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B CNG THNG

TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP TP. H CH MINH


VIN CNG NGH SINH HC-THC PHM

TIU LUN
ti:

PHNG TRNH PHN NG HA


NU

Nhm : 14
M lp hc phn: 210543202
GVHD: Nguyn Th Trang
TP. H CH MINH 2015

DANH SCH THNH VIN NHM

H v tn

MSSV

PHN NG HA NU
Trn Bo Giang

14031431

Nguyn Th Hoa

14097621

Dng Th Mn

14100461

Phm Vn An

14092071

LI CAM OAN
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PHN NG HA NU
Chng em xin cam oan y l bi tiu lun c lp ca ring nhm.
Tt c thng tin, s liu do nhm t tm hiu, phn tch v trnh by mt
cch trung thc, khch quan.

Sinh vin thc hin

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LI CM N
Trn trng cm n ging vin hng dn, trng i hc Cng
Nghip Tp. H Ch Minh, Vin Cng ngh Sinh hc-Thc phm to iu
kin tt nht chng em thc hin tiu lun.
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PHN NG HA NU
Cm n tt c cc bn cng tc vin nhit tnh gip nhm tm
hiu ti nhm c th hon thnh tiu lun mt cch tt nht c th.

Sinh vin thc hin

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NHN XT GING VIN HNG DN


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PHN NG HA NU
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PHN NG HA NU

LI M U
Cuc sng ngy cng pht trin th nhu cu v thc phm ca con
ngi ngy cng tng v cng vi l yu cu v mt cht lng thc
phm ngy cng tng. Sn phm thc phm khng ch d0ap1 ng tt nhu
cu v mt dinh dng, an ton m cn m bo tt v mt cm quan.
Trong qu trnh ch bin th mu sc cc sn phm thc phm thay i
lin tc, ko theo m v v cc yu t cm quan khc thay i theo. Mt
trong nhng nguyn nhn lm thay i mu sc ca thc phm l cc phn
ng sm mu. C hai nguyn nhn dn n s sm mu l do s oxi ha bi
enzim v oxi ha bi cc tc nhn khng phi enzim.
i vi ngnh cng ngh thc phm, vic hiu r tc nhn, c ch ca
cc phn ng ha nu trong qu trnh ch bin v sn xut thc phm s gip
tng kh nng to mu trong cc sn phm cn thit v hn ch nhng tc
ng c hi ca cc phn ng ny.
Vi bi tiu lun ny chng em xin trnh by nhng hiu bit nht
nh ca mnh thng qua qu trnh hc tp v tm hiu v phn ng ha numt trong nhng phn ng to mu quang trng trong qu trnh sn sut thc
phm.
V thi gian lm tiu lun v kin thc hiu bit cn hn ch nn trong
qu trnh lm khng trnh khi nhng sai st,mong c v cc bn thng cm
b qua.

MC LC
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PHN NG HA NU
Chng I: Gii thiu v phn ng ha nu thc phm...............................8
Chng II: Phn ng ha nu do enzyme...................................................8
II.1. Gii thiu v phn ng ha nu do enzyme...........................8
II.2. C ch v iu kin xy ra phn ng ha nu do enzyme.....8
II.2.1. C ch...........................................................................8
II.2.2. iu kin xy ra phn ng............................................11
II.3. Qui trnh sn xut c ng dng phn ng ha nu do enzyme
.................................................................................................
11
II.4. nh hng ca phn ng ha nu do enzyme.......................12
II.4.1. nh hng c li..........................................................12
II.4.2. nh hng c hi..........................................................13
Chng III: Phn ng ha nu khng enzyme...........................................15
III.1. Gii thiu phn ng ha nu khng enzyme........................15
III.2. Tm hiu mt s phn ng ha nu khng enzyme..............16
III.2.1.Phn ng Caramen ha ................................................16
III.2.2.Phn ng Maillard........................................................17
III.2.3. Phn ng thy phn acid Ascobic................................25
III.3. Qui trnh sn xut c ng dng phn ng ha nu khng
enzyme...........................................................................................26
Ph lc...........................................................................................28
Ti liu tham kho...................................................................29

