.3

Trench Excavation

3.3.1

Protection of Affected Services, Structures, Pavements and


Vegetation

a) Owners of affected property, structures, services and other pipelines


(sewer, water, gas, electricity, telecommunications lines, fuel lines,
chemical pipelines) along or within 3 m of the excavation shall be
notified.
b) Services and other pipelines shall be protected, uncovered, temporarily
supported or temporarily relocated in accordance with the conditions
specified by the owner.
c) Where the shutdown of a service or pipeline cannot be avoided,
arrangements shall be made with the owner of the service or the
pipeline on the closure and reinstatement requirements.
d) Damages to any affected structure, service or pipeline shall be
avoided.
e) Damage to any structure, service or pipeline shall be informed to
the owner and shall be repaired as quickly as possible in accordance
with the requirements of the owner.
f) Damage to vegetation (trees, bushes, gardens), paved areas (roads,
footways, kerbs), fences or other property within the construction
zone shall be minimised.
g) The length of time that any paved route is out of use shall be
minimised.
h) Not more than half the width of a roadway shall be disrupted at any
one time.
i) Spoils shall not be placed on road surfaces. Where there is no other
approved storage area, spoil shall be carted away.
j) Non-reusable material excavated from roadways shall be disposed of
in an appropriate manner. Only fillings approved by the responsible
authority for the roads shall be used as refill.
k) Excavations shall be sufficiently clear of building foundations.
l) Excavations adjacent to roads shall be at least 1 m clear of the road
edge except when otherwise approved by the Commission.

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m) Trenches adjacent to roads, buildings and structures shall be


continuously supported until the trench is refilled.
n) Structures, services, vegetation, paving, or other property not within
the construction zone shall not be damaged.
o) Temporary fencing shall be provided where barriers such as fences
and walls are dismantled.
p) Warning signs and temporary fencing shall be provided at the work
site for excavation spoils, access routes, steep or loose slopes resulted
by excavation work.
q) Warning signs shall be in accordance with the relevant Malaysian
Standards. Some of the relevant Malaysian Standards are:
i) MS 980 Specification for safety signs and colours: colorimetric
and photometric properties of materials
ii) MS 981 Specification for safety signs and colour: colour and
design
iii) MS 982 Specification for safety signs, notices and graphic
symbols
r) Adequate lighting and reflective signals, which can make clearly
visible the perimeter of the work site to pedestrians and traffic, shall
be provided.
s) Adequate lighting shall be provided for works undertaken in poor
lighting or at night. Lighting in confined spaces shall be explosion
proof.
t) Alternative means of access shall be provided to rights of way,
buildings and property where usual means of access are disrupted
by the excavation.
u) Soils shall not be taken out of the work site, put onto pavements or
flushed down to drains or water courses.
v) Road drains, gutters and channels shall not be obstructed.
w) Drains disturbed by works shall be rerouted to ensure continual
operation.
x) Sufficient top soil that will be used for surface reinstatement shall
be removed and stockpiled separately.
y) When dewatering, care shall be taken to ensure that the adjacent
structures, services and building foundations are not affected.
z) Water removed from the excavation shall be disposed of without
damaging other property or causing a public nuisance.

3.3.2

Excavation Requirements

a) The required line of the sewer and manhole locations shall be set
out using accepted surveying practices.

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b) Manhole locations shall be pegged and the line of the excavation


between manholes shall be maintained straight using one or more
of pegs, chalk lines laser beam lines and string line.
c) Changes to the line, grade or level due to unforeseen obstructions
or proximity to services shall be approved by the Commission prior
to making the actual changes.
d) The trench shall be excavated precisely along the marked alignment
to ensure the sewer will be in the centre of the trench.
e) The trench shall be excavated to a depth so that the sewer can
achieve the specified level and grade when the specified bedding
depth is used.
f) Over-excavation of the trench depth shall be avoided.
g) For open excavation, depending on depth of sewer and soil condition,
sufficient slope protection must be provided and supported by approved
consultant drawings and design.
h) When the excavations are required to cross rivers, railway lines, and
any other obstructions, minimum soil cover requirements specified
by the responsible authorities shall be observed. In extreme cases,
inverted siphons may be necessary. Minimum requirements for inverted
siphons are shown in the standard drawings in the Appendix, and
they must be designed individually based on actual locations.
i) When working with poor ground conditions, construction depth shall
be minimised. Reference shall be made to the approved longitudinal
and cross-sectional sewer profile drawings, which give details of
construction based on soil reports.
j) The base of the trench shall be trimmed carefully to level and
grade.
k) Where sight rails are used to determine trench excavation depth, at
least three sight rails shall be used for each manhole length.
l) Sight rails shall be fixed to a uniform height above sewer invert.
m) Rocks that cause an uneven trench base shall be removed. The resulting
holes shall be refilled with the specified embedment material.
n) The trench in the pipe zone shall be excavated to the minimum width
limits as given in the specification, except where a wider trench is
needed due to unsupportive soil adjacent to the pipe zone.
o) The trench sides shall be vertical except where permitted otherwise
by the Commission.
p) To prevent trench wall from collapsing which may lead to injuries
and pipe damage, timber or steel support shall be provided in the
trench when the trench is deeper than 1.5 m. These supports must
be adequately designed for.

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q) Where possible, spoil shall be placed only on one side of the


trench.
r) Spoil shall be placed at an appropriate distance away from the
edge of the trench (minimum 600 mm). This is to prevent the spoil
material from falling into the trench or to prevent the weight of the
spoil from collapsing the trench wall.
s) Unsupportive (very soft, loose, spongy or puddly) soil in the base
of the trench (as determined by the Commission) shall be removed
and replaced. The replacement based shall be sufficiently supportive
and shall require approval from the Commission.
t) Excessive excavation shall be refilled with approved materials to
the specified compaction.
u) Where possible, the excavated trench shall be kept free of water until
sufficient backfill is placed above the sewer. This is to prevent the
base of the trench from becoming spongy and to prevent the pipe
from moving off line or grade.
v) Changes to the line, grade or level of the sewer shall be properly
recorded for incorporation in the as-constructed drawings. All asconstructed drawings, irrespective of whether there are changes to
the original design drawings, shall be certified by consultants and
shall include sufficient details, including as-built sewer invert levels.
These drawings shall be submitted to the Commission.
w) Excavation shall not proceed too far ahead of pipe laying to avoid
damages from flooding or spoil.
x) Excavation shall not proceed too far ahead of the required trench
support placing to avoid trench wall from collapsing.

y) Excavation shall comply with the relevant Occupational Safety and


Health Act (OSHA) requirements for safety.

3.3.3

Bored Excavation

a) The bore shall be on the line, level and grade and of sufficient
diameter to allow pipes to be inserted without over-stressing the
joints or damaging the pipes.

3.4

Pipe Laying

3.4.1

Pipe Bedding

a) Only approved materials are allowed to be used for pipe embedment.


They shall be in accordance to the approved longitudinal and crosssectional sewer profile drawings, which shall also provide details of
the designed bedding types.

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b) The bedding material shall be placed as soon as possible after the base
of the trench is prepared and excess water has been removed.
c) Granular bedding shall be placed, compacted and graded so that
it offers continuous support to the sewer. The compacting, where
required, shall achieve a uniform density.
d) A small hole shall be left in granular bedding for each socket, jointing
sleeve, flange, etc. that may project into the bedding. The holes
shall be of size that is just sufficient for projections to be clear of
bedding. Long and large holes that may undermine the pipe barrel
support are not allowed.
e) A recess shall be made in the bedding to permit the withdrawal of
the sling without disturbing the remaining bedding.
f) Where the bedding is disturbed, the pipe shall be raised again to
repair the bedding.
g) Pegs or other temporary aids to levelling shall be removed before
pipe laying.

3.4.2

Pipe and Fittings Placement

a) Before lowering the pipes into the trench, pipes shall be placed
next to the trench away from the trench edge. The pipes shall be
placed on the opposite side of the spoil beside the trench with their
sockets facing upstream. Where required, the pipes shall be blocked
or chocked to prevent any rolling.
b) Pipes and fittings (including linings, sheathings and protective
paintworks) shall be checked for damage before and after laying in
the trench.
c) VC pipes shall be carefully tapped at mid length and either end
with a wooden mallet or, otherwise, a metal bar. This is to detect
a clear ring that indicates soundness. This is best undertaken while
each pipe is lifted in free air with a lifting sling.
d) Pipe and fittings shall not be dropped into the trench. Instead, pipes
shall be lowered into the trench using approved slings.
e) Pipes shall be laid from the downstream end towards the upstream
end.
f) The laying of pipes shall proceed carefully to ensure the line, level
and grade are within the specified tolerances.
g) Pipes shall not be dropped or impacted forcefully into the bedding
to obtain the specified level or grade.
h) Concrete pipes with elliptical reinforcement shall be laid with the
load line on the vertical axis at the top or bottom position.
i) Holes made in granular bedding for projections of sockets, flanges,
etc. shall be lightly filled where necessary without pushing the pipe/
fitting off line, level or grade.

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j) Bedding shall be checked to ensure continuous support along the


pipe barrel. Further bedding material shall be placed to an even
height and uniformly compacted across the trench to ensure the full
support of the pipe haunch.
k) Pipes that are laid on concrete, grout, cement stabilised bedding or
connected to a concrete structure shall consist of a flexible joint at
the upstream end immediately outside such a zone.
l) Pipe level, grade and alignment shall be sighted using sight rails
and boning rod or laser and target. They shall be in accordance to
the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional sewer profile drawings,
which shall be submitted for approval before work at site is allowed
to begin.
m) The invert level of each pipe laid shall be checked during laying
and immediately after laying completion, and with reference to the
approved drawings.
n) Boning rods shall have a foot to rest on the pipe invert with a vertical
spirit level attached and shall not be more than 45 m apart.
o) The pipe interior shall be cleaned after laying and kept clean and
free of water.
p) The pipe ends shall be sealed with a tightly fitting plug immediately
after laying, cleaning of the pipe interior and at the end of the day
after laying.
q) The branch arm of the oblique branch junction fitting, if installed,
shall be laid in such a way that it is at approximately 45 off
horizontal level.
r) Junction fittings shall be properly supported using well compacted
crushed rock (or, where required, concrete). The coverage of the
support shall be across to the trench wall and into the junction
trench.
s) Branch connections shall be sealed with an approved plug where
connections are to be made at a later time.
t) Any pipe laid that is out of alignment either vertically or horizontally
or shows undue settlement shall be taken up and re-laid correctly.
u) Photographs shall be taken during pipe laying and after sewer pipe
laying for all lengths of pipes and manholes.

3.4.3

Pipe Jacking

a) Jacking method of pipe laying shall be employed only when the


conditions or the requirements of the responsible authorities require
such a method.
b) The pipes used for jacking shall be able to withstand the laterally
induced jacking stresses without damage.

