You are on page 1of 21

Tamara Bohn

EEC610

Technology in the Classroom


By
Tamara Bohn
May 2015

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

Chapter 1
Introduction:
In the 21st century, technology has become an essential part of our everyday life. We use
technology in every aspect of our lives to the point that we are not sure how we would survive
without our, cell phones, computers and electronic devises. Just as technology has changed how
we live, work and play, it is changing the classroom. Technology is moving into the classroom,
so much so, that teachers from 25 years ago would scarcely recognize the classrooms of today.
Gone are the chalkboards replaced with interactive white boards. Gone are the piles of
workbooks and textbooks replaced with laptops and tablets where everything is online. Students
dont write in journals that only the teacher sees, they publish blogs that the whole world can
read. Teachers dont send home notes with children they e-mail the parents or update the
classroom webpage. Students can participate in classes not offered in their school through
distance learning. Teachers can collaborate with hundreds of other teachers all over the world
through teaching forums. Technological advances make it easier to access and use information,
communicate and interact with the world outside the classroom. But what is the impact of all
this consecutiveness and interaction? Are students learning more? Or is the reliance on
technology and instant answers making students lose the ability to use their brain? How does the
education system operate in this new Digital Age?
Technology based learning venues outside of schools have been expanding rapidly.
Modern technologies-particularly, video, computers, and the internet- have been changing the
way we produce, consume, communicate and think. (Collins and Halverson, 2009). These
changes are having a profound effect on the way we learn. Children watch hours of television,

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

the number of parents who are homeschooling their children has exploded over the last 25 years,
and children as young as two have their own electronic devices for communication, learning and
entertainment. You can get a college degree without every stepping on a campus through
distance learning. Your cellphone has become a pocket encyclopedia, where you can get the
answer to any question in seconds. As students enter the work world, technological skills are as
necessary as being able to read and write (Huff, 2011). Is it the job of the schools to prepare
students for that reality? And if it is, how does this impact the classroom?
Technology has begun to be incorporated into classrooms for the purpose of enhancing
the learning process, but the schools have been slow to fully embrace the technology revolution.
According to an article in Education Weekly (Sept. 2011) some of this reluctance has come from
lack of knowledge from both teachers and administrators. Funding has also been an issue,
although technology and educational programs have become increasingly less costly, which in
turn, has made it more accessible. This increased accessibility means that schools across the
nation and in all socioeconomic communities are increasing their exposure to technology
enhanced learning. As parents have gained more choices in their options for educating their
children, schools have had to step up their technology usage and knowledge in order to compete.
As technology moves into the classroom the role of the teacher changes. In the past the
teacher was the one with the knowledge and their job was to pass that knowledge on to their
students. Now the teacher is moving from the front of the classroom dispensing information to
the side of the student guiding him/her in their quest for the information and knowledge they
need. As one person put it the teacher is moving from The sage on the stage to the guide by
the side (Siegle, 2013). As the role of the teacher changes, so does the classroom. Therefore,

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

understanding the best ways to integrate technology into the classroom is critical. Research
shows that when properly used, technology can enhance the learning experience and increase
academic performance. Whether technology in the classroom is beneficial is dependent upon the
way in which the technology is used by teachers, teacher competency levels with the given
technology, the degree to which the technology is utilized in the classroom and the type of
technology used (Sinclair, 2009).
Brian Huff says in his article the Paperless Classroom (2011) that at least 65 percent of
todays grade-school kids may end up working at jobs that havent been invented yet and they
are going to learn these new skills in a learning environment that looks nothing like the current
chalk and talk or PowerPoint and handout methodologies. The new classroom is going to be 50
percent real time, 50 percent virtual, 100 percent digital and 100 percent interactive (Huff,
Pg.2). There is a revolution going on in this new Digital Age and schools and education will
have to adapt if they are going to be able to educate tomorrows leaders.

