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SENTENCESTRUCTURE

SimpleSentence
Asimplesentence,alsocalledanindependentclause,containsasubjectandaverb,anditexpressesacompletethought.In
thefollowingsimplesentences,subjectsareinyellow,andverbsareingreen.
1.
2.
3.

Some
students

like
tostudyinthemornings.
Juan
and
Arturo

play
footballeveryafternoon.
Alicia

goes
tothelibraryand
studies
everyday.

CompoundSentence
Acompoundsentencecontainstwoindependentclausesjoinedbyacoordinator.Thecoordinatorsareasfollows:for,and,
nor,but,or,yet,so.(Helpfulhint:ThefirstletterofeachofthecoordinatorsspellsFANBOYS.)Exceptforveryshort
sentences,coordinatorsarealwaysprecededbyacomma.Inthefollowingcompoundsentences,subjectsareinyellow,
verbsareingreen,andthecoordinatorsandthecommasthatprecedethemareinred.
1.
2.

tried
tospeakSpanish
,and
my
friend

tried
tospeakEnglish.
Alejandro

played
football
,so

Maria

went
shopping.

ComplexSentence
Acomplexsentencehasanindependentclausejoinedbyoneormoredependentclauses.Acomplexsentencealwayshas
asubordinatorsuchas
because
,
since
,
after
,
although
,or
when
(andmanyothers)orarelativepronounsuchas
that
,
who
,
or
which
.Inthefollowingcomplexsentences,subjectsareinyellow,verbsareingreen,andthesubordinatorsandtheir
commas(whenrequired)areinred.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

When

he

handed
inhishomework
,

he

forgot
togivetheteacherthelast
page.
The
teacher

returned
thehomework
after

she

noticed
theerror.
The
students

arestudying

because

they

have
atesttomorrow.
After

they

finishedstudying
,

Juan
and
Maria

went
tothemovies
Juan
and
Maria

went
tothemovies
after

they

finished
studying.

The Compound-Complex Sentence


The compound-complex sentence combines elements of
compound
and
complex
sentences. It is the most
sophisticated type of sentence you can use. Understanding how to construct the compound-complex sentence
will help you take your writing to a new level of complexity.

Independent Clause
An independent clause makes a statement or asks a question that can act as a complete sentence.
Example: The dog barks.

Dependent Clause
A dependent clause cannot act as a complete sentence because it begins with a subordinating word, such
as when, because, if, whoever, etc.
Example: When the dog barks.

A
compound-complex sentence i
s comprised of at least
two
independent clauses and
one
or more dependent
clauses.
Example: Though Mitchell prefers watching romantic films, he rented the latest spy thriller,
and he enjoyed it very much.
Example: Laura forgot her friend's birthday, so she sent her a card when she finally
remembered.

SENTENCESTRUCTURE,DICTION,ANDSYNTAX

Syntax:
Refertothewaywordsare____________________withinasentence.

Diction:
Referstothe____________________thewriterusestoconvey_______________________.

Declarative:
Makinga____________________________.Tellsaboutaperson,placeoridea.(That
bluedressisveryprettyonyou).

Exclamatory:
Makingastatementthatexpressesa___________________.(ThisisthebestbookI
haveeverread!)

Interrogative:
Askinga_________________(WereyouplanningonattendingHomecomingthis
year?)

Imperative:
Makinga___________________.(Cleanyourbedroomandbringdownthedirty
laundry.)

Expletivesinwriting:
Overuseofthesewordscontributestowordiness.

Examplesofexpletives:
ThereisThereareTherewasItisItwasThatisThisisThiswas

STYLE

Howawriterchoosetoexpresspersonalityandvoiceisreferredtoas
____________________

PrimerStyle:
Containsmany____________________sentences,onerightafteranothervery
elementaryinnature.

PassiveStyle:
___________________movingandimpersonaltheuseoftoomany
passive__________.

InsecurityStyle:
Wordsthatshowthatyoulack_________________________inyourwriting.

Ex:
Tobeperfectlyhonest,itseemstome,really,truly,totally

ACTIVEANDPASSIVEVOICE

ActiveVoice
Afeatureofsentencesinwhichthesubject

performstheactionofthe
verb
andthedirectobjectisthegoalor
therecipient:
The
mechanic

fixed
thecar.

PassiveVoice
Afeatureofsentencesinwhichtheobjectorgoaloftheactionfunctionsasthesentencesubjectandthemain
verbphraseincludestheverb
tobe
andthepastparticiple:
Thecar
was

fixed
bythe
mechanic
.
Passive/ActiveVoice
Harryatesixshrimpatdinner.(active)
Atdinner,sixshrimpwereeatenbyHarry.(passive)
Beautifulgiraffesroamthesavannah.(active)
Thesavannahisroamedbybeautifulgiraffes.(passive)
Suechangedtheflattire.(active)
TheflattirewaschangedbySue.(passive)

Isitoktousethepassivevoice?

Yoursentenceforactivevoice:

Yoursentenceforpassivevoice:

TOBEVERBS
Tobeverbsaresimpleverbsthatareoften_________________inyourwriting.Tobecomeastronger
writer,youwantto___________________thefollowingverbs:
is

was

being

did

have

would

shall

might

am

were

been

does

had

could

can

must

are

be

do

has

should

will

may