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c) The setting out of the guide rails for the pipe and the actual jacking
operation shall maintain a high accuracy level of line and grade.
d) The direction and grade for jacked sewer shall not deviate from the
designed alignment for more than 100 mm for every 100 meters of
sewer.
e) All the joints used for connecting the jacked pipes shall be watertight
and durable.

3.4.4

Concrete Pipe Support

a) Concrete used shall be 20 MPa Portland cement concrete with a


slump no greater than 80 mm.
b) When purpose-made pre-cast concrete blocks are used, the block
shall have approximately the same width as the trench and shall be
positioned just behind each pipe socket. A compressible packer of
polystyrene or particle board shall be placed between the pipe and
the concrete block.
c) Concrete shall be poured in one lift.
d) Pipes shall be prevented from floating or other movement during
concrete pouring.
e) A space shall be left between the concrete supports for the pipe
socket by use of a polystyrene spacer of 20 mm minimum thickness.
This is to retain rotational flexibility at the joint.
f) The concrete support shall fit the pipe closely after hardening.
g) Concrete shall be allowed to cure for at least 7 days before applying
any load.
h) Where the trench base is soft or puddly, a blinding layer shall be
placed on the trench base before the concrete is placed.




3.4.5

Pipe Cutting

a) Only VC, HDPE, ABS and DI pipes are permitted to be cut in the
field. However prior approval from the Director General is required
should the HDPE helically wound profile wall pipe needs to be
cut in the field. All pipes shall be cut in accordance to approved
methods.
b) Rough edges and burrs shall be removed from inside and outside of
HDPE and ABS pipe with a rasp or file.
c) Pipes shall be cut in a neat and skilful manner by workers experienced
in pipe cutting.
d) Pipes shall be cut perpendicularly to the pipe axis.
e) Any damage to the cement lining of DI pipe shall be repaired to
the satisfaction of the Commission.

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3.4.6

Backfill of Trench

a) Selected excavated material shall be placed above the specified pipe


support until 300 mm above the sewer. They shall be in accordance to
the approved longitudinal and cross-sectional sewer profile drawings,
which also give the bedding details and the types of fill material.
b) Trench support shall be progressively removed as the backfill is
placed.
c) There shall be at least 300 mm of cover over the sewer before light
mechanical compaction can commence.
d) There shall be at least 1000 mm of cover over the sewer before
heavy mechanical compaction can commence.
e) For plastic pipe, a metallic marker tape shall be laid along the line
of the sewer at approximately 500 mm below the surface level.





3.4.7

Other General Requirements

a) Reference shall be made to the approved longitudinal and crosssectional drawings of sewer profiles of both gravity sewers and
force mains. These drawings submitted for approval must include
details of bedding types and manhole types, and their design must
be supported by soil reports.
b) Pipe laying shall be such that there is adequate access for operations
and maintenance of completed sewers, especially in undulating ground
profiles, with a minimum width of 6 metres, which shall be supported
by drawings with ground profiles during drawings approval stage.
c) For easy identification of underground forced sewer mains, their
layout shall be planted with marker posts at every 200 m length and
at every change of pipe directions. Valve chambers provided shall
have adequate access for operations and maintenance.
d) There shall be adequate site supervision of construction, and
at least these documents must be submitted before approval of
construction:
i) Photographs showing sewer pipe laying during an after construction
for all lengths.
ii) Testing certificates from the consultants (see Section 4 on Sewer
Testing)
iii) Supervision certification from the consultants
iv) As-built drawings certified by the consultants
e) The construction and installation works shall incorporate the
consideration of health and safety.

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3.5

Pipe Jointing

3.5.1

Flexible Joints

a) Joint components (i.e. spigots and sockets or sleeves and rubber


seals) shall be checked for damage after delivery, before and after
usage.
b) Every part of the rubber ring shall be bent by hand to detect
cracks.
c) VC pipe sockets shall be gently tapped with a wooden mallet
or, otherwise, a metal bar to detect a clear ring that indicates
soundness.
d) Steel sleeve collars used for jacking pipe shall be checked for damage
to the coating.
e) Pipe jointing surfaces and rubber seals shall be wiped clean immediately
before jointing using a clean cloth.

f) The rubber ring shall be placed correctly around the pipe joint.
g) The rubber ring shall not be twisted in any way prior to jointing
and shall be seated in the correct position.
h) For skid type of joints (i.e. the sealing ring remains stationary and
does not roll into place), the spigot shall be lubricated with an
approved lubricant.
i) The pipe to be jointed shall be aligned with the laid sewer before
pushing in the joint.
j) The pipe to be laid shall be orientated so that the offset inside the
pipe at the joint is minimise at the invert.
k) The pipe that is already laid and to be connected to another pipe shall
be restrained to prevent its pipe joints being further stressed and to
prevent the laid pipe from being pushed off grade or alignment.
l) Pipe joints shall be connected using a bar and block (crow bar and
a block of wood to protect the pipe end) or a pipe puller.
m) A machine bucket shall only be used to connect a pipe joint where
approval is given by the Commission. This method shall only be
used for large diameter pipes (larger than 600 mm diameter pipe)
where the jointing compression force makes it impossible to use a
bar and block or pipe puller. A timber shall be placed across the
pipe end to protect the pipe from damage. Pressure shall be applied
by the bucket gently while the insertion shall be carefully monitored
and directed by a person next to the joint.
n) No excessive force shall be applied to make the joint.
o) After pushing the spigot into the socket, the seal shall be checked
to ensure the seal is correctly located and the spigot is properly

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inserted. No contaminants are allowed between jointing surfaces.


The joint or pipe shall not have damage from jointing.
p) Any allowable deflections at joints shall only be made after the pipe
jointing is made.
q) Where a pipe is to be deflected at a joint, the deflection shall not
exceed the allowable limit for the specific type of joint.

3.5.2

Solvent Weld Joints

a) The socket and spigot shall be checked for damage before and after
jointing.
b) Damaged spigot ends shall be cut from the pipe with 100 mm
clearance to the damage. The spigot end shall be cut perpendicularly
to the pipe and any burrs shall be removed.
c) The spigot shall be inserted up to the witness mark.
d) If a witness mark is not already on the pipe, the mark shall be made
to ensure that the spigot is inserted to the appropriate length.
e) Witness marks drawn on site shall be made with a soft pencil or
felt pen marker that would not score or scratch the pipe.
f) The witness mark shall be of the depth of the socket and shall be
measured from the pipe end.
g) A dry fit of the joint shall be made before the jointing.
h) Jointing surfaces shall be wiped clean and dried with a clean
cloth.
i) Jointing surfaces shall be primed using an approved priming solution.
The priming shall be applied with a clean cloth or swab freshly
dipped in the fluid immediately before jointing.
j) A thin and even coat of solvent cement shall be applied to the socket
and the spigot, which should then be inserted up to the witness
mark.
k) The jointing surfaces shall not be contaminated with water, dirt,
etc.
l) The jointing shall be made immediately after the application of
solvent cement.
m) After the spigot is pushed firmly into the socket, the joint shall be
hold in the same position for at least 30 seconds without moving.
n) The jointed pipes shall not be moved for at least 5 minutes after
jointing. The jointed pipes shall be handled with extreme care for
at least another hour.
o) Joints shall be left to dry for at least 24 hours before pressure
testing.
p) Containers of solvent cement and primer shall be kept tightly sealed
when not in use.

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q) Solvent cement and priming fluid are highly flammable. Therefore,


the solutions shall be stored in a cool place away from any source
of spark or fire.

3.5.3

Flanged Joints

a) Flanges, particularly flange faces and rubber seal shall be checked


for damage before and after jointing.
b) Appropriate metal backing plates shall be used on plastic flanged
pipe.
c) Screwed-on flanges shall have the screw thread sealed with a
compound suitable for sewers.
d) Flanged ends shall be correctly aligned before jointing.
e) A steel bar or similar object shall not be used as a lever through
the flange holes to bring the bolt holes into line prior to bolting.
f) The rubber seal between flanges shall be made of an approved
compound and shall meet the specified requirements.
g) The flange faces and the rubber seal shall be wiped clean with a
cloth immediately before jointing.
h) Bolts shall be tightened evenly and gradually in rotation.
i) Bolts and nuts shall be tightened with a torque trench set at an
appropriate torque.
j) Plastic flanges shall not be distorted before or after jointing.
k) After pressure testing, metal flanges shall be reprimed and painted
with two coats of bituminous based coating in accordance with BS
4147 for below ground protection.

3.5.4

Steel Pipe Welded Joints (Field Welding)

a) The welded joint shall use a socket-spigot joint with taper sleeve
wherever possible.
b) Welding surfaces shall be cleaned to a bright metallic finish before
welding.
c) Welders shall be qualified in accordance with the requirements of
British Standard BS 4515 Specification for welding of steel pipelines
on land and offshore.
d) Welding procedures shall be tested, qualified and approved in
accordance with BS 4515.
e) Welds shall be inspected and tested in accordance with BS 4515.
f) After welding, exposed external surfaces shall be cleaned by sand
blasting or wire brushing. The dry surfaces shall be wrapped in
an approved manner with an approved wrapping tape to provide
corrosion resistance.

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3.5.5

Polyethylene Butt Welded Joints

a) The pipes to be joined shall be of the same grade of polyethylene


and of the same wall thickness.
b) The butt welding machine shall be of an approved type and shall
be fit for use.
c) The welding machine shall be sheltered from wind and rain during
the welding process.
d) A practice weld shall be performed and discarded to check the
operational effectiveness of the machine.
e) The pipe ends shall be trimmed square.
f) The ends to be jointed shall be kept free of dirt, grease and moisture
after trimming.
g) The heating plate shall be brought into contact with the pipe ends
only after it is at the correct temperature.
h) The pipe ends shall be held against the heating plate for the specified
time appropriate for that pipe size.
i) Immediately after the removal of the heating plate (no longer than
15 seconds after heating), the pipe ends shall be pressed together
with an appropriate pressure for a specified time appropriate for that
pipe size.
j) The joint shall be maintained clamped and pressurised in the
machine for a suitable period of cooling time (approx. 10 minutes
minimum).
k) After removed from the machine, the joint shall not be stressed until
it has completely cooled (approx. 10 minutes minimum).
l) The weld shall not be artificially cooled with cold air or water.
m) The external bead shall carefully be removed. The joint zone shall
be thoroughly checked.
n) A pipe end that has undergone a complete heating cycle but not
joined shall not be reheated. The unjoined pipe end shall be cut off
to at least 250 mm from the end.

3.6

Special Requirements for Sewer

3.6.1

Thrust Blocks for Pressure Pipelines

a) The thrust block shall be extended to approximately 180 around


the fitting.
b) The thrust block shall not cover a flexible joint.
c) The thrust block shall be constructed equally around the centreline
of the fitting.