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

Chapter 2
The Prevalence of Technology in the Classroom
Todays youth have grown up with technology being incorporated into their daily
activities. Although most young people lead technology-centered lives, this does not mean that
technology has a place in the classroom; however nearly 100 percent of public schools in the
United States have Internet access, with 97 percent reporting having broadband connection
(Tripp & Herr-Stephenson, 2009).
The typical technologies that are incorporated into education today include the internet,
interactive whiteboards, computers, videos, tablets, and online educational programs and games.
In 1994 only 3 percent of public schools had Internet access, compared to 93 percent in 2003
(NCES, 2010). Even though some homes do not have internet connections in their home most
families have cell phones that they use to access the internet. Even though many schools ban cell
phones in the classroom, many students still bring cell phones to school with them. They use
these devices to access the internet, listen to music and communicate with others, this has caused
schools to rethink the cell phone ban and are beginning to incorporate the use of cellphones into
the classroom routines (Ritchie, M, 2009).
Types of Technology based Learning
The Internet:
The internet is the most important technology in the classroom. According to the US
Department of Education (2009), as of 2009, over 97 percent of classrooms had internet

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

connectivity allowing students to access information from around the world. The Internet
expands resources available and decreases the time and location dependency that can limit
classroom learning. It offers powerful and varied ways for students and teachers to interact and
manipulate data and conduct research. One of the biggest assets of the internet in classroom
learning is the free tools that are available online (Ruggiero, 2013).
Computers:
In 2009, 97 percent of teachers had some kind of computer in their classroom. Of that 97
percent 93 percent had access to the internet. The average national ratio of computers in the
classroom per students in 2009 was 5.3 to 1(USDE, 2009). That number is continuing to grow as
schools add more computers to their classrooms. Many schools are going to a one-to one
program that provides some kind of computing device, such as laptop or tablet, to their
curriculum. Schools that cannot afford to do this often allow students to bring their own devices
to use in school. Computers and electronic devices have become as common in the classroom as
textbooks, in fact many schools have gone away from paper and ink textbooks to on line digital
textbooks that students access from their electronic devises (Sterns, 2013).
Interactive Whiteboards:
An interactive whiteboard is a large display that connects to a computer and projector.
The projector displays the computers desktop on the boards surface, where users control the
computer using tools such as a pen or stylus as well as their finger. In some classrooms
interactive whiteboards have replaced traditional whiteboards or flipcharts because the new
technology can act as both a display for media and a tool for leaning (Ruggiero, 2013). One use
for the interactive whiteboard is shared reading lessons: teachers project the book on the display

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

and students read along with the recorded voice or touch the screen to see animations or listen to
music. Worksheets can be projected on the screen for whole class practice. Interactive games
can be projected on the board for whole class participation. Images and video can be streamed
from the internet to increase comprehension of concepts. For example, while learning about the
Civil Rights Movement students can watch film footage of the protest marches and police action
or Martin Luther Kings I have a Dream speech. Some interactive whiteboards allow teachers to
record their instruction as digital video files with notes and annotations for students to review at
a later time.
Games and Simulations:
Educational computer games are an offshoot of the video game market. Researchers
have found that computer games have significant educational value that allows them to become
part of the school curriculum (Ruggiero, 2013). Games take subject matter and combine it with
an interactive element that allows learners to practice skills. Online games with social
networking features provide learners the opportunity to play with others and learn how to
collaborate in a game environment. Games may enhance teaching and learning of 21st century
skills; including, problem solving, teamwork, communication and technology proficiency. As
with other classroom technology, more research is needed to see how educational games should
be designed and used to support content knowledge and integration into the curriculum (Collins
& Halverson, 2009).
Simulations are different from games in that they are learning environments where
students can manipulate parameters and observe outcomes of real or hypothetical situations
(Ruggiero, pg. 2). One example of a simulation is an online chemistry lab where students can

