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Gas Turbine Training Manual


The following flow chart pertains to typical operation of a Frame 6 gas turbine unit designed
for generator drive application. The differences from unit to unit (which are based on the
specific requirements of each unit) are not discussed here. Refer to the project or unit
specific documentation for more details.

Operational information includes startup and shutdown sequencing in the auto mode of
operation. This is intended to cover normal operation and assumes that initial startup,
calibration and checkouts have been completed and that the turbine is in the stand by mode
ready for operation with ac and dc power available for all equipment, and all annunciators
are cleared.

The following flow chart lists operator control system and machine actions or events in the
starting sequence of the gas turbine.

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Gas Turbine Training Manual


Operator Selects ‘ Normal ‘ Display

“ Not Ready to Start” } Displays
“Off Cool Down” }
“ Off Select” }

Operator presses “ Auto” and then “ Execute”

LED next to “AUTO” Comes on Steady

“Auto Start” }
“ Startup Statust” } Displays
“ Shutdown Status” }
“ Off Select” }

Protection System Checks Ready to Start Permissive

1. Generator Lockout relay is reset
2. Turbine is at zero speed
3. Lube oil tank temperature is normal
4. Over speed bolt is not tripped
5. Flame is not detected in all the scanners
6. OFF is not selected
7. Fuel valve is closed an lockout reset
8. Compressor or bleed valves are open
9. IGV’s are closed
10. Master Protective “4” logic is reset
11. <R> , <S> and <T> Master Protective Agree
12. Emergency Lube oil Pump voltage is normal
13. Diesel Test is not in progress
14. Off line diagnostics are not in progress
15. <R>, <S> and <T> communication links healthy
16. Generator breaker is open
17. Diesel warm up timer reset
18. Multiple starts counter reset

All Trip functions are checked to be in the “ Not Tripped” and reset

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“Ready to Start” displayed

“Not Ready to Start” goes off

Operator presses “ Start” and then “ Execute”

LED next to “ Start” is blinking

Protection system checks “ Start Command” permissives:

1. Base, Peak or Pre-selected load is not selected

2. <C> Communication link is healthy and reset
3. Auxiliary checks are good
4. Starting Device trip is reset
5. Multiple start counter is reset
6. Emergency Push button is reset
7. Stop sequence is not in progress
8. Generator breaker closing timer is reset
9. Control is not in “OFF” mode

LED next to “ Start” is steady ON

“Start Select”
“ Sequence in Progress” displayed
“ Off Cool Down” goes off

“ Manual Initiated Starts” counter incremented

Auto Synch permissive is latched
Turbine speed reference TNR is preset to start value
Multiple start timer is started
Fast start system is disabled
AC lube oil pump is started
Hydraulic ratchet Pump is started (88HR) – if not done already
Starting clutch solenoid energized (20CS)
Jaw clutch is engaged and feedback is obtained through 33CSE
Master Protective System Energizes ( L4)

“Starting “ displayed
“Ready to Start” goes off

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Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump is started (88HQ)

Diesel stop valve is energized (20 DV)
Diesel engine cranking motor starts for 5 seconds (88DC)
Diesel engine starts and Diesel lube oil pressure pickups (63QD)
Total starts counter is incremented by 1

Distillate Fuel forwarding pump is

On 5 sec later distillate fuel stop
Liquid? valve (20FD) is energized
Liquid Fuel Purge solenoid valve
(20PL) is de-energized

Gas Fuel Trip servo solenoid is energized (20FG)

Liquid Fuel purge solenoid is energized (20PL)

Diesel engine reaches minimum speed (idle speed)

Diesel engine goes on 2 minute warm up
Warm up completes. Diesel engine accelerating
Diesel engine accelerating Solenoid is energized (20DA-2)

Hydraulic ratchet starts continuous ratchet

Turbine breaks away (L14HR becomes zero)

“ Cranking” displayed
“ Starting” goes off

Starting clutch solenoid de-energized (20CS)

Hydraulic ratchet pump shutdown
NOTE: Jaw clutch is held engaged by the torque of diesel engine
Diesel engine reaches its cranking speed (14DC)
Diesel engine accelerating solenoid valve de-energized (20DA-2)
Diesel engine cranking speed drops out (14DC)
Diesel cranking speed locking solenoid energized (20DA-1) and speed stays

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On Gas? Gas Fuel vent solenoid

is energized (20VG)


Turbine Air Inlet separator Motor (88TA) started (if used)

Turbine accelerates to minimum firing speed (14HM)

End of Sequence


Auxiliary Turbine Vent timer energized (2TV)

Ignition relay is energized after time out (2TVX)
Spark plugs are energized (95SP)
60 second Firing timer is started (2TF)

No On Yes
Liquid ?