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d) The thrust block shall bear firmly against a recess at the side of the
trench.
e) The trench face which the thrust block bears against shall be freshly
cut and undisturbed.
f) Each thrust block shall have sufficient bearing area.
g) Thrust block shall be cast-in-place with 20 MPa concrete.
h) For plastic pipe or pipe with a protective coating, a compressible
membrane of rubber, felt or cork shall be placed on the pipe to
protect it from damage from its movement in the thrust block.
i) Formwork shall be used to cast the thrust block to the required
dimensions.
j) Formwork shall be removed before any testing.
k) Reference shall made to the standard drawings for thrust block to
ensure proper shape and size, which must be designed for each
individual thrust blocks.

3.6.2

Pipe Restraints and Bulkheads on Steep Slopes

a) A bulkhead to prevent soil erosion shall be used where the gradient


of the sewer is steeper than 1 in 40.
b) A restraint to prevent sewer slippage shall be used where the gradient
of the sewer is steeper than 1 in 6.
c) The restraint or bulkhead shall be placed at the downstream side of
the socket.
d) Concrete bulkheads shall be keyed into the base and sides of the
trench by at least 100 mm.
e) A weep hole with the upstream end covered with a geotextile filter
shall be provided through a bulkhead immediately above pipe invert
to allow drainage of groundwater.

3.6.3

Pipe Embedment and Overlay

a) The embedment material type and its grading shall take considerations
of the sewer type or length.
b) Reference shall be made to the approved longitudinal and crosssectional drawings of the sewers showing the bedding types, which
shall be designed based on supporting soil reports.
c) Embedment material shall not be contaminated with other soils.
d) Embedment material shall be brought up evenly in layers on each
side of the pipe.
e) Each embedment layer shall be placed to a depth that permits the
compaction equipment to achieve the specified density.

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f) The pipe shall not be pushed off alignment, level or grade while
placing the embedment.
g) Where the embedment requires tamping, tamping equipment shall
not come into contact with the pipe.
h) Temporary trench wall support shall be lifted when the embedment
is compacted.
i) While placing the embedment for the pipe haunches, unnecessarily
voided areas shall be avoided.
j) At least 300 mm of cover shall be placed over the pipe before
light mechanical compaction, such as a hand operated whacker, can
commence.

3.6.4

Sleeving of Ductile Iron Pipe

a) Plastic sleeve shall be secured immediately behind the second spigot


jointing witness mark with three overlapping turns of adhesive tape.
After that, sleeve shall be tightly wrapped around the pipe by folding
over surplus sleeving. Then, the sleeving shall be further secured with
three winds of overlapping adhesive tape at one meter intervals.
b) The pipe shall be placed in the trench with the folding of the sleeve
located at the top of the pipe.
c) After the pipe jointing, the sleeve of the preceding pipe shall be
brought over to cover the socket and the cover shall follow the
socket outer surface closely.
d) The sleeve of the preceding pipe shall overlap the sleeve of the next
pipe. The sleeve overlap shall be secured with three overlapping
winds of tape.

3.6.5

Rocker Pipe Connections to Manholes

a) The rocker pipe connecting sewers to manholes shall have sufficient


cast insitu concrete surround and extended concrete base as shown
in typical manholes drawings in Appendix A.

3.7

Reinstatement

a) All structures, services, fences, drains, gardens, improved surfaces,


etc. disturbed by the construction shall be restored within 7 days
after backfilling. The restored conditions shall be as similar as
possible to their original condition. Also, the condition shall be to
the satisfaction of the Commission, other responsible authorities and
property owners.

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b) Where a structure or service is affected by construction, the trench fill


shall be compacted to the equivalent of that under a pavement.
c) Within 7 days after backfilling, fill over unimproved surfaces shall
be placed to a height that will make the filled surface level and the
adjacent undisturbed surfaces closely matching after settlement. All
contours shall be similar to the original condition.
d) Unimproved surfaces shall be levelled and settled to as near as
possible to their original condition in 30 to 40 days after backfill.
e) Road pavements and access ways shall be temporarily restored to a
safe condition, immediately after completion of backfilling. Then,
the pavements shall be permanently restored to as similar as possible
to their original condition within a time frame specified by the
responsible authority.
f) Extra excavated material, un-reusable excavated material and all
rubbish shall be removed from the site and legally disposed of.

3.8

Connections to Public Sewers

3.8.1

General

Severe maintenance problems are often caused by poorly made connections


to sewers. These may lead to blockages or failure of the sewer structurally.
The following procedures and formalities must be followed to ensure
integrity of the sewerage system.

a) The owner must seek the approval of the Commission for any
connections that involve physical work to an existing public sewer.
The initial notification must be made on the appropriate form.
b) Once approved, the owner may make the connection only if his
contractor is licensed by the Commission for this category of
work.
c) The type and location of connections shall be determined by the
Commission. The type of connection could be a connection to a
manhole or a connection to a sewer through junction or saddle
fittings.
d) The cost of the work in making the connection shall be borne by
the owner, regardless of whether the work is undertaken by his
licensed contractor or a licensed contractor employed by Services
Licensee.
e) The connection must be correctly made by the licensed contractor
under the supervision of an authorised inspection person.
f) When the connection is ready for inspection, the owner must notify
the Commission on the appropriate form. At the same time, he must

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give a copy of the notice to the authorised inspection person who


will make arrangements for the inspection.
For a development which contains several connections from individual
premises to the proposed public sewers within the development,
the connections may be deemed covered by the original technical
proposals. These individual connections will be inspected as part of
the routine inspection by the authorised inspection person.
The inspection by the authorised inspection person for the connections
to existing public sewers shall be subjected to a standard inspection
fee.
The design and installations shall incorporate the considerations of
health and safety
The difference between each premise platform level and the nearest
public sewer invert level shall not be less than 1.2 m to avoid
flooding of premises.

g)

h)

i)

j)

3.8.2

Junction Connections

Where an existing public sewer is circular and is of diameter DN 450


or less, any connection to that sewer may be made using a Y junction
fitting.

Where the location of future connections are known, Y Junction fittings


and the accompanying junction connection pipework may be installed at
the time of the public sewer construction.

The typical connection configuration of junction is shown in Figures


A.11 and A.12 of Appendix A.

Where no junction pipework exists, a Y junction fitting may be installed


by removing part of the existing sewer. The connection of such a junction
shall use flexible couplings.

3.8.3

Saddle Connections

Saddle connections may only be permitted where the existing sewer is


at least two pipe sizes greater than the proposed connection pipe. Only
saddles specifically designed for the type and size of the sewer to be
connected to shall be used. Also, the saddle used shall be approved by
the Commission.

Making a saddle connection is a highly skilled operation. Hence, only


licensed contractors who can demonstrate suitable qualifications and
experience are permitted to make this form of connection.

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The saddle must be purpose-made by off-site manufacture except when


the existing pipe size is 900 mm in diameter or greater, which other
forms of connection are preferred.

The saddles for concrete or vitrified clay sewers shall be bedded on


cement mortar (mix 3:1) with a depth not less than 40 mm below the
base of the saddle. A flexible joint shall be provided between the saddle
and the remaining connection pipe.

The hole prepared for the saddle connection on the existing sewer shall
not have any rough edges that might cause blockage. The location of
the hole on the pipe shall be at a 45 to 60 angle to the horizontal.
The hole shall be made at the middle of the pipe to avoid damages or
excessive loading to the existing sewer pipe joints. The existing pipe may
require extra strengthening by additional concrete surround to withstand
the extra load from the connection pipe and fittings.

The connection pipe must not protrude into the existing sewer.

Any debris falling into the existing sewer during the connection shall
be removed.

On completion, the saddle connection joint must be completely watertight


to prevent infiltration.

3.8.4

Manhole Connections

Manholes may be constructed on the public sewer for private sewer


connections where:

a)
b)
c)
d)

Where site conditions prevent manhole construction on the existing public


sewer, the manhole may be provided on the connection pipe as near to
the public sewer as possible.

good practice requires a manhole for ease of maintenance, or


the diameter of the connection pipe is 300 mm or greater, or
the public sewer is more than 4.5 m deep, or
the point of connection is more than 5 m from an existing or proposed
manhole.

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Sewer Testing

Sewer Testing

4.1

General

Sewers and ancillary works shall be tested and inspected for watertightness to prevent infiltration and exfiltration and to ensure the pipes
are laid correctly according to the designed straightness and grade. The
testing of the sewers and ancillary works before backfill will facilitate
the replacement of any identified faulty pipes and joints. The testing of
the sewers and ancillary works after backfill will reveal the leakages
caused by the displacement of joints and subsequent damage. The testing
shall be supervised by consultants and their testing certificates issued
by the consultants shall be submitted to the Commission before final
approval.

The tests that are required to be conducted are listed as follows:

I) Before Backfill


a) Gravity Sewer:

i) Exfiltration Test (either low pressure air or water tests).

ii) Check for straightness, obstruction and grade.

b)



Force Main:
i) Exfiltration Test (when required).
ii) High pressure water test.
iii) High pressure leakage test (following high pressure water
test).
iv) Check for straightness, obstruction and grade.


c) Manhole and others:

i) Visual inspection.

ii) Watertightness test (when required).

To prevent movement of the sewer, embedment material shall be placed


around and over the sewer prior to testing. The section of the joints
above spring line shall be exposed.

For pipe or part that is made of material that will deteriorate under the
sun, the exposed parts of the pipe shall be shielded from direct exposure
to the sun during testing.

The concrete used for supporting the pipe or resisting thrust shall be
cured for at least seven days prior to testing.

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II) After Backfill

Gravity Sewer:

i) Exfiltration Test (either low pressure air or water tests).


ii) Infiltration Test (when required).
iii) CCTV Test (when required).

Before and after any test, the sewer pipeline to be tested shall be clean,
which shall be flushed clean when necessary. Any leaks or defects
identified from any test shall be located and repaired. After testing has
been completed, the cleaned sewer shall be plugged at open ends to
prevent dirt or soil from getting into the sewer.

4.2

Testing of Gravity Sewers

The tests of gravity sewers are generally conducted to ensure there is


no leaks, damages, or laying errors.

An exfiltration test, which can be either a low pressure air test or a water
test shall be performed on the sewer before any concrete pipe encasement
or backfill. After backfilling, an exfiltration test is required again on the
sewer laid. In addition, an infiltration test shall be conducted if:

a) required by the Commission.

b) detected high groundwater table.

When infiltration has been confirmed by the infiltration test, light and
mirror method or CCTV may be used to isolate the locations of leaks.
If a CCTV inspection is conducted, a video and written record of the
CCTV inspection shall be provided to the Commission no later than 7
days after the inspection.

For gravity sewers, the sewer length to be tested shall be the length
between manholes or proposed manhole locations. The test length for
water test may be shorter where the gradient is so steep as to cause too
high a head at the downstream end. The pressure head on the sewer being
tested shall not be less than 2 m above pipe crown at the upstream end
and shall not be more than 7 m above pipe crown at the downstream
end.