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

change variables to observe different interactions. Research has found that simulations can be
effective for promoting complex problem solving and learning. Simulations have been used in
science education because they use step-by-step procedures and allow students to immediately
see the outcomes.
Web 2.0 Tools:
Web 2.0 Tools are Web applications that facilitate information sharing and collaboration
on the internet. These technologies provide teachers with new ways to engage students in
meaningful learning. Web Tools such as blogs and wikis allow students to self-publish their work
and receive feedback on a global level. Students can create blogs (online journals) that are
comprised of reflections and conversations that they update daily or weekly. Some examples of
web 2.0 Tools are:
Glogster: A way to share posters and images youve made with friends.
Weebly: Create your own website or blog.
GoogleDocs: The top real-time document creating and editing cloud-based system.
Doink: Create animations using this simple website
Slideshare: A way to share your presentation with millions.
These are just a few of the hundreds of sites out there (Ruggiero, 2013).
Benefits of Technology in the Classroom
The rapid pace of change in technology is creating both opportunities and challenges for
schools. Opportunities such as access to rich multimedia content, the increasing use of online
courses to offer classes not otherwise available, widespread availability of mobile computing

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

devices that can access the Internet, the expanding role of social networking tools for learning
and the growing interest in the power of digital games for more individualized learning. Along
with this increase in availability of online access is the need to monitor and limit access to sites
and information that are not appropriate or safe for school age students (Collins & Halverson,
2009).
The pace of change creates significant challenges for schools. Schools are always
playing catch-up in regards to technology. They are just are not able to keep up with the needed
infrastructure and professional development needed to meet the ever changing and increasing
demands. The rapid evolution of educational technologies, also make it challenging to determine
what works best (Education week, 2011). For instance, the iPad became popular in schools soon
after it was released but before any research could be conducted about its educational
effectiveness. Many schools quickly bought iPads to be used by students. They soon found out
that the iPad is great for young students to listen to books, to play learning games and to access
the internet but it has serious limitations for older students. The iPad does not have a USB port
so you cannot download or save projects or research. It has very limited word processing
capabilities and you cannot print from the iPad. It was not practical for students who are doing
research and multimedia projects (Clare, 2013). Some schools have switched to tablets with
more capabilities such as the Microsoft Surface for their older students. These tablets work like
a tablet with touch screen but have the capabilities of a laptop. They are small and lightweight so
can be easily carried from class to class.
One of the biggest challenges for schools is successfully meeting the need for
increasingly higher speed access. The FCC cited this demand as one reason it unveiled its

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

National Broadband Plan in March 2010. It also revised the E-Rate, the federal program that
subsidizes school purchases for Internet connectivity. This allowed schools to use E-Rate dollars
to gain better connectivity (Edweek, 2011). The theory behind the reform was that by allowing
more options for connectivity, schools could gain more bandwidth while at the same time drive
down cost because increasing the speed of fiber networks generally involves a one-time upgrade
rather than consistent, periodic expenditures to secure more bandwidth via other connections.
Before all this action had a chance to take effect some schools were already making progress
meeting infrastructure demands on their own. Schools are continuing to upgrade their
technology infrastructure; this will be an ongoing battle since new digital tools used in education
are requiring ever-increasing amounts of bandwidth (FCC, 2010).
One-to-One Technology Programs
Many schools have already started or are starting a one-to-one program in regards to
electronic devises. Instead of having a computer lab that is shared by the whole school or
department, they are purchasing mobile devices such as laptops, or tablets. These devices are
assigned to students and are used throughout the school year. While somewhat cheaper than
equipping a large computer lab, the cost of maintenance and upgrades can be quite costly. To
meet the ever changing demands for newer and better electronic equipment, many schools have
adopted a policy to allow students to use their own laptops, tablets or mobile phones. This frees
the schools of costly hardware upgrades and the cost of updates and maintenance on such
hardware (Goodwin, 2011). Project Red, a research initiative released a study of successful
implementation of one-to-one models in educational technologies. The study found that most of
the schools that have integrated laptops and other digital tools into learning are not using those

