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Pashto-English

Dictionary
First Edition

Zeeya A. Pashtoon

Pashto-English
Dictionary
First Edition

Zeeya A. Pashtoon

2009

Pashto-English Dictionary, First Edition


Copyright 2009 McNeil Technologies, Inc.
All rights reserved.
No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means,
electronic or mechanical, including photocopying and recording, or by any information
storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission of McNeil Technologies, Inc.
All inquiries should be directed to:
Dunwoody Press
6525 Belcrest Rd, Suite 460
Hyattsville, MD 20782
USA
ISBN: 978-1-931546-70-6
Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 2009937483
Printed and bound in the United States of America

Table of Contents
Preface............................................................................................................................................................................. i
Acknowledgments .................................................................................................................................................... ii
Sample Entry............................................................................................................................................................... iii
Pronounciation Guide ............................................................................................................................................ iv
Abbreviations and Labels....................................................................................................................................... v
The Dictionary
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Preface
This Pashto-English Dictionary, First Edition is intended for professional Pashto-to-English translators of modern Pashto
written materials. It contains approximately 55,000 entries arranged alphabetically according to the Pashto alphabet.
The main sources for this dictionary are:

Afgansko-russkii slovar (Pashto-Russian Dictionary, M. G. Aslanov, Martiros, N. A. Dvoriankov, Moscow, 1966, 994
pages)
Pashto-English Dictionary (M.H. Rahimi, Academy of Science of Afghanistan, Kabul, 1979, 591 pages)
Pashto-Pashto Descriptive Dictionary (Institute of Languages and Literature, Academy of Science of Afghanistan,
Kabul, 2005, Vol. 1-4);
Daryab Dictionary (Qalandar Momand, Peshawar, 1994, 1,325 pages)
Qamosona Pashto Dictionaries (http://www.achakzai.de/j/)

The second edition of this dictionary is well underway. This new edition will be corpus-based and will include new
headwords, new definitions, and new examples.
As always, the Publisher welcomes any comments, suggestions, corrections, and additions to the dictionary.

The Publisher
Dunwoody Press
Hyattsville, Maryland
November 2009

Acknowledgments
The publication of this Pashto-English Dictionary, First Edition has been made possible with the encouragement and
support of many colleagues. In particular, I would like to express my deepest gratitude and sincere thanks to Thomas
Creamer and Erin Gyomber for editorial support; to Aung Kyaw Oo for formatting the dictionary; to Patrick O'Sullivan,
David Williams, Thomas Tucker, Alan Turnbull, Irina Knizhnik, and Melvin Deatherage for translation support; to
Azizeh Babba and Mustafa Ajan Sayd for assistance in keyboarding the Pashto script; and especially to Naseer Honar
Pashtoon for lending his expertise on both the Pashto language and Pashto lexicography.
Zeeya A. Pashtoon
McNeil Technologies, Inc.

Hyattsville, Maryland

ii

Sample Entry
Headword
Homograph
Pronunciation
Sense number

Label

Gender

achavl 1 transitive [past: ] .1 throw, fling,


hurl, drop (from a height); throw out, cast to throw
on the ground to drop bombs 1.2 to bring, knock
down to bring an aircraft down 1.3
throw on, throw over, put on to cover with a
blanket 1.4 to spread 1.5 to put, place, put together
to lead a pack on a camel 1.6 to lay (eggs) 1.7 to strew,
pour (in, into) to sprinkle salt, salt a to
strew seed, sprinkle grain b to sow 1.8 to pour, pour out
pour me a cup of tea to refuel 1.9 to
give, feed (animals) 1.10 to fertilize, fertilize the soil 1.11
pass, give pass me the bread 1.12 to register
(mail) 1.13 to lower, let down, launch to
launch a boat He hung his head. 1.14 to
establish, set up (e.g., communications with someone) 1.15 to
build 1.16 to bind, fasten (to) 1.17 to place, put, settle, lodge;
assign a billet, quarter 1.18 to assign work, put to work 1.19
to send (to school) 1.20 to hand in (an application); institute (a
suit) to bring a suit against someone 1.21 to
entrust to make someone responsible for
something 1.22 to set aside, adjourn; drag out (an affair) !
Put it off until tomorrow! 1.23 to draw up (e.g., a
plan); sketch in, make a rough sketch or outline to
draw up a plan to plot something
against someone 1.24 to make oneself out to be someone;
pretend to be someone else; claim something as one's own
property He pretended to be deaf. 1.25 to
start, set going; put into service, put into operation; utilize
to commit troops to battle 1.26 instill (in);
install (in), establish to inculcate
love for the motherland 1.27 to make, produce, effect
to set on fire to greet a to throw oneself,
rush b to make oneself out to be someone else, imitate someone
else, pretend to be someone else to pretend to be
dead to feign illness, malinger c to expose
oneself to something, subject oneself to something
to be on friendly terms, establish friendship with
someone 2 m. plural 1 1 idiom to
quarrel
2 uchavl transitive dialect
1