When desired, the air and water tests may be undertaken on shorter
lengths of the laid sewer before backfill. This is to prevent any faulty
joint to go unnoticed until it is revealed by a test on the complete length,
which will be more costly and time consuming to rectify the defects.
Testing of shorter lengths may also be necessary where it is required to

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backfill the sewer to surface level quickly. This early backfill may be
encountered when there is wet weather, traffic crossings or site safety
requirements.

In every stage of the works, frequent tests of straightness and obstruction


shall be conducted, when required, to ensure there is no line obstruction
and the straightness or grade is correct.

4.3

Testing of Forced Mains

For pressure sewers, the normal tests during the sewer laying may include,
where required, the low pressure air or water exfiltration tests on short
individual sections. These low pressure air or water exfiltration test are
conducted, when required, to ensure that the joints are watertight.

As in gravity sewers, the force mains should be checked to ensure the


straightness is correct and to ensure no obstruction in the force mains.
Also, force main is required to be tested for its mechanical stability
through the high pressure water test. Its watertightness shall be tested
through high pressure exfiltration test. Before conducting these high
pressure tests, the sewer support and thrust block shall be allowed to
develop the sufficient strength. In addition, cautions shall be taken when
dealing with high pressure.

Where required, a CCTV inspection should be performed on the pipeline


after backfilling the trench. If a CCTV inspection is performed, a video
and written record of the CCTV inspection shall be provided to the
Commission no later than 7 days after the inspection.

For the high pressure water test, the test length will depend on:

a) the length which can be isolated effectively, i.e. suitable anchorage


for temporary end closures.
b) the time permitted to leave the trench open without backfill taking
considerations of weather, safety, traffic etc.
c) the location of permanent anchorages.
d) the maximum volume of water available to fill the pipeline.
e) the requirement to have the pressure at the highest point not less
than 0.8 times the pressure at the lowest point.

After taking the above considerations, initially a maximum of 300 m


length of pipe shall be laid and tested to verify that pipe laying practices
are to an acceptable standard. The maximum lengths for subsequent
tests may be progressively increased, as determined by the authorised
inspection person, but shall not exceed 1500 m.

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4.4

Testing of Manhole and Other Ancillaries

Manhole and other ancillaries shall be constructed in such a way that no


appreciable amount of infiltration or exfiltration will occur. When the
manhole and other ancillaries are constructed in an effective manner,
visual inspection is normally sufficient. However, manholes and other
ancillaries suspected of very poor workmanship shall be tested with
exfiltration test before backfill or concrete surrounded.

Connections between sewer and manholes shall be constructed with


extended cast-in-site concrete base and surround over the top of the
rocker pipe in accordance to the standard drawing attached.

Drop manholes shall be constructed in such a way that no appreciable


amount of blockage will occur with construction details as in the standard
drawings which provide for proper pipe outlets and proper sizing of drop
pipes.

A visual inspection is required on all the external and internal sections


of each manhole before backfill. Particular attention shall be given to:

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)
f)

The internal surfaces of manholes shall be inspected visually for sources


of infiltration after backfill and stabilisation of groundwater table. Manhole
covers and surrounds shall be checked for leakage of surface water.

4.5

Low Pressure Air Test

4.5.1

General

Low pressure air test is one of the two sewer exfiltration tests recommended
for sewer testing. The air test is quicker to conduct than the water test.
Furthermore, no large quantity of water needed to be disposed off after
the test. This test provides a quick mean for checking any damage pipe
or joints. Sometimes the test is conducted on a short length to prevent
damage pipe or joints from passing without noticed until the final sewer
test, which could be more costly and time consuming to rectify. However,
these tests on the shorter length should not replace the final test.

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the slope of benching.


joints to pipes.
transitions at entry and exits.
joints in the structure.
quality of concrete finish.
watertightness of manhole cover and surround.

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4.5.2

Procedure for Testing

a) Seal the open ends, including sideline ends, using approved plugs.
Strut the plugs to prevent movement. Provide temporary bracing
where necessary to prevent pipeline movement during testing.

(One of the end plugs will require a connection point to permit
injection of air).

b) Connect a hand or motorised pump to the pressure injection line
at the end plug. Pressurise the test length at a slow and constant
rate.

c) Use dial pressure gauges to measure pressure. Apply an air pressure
of:

i) 30 kPa for vitrified clay and reinforced concrete pipelines.

ii) 50 kPa for all other pipelines.

(Two gauges in series shall be used so that the accuracy of one
gauge can be confirmed by the other. The dial gauges shall be able
to be read to an accuracy of 0.1 kPa).

d) Wait five minutes for air pressure to stabilise due to temperature
absorption into pipe wall and other effects. Adjust the pressure to
the required test pressure during this period.

e) Check for leaks at plugs and test apparatus. Release the air pressure
where leakage occurs. Make necessary repairs and adjustments of
apparatus to prevent leakages. Repressurise the sewer pipeline in
accordance with the preceding steps again.

f) Start the test and record the pressure loss for the test duration after
the final gauge adjustment to the test pressure. Conduct the test for
the test duration given in Table 4.1.

Table 4.1 Test Duration


Pipeline
Nominal Size
150
225
300
375
450
525
600

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Test Duration
(minutes)
2
4
6
8
11
14
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g) Pass the test if the pressure loss over the test duration does not
exceed:

i) 7 kPa for vitrified clay and reinforced concrete pipes


ii) 2 kPa for all other pipes

4.5.3

Procedures for Handling Air Test Failure

I) Before Backfill

a) Readjust the pipe pressure to the specified test pressure and examine
for leakage by pouring a solution of soft soap and water over the
exposed joints if the test fail.
b) Repair leaks and repeat testing where leaks are found at joints.
c) Where leaks are not found at joints, move the plug, the one that is
not used to exert air pressure, along the pipeline to isolate lengths
with leakage. Uncover pipe barrels in the isolated lengths where
leakage in pipe barrels is suspected. Replace leaking pipe lengths
and repeat testing.
d) Conduct low pressure water testing to verify that the air test was
not erroneous where the test length fails the air test but no source
of leakage can be identified.

II) After Backfilling

a) Move the plug up from the other end along the sewer pipeline to
isolate the lengths that fail the air test.
b) Exhume the failed length of pipeline and replace pipe lengths.
c) Repeat the air test.
d) Conduct water testing to check that the air test was not erroneous
when failed lengths could not be isolated using the air test.
e) Use CCTV, when required or available, to identify the leakage if
the fail section can not be isolated by the air test or water test.

4.6

Low Pressure Water Test

4.6.1

General

The low pressure water test is commonly used for checking the watertightness of the joints and the integrity of the sewer pipes. Unlike the
high pressure water test, this test can not be used to check the mechanical
strength of the sewer pipe. Compared with low pressure air test, this test
requires more time to set up the test. Also, the water used for the test

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require disposal in an appropriate manner. However, this test will show


the location of the leaks more clearly than the low pressure air test.
4.6.2

Procedure

a) Seal the open ends, including sideline ends, using approved plugs.
Strut the plugs to prevent movement. Provide temporary bracing
where necessary to prevent sewer movement during testing.

b) Establish appropriate arrangements involving a standpipe to apply
the water head at the upstream end.

Acceptable arrangements include:

i) temporarily fitting a 90 bend to the upstream end, which should
then be connected with a vertical riser of straight pipe to used
as a standpipe.

ii) sealing the upstream end with a plug which has a connection
point for a hose, which can be connected to a tube acting as a
standpipe.

d) Fill in water from the upstream end. Ensure water head is not less
than 2 m above pipe crown at the upstream end and not greater
than 7 m above pipe crown at the downstream end. Shorten the test
length if the sewer gradient is so steep as to cause these water head
requirements not to be met.

e) Fill the sewer slowly to the required head and bleed air from behind
the upstream plugs.

(Air may be released by slightly loosening the plug and pushing in
a piece of wire between the seal and the pipe.)

f) Maintain the water head for two hours. Top up the water as
required.

g) Check for leakage at the plugs and the test apparatus during the
pressurising period and the constant pressure holding period. Release
the water pressure if leakage occurs. Make the necessary repairs and
adjustments before repressurising again.

h) Commence the test immediately after the last adjustment of water
head in the preceding two hours period.

i) Add water to maintain the starting water head every 5 minutes
during the test period of 30 minutes. Record the total amount of
water required for readjustment.

j) Pass the water test if:

i) the loss of water does not exceed 1 litre per hour per linear
metre per metre internal diameter for vitrified clay and reinforced
concrete pipes.

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ii) there is no loss of water for pipe other than vitrified clay and
reinforced concrete pipe.
iii) these is no visible leakage at the joints for all pipe types.

4.6.3

Handling Water Test Failures

I) Before Backfill

a) Readjust the internal water head to the specified test head if the
test section fails the water test. Examine visually for leakage at the
external surface of joints.
b) Uncover pipe barrels and inspect for leakage if leakage is not evident
at joints. Drain the water and move the downstream plug towards
upstream, where necessary, to isolate pipe lengths that fail the water
test.
c) Repair or replace pipes before repeating the low pressure water test
until the sewer passes the test.

II) After Backfill

a) Isolate pipe lengths that fail the water test by moving the downstream
plug towards the upstream end in sections when the test sewer fails
the water test. Alternatively, conduct a CCTV inspection, where
required, to identify the source of leakage if the source of leakage
can not be isolated.
b) Exhume failed pipe lengths and replace.
c) Repeat test until the sewer pipeline passes the test.

4.7

High Pressure Water Test

4.7.1

General

High pressure water test is normally used for testing the pressure sewers
and pipeworks within the pump station. The main aims of the test are
to ensure the mechanical stability of the pipe and joints can withstand
the working pressure. Since the test is conducted under high pressure,
the anchorage of the sewer is more critical than the low pressure tests.
Preferably, the test should be conducted before backfill. During the test,
the test pumps should not be subjected to hydrostatic pressure.

4.7.2

Procedure

a) Seal the sewer pipeline ends using test-end units consisting of short
lengths of pipe permanently fitted with caps or valves. Connected the

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b)


c)

d)

e)

f)
g)
h)

i)

j)

k)

test-end units to the test pipe section using a standard coupling,


which permits easy removal of test-end units after testing.
(The test-end units should have a valve with pressure gauge to
allow filling of the test length with water or for venting air. The
gauge shall be a conventional circular gauge not less than 200 mm
diameter and shall be able to read to an accuracy of 0.01 Mpa.)
For sewer on level grade, fit tees along the test length, where
necessary, to ensure all the air can escape. Fit air valves to such tees.
Remove air valves and blank off tees after the test is applied.
Fit the test pressure gauge at the lowest end of the test length.
(This prevents the test pressure from exceeding the permitted maximum
pressure in the test length.)
Place pre-constructed temporary thrust blocks behind the test end
units to brace against thrust from the test pressures.
(No temporary bracing is permitted along the sewer pipeline. All
specified thrust blocks must be constructed and left to cure before
testing.)
Fill the test length slowly with water through the valve at the lowest
test-end unit.
(The water shall be of fair quality and free from sediment. A firm
foam swab placed ahead of the water column will improve the
expulsion of air.)
Set all valves at high spots to vent air.
Close the air vents after thorough venting of all air.
Fill the test length with water. Leave the filled test length undisturbed
for 24 hours prior to testing to allow for absorption of water into
the pipes and /or jointing materials.
Wipe the exposed fittings and joints clean and dry and check for
leakage and other irregularities during this preparatory period. Check
also the test pipe for any appreciable movement and disturbance of
anchorages. Drain the water and repair any damage found. Repeat
the water filling again to start the test.
Pump more water into the test length to raise the pressure. Raise the
pressure slowly in increments of 1 bars, with pauses of one minute
between each increment until achieving the lower of:
i) the maximum rated pressure of the pipes laid, or
ii) 1.5 times the design operating pressure of the pipeline (includes
surge allowance)
Stop the test immediately should any appreciable drop in pressure
be noted during one of these pauses. Determine the cause of the
pressure drop. Drain the test length where repairs are required. Start
the test again after repairing.