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

devices to their full potential (Project Red, 2010). This can affect the effectiveness of the
program.
An analysis of the Project Red data shows that there are nine key implementation factors that are
linked most strongly to education success. Effective technology implementation in schools is
complex with many interrelated factors playing a part. The following are the nine key
implementation factors that Project Red identified as linked the most strongly to education
success.
Key Implementation Factors:
1. Intervention classes: Technology is integrated into every intervention class period.
2. Change management leadership by principal: Leaders provide time for teacher
professional learning and collaboration at least monthly.
3. Online Collaboration: Students use technology daily for online collaboration
(games/simulations and social media).
4. Core Subjects: Technology is integrated into core curriculum, weekly or more
frequently.
5. Online formative assessments: Assessments are done at least weekly.
6. Students-computer ratio: Lower ratios improve outcomes.
7. Virtual field trips: With more frequent use, virtual trips are more powerful. The best
schools do these at least monthly.
8. Search engines: Students use daily.
9. Principal training: Principals are trained in teacher buy-in, best practices, and
technology-transformed learning. (Project Red, 2010).
What this study shows is that providing a computer for every student does not guarantee
improved achievement. Schools must look at how those computers are being used. Are they

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

implementing these nine key factors? That is the key to improving students achievement.
Schools that employ key implementation factors outperform other schools (Project Red, 2010).
Technology in the classroom is intended to improve education. Enthusiasts of
technology claim that the world is changing and that schools need to adapt instructional practices
to prepare students for the changing world. They also claim that technology gives enhanced
capabilities for educating students. Some of those benefits are the increased interaction and
availability of resources for education. Technology in the classroom can also increase student
motivation by giving instant feedback and seeming to be more enjoyable than traditional
methods. (Collins & Halverson, 2009)
Technology in the classroom can improve student writing by making it easier to edit and
revise their writing using a word processor. They can quickly get peer feedback or collaboration
using blogs and wikis (Richtel, 2012).
Technology makes it easier to provide differentiation by providing individualized
instruction via programs that focus a students learning on specific skills using the students
active participation. Studies have shown that at-risk students attain the highest gains in
academic growth when interventions using technology enhanced programs are implemented
(Muir-Herzig. 2004).
Students should be able to apply classroom concepts to daily life and a large part of daily
life involves technology. Students today are very adept at using technological devices such as
laptops, smart phones and tablets. By trying to teach without technology would be leaving out
an integral part of the students abilities. Understanding technology is becoming more and more

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

important in the workplace and it is the schools job to prepare students for this world (MuirHerzig, 2004).
One of the most powerful assets of technology is motivation for the learner. Playing a game that
reinforces a skill is more inviting then doing a worksheet related to that same skill. Researching
a topic by going on line and reading articles or watching videos about that topic are more
enjoyable and less time consuming than doing the same research in the library (Ruggiero, 2013).
Problems with Technology in the Classrooms
Cost and Access
While many will agree that technological skills are necessary to compete in the 21st
century world, digital innovations can be a source of problems for schools. The biggest hurdle
that schools face is keeping up with the rapidly changing technology (Education Week, 2011).
Upgrading equipment is costly, even though the costs of computers and network connections
have declined, schools operate on limited budgets. As technology becomes more and more
advanced, the internet bandwidth in the school needs to be upgraded to support this growing
needs. In addition to the high cost of purchasing hardware, are the high costs of maintenance
and software. There needs to be technical staff on the premises, who can fix basic problems with
machines and network connections when things go wrong. There should also be technical
support people who can help train teachers and students in new and changing software. This
support staff also need to be trained in both how to provide safe access to students and to protect
the technology from the students (Collins, Halverson, 2009). In recent years, the cost of keeping
the technology safe has skyrocketed. The limited security precautions taken leave many school