CHNG I: GII THIU V PHN NG HA NU


THC PHM.
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PHN NG HA NU
Trong qu trnh ch bin, bo qun thc phm, bn cnh vic m
bo cht lng v an ton thc phm th tnh cm quan trong thc phm
cng l mt trong nhng yu t quan trng m ta cn quan tm theo st t
khu ch bin, bo qun cho n tay ngi tiu dung.
Theo cc nh nghin cu, th mt trong nhng phn ng to mu
thc phm l phn ng ha nu. Phn ng ha nu c chia lm 2 dng.
1. Phn ng ha nu do enzyme
2. Phn ng ha nu khng enzyme.
Phn ng Maillar.
Phn ng caramen.
Phn ng oxi ha acid ascorbic.

CHNG II: PHN NG HA NU DO ENZYME.


II.1. Gii thiu v phn ng ha nu do enzyme.
Nu ha c enzyme l qu trnh ha hc xy ra trong thc phm bi
enzyme polyphenoloxidaza, gy ra mu nu.
Nu ha c enzyme c th xy ra trong qu ( m, l, to, chui),
rau( khoai ty, rau dip, nm,) v trong c hi sn( tm,).
II.2. C ch v iu kin xy ra phn ng ha nu do enzyme.
II.2.1. C ch.
A. Poluphenol- c cht ca phn ng ha nu.
Polyphenol cn c gi l hp cht phenolic l nhm cht tn ti
trong thc vt( rau qu) c vai tr quan trng trong nu ha bi v
chng l cht nn trong cc phn ng ha nu do enzyme.
Hp cht phenolic gy ra mu cho rt nhiu thc vt, chng l mt
phn ca v v mu ca ung nh nc to ch, v l cht chng
oxi ha quan trng trong thc vt.
Polyphenol c th chia thnh nhiu loi nh: anthocyans( mu trong
tri cy), flavonoids( catechins, tannins trong ch v ru) v cht
khng phi l flavonoids( acid glalic trong l ch).
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PHN NG HA NU
Trong qu trnh ch bin v tch tr polyphenol b thay i bi cc
ha cht v cc tc nhn sinh hc. Quan trng nht l enzyme oxi ha
gy ra mu nu cho rau qu. Phn ng ny hu nh xy ra khi ct
hoc gy ra cc tc ng c hc.
Thc phm
To
Chui
coffe
Ca cao

Khoai ty

Ch

C cht phenol
chlorogenic acid (flesh), catechol, catechin (peel), caffeic
acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA), 3,4-dihydroxy
benzoic acid, p-cresol, 4-methyl catechol, leucocyanidin
3,4-dihydroxyphenylethylamine (Dopamine),
leucodelphinidin, leucocyanidin
chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid
catechins, leucoanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, complex
tannins
chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, catechol, DOPA, p-cresol,
phydroxyphenyl
propionic acid, p-hydroxyphenyl pyruvic
acid, m-cresol
flavanols, catechins, tannins, cinnamic acid derivatives

Bng 1: Mt s loi c cht phenol trong thc phm.

B. Enzyme xc tc ch phn ng ha nu.


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PHN NG HA NU
Enzyme polyphenoloxidaza c pht hin u tin trong nm v
tm thy nhiu trong t nhin.
Enzyme poluphenoloxidaza l metaloenzyme cha o,2% Cu trong
phn t, ch hot ng trong pH 5-8.