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l) Pass the pressure test if there is no reduction from the test pressure
in the next 10 minutes after the test pressure is conducted. Do not
reduce the pressure as the high pressure leakage test should be
conducted immediately after this.

4.8

High Pressure Leakage Test

4.8.1

General

High pressure leakage test normally follows the high pressure water test
immediately. This is to avoid any unnecessary pressurising and water
filling, which could take time and is costly. The purpose of this test
is to ensure the pipe and joint will remain intact under the pressure
environment.

4.8.2

Procedure

a) Conduct the test immediately after the high pressure water test.
Maintain the following test pressures (whichever is lower) for 24
hours by pumping in make-up water if necessary:

i) The maximum rated pressure of the pipes laid, or

ii) 1.5 times the design operating pressure of the pipeline (includes
surge allowance).

b) Measure the amount of make-up water pumped into the pipe to
maintain the test pressure.

c) Pass the test if the measured amount of make-up water does not
exceed 0.1 litre per millimetre of pipe diameter per kilometre of
pipe per day for each 3 bars of pressure applied.

d) Reset the test pressure and check all visible joints to locate leakage
when the test length fails the test.

4.9

Test for Straightness, Obstruction and Gradient

The sewers shall be check for straightness, obstruction and gradient


whenever possible. For gravity sewers and force mains, the gradient and
straightness are important to achieve the designed velocity. The following
tests are recommended for testing the laid sewer:

I) Test for freedom from obstruction:

a) Visual inspection
b) Insertion of mandrel
c) CCTV inspection

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It should be noted that the visual inspection is only for checking a


short length. Sufficient lighting shall be provided when carrying out the
inspection. For checking a long sewer, insertion of a mandrel should be
adopted.

II) Test for grade and straightness

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

The first three methods will provide a more exact assurance for both
the gradient and straightness of sewers, which shall be used whenever
possible. The latter two methods will provide a rough idea on whether
the sewers are laid in certain gradient or straight, which should be used
only for a quick check.

4.10

CCTV Inspection

The following subsections outline details on how the CCTV inspection


requirements shall be implemented. These guidelines are also aim to
enhance professionalism in line with progress in sewerage field, and
promote efficiency and cost effectiveness as well as transparency and
accountability in sewerage system development.

4.10.1

Objectives of CCTV Inspection

a) Enable detection of sewer defects such as cracks, deformations,


collapse, dislocation and etc. which are not detected by normal
means.
b) As a quality assurance measure to ensure sewers and sewer appurtenances
are constructed in conformability with approved design, specifications,
workmanship as well as materials and fixtures used.
c) As a mean to establish record to enhance accountability and
professionalism on quality assurance for sewer construction.

Laser beams with sighting targets


Sight rails and boning rods
CCTV inspection
lamp and mirrors
Insertion of a smooth balls

4.10.2

Technical Requirements and References

a) Analysis of defects shall be based on WRc Manual for Sewer


Condition Classification Latest Edition.
b) Equipment and test devices to be used are as listed in Section
4.10.3.
c) For sewer with diameter larger than 1050 mm, man-entry CCTV
survey mode may be adopted unless it can be demonstrated that

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the CCTV can be maintained in a stable position on or near the


central axis of the sewer and images captured are satisfactory and
not distorted.
4.10.3

Equipment Specifications and Test Devices

4.10.3.1 Specifications for CCTV units equipment










a) Solid state colour CCTV camera with pan & rotate features, together
with a lighting unit, automatic date/ metre age.
b) A self powered tractor or crawler on which the camera is conveyed
along a pipeline under inspection in a stable manner.
c) Calibration chart for various sizes of sewer for the camera used.
d) Test device for the CCTV camera using Marconi Resolution Chart
No.1 or its derivative to demonstrate satisfactory performance of
the camera.
e) Test device for the monitor and video recorder to establish the
effectiveness and accuracy of the on-site monitor and video
recorder.
f) The control unit comprises the camera unit, crawler control and
screenwriter. This console can be mounted permanently in a vehicle
or use as portable system.
g) A video recorder for recording high quality video images.
h) A mean of producing still images from the monitor screen.
i) A PC-based site reporting system capable of producing reports
customised to the Contractors needs and to include photographs
captured directly from video.

4.10.3.2 Software Requirements


Software standardisation using databank software that can produce report


based on WRc format.

4.10.3.3 Report Format


Report in VCD or other digital form to be submitted in MPEG format


with minimum 352 x 240 pixels. Two copies of digital records and one
copy of hardcopy report shall be forwarded to the Commission.

For the diameter pipe greater than 600 mm, it shall have zooming
capabilities.

4.10.4

CCTV Inspection Requirements

The following areas are identified as the minimum coverage for CCTV
inspection.

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4.10.4.1 High Risk Areas


A 100% CCTV inspection shall be conducted for sewers laid in the ground
with high risk of failure and having the following characteristics:

a) Average depth of 6 m or more


b) Pipe diameter above 600 mm.
c) Areas that have restricted vehicular access for repair (e.g. central
business district).
d) Crossings under buildings, lakes, rivers, roads and railway including
their reserve.
e) Ground slopes greater than 30o inclination.
f) All sewers installed using pipe jacking method.
g) All diversion or re-alignment of existing sewer networks.
h) All single private developments (with PE > 30), connecting to existing
main sewer.

4.10.4.2 General Inspection Coverage (for Sewer, Manholes and Lateral


Connections)

a) Initial CCTV testing & inspection shall be conducted for a minimum


10% random selection of sewers including all manholes and lateral
property connections in accordance with standard procedure.

b) If the mandatory requirement of Clause 4.10.4.1 is less than 5% of
the entire development area, the minimum CCTV testing & inspection
is 10% as in Clause 4.10.4.2a. If the mandatory requirements of
Clause 4.10.4.1 is more than 5%, the minimum CCTV testing &
inspection shall have an additional of 10%.

c) Prior to taking over existing network that has been approved from
any owner or after rehabilitation works have been completed.

d) All new network undergoing intermediate inspection except:

i) single phase development with total sewer length less than
500 m long with no interval.

ii) vacuum sewer.
4.10.4.3 Stage of Inspection

a) Stage 1- All projects are to start with Stage 1 inspection where 10


% (by length) of sewer network and property connections involved,
shall be randomly selected and CCTV inspected.
b) Stage 2 - Should any Grade 3,4 or 5 conditions as defined in the
Manual for Sewer Condition Classification approve by the Commission,
found in Stage 1 inspection, the CCTV inspection shall proceed to

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4.10.5

Stage 2 inspection. Stage 2 inspections shall include another 40% of


the sewer network to be randomly selected for CCTV inspection.
c) Stage 3- Should any Grade 3,4 or 5 conditions as defined in the
Manual for Sewer condition classification approved by the Commission
found in Stage 2 inspection, the CCTV inspection shall proceed to
Stage 3 where by all the remaining network shall under go CCTV
inspection.
CCTV Inspection Implementation Procedure for New Sewer
Network

4.10.5.1 Activities to be Completed Before Submitting for Final


Intermediate Inspection


a) All construction works have been completed and tested by the


supervising qualified person.
b) Sewer networks have been cleared of debris and are ready for
inspection.
c) A CCTV Inspection Contractor licensed with the Commission has
been appointed to carry out the inspection.

4.10.5.2 Random Selection of Sewer to be Inspected



a) The list of sewer segments and house connections selected for CCTV
inspection shall be recorded and the parties witnessing the selection
process shall duly sign the record.
b) Names and designations of all persons involved in the random selection
process as well as the time, date and place where the selection were
carried out shall be recorded in the report on the random selection
process. Record of the sewer segments randomly selected for CCTV
inspection shall be included as appendix in the report.
c) The random selection process shall be completed in a single
session.

4.10.5.3 CCTV Inspection on Site




110

a) The CCTV inspection shall be carried out 7 days after notice issued
by the Commission.
b) Inspection shall be carried out within 24 hours after random selection
has been completed.
c) Once started, CCTV inspection for a project shall be carried out
without any break. Should for any reason a break/delay of more than
24 hours become necessary, the random selection process shall be
repeated to select the remaining sewer segments for the inspection.
Reasons for the break/delay shall be recorded.

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d) Representative from the Commission or authorized person, consultant


representative and contractor responsible for the construction of
the sewer shall be present at the onset of CCTV inspection at each
project site.

4.10.5.4 Documentation on CCTV Recording


a) At the start of the CCTV recording, the following details must be


recorded:

i) Date and starting time of inspection.

ii) Project name and location.

iii) Names and designation of persons involved (i.e representative of
the Commission or authorized person, consultant & contractor
and CCTV contractor).

b) At the beginning of each CCTV recording, every segment of sewer
shall be marked with their respective code number with chainage
together with the date, start and end times of the recording.

c) After the CCTV inspection and recording have been completed for
a project, a copy of recorded CCTV shall be handed over to the
Commission or authorized person immediately. Report on the CCTV
inspection together with the recording and recommendations shall
be prepared by the CCTV contractor and submitted to the relevant
Commission regional office or the appointed agency not more than
7 days after the date of inspection. The format of reporting shall
follow the standard that had been given (Appendix C). The copy
of the tape (or other recording media used to store the record)
containing the CCTV inspection records shall be submitted to the
Commission regional office or the appointed agency together with
a certificate duly signed by the qualified person responsible for the
CCTV inspection declaring the authenticity of the recording submitted
and that the CCTV inspection has been done in accordance with the
procedure stated in this guideline.
4.10.6

Interpretation of Results from CCTV Inspection

a) Classification : Grade 1 to Grade 5 as per the Commission approved

Sewer Assessment Classification. The defect grade description shall


follow the following colour code:
i) Grade 1: Green
ii) Grade 2 : Blue
iii) Grade 3 : Orange
iv) Grade 4 : Brown

v) Grade 5 : Red

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b) Grade 1 and 2 is acceptable constructional defects but may have

other minor defects. It can be accepted provided a performance bond


has been submitted and the contractor undertake to rectify the defect
within 30 days.
c) Sewer with Grade 3, 4 or 5 conditions has major structural defects
and shall not be accepted. Relaid of the affected sewer segments is
necessary.