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

districts vulnerable to hacker activity from both inside and outside the school. The cost of site
licenses for software and software upgrades can be quite expensive. While businesses must
invest in these facilities to remain competitive, schools have had difficulty justifying the
increasing investments in upgrading software, maintenance and security (Education Week, 2011).
Classroom Management
When a school has a limited amount of computers available to students, arranging for all
students to have adequate and equal time becomes a scheduling challenge. If the teacher has a
few computers in the classroom then students will have to work in groups with some working on
the computers while others work on something else and rotating through until everyone gets a
turn. If the school has all or most of the computers in a lab then classes must schedule time to go
to the lab to work. All of this working around schedules takes away from valuable instruction
time (Heick, 2012).
Schools that have a one-to-one program of electronic devices such as laptop, or tablet, do
not have the scheduling problems mentioned above but they have other issues. One of these
issues is monitoring what the students are doing online. Most schools have some kind of
blocking program to limit students accessing sites that are not appropriate but students are very
tech savvy and easily learn ways around this. This is when it falls to the classroom teacher to be
constantly and consistently monitoring their online presence (Goodwin, 2011).
Another problem is the distractibility of students as they work using the internet.
Students often have problems resisting the pull to surf the web or checking into social media
sites instead of staying on task. Students can also get so engrossed in their research, reading

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

articles and watching videos, that they forget to do the actual work involved in their task. Again
it falls to the instructor to monitor their behavior (Richtel, 2009).
Safety Online
We fence in our school play yard to keep students safe, it is just as important to keep
students safe when they are online. School age children do not have necessary knowledge or
skills to know how to use the internet in a safe manner (Willard, 2007). Students need to be
taught how to stay away from sites that could be potentially dangerous or contain information
that is not appropriate for their age. When they go online they are potentially exposing
themselves to all kinds of personalities including harmful and dangerous entities. They need to
be taught how to protect their personal privacy and how to look out for internet scams.
Most schools have some kind of blocking technologies, but what is determined to be
appropriate for students is often predetermined by a third-party company. There is not always
the assurance that those companies are blocking according to educational standards (Willard,
2007).
Schools need to educate administration, teachers and students in safe practices of internet use.
Student use should be closely monitored for appropriate usage. Just as a fenced playground
allows students to play safely a fully monitored internet program allows students to access the
benefits of the internet in a safe and protected way (Willard, 2007).
Technology Changing how Students Learn
Many teachers believe that students constant use of digital technology is hampering their
attention spans and the ability to persevere in the face of challenging tasks according to surveys

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

of teachers (Richtel, 2012). Many of the teachers surveyed said that they have to work harder to
capture and hold the students attention. Some teachers have noticed a big decline in the depth
and analysis of their students work. Students are accustomed to instant answers and often give
up when they cannot find an easy answer.
With that being said, using the internet in the classroom allows students to be exposed to
a world of information that they would not previously have had the chance to experience. Instead
of just looking at pictures of rainforests, students can take a virtual field trip to the Amazon
Rainforests (Jenkins, 2010). Instead of reading Martin Luther Kings I Have a Dream speech,
they can listen to a recording of him actually giving the speech in Washington D.C. in 1963.
Virtual labs allow students to safely see how different chemicals react through simulations.
These innovations and more are part of the world students of today are going to live, work and
play in when they leave the classroom.
Is Technology a crutch?
There are views out there that technology is a crutch and students use technology to solve
problems instead using their brain to figure it out (Heick, 2012). A few years ago there was
controversy over whether or not to allow students to use calculators in math class. Using
calculators for time consuming and tedious math problems makes calculations fast and accurate
but it may leave students unable to do simple math problems. Calculators have been around for
several decades now and we have not seen a marked decrease in peoples ability to function in
mathematically in todays world.