C. C ch phn ng.
Phn ng to mu do enzyme gm hai giai on:
Hydroxyl ha bi enzyme to polyphenol khng mu.
Oxy ha bi enzyme ra quinon mang mu.
Cc phn ng ny u xy ra di tc dng ca oxi khng kh.
Giai on hydroxyl ha bi enzyme to polyphenol khng mu.
Enzyme xc tc qu trnh o-hydroxyl ca monophenol ( phn t
phenol trong vng benzene c cha 1 nhm th hydroxyl n) to
thnh o-diphenol ( phn t phenol c cha 2 nhm th hydroxyl).
Enzym xc tc giai ny c tn l monophenolaza hoc cresolaza
Giai on oxy ha bi enzyme ra quinon mang mu.
Qu trnh oxy ha ca o-diphenol to ra o-quinon. y l qu
trnh polymer ha nhanh o-quinon to ra sc t en, nu hoc l
nguyn nhn ca mu nu ca tri cy.
Khi c mt ca oxy khng kh, cc enzyme xc tc nhng bc u
tin trong vic chuyn i sinh ha ca phenol sn xut quinon v
tri qua trng hp mang li 1 dng polymer mu ti, khng ha tan
gi l melanin. Cc melanin hnh thnh ro cn v c c tnh khng
khun, ngn chn s ly lan ca s nhim trng hoc bm tm trong
m thc phm.
Enzym xc tc cho giai on hai l polyphenolaza hoc
catecholaza.
Tn gi h thng ca enzym giai on oxy ha l octodiphenoloxyOxydoreductaza.
D. iu kin phn ng.
Phn ng xy ra khi c s hin din ca khng kh , ph thuc vo
pH.
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PHN NG HA NU
Phn ng xy ra trong khong pH t 5-8.
II.3. Qui trnh sn xut c ng dng phn ng ha nu do
enzyme.

1 Qui trnh sn xut cacao.


Phn ng ha nu xy ra trong qua trnh rang ht cacao.
Xy ra giai on u qu trnh rang ht.
Qu trnh oxy ha polyphenol xy ra to mu.
Phn ng Maillard gia ng kh v acid amin.
Phn ng caramen ho to mu v mi.
ng dng v vai tr: phn ng ha nu c vai tr quan trng trong
vic to mu, mi cho cc sn phm cacao, quyt nh tnh cm quan
cho sn phm.
2 Qui trnh sn xut ru vang sim.
Phn ng ha acid arcobic ( Vitamin C).
Vitamin C v Vitamin C-nitin nh hng n kh nng duy tr
mu sc cu sn phm.
VD:
O-diphenol + O2 = O-quinone + H2O
( cht hot ng)
O-quinenoc cht hot ng gy ra hng lot phn ng quang
trng hoc ngng t vi nhau to cc sn phm c mu hoc
khng mu, tan hoc khng tan trong nc.
Tamin nh hng n v v kh nng duy tr mu sc.
Nng tamin cng cao th hp th cng ln v tng
dn theo thi gian bo qun.
Tamin to ra v cht se cho sn phm ru.

3 Qui trnh sn xut ch.


Phn ng ha nu xy ra trong giai on lm ho ch.
Trong qu trnh lm ho ch, hm lng Vitamin C gim( cht chng
oxy ha) do lm tng qua trnh oxy ha sc t antonianidin to ra
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PHN NG HA NU
nhng sn phm tan c trong nc lm cho mu sc ca nc pha
ch en tr nn p hn.
Phn ng ha nu cn c s dng trong mt s qui trnh sn xut
nh: qui trnh sn xut coffe ( trong phn ng to mu v mi cho
coffe), qui trnh sn xut hoa qu kh( phn ng xy ra trong giai
on xy kh hoa qu), qui trnh sn xut thuc l( giai on sy kh
l thuc).
ng dng v vai tr ch yu ca phn ng ha nu trong qu trnh sn
xut thc phm l:
Lm tng tnh cm quan cho thc phm.
Tiu git VSV v lm tng thi gian bo qun thc phm.

II.4. nh hng ca phn ng ha nu do enzyme.