4.10.7

Follow Up Action to Be Taken

a) For Grade 1 and Grade 2, the developer shall rectify and make

112

good to all the defects in 30 days. These rectification works shall


be witnessed by the parties concerned and agreed together that the
works had been completed. The Commission or the authorised person
may instruct CCTV inspection to be carried out again. Under these
grade classifications, the letter of recommendation for CFO will be
released by the Commission or the authorised agency.
b) For Grade 3, 4 or 5 classifications, the developer shall change, replace,
relay or reconstruct the rejected works. Further CCTV inspection
shall be carried out before acceptance. The letter of support for CFO
will be released upon acceptance.
c) In the events of any blockages, damages, seepages and etc to the
sewer networks during the defects liability period, the Commission
may require the developer to carry out further CCTV inspection to
determine the cause and extent of the problems that arises. CCTV
inspection shall be carried out immediately within 24 hours.
Table 4.2 provides the description of various defect grades

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Table 4.2 Defect Grades Descriptions


Grade 1
Occurances without damage and no cracks of pipe but only acceptable displacement on
joint where no visual infiltration can be observe
Grade 2
Constructional and sewer product deficiencies or occurances with insignificant influence
to tightness, hydraulic or static pressure of pipe, etc.
Examples: Joint displaced large; badly torched intakes; minor deformation of plastic
pipes (<5%); minor erosions; infiltration seeping; Cracks joint, circumference,
longitudinal; Debris, silt 15%; Encrustation light.
Grade 3
Constructional, operational and maintenance deficiencies diminishing static, hydraulic,
safety and tightness.
Examples: Infiltration dripping. (OMD); Open joint; untorched intakes; cracks; minor
drainage obstructions such as calcide build ups; protruding laterals; minor damages to
pipe wall; individual root penetrations; corroded pipe wall; flexible pipe deformation
(>5%); Lining defect.
Grade 4
Constructional and structural damages with no sufficient static safety, hydraulic or
tightness.
Examples: axial/radial pipebursts; visually noticeable infiltration/exfiltration; cavities
in pipe-wall; severe protruding; laterals severe root penetrations; severe corrosion of
pipe wall; Infiltration running; encrustation medium; minor deformation; flexible pipe
deformation >15%.
Grade 5
Major structural damaged where pipe is already or will shortly be impermeable.
Examples: collapsed or collapsed eminent; major deformation; deeply rooted pipe; any
drainage obstructions; pipe loses water or danger of backwater in basements etc.

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4.11

Infiltration Test

4.11.1

General

Infiltration is an extraneous flow not contributed from households. Although


design has allowed for certain amount of infiltration, a significant amount
of unexpected infiltration will overload both the collection sewers and
the sewage treatment plant. To avoid any extra infiltration, a test maybe
conducted on the gravity sewer laid. If the force main is significantly below
the groundwater table, an infiltration test is also highly recommended.
When severe infiltration is found during sewer laying, the source shall
be investigated immediately.

Infiltration test is normally conducted after backfill and after the


groundwater level has stabilised. The procedures are as follows:

4.11.2

Procedure

a) Plug the inlets at all upstream open ends, after the groundwater level

has stabilised following backfilling.


b) Measure any infiltration from the sewer to the manhole or within
manhole itself.
c) Conduct the measurement of infiltration for at least 24 hours.
d) Pass the infiltration test if the infiltration does not exceed 1 litre
per hour per metre diameter per meter of pipe run.

4.11.3

Handling Test Failures

a) Conduct a light and mirror test to identify the location of the

infiltration if the pipe is small and short.


b) Move an inflated rubber plug toward downstream end to isolate lengths
of leakage. Repeat the test procedure after each plug relocation
c) Conduct a CCTV inspection if the location of the infiltration can
not be identified by the light and mirror test or by the movement
of the inflated rubber plug.
d) Exhume and repair the fail section of the pipe.

4.12

Watertightness Test

4.12.1

General

Visual inspection is usually sufficient to ensure the watertightness of


manhole and other ancillary structures. However, watertightness test may
be required if:

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Instruction from the authorised inspection person.


Unsatisfactory features identified from the visual inspection.
Suspicion of poor workmanship or poor materials.
Leakages revealed from other tests.
Frequent surcharging of the structure is possible.

a)
b)
c)
d)
e)

The test should be carried out only after the structures have achieved
sufficient strength to withstand the test pressure. Where possible, the
test shall be carried out before backfilled or concrete surrounded.

For manhole less than 1.5 m in depth, the manhole shall be filled with
clean water to the bottom of cover. For manhole more than 1.5 m in
depth, the water head for the test shall not be less than 1.5 m or the
mean groundwater level, whichever is larger. For any other ancillary
structure, the water shall be filled to the top of the structure unless
otherwise specified by the authorised inspection person.

The procedures for testing the manhole are listed below. For other
ancillary structures, the procedures can still be adopted. However, the
height which the water level should be tested shall follow the instruction
from the authorised inspection person.

4.12.2

Procedures

a) Fit a plug or stopper in all the openings.

b) Secure the plug/stopper to resist the full test pressure.

c) Provide a mean to remove the plug/stopper from the ground level

d)

e)

f)

g)

safely if test water is allowed to be discharged to the downstream.


(The plug/stopper may need to be remove while the structure is still
full of water. Alternatively, a potable submersible pump might be
sunk into the test structure to remove the water.)
Fill the structure with clean water. Fill slowly to avoid any intense
pressure impact from the water.
Observe visually to identify any water leakage to the outside of the
structure. Drain the water to repair the leakage if necessary.
Otherwise, allow the water to stay in the test structure for 8 hours.
Investigate any appreciable water loss.
Drain and dispose of the test water from the test structure in an
appropriate manner and to a suitable location.

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

115

Appendix A

Appendix A

Figure A 1 : Standard Manhole Cover

HINGE DEVICE

Y
16mm BOLT
HOLE

STAINLESS STEEL
BOLT AND NUT
10mm , 100mm
LONG

BAHAYA

RUANG TERKURUNG
DILARANG MASUK

SEE DETAIL '2'

SEE DETAIL '1'

A
MODEL NO.
AND THE
MARKING " EN 124
CLASS D400 "

MANUFACTURER'S NAME AND


PLACE OF MANUFACTURE

SEE DETAIL '3'

EMBOSSED LOGO(SEE DETAIL '4')

DANGER

CONFINED SPACE
DO NOT ENTER

SERIAL NO.

DETAIL '2' & '3' : EMBOSSED DESIGN

LOCKING AND
LIFTING DEVICE

PLAN
TYPICAL DETAILS OF HEAVY DUTY
D.I. MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME

DETAIL '4' : EMBOSSED LOGO


Z

SECTION A - A
TYPICAL SECTION OF HEAVY DUTY

3mm 0.5

D.I. MANHOLE COVER AND FRAME


Z

ALL CORNERS
TO BE ROUNDED OFF

SECTION Z - Z

DETAIL '1'
( TYPICAL SURFACE DETAIL )

FILLED WITH NON-SHRINK


CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL /
PREMIX

10mm STAINLESS
STEEL BOLT

PRECAST R.C. MANHOLE

SECTION B - B

ANCHORING DEVICE WITH


12mm THREAD AND
16mm HOLE (ANCHOR
DEPTH : 50mm)

SECTION X - X : TYPICAL LOCKING DEVICE

SECTION Y - Y : TYPICAL HINGE

FILLED WITH NON-SHRINK


CEMENTITIOUS MATERIAL /
PREMIX

PRECAST R.C. MANHOLE

SECTION C - C

SECTION Y - Y : COVER HINGE OPEN AT 90

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

SECTION Y - Y : COVER HINGE OPEN AT MIN. 100

119

Appendix A

Figure A 2 : Plan View of Typical Manhole

120

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 3 : Typical Shallow Precast Concrete Manhole


LevelShallow
to Invert
of PipeConcrete
1.2 m Depth
< 2.5 m)
Figure(Ground
A 3 Typical
Precast
Manhole

(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2 m Depth < 2.5 m)

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

121

Appendix A

>

Figure A
TypicalShallow
ShallowPrecast
PrecastConcrete
Concrete Manhole
Manhole with
Figure
A4
4 :Typical
with Backdrop
Backdrop
(Ground
Level
to
Invert
of
Pipe
1.2m

Depth
<
2.5m)
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 1.2 m Depth < 2.5 m)

122

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure
TypicalMedium
MediumPrecast
PrecastConcrete
ConcreteManhole
Manhole
Figure A
A 55 :Typical
(Ground
Level
to
Invert
of
Pipe
2.5m

Depth
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5 m Depth << 55m)
m)

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

123

Appendix A

>

FigureAA66 Typical
: TypicalMedium
MediumPrecast
PrecastConcrete
Concrete Manhole
Manhole with Backdrop
Figure
backdrop
(Ground
Level
to
Invert
of
Pipe
2.5m

Depth
<
5m)
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 2.5 m Depth < 5 m)

124

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

FigureAA77Typical
: Typical
Deep
Precast
ConcreteManhole
Manhole
Figure
Deep
Precast
Concrete
(Ground
Level
to
Invert
of
Pipe
5m

Depth
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5 m Depth 99m)
m)

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

125

Appendix A

>

Figure A8
A 8Typical
: TypicalDeep
DeepPrecast
PrecastConcrete
ConcreteManhole
Manhole with
with Backdrop
Backdrop
Figure
(Ground
Level
to
Invert
of
Pipe
5m

Depth

9m)
(Ground Level to Invert of Pipe 5 m Depth 9 m)

126

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 9 : Typical Details of Large Diameter Manhole (LDM) Type

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

127

Appendix A

Figure A 10 : Typical Induct Vent Detail

Induct Vent

Centreline of manhole

150 Min.

750 Min.

Inside face of Manhole

150 Min.

Column Support

Notes :
1. All dimmensions are in millimetres.
2. Diameter of induct vent shall be approximately 1/2
of the forcemain but shall not exceed 300mm.