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

Handwriting is another skill that is going by the wayside. Students today do most of their
writing either electronically or texting. There is a debate going on in educational circles as to the
need for teaching cursive writing. Many say that cursive handwriting is an outdated skill that is
no longer needed just as writing with quill and ink went away with the invention of the fountain
pen (Furman, 2013). Others say that students will not be able to write their signature or read
historical documents, but changes in how we do business has all but eliminated the need for
actual signatures and we have devices for reading historical documents. Many schools have quit
teaching cursive writing. Students are getting keyboarding lessons instead of handwriting
lessons. In todays world, young people do very little actual writing. They text instead writing
letters or notes, they use their phones to keep track of appointments and events; they type and email their assignments to the teacher. They have little need of cursive writing (Furman, 2013).
Another concern is that teachers will over use electronic devices in place of
student/teacher interaction. Primary students use iPads and tablets to listen to books being read
or individually playing learning games instead of interacting with the teacher and other students.
In their study of emergent literacy, Korat and Shamir (2006) found that the usage of e-readers for
kindergarten age students had no effect on their comprehension and emergent literacy skills
when compared to students who were read to by an educated adult. Students still need that
interaction with their teacher and peers but the usage of technology can be a beneficial tool in the
primary classroom.

How can Technology Increase Learning?

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

Technology does affect learning and can help children absorb more information through
the learning process but there are several factors that must be present in order for the program to
be successful. One of the leading mistakes that educators make is depending on the technology
to increase learning rather than to support the learning process. (Dror, 2008)
The first factor is to have clear and measurable objectives. Teachers and students should
be aware of why the technology is being used and how it will help meet the educational goals
and objectives. Technology should not be used just because it is available, but instead used
because it will assist students in reaching that learning goal.
Another factor is the competency of the teacher in using the technology. Teachers need to
have proper training in the usage of the technology. Proper training is the key to keeping the
focus off the technology and on what is being taught by the teacher and learned by the students.
Schools need to invest in training their teachers so that they develop technical competence in the
usage of technology and the abilities to integrate the technology into their curriculum. As
teachers become more competent in the use of technology, they can begin to adapt the
technology to their own teaching style and curriculum. This is beneficial for both teachers and
students (Collins & Halverson, 2009).
The learner must also have some control over the learning process. This control provides
students with a sense of ownership of the learning process, which significantly increases
learning. This control increases motivation, and encourages students to take a more active role in
their own learning (Dror, 2008).

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

Conclusion
In this review of the literature pertaining to technology in the classroom, consensus of all
the articles and research is that technology is a large presence in todays classroom and will
continue to grow as technology increases. Just like any new idea there are problems and people
who will argue that the drawbacks outweigh the benefits, but there is no turning back the clock,
technology is here to stay. Schools need to find ways of solving the problems that arise from
technology usage and explore all the ways that technology can enhance learning.
The biggest obstacle is teacher training. Administrators need to provide opportunities for
teachers to learn how best to incorporate different types of technology into their curriculum.
When teachers become more comfortable with new technology it will become a natural part of
their lesson planning. New teachers coming into the classroom come equipped with many of
these skills because these technologies are already apart of their everyday life.
Just as teacher will become more comfortable with the technology they will also become better
at monitoring students behavior and online presence, which in turn will help to alleviate those
problems.
We are well into the 21st century and the classroom needs to keep up with the digital
revolution going on if we are to prepare students to live and work in this new Information Age.