II.4.1. nh hng c li.
Nu ha c enzym c vai tr quan trng trong vic to ra mu ca cafe,
ch, cacao
Gi mu vng nu cho cc loi hoa qu kh nh nho,mn,ch l,sung
Polyphenoloxidaza c xem l c gi tr quan trng trong vic chng li
vi khun vi rt v cc iu kin kh hu c hi.
II.4.2. nh hng c hi.
Nu ha c enzym nh hng xu n cht lng,c th l trong qu trnh
thu hi v tch tr rau qu ti.. Nu ha c th gy nn 50% s hao ht
trong qu trnh sn xut rau qu.

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PHN NG HA NU

Hnh 1: Phn ng ha nu do enzyme xy ra to

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PHN NG HA NU

Hnh 2: Phn ng ha nu do enzyme xy ra tm

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PHN NG HA NU
CHNG III: PHN NG HA NU KHNG
ENZYME.
III.1. Gii thiu v phn ng ha nu khng enzyme.
Phn ng nu ha khng enzim thng gp trong qu
trnh ch bin thc phm m ph bin nht l trong thc phm nng,
rntuy nhin phn ng sm mu khng enzim cng thng gy ra s h
hng ca thc phm nh lm gim gi tr dinh dng, to mu khng mong
mun, gy mi i thiu.
Phn ng nu ha khng enzim l phn ng ca cc hp cht
cacbonyl, xut hin t ng kh hoc cc phn ng khc nhau nh oxi
ha axit ascorbic, thy phn tinh bt hay oxi ha lipit.
Phn ng ha nu khng enzyme bao gm cc phn ng:

Phn ng caramen ha

Phn ng melanoidin
Phn ng gia cc sn phm oxi ha lipit vi
protein
Phn ng thoi phn cc hp cht cacbonyl c ni
i lun hp .

III.2. Tm hiu mt s phn ng ha nu khng enzyme.


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PHN NG HA NU
III.2.1. Phn ng caramen ha.
A. Khi nim.
Phn ng caramen ha l loi phn ng loi b nc ca ng dn
n ng phn ha v trng hp ng thnh cc hp cht cao phn t.
B. C ch phn ng.
Giai on u: phn ng to nn cc anhydrit ca glucozan,
fructozan, sacarozan l nhng hp cht khng mu. Sau ,
cn xy ra s trng hp ha cc ng c dehydrat
ha to thnh cc phm vt c mu nu vng.
V d: Vi Sacaroza , s phn ng caramen ha:
C12H22O11 - H2O -> C6H10O5 + C6H10O5
Giai on 2: S trng hp ha ng c dyhydrat
n 185 190 o C s to thnh izosacarozan
glucozan + levulozan -> izosacarozan
C6H10O5 + C6H10O5 -> C12H20O10
Giai on 3: tip tc trng hp to thnh caramel v
caramelin
Khi nhit cao hn s mt i 10% nc v to thnh caramenlan
(C12H18O9, hoc C24H36O18) c mu vng:
C12H20O10 - H2O ->C12H18O9 hoc C24H36O18
Khi mt i 14 % nc s to thnh caramelen
C12H20O10 + C24H36O18 - 3 H2O -> C36H48O24.H2O
V khi mt i 25% nc s to thnh caramelin c mu nu en.

C. iu kin phn ng.


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PHN NG HA NU
Phn ng xy ra mnh m nhit nng chy ca ng.
V d: glucoza 146 150 o C, fructoza 95 - 100 o C, sacaroza 160 180 oC
III.2.2. Phn ng MELANOIDIN.
A. Khi nim.
Khi ch bin mc qu thng thy mu nu nht, sa ng nng
qu lu cng thy mu vng, tht c chin hay nng u thy hin mt lp
v mu vng nu. Nhng hin tng u bt ngun t phn ng Melanoidin.
Phn ng Melanoidin l phn ng gia protein v glucid hay ni chnh xc
hn l phn ng gia ng kh v acid amin.
B. C ch phn ng.
Theo Hodge, phn ng to melanoidin bao gm mt lot cc phn
ng xy ra song song hoc ni tip. Da vo mc mu sc ca cc sn
phm c th chia thnh 3 giai on k tip nhau.
Giai on u: phn ng khng mu v khng hp th nh
sang cc tm.
Giai on ny bao gm 2 phn ng: Phn ng ngng t
cacbonylamin v phn ng chuyn v Amadorin.
Phn ng ngng t cacbonylamin.
Phn ng ngng t cacbonylamin hay chnh l s ngng t ng vi acid
amin.