128

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 11 : Details of Household Connection to Main Sewer Reticulation


Pipe for V.C. Pipe

VARIES

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

129

Appendix A

Figure A 12 : Typical Details of Concrete Thrust and Anchor Block

130

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 13(a) : Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer


Figure A 13a : Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

131

Appendix A

Figure A 13(b) : Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer


Figure A 13b : Typical Details of Inverted Siphons or Depressed Sewer

132

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 14a
14(a): Typical
: TypicalDetails
Details
Force
Main
Scour
Valve
and
Receiving
forfor
Force
Main
Scour
Valve
and
Receiving
Manhole
Manhole

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

133

Appendix A

Figure A 14(b) : Typical Details for Force Main Air Valve


Figure A 14b : Typical Details for Force Main Air Valve

134

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 15 : Typical Detail of Force Main Crossing

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

135

Appendix A

Figure A 16(a) : Standard Pipe Beddings


Figure A 16a : Standard Pipe Beddings

136

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 16(b) : Standard Pipe Beddings


Figure A 16b : Standard Pipe Beddings

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

137

Appendix A

Figure A 17 : Vacuum Sewage Collection System

sewage treatment works


vacuum station
vacuum sewer

Figure A 18 : House Connection

gravity lateral sewer

crossover pipe

vacuum sewer

collection chamber

138

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

incoming sewer
mains

suction pipe from


washdown sump

washdown sump

service platform

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3
up

sight glass

service platform

discharge
pumps

non-return valve

force main

chart recorder

PLAN

handrail

vacuum pumps

moisture trap

control panel /
telemetry system

vacuum gauges

fuel tank

standby diesel
generator

AMF board

fire-fighting system

toilet

biofilter

Appendix A

Figure A 19 (a) : Example Of Vacuum Station With Housed Collection


Vessel

139

bypass
connection

vacuum take-off pipe


to vacuum pumps

140

Volume 3
discharge
pumps

vacuum vessel

moisture trap
drainage pipe

moisture trap

ELEVATION

vacuum pump

cast in-situ
plinth

ABS suction pipe

ABS pipework to
vacuum pumps

ABS vacuum exhaust


pipework to biofilter

biofilter media

Appendix A

Figure A 19 (b) : Example Of Vacuum Station With Housed Collection


Vessel

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 20 (a) : Collection Chambers With Interface Valves Vented


Through Breather Pipes

hingged D.I. manhole cover

breather pipe

breather pipe

heavy duty cover


slab
fall

interface
valve

valve controller

heavy duty cover


slab
fall

chamber ring

interface
valve

to vacuum sewer

landing slab

chamber ring

to vacuum sewer

landing slab
gravity lateral swer

150mm thick
concrete surround

gravity lateral
sewer

sensor pipe
suction pipe

sensor pipe

chamber ring
with base and
conical
benching

suction pipe

150mm thick
concrete surround

Figure A. 20 (b) : Collection Chamber With Interface Valve Activated By


Float

hingged D.I. manhole cover

heavy duty cover


slab
chamber ring
to vacuum sewer
interface valve

landing slab
float
150mm thick
concrete surround

chamber ring
with base and
conical
benching

suction pipe

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

141

Appendix A

Figure A. 20 (c) : Multi-valve Collection Chamber

hingged D.I. manhole cover

heavy duty cover


slab
chamber ring

A
landing slab

150mm thick
concrete surround

chamber ring with


base and conical
benching

Plan

gravity lateral sewer


breather pipe

150mm thick
concrete surround

Section A - A

142

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 21: Vacuum Sewer Profiles (not to scale)

300mm

0.2% min. slope

150m

flow

100-200mm

150m

flow

15m

10m

15m

100-200mm

10m

10m

flow
L/2

L/2

L/2

L/2
L

Figure A. 22 : Example of Vacuum Sewer Profiles For Uphill and Downhill


Transport (Not To Scale)

flow

0.2% min.
slope

6m min.

flow

0 .2

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

%m

Volume 3

in . s

lo p e

143

Appendix A

Figure
: Y-Branch
for
Vacuum
Sewer
Figure
AA
2323
: Y-Branch
for
Vacuum
Sewer

Direction
of flow
Direction
of flow

branch
branch

60 60

vertical
angle
vertical
angle

flow

flow

Figure
: Method
Joining
Crossover
Pipes
and
Branch
Sewers
Figure
AA
2424
: Method
ofof
Joining
Crossover
Pipes
and
Branch
Sewers
toto
Vacuum
Mains
Vacuum
Mains

45 elbow
45 elbow
45 elbow
45 elbow

45 elbow
45 elbow

vacuum
vacuum
mainmain
flow flow

flow flow

Plan
Plan
crossover
/
crossover
pipe pipe
/
branch
sewer
branch
sewer

flow flow

flow flow

flow flow
vacuum
vacuum
mainmain

Elevation
Elevation

45fitting
`Y' fitting
45 `Y'
be fabricated)
(may(may
be fabricated)

min. cover
900mm
min. cover
900mm

ground
ground
levellevel

flow flow

flow flow

60 max
60 max

End
View
End
View

144

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 25 : Typical Details of Dry-well Pump Station


OVERFLOW PIPE DISCHARGE
TO MONSOON DRAIN

OVERFLOW CHAMBER
DRAIN

RAMP DOWN

CONC. APRON LAID TO FALL

3 LAYER CONC. VENTILATION


BLOCK AT TOP AND BOTTOM LEVEL

LIQUID RETURN FROM OTHER UNIT PROCESSES

WP

FORCEMAIN
MECHANICAL COARSE SCREEN

GATE VALVE.

INCOMING SEWER
AIR EXTRACTOR FAN

14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21

R.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL

G.I CHAIN GUARD.

G.I CHAIN GUARD


PENSTOCK
GRATING COVER

3 LAYER CONC.
VENTILATION BLOCK
AT TOP AND BOTTOM
LEVEL

CHECK VALVE.

CONC. THRUST BLOCK.

12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

EXTRACTOR FAN
R.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL.
CONCRETE VENTILATION
BLOCK AT TOP AND BOTTOM LEVEL

DN

CHAIN GUARD.

DN
13 12 11 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23

CONC. THRUST BLOCK.

ADJUSTABLE GLASS
LOUVRES WINDOW

SPOT LIGHT
CHEQUER PLATE
DOOR

BRICKWALL C/W CEMENT


PLASTER ON BOTH SIDES
DRY PIT PUMPS

PLAN VIEW
COPPER TYPE
LIGHTNING ARRESTOR

LIFTING I-BEAM C/W


CARRIER

RAIN WATER DOWN PIPE


TO NEAREST SUMP

MECHANICAL COARSE SCREEN

PENSTOCK
HANDRAIL

R.C GUTTER TO ENGR'S DETAIL

DOOR

SCREENINGS COLLECTION BIN

BRICKWALL C/W
CEMENT PLASTER ON BOTH SIDES
WINDOW

CHEQUER PLATE

3 LAYER CONC. VENTILATION


BLOCK

HANDRAIL
R.C STAIRCASE TO ENGR'S DETAIL

WET WELL

DRY WELL

PERFORATED SLAB
CAT LADDER
OPENINGS

INCOMING SEWER

(FLOAT SWITCH)

CHECK VALVE

2nd. STANDBY PUMP START


2nd. DUTY PUMP START

GATE VALVE

1st.. DUTY PUMP START

ALARM
1st. STANDBY PUMP START

ALL PUMP STOP

STOP LOG

SUMP BWL

N.B. : The discharge level for dewatering pump shall be


higher than the invert level of overflow pipe to prevent
sewage from back flowing into the dry well during
flooding

DEWATERING PUMP

DRY PIT PUMPS

SECTION VIEW

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

145

Appendix A

Figure A 26 : Typical Detail of Wet-well Pump Station

146

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 27 : Buffer Zone for Pump Station with Super Structure

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

147

Appendix A

Figure A 28 : Buffer Zone for Pump without Super Structure

148

Volume 3

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Appendix A

Figure A 29 : Standards Symbols and Abbreviations


Figure A. 29 : Symbols

Symbols

PI PE

BUILDING (WOODEN OR

BUILDING
(MASONRY)

DN 375 R.C.P
DIRECTION OF

DN 375 R.C.P

1:80

1:72

PROPOSED MANHOLE AND


SEWER IN PLAN

SEW ER

GATE
POND

P ON

PROPOSED MANHOLE AND SEWER IN


PROFILE

FIRE

PAVED
RAIL
ROAD
CULVER

EXIST ING MANHOLE AND SEWER IN


PLAN

BRIDGE
PAVED CHANNEL AND FLOW
EXIST ING MANHOLE AND SEWER IN
PROFILE

UNPAVED SIDE
SLOPES
CHAINLINK
FENCE
UT ILIT Y

GAS

T ELEPHONE
POLE
ELECT RIC

STREET

ELECT RICAL T RANSMISSION LINE OR


CONDUIT (GENERALLY 1m DEEP)

T ELEPHONE CONDUIT
(GENERALLY 1.5m DEEP)

LIGHT SIDE
P OLE SIDE

PROPERT Y, LOT OR RESERVE

PROVISION FOR BACKDROP FOR


SEWER CONNECT ION

SEPT IC
T ANK
ST

WATER MAIN (GENERALLY 1m DEEP)

PROVISION FOR T -JOINT FOR


SEWER CONNECT ION

BOREHOL

Abbreviations
A.C.P.
C.I.
CH.
CL.
CONC.
CRS
D.I.
DIA.()
D.M.H.
DN.
DRG.
EXIST.
GD.
GR.
H.A.
HORZ
I.D.
INV.
JLN.
KG.
LRG.
LT
MAX.
M.H.
MIN.
MOD.
NO.

ASBESTOS CEMENT
CAST
CHAINAG
CLASS
CONCRET
CENTRE
DUCTILE
DIAMETE
DROP
NOMINAL
DRAWIN
EXISTIN
GROUND
GRADE
HIGH
HORIZONTA
INSIDE
INVER
JALAN
KAMPUN
LORON
LEFT
MAXIMU
MANHOL
MINIMU
MODIFIE
NUMBE

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

N.T.S.
O.D.
R.C.
R.C.P
RET.
RT
S
SG.
SHT.
SPEC
STD.
SCW.
STL.
STA.
TYP.
VAR.
VERT.
V.C.P
HDPE

Volume 3

NOT TO
OUTSIDE
REINFORCED
REINFORCED CONCRETE
RETICULATION
RIGHT
SLOPE
STREAM OR
SHEET
SPECIFICATIO
STANDAR
STANDARD CUT-OUT
STEEL
STATIO
TYPICA
VARIE
VERTICA
VITRIFIED CLAY
HIGH DENSITY

149

Appendix B

Appendix B
Appendix B

Classes of Rigid Pipe Required for Various Depth

CLAY PIPE

TABLE B.1
CLASSES OF RIGID PIPE REQUIRED FOR VARIOUS DEPTH

Table B1

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3

Volume 3

Page 127

153

Appendix C

Appendix C
Appendix C

Appendix C 1

Report format for CCTV Inspection

Contractor :

Project-Information
Project Name :

Client
Contact
Position
Road
Town
State
Telephone
Fax
Mobile
E- Mail

Site
Contact
Position
Road
Town
State
Telephone
Fax
Mobile
E-Mail

Contractor
Contact
Position
Road
Town
State
Telephone
Fax
Mobile
E-Mail

Project Number :

Contact :

Date :

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:
:

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Volume 3
Volume 3

157

Page 129

Appendix C
Appendix C

Appendix C 2

Report format for CCTV Inspection

Contractor :

Inspection Report
Date:

Job nr:

Weather

Operator

Section Number

PLR:

Present:

Vehicle:

Camera:

Preset:

Cleaned:

Grade:

Road:

Division:

Start MH:

Place:

District:

End MH:

Location:

Tape No.:

Total Length:

Purpose:

Size/Shape:

Use:

Material:

Catchment:

Lining:
Category:

Comment:
Location details:
Slope

Position Code

Observation

Counter

Photo

Grade

MH
No.