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

Bibliography

Buchanan J., Friedrich, L., Heaps, A.(2013) How Teachers are Using Technology at Home and in
their Classrooms. Pew Research Center. Retrieved from:
http://www.pewinternet.org/files/oldmedia//Files/Reports/2013/PIP_TeachersandTechnologywithmethodology_PDF.pdf
Bergen, D. (Aug. 2012) Technology in the Classroom, Childhood Education, 76:2, 116-118,
Retrieved from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00094056.2000.10522091
Clare, J. (2013) 17 Pros and Cons of using iPads in the Classroom.
Collins, C. & Halverson, R. (2009) Rethinking Education in the Age of Technology. New York:
Teachers College Press.
Dror. I. (2008) Technology enhanced learning: The good, the bad and the ugly. Pragmatics and
Cognition, Retrieved from http://www.ccihq.com/Dror_CT_technology_learning_good_bad_ugly.pdf
Editorial Projects in Education Research Center. (2011). Issues A-Z: Technology in Education.
Education Week. Retrieved from
http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/technology-in-education
Federal Communications Commission. FCC Enables High-Speed, Affordable Broadband for
Schools and Libraries, Sept. 23, 2010 http://www.fcc.gov/document/fcc-enables-highspeed-affordable-broadband-schools-and-libraries
Furman, R. (2013) The Great Handwriting Debate. Huffington Post May 8, 2013
http://www.huffingtonpost.com/rob-furman/the-great-handwriting-deb_b_3237152.html
Goodwin, B. (Feb, 2011) Research says One-to-One Laptop Programs are no Silver Bullet.
ASCD Educational Leadership. Vol. 68 No. 5 Retrieved from:
http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/feb11/vol68/num05/One-toOne_Laptop_Programs_Are_No_Silver_Bullet.aspx
Heick, T. (2012) 5 Problems with Technology in the Classroom. Retrieved from:
http://www.teachthought.com/author/terryheick/
Huff, B.(Sept.2011) Paperless Classroom. Systems Contractor News. 18.10: 26
Jenkins, M. (2010) Amazon Rainforest Expedition. EDTech.
http://edtech2.boisestate.edu/jenkinsm/502/virtualtour/start.html

Tamara Bohn
EEC610

Korat, O. & Shamir, A. (2007) Electronic books versus adult readerseffects on childrens
emergent literacy as a function of social class. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning:
Blackwell Publishing Ltd. (2007), 23, 248-259
Muir-Herzig, R. (2004) Technology and its impact in the classroom. Computers & Education 42
(2004) 111-131 Retrieved from:
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0360131503000678
Project Red: Greaves, T.; Hayes, J.; Wilson, L.; Gielniak, M.; & Peterson, R., (2010) The
Technology Factor: Nine Keys to Student Achievement and Cost-Effectiveness, MDR
2010.
http://www.pearsonfoundation.org/downloads/ProjectRED_TheTechnolgyFactor.pdf
Richtel, M. (2012) Technology changing how students learn, teachers say. New York Times Nov.
2012. Retrieved from: http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/01/education/technology-ischanging-how-students-learn-teachers-say.html?_r=0
Ritchie, M. (2009) Friend or Foe. The Times Educational Supplement. 4867 (Nov 27, 2009): 029.
Retrieved from: https://www.tes.co.uk/article.aspx?storycode=6028637
Ruggiero, D. (2013) Technology in the Classroom. Sage Knowledge: Sociology of Education.
Retrieved from: http://www.academia.edu/3894207/Technology_in_the_Classroom
Seigle, D. (2014) Differentiation Instruction by Flipping the Classroom. Gifted Child Today, 37
Sinclair, G.B. (2009) Is Larry Cuban right about the impact of computer technology on students
learning? NAWA: Jurnalof Language & Communication, 3(1), 46-54.
Stern, G. (2013) No more books high school goes all digital. The (Westchester County, NY)
Journal news. (Sept. 8, 2013) retrieved from:
http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/09/12/no-more-books-high-schoolgoes-all-digital-/2807577/
Tripp, L. M. and Herr-Stephenson, R. (2009), Making Access Meaningful: Latino Young People
Using Digital Media at Home and at School. Journal of Computer-Mediated
Communication, 14: 11901207. doi: 10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01486.x
U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). Teachers' Use of
Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools: 2009 (NCES 2010-040). Retrieved from
http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=46
Willard, N. (March, 2007) Keeping Kids Safe Online. Education World. Retrieved from:
http://www.educationworld.com/a_tech/tech119.shtml