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PHN NG HA NU

Hnh 3: Phn ng ngng t cacbonylamin


Trong iu kin sn xut khi nhit cao, p c bt u khng phi t
N Glucozit m t sacaroamin( ng amin) theo s sau:

Hnh 4: Phn ng t sacaroamin

Phn ng chuyn v Amadorin.


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PHN NG HA NU
Khi nhit cao, phc ng amin b ng phn ha hay gi l
b chuyn v ni phn Amadori. Sn phm ca phn ng l cht khi u
to thnh polime c mu sm gi l melanoidin.

Hnh 5: Phn ng chuyn v Amadori

Giai on trung gian.


Giai on ny xy ra s kh nc ca 1 amin 1 dezoxi 2
xetoza to thnh cc sn phm phn ly khc nhau.Ph thuc vo d9eiu62
kin mi trng v nhit trung gian c th tin hnh bng mt s con
ng:

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PHN NG HA NU
To thnh furfurol v ozon.

Hnh 6: Phn ng to furfurol


Khi b thy phn, bazo Schiff ca hydroxymetyl furfurol hoc ca
furufrol c th b phn hy to thnh hydoxymetylfurfurol hoc furfurol
v acid amin t do theo s sau:

Hnh 7
Hydroxymetylfurfurol- con ng kh nc ca dezoxyxetoza.
Dezoxyxetoza phn ng vi phn t glucoza to thnh
difuranozamin. Sau difuranozamin b thy phn to thnh 3dezpxyglucozon.

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PHN NG HA NU

Hnh 8
To thnh reducton c su cacbon.
Cc aminodezoxyxetoza c to thnh t chuyn v Amadori, b kh i hai
phn t H2O to thnh cc reduction c su cacbon.
Phn hy ng.
Phn hy cu t ng ca sn phm chuyn v Amadori to thnh cc
phm vt khc nh: trizoreducton, aldehit pyruvic, axeton, axetoin, diaxetyl.
Mt s cht to thnh khi phn hy ng c mi v d chu do quyt
nh cht lng ca sn phm.
Phn hy cc hp cht amin.
S phn hy strecker:

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PHN NG HA NU
Hnh 9
Bazo Schiff c to thnh b phn ly thy phn thnh aldehit v hp cht
amin. Hp cht ami s cho sn phm cha nito v c mu nu.

Hnh 10
Giai on cui:
Giai on cui bao gm rt nhiu phn ng phc tp. C th chia
thnh hai kiu phn ng:
Phn ng ngng t aldil vi s to thnh polymer mu nu
khng cha nito.

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PHN NG HA NU
V d:

Hnh1
nhi

Phn ng trng hp ha aldehitamin vi s to thnh cc hp


cht nito to vng.
V d:

Hnh12

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PHN NG HA NU

P hn n g
ngng
t .
P h n
ng
tr n g
h p.

P olym e
kh n g
n o, h a
tan tron g
n c,
m u
m .

P olym e
kh n g
n o,
kh n g
h a tan
tron g
n c,
m u
m .

Sn phm Melanoidin gm: polyme khng no, ha tan trong nc,


mu m v polyme khng no, khng ha tan trong nc, mu m.
C. iu kin phn ng.
nh hng ca acid amin v ng.
nh hng ca nc.
nh hng ca nhit v pH mi trng.
Cht kim hm v cht tng tc phn ng melanoidin.
D. ng dng ca phn ng Maillard.
ng dng trong sn xut v bo qun thc phm.
ng dng trong sn xut bnh m: mu v bnh m.
ng dng trong sn xut bia: mu sc v hng v ca bia.