130
158

Volume33
Volume

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry
Industry Guidelines
Guidelines

Appendix C
Appendix C

Appendix C 3

Report format for CCTV Inspection

Contractor :

Inspection Photos
Town :

Road :

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Date :

Volume 3
Volume 3

Section Nmber :

PLR :

159

Page 131

160132

End MH

(mm)

Pipe Dia.
Material

Pipe
Length (M)

Seeping

Dripping

Infiltration
Running

Volume
3 3
Volume

Date Of Report :

Prepared By :

( Name : Qualified Person & Company)


Date Of Report :

Prepared By :

Wide
Joints

Fractures

Cracks or
Others

( Name : Qualified Person & Company)

When more than one defect is recorded at the same chainage, the most severe defect is counted.

Start MH

To MH :
Comments

Date

Approved By : ( Qualified Person )

Total

Section

Appendix C 4

N.B :

Item

From MH :

DEFECT SUMMARY OF PIPE SECTIONS INSPECTION

Appendix C

Appendix C

Report format for CCTV Inspection

Malaysian
Sewerage
Malaysian
Sewerage
Industry
Guidelines
Industry
Guidelines

Appendix C
Appendix C

Appendix C 5

Report format for CCTV Inspection

DEFECT SUMMARY OF PIPE SECTIONS INSPECTION


From MH :
Item
No.

Start MH

To MH :
Finish MH

Position
(M)

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations


Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

Code

Description

Volume 3

Volume 3

Grade

161

Page 133

162

5.31
5.31
5.31
5.32

5.62

SURFACE
DAMAGE
Missing Wall
Mechanical
Chemical Attack
Not Evident

POINT REPAIR

Pipe Replaced
Defective
Patch Repair
Not Evident

SRIM
SRIC
SRIZ

SMV
SMWM
SMWC
SMWZ

RP

RPR
RPRD
RPP
SMWZ

Volume 3

134

SRI

5.62
5.62
5.62
5.32

5.30

5.31
5.31
5.32

5.30

5.30

SURFACE
DAMAGE
Roughness
Increased
Mechanical
Chemical Attack
Not Evident

5.1
5.2
5.2
5.2
5.2

CRACK
Longitudinal
Circumferential
Multiple
Spiral

C
CL
CC
CM
CS

SURFACE
DAMAGE
Surface Spalling
Mechanical
Chemical Attack
Not Evident

SURFACE
DAMAGE
Aggregate Visible
Mechanical
Chemical Attack
Not Evident

FRACTURE
Longitudinal
Circumferential
Multiple
Spiral

RP POINT REPAIR
(continues)
RPL Localized Pipeliner
RPLD Defective
RPZ Other

SSS
SSSM
SSSC
SSSZ

SAV
SAVM
SAVC
SAVZ

F
FL
FC
FM
FS

Section 5 - Structural Defect Coding (Module 6A)

5.62
5.62
5.62

5.62

5.31
5.31
5.31
5.32

5.30

5.30
5.31
5.31
5.32

5.30

5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7
5.7

SZ
SZM
SZC
SZZ

SAPM
SAPC
SAPZ

SAP

SURFACE
DAMAGE
Other
Mechanical
Chemical Attack
Not Evident

SURFACE
DAMAGE
Aggregate
Projecting
Mechanical
Chemical Attack
Not Evident

B BROKEN
BSV Soil Visible Beyond
Defect
BVV Vold Visible Beyond
Defect

5.31
5.31
5.31
5.32

5.30

5.31
5.31
5.32

5.30

5.30

5.14

5.14
5.14

SURFACE
DAMAGE
5.31
5.31

5.30

5.31
5.31
5.32

5.30

5.30

5.16

5.16
5.16

LFD
LFDE
LFB
LFCS
LFAC

LF

SRVM
SRVC
SRVZ

SRV

DH

D
DV

Detached Lining
Defective End
Blistered Lining
Service Cut Shifted
Abandoned
Connection

LINING FAILURE

SURFACE
DAMAGE
Reinforcement
Visible
Mechanical
Chemical Attack
Not Evident

DEFORMED
Deformed Vertically
(brick)
Deformed
Horizontally (brick)

Modules

Volume 3

SURFACE
DAMAGE
Aggregate
Missing
Mechanical
Chemical Attack
Not Evident

SCP Corrosion
(metal pipe)

SAMM
SAMC
SAMZ

SAM

H HOLE
HSV Soil Visible Beyond
Defect
HSV Vold Visible Beyond
Defect

Appendix C 6

5.44
5.44
5.44
5.44
5.44

5.44

5.31
5.31
5.32

5.30

5.30

5.18

5.18
5.18

LINING FAILURE
(continue)
Overcut Service
Undercut Service
Buokled Lining
Wrinkled Lining

SURFACE
DAMAGE
Reinforcement
Projecting
Mechanical
Chemical Attack
Not Evident

LFZ Other

LFOC
LFUC
LFBK
LFW

LF

SRPM
SRPC
SRPZ

SRP

COLLAPSE
Pipe Collapse
Brick Collapse

X
XP
XB

5.22

5.44

5.44
5.44
5.44
5.44

5.44

5.31
5.31
5.32

5.30

5.30

5.22
5.22

SURFACE DAMAGE

JOINT
Joint Offset (Displaced)
Joint Separated (Open)
Joint Angular

Longitudinal
Circumferental
Multiple
Spiral

5.56

5.56
5.56
5.56
5.56

5.56

5.31
5.31
5.32

5.30

5.30

5.25
5.25
5.25
5.25

Malaysian Sewerage

WFZ Unidentified

WFL
WFG
WFM
WFS

WF WELD FAILURE

SAPM Mechanical
SAPC Chemical Attack
SAPZ Not Evident

SAP Aggregate Projecting

J
JO
JS
JA

Appendix C

Appendix C

Malaysian Sewerage
Industry Guidelines

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

INFILITRATION
Weeper
Dripper
Runner
Gusher

DEPOSIT
Attached
Encrustation
Grease
Ragging
Other

6.13
6.13
6.13
6.13
6.13

6.1
6.1
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2

OBSTACLES/
Obstructions
Brick or Masonry

DEPOSIT (continue)
Settled
Fine
Gravel
Hard/Compacted
Other

Volume 3

ACCESSPOINT
Manhole
Wastewater Access
Discharge Point
Tee Connection

TFA
TFC
TFD
TFL

A
AMH
AWA
ADP
ATC

TAP (continue)
Break in/Hammer
(connection)
Intruding
Active
Capped
Defective
Leaking

ACCESSPOINT
(continue)
AOC Other Special
Chamber
AM Meter
AWW Wet Well
AJB Junction Box

TBI
TBA
TBC
TBD
TFL

7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2

7.13
7.13
7.13
7.13
7.13

T
TB

7.1
7.1

ACCESSPOINT
Cmaera Underwater
General Observation
General Photograph

8.1
8.1
8.1
8.1

MJL

MSC

MISC.FEATURES
(continue)
Shape/Size Change
(Sewer Dims/
Vertical/Horizontal)
Pipe Joint Length

Sewer Networks and Pump Stations

M
MCU
MGO
MGP

Section 8 - MiscellaneousFeatures Coding (Module 6D)

TAP
Factory Made
(junction)
Active
Capped
Defective
Leaking

T
TF

6.19
6.19

6.1
6.2
6.2
6.2
6.2

8.1

8.1

8.1
MLC
MMC
MSA
MWL

ACO
ACOM
ACOP
ACOH

7.14
7.14
7.14
7.14

TSI
TSA
TSC
TSD
TSL

T
TS

MISC.FEATURES
(continue)
Lining Change
Material Change
Survey Abandoned
Water Level

ACCESSPOINT
(continue)
Clean Out
Machine
Property
House

TAP (continue)
Saddle
(connection)
Intruding
Active
Capped
Defective
Leaking

OBSTACLES/
Obstructions (cont)
OBI Object protruding
through wall
OBI Object wedged
in joint

OB

D DEPOSIT (continue)
DN Ingress
DNF Fine Material
(silt & sand)
DNGV Gravel
DNZ Other

7.13

7.1
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2

OBM Pipe Material in Invert 6.19

OBB

OB

D
DS
DSF
DSG
DSC
DSZ

Section 7 - Construction Features Coding (Module 6C)

I
IW
ID
IR
IG

D
DA
DAE
DAGS
DAR
DAZ

Section 6 - Operational and Maintenance (Module 6B)

8.10
8.10
8.20
8.2

8.1

7.14
7.14
7.14
7.14

7.13

7.10
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2
7.2

6.19

6.19
6.19

6.3
6.3

6.1
6.1
6.3

ROOTS
Fine
Barrel
Lateral
Connection

ACCESSPOINT
(continue)

8.2
8.2
8.2
8.2

8.1

7.14
7.14

7.13

7.8
7.8
7.8

7.8

Volume 3

MISC.FEATURES
(continue)
MWM Water Mark
MY Dye Test
MYV Dye Visible
MYN Not Visible

ACB Catch Basin


AEP End of Pipe

IS INTRUDING
SEAL MATERIAL
ISSR Sealing Ring
ISSRH Hanging
ISSRB Broken

6.19

6.19
6.19

6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7

OBSTACLES/
Obstructions (cont)
Built into structure
Construction Debris
Rocks
Other

ROOTS (continue)
Tap
Barrel
Lateral
Connection

IS INTRUDING
SEAL MATERIAL
ISGT Grout
ISZ Other

OBS
OBN
OBR
OBZ

OB

R
RT
RTB
RTL
RTC

Modules (Cont)

OBSTACLES/
Obstructions (cont)
OBC Object through
connection/juriction
OBP External Pipe Cable

OB

R
RF
RFB
RFL
RFC

Appendix C 6

7.8
7.8

7.8

6.19
6.19
6.20
6.20
6.20

6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7

LL
LLLU
LLD
LR

VR
VC
VZ

R
RM
RMB
RML
RMC

Left
Left & Up
Left & Down
Left & Right

(of sewer)

LINE

Rat
Cockroach
Other

VERMIN

ROOTS (continue)
Medium
Barrel
Lateral
Connection

7.11
7.11
7.11
7.11

7.11

6.31
6.31
6.31

6.31

6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7
6.7

ROOTS (continue)
Ball
Barrel
Lateral
Connection

Page 135

LINE
(of sewer)
(continue)
LRU Right & Up
LRD Right & Down
LU Up
LD Down

R
RB
RBB
RBL
RBC

Appendix C

Appendix C

163

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