Permissive for SRV to open is enabled

Permissive for GCV to open is enabled

Energizes Liquid fuel trip solenoid (20FL)

Energizes fuel pump clutch solenoid (20CF)
Permissive for Fuel Pump Bypass valve to operate is

Fuel Stroke Reference (FSR) is set to Firing Value, which in turn is FSR
OUT for Gas and FQROUT for liquid

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“ Firing” displayed
“Startup Control” displayed
“ Cranking” goes off

Flame is
Yes No
detected in 2 out
of 4 scanned

Yes Flame is steady

for 2 sec before No
firing timer
Times out

FSR cuts back to warm up “ Failure to Fire” alarm appears

value • Operator presses “Crank” and then
“ Firing” goes off • “Crank” LED comes steady ON
“Warming up” • Operator presses “ Fire” or “ Auto” and
displayed then “Execute”
• LED comes steady ON
• Turbine vent timer is started for air
End of

Warm up timer starts (60 sec) (2W)

Turbine compartment vent fans are started (88BT)
Fired hours timer is energized
Fired starts counter is incremented by 1
After warm up timer times out, FSR is increased at a predetermined rate to the
accelerate limit FSR
Diesel engine locking solenoid is de-energized (20DA-1)
Diesel accelerating solenoid is energized (20DA-2)

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Turbine accelerates
Turbine reaches acceleration set point (14HA) at approximately 50% speed
Between 55 to 60% speed, diesel engine torque into turbine becomes low and the
jaw clutch disengages as detected by the limit switch (33CS) and the diesel engine
cool down timer starts. Diesel engine accelerating solenoid de-energizes and the
diesel engine will idle until the cool down timer times out (5 minutes)
Turbine accelerates further

At about 97% speed, 14HS speed relay picks up.

Inlet Guide vanes solenoid energizes (20TV) to open IGV’s to 57 deg
Compressor Bleed valves are closed
Generator Field Flashing relay (41FX) picks up.

Turbine Exhaust Frame cooling fans are started (88TK-1 and 2)

Auxiliary Lube Oil Pump is stopped
Auxiliary Hydraulic Pump is stopped

Energize Atomizing Air
On Bypass valve Solenoid
Gas? (20AA)

Enables Operator to transfer

From one fuel to the other
Control system goes through complete sequence checks
• Above operating speed (14HS)
• AC Lube oil pump is off
• DC lube oil pump is off
• AC Hydraulic Pump is off
• Jaw clutch is disengaged

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“Complete Sequence” displayed

“Sequence in Progress” goes off
“Start Select” goes off

Enables manual raise / lower of the turbine speed reference TNR.

Closes compressor bleed valves (20CB), if not already closed
Note : Shuts of black start inverter on black start

“Run Status” displayed

“Full Speed No Load” displayed
“ Start up Status” goes off
“ Cranking” goes off

Is Generator
Synchronizing End of Sequence
Selector in

Synchronizing Control takes over to synchronize the unit

“Synh. Control” displayed

“Speed Control” goes off.
Synchronize Status” displayed
“ Full Speed No Load” goes off.

If Auto Synch permissives are OK, generator and lin are present an
dabove the minimums, the control system will modultae FSR to bring
the speed TNH to 100.3% of the station line frequency ande close the
generator breaker when the phase angle is OK

“ Synch Control” goes off

“Startup Control” displayed

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“Loading” displayed
“Speed control” displayed Pre-selected
load is

Turbine speed reference

increase until the pre-selected
load is reached

“Pre-Selected” displayed Base

“Loading” goes off Select
“ Cranking” goes off
End of Sequence

Unit goes to spinning

reserve ; end of sequence

“ Loading” displayed “ Spinning

“Synchronizing” goes off Reserve”

Turbine speed difference increases until

temperature control limit is reached.

“ Temperature Control” displayed

“Speed Control” goes off
“ Base Load” is displayed
“ Loading goes off”

End of Sequence

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Normal Shutdown

Operator presses “ Stop” then “ Execute”

LED comes steady ON

“Stop Select” displayed

“ Unloading” displayed
“ Base Load” goes off
“Temperature Control” goes off
“ Sequence in Progress” displayed

Turbine Speed Reference TNR is reduced at a predetermined rate to

unload the unit
When the load is low enough to trip the reverse power relay, the
generator breaker opens

“ Unloading” goes off

“ Fired Shutdown” displayed

FSR is reduced at a predetermined rate to reduce speed of turbine

Auxiliary Lube oil Pump is started when speed falls below 14HS
Auxiliary Hydraulic pump is started when speed falls below 14HS
Compressor bleed valves are open
IFV is closed

On Atomizing Air
Liquid bypass solenoid

Turbine decelerates below the acceleration speed set point (14HA).

At about 20% speed shutdown command is given to close fuel valves

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Distillate Fuel forwarding pump shuts down

Liquid Fuel Stop valve solenoid is de-energized and stop valve
is closed
Liquid Fuel Pump Clutch is disengaged

Liquid Fuel Air Purge Solenoid

de-energized (20PL)

“Coasting Down” Displayed

“ Stop Select” goes off
“ Speed Control” goes off
Turbine coasts down to zero speed (14HR)
Turbine Inlet air dirt separator fan motor (88TA) is stopped if used
Gas Fuel vent solenoid is deenergized (20VG)
Starting clutch solenoid is energized (20CS)
Jaw clutch engages
Hydraulic ratchet starts

“Sequence in Progress” displayed

“ On Cool down” displayed

End of Sequence

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