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PHN NG HA NU
III.2.3. Phn ng phn hy acid Ascorbic

Hnh 13
L ascorbic axt c trng bi nhm enediol lm cho n c tnh
kh mnh. Axt ascorbic c th b oxi ha khi c khng kh trong mi trng
trung tnh hoc mi trng kim. Dung dch trong nc tn ti dng
hemiketal. Khi b oxh to ra dixeto L- ascorbic axt. Hp cht ny khng
bn, tip tc b oxi ha thnh cc hp cht khc, trong c 1-threonic axt.
Phn ng kh nc v C c th dn ti s hnh thnh Furfulara, m c th b
polyme ha thnh cc sc t xm.

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PHN NG HA NU

Hnh 14
Tc phn hy vitamin C b nh hng ca nhiu yu t nh: p
sut ring phn ca oxi, pH, nhit , c bit l kim loi nng nh: Fe, Cu,

Vitamin C cn b phn hy bi cc axt amin (phn ng Maillard).


Hin tng ny thng thy khi sy kh tri cy ti.

III.3. Qui trnh sn xut c ng dng phn ng ha nu khng


enzyme.
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PHN NG HA NU

1 Qui trnh sn xut bnh ko.


Xy ra trong giai on c c chn khng trong qu trnh sn xut
bnh ko.
Phn ng caramen ha xy ra mnh m nhit nng chy ca
ng.
VD: glucose 146-1500C ,
frutose 95-1000C
Saccharose 160-1800C
Tuy nhin ty thuc vo nng ng, thnh phn pH ca mi
trng, thi gian un nng m ngi ta vn tm thy cc sn phm
ca s caramen ha nhit nng chy thp hn nhit nng chy
ca ng.
o VD: saccharose c th bt u bin i ngay nhit 1350C.
ng dng:
To v ng cho cc sn phm ko caramen
To hng caramen cho sn phm
Tiu dit VSV v m thp s hn ch cc phn ng
thy phn ng tng thi gian bo qun thc phm.
nh hng: trong mt s sn phm bnh ko phn ng caramen ha
nh khng tt n tnh cm quan ca sn phm.
2 Qui trnh sn xut bnh m.
Phn ng caramen ha: cng on nng to v bnh.
Phn ng Maillard: cng on nng.
ng dng: tham gia vo qu trnh to mu cho v bnh m ( phn ng
caramen ha). Tham gia vo vo qu trnh to mi cho bnh m( phn
ng Maillard).
3 Qui trnh sn xut bia.
Phn ng caramen ha xy ra giai on thy phn protein.
Sn phm ca giai on thy phn protein to sn phm tham gia vo
phn ng caramen ha.
ng dng: phn ng caramen ho lm nh hnh v, mu sc, to bt,
gi bn cho bia.

PH LC
Bng 1....................................................................................................8
Hnh 1......................................................................................................13
Hnh 2......................................................................................................14
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PHN NG HA NU
Hnh 3......................................................................................................18
Hnh 4......................................................................................................18
Hnh 5......................................................................................................19
Hnh 6......................................................................................................20
Hnh 7......................................................................................................20
Hnh 8......................................................................................................21
Hnh 9......................................................................................................22
Hnh 10....................................................................................................22
Hnh 11....................................................................................................23
Hnh 12....................................................................................................23
Hnh 13....................................................................................................25
Hnh 14....................................................................................................26

TI LIU THAM KHO


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PHN NG HA NU
- Ha sinh cng nghip- L Ngc T, La Vn Ch, ng Th Thu,
Nguyn Th Thnh, Bi c Li, L Don Din. NXB Khoa hc v
k thut, 2005.
- Ha hc thc phm, Hong Kim Anh, NXB Khoa hc k thut, 2004.

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PHN NG HA NU

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PHN NG HA NU

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