iii

Definition
Subsense
number
Alternate form

Cross
Reference

Pronounciation Guide

b
p
t

s
dzh
ch
dz
ts
h
kh
d

z
r

z
zh
g
s
sh

iv

h
s
z
t
z
'
gh
f

k
g
l
m
n

v/o/

/u/w

h
aj

aj

Abbreviations and Labels


abbreviation

conversation

idiom

official abbreviation

abusive

copulative

imperative

onomatopoeia

accounting

curse

imperfect

optative

action noun

demonstrative pronoun

imperfective

ordinal

adjectival suffix

demotic

indeclinable

parenthetic word

adjective

denominative

indefinite pronoun

participle

administration

derogatory

independent perfective

particle

adverb

dialect

indirect plural

passive

adverbial prefix

diminutive

indirect singular

past

adverbial suffix

diplomacy

intensifier

past participle

adversative conjunction

directional pronoun

intensive particle

past perfective

affectionate

disjunctive conjunction

interjection

past stem

affirmative particle

doublet

intransitive

past tense stem

Afridi

dual

invariable

perfective

agriculture

dual number

ironic

Persian

anatomy

Eastern

jocular

personal name

Arabic

economics

law

perspective aspect

archaeology

electrical engineering

library science

philosophy

archaic

electronics

linguistics

photography

architecture

endearment

literal

physics

astronomy

epistolary

literally

physiology

attributive

ethnography

literary

phytopathology

auxiliary verb

exclamation

literature

plural

auxiliary word

expression

m.

poetic

aviation

f.

masculine

polite

biology

feminine

masculine plural

politics

botany

feminine plural

math

possessive

cards

feminine singular

medicine

postposition

causative

figurative

metallurgy

postpositive

chemistry

finance

military

potential

chess

first person

mining

predicate

children's speech

first person past

music

predicative

collective

first person plural

mythology

prefix

colloquial

first person present

negative particle

prefixal verb

combined with

folk saying

no plural form

preposition

combining form

folklore

noun of agent

present

comparative degree

future

noun suffix

present participle

compound

future perfect

number

printing

compound verb

geography

numeral

productive verb

conditional

geology

oblique

pronoun

conjunction

geometry

oblique plural

proper name

construction

grammar

oblique singular

proverb

contrastive conjunction

history

obsolete

railroad

conventional formula

hunting

official

regional

religion

sometimes plural

theater

vocative

saying

sometimes singular

third person plural

vulgar

second person

sports

third person singular

Waziri

second plural

stem

trade

Western

second singular

suffix

transitive

with numbers

secondary plural

superlative degree

word paired to

separable part of present

swear word

used as the first element in


compounds

separable part of verb

tautological with

short plural

technology

singular

textiles

used with
verb copula
veterinary
vice

vi

zoology

Pashto-English Dictionary

figurative a to build one's house b to achieve prosperity;

prosper 1.6 to create (e.g., favorable conditions) 2 m. plural

bdavna f. abdavna f. 1 population 2 tilling,


cultivation (land) 3 building, construction 4 prosperity; well

alf 1 the first letter of the Pashto alphabet 2 the number 1 in

the abjad system 3 performs the following functions: 3.1 the


accented suffix of nouns derived from verbs, e.g., motion

being

dance, dancing 3.2 linking element in complex words.


e.g., from house to house face to face 3.3
indicates the vocative, e.g., ! oh, Ahmed! 3.4 in verbs

bd f. abd f. 1 populated place, domicile 2

bdedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be

beginning with the phoneme "a" a separate part of the verb, in

populated, be settled 2 to be tilled, be cultivated, have been

laconic sentences in the perfective aspect, e.g., , etc.

tilled (of land) 3 to be built, be restored 4 to prosper, succeed

bdedna f. abdedna f. 1 population 2


cultivation, tilling (land)

Did you take the book? / Yes, I

did.

u o Eastern replaces the perfective aspect prefix, e.g.,

instead of he said

vocative particle oh, listen

come here!

absind m. Ind (river)


abganj f. relatives, kinsmen (on the father's side), agnates
(any paternal kinsmen)

Hey, boy,

bmb r m. reservoir, pool


b-va-adzhd d m. b-u-adzhd d

Papa! Father! 2 interjection ah, aha

interjection, demonstrative pronoun colloquial

one told the other that


5
official abbreviation
an n Arabic adverbial prefix e.g., eternally officially
1 b m. v singular & plural 1 water, moisture 2 brilliance,
luster (of a precious stone) 3 honor, dignity, reputation
to disgrace, dishonor (someone)
to be disgraced, be dishonored to preserve
one's honor He is a respected man.
2 ab m. [plural: ] Arabic father
1 ab m. Arabic father to regard as father; call
2

ib f. Arabic refusal

reject

abn-va-dzhddn Arabic from generation to generation


b-i-istd f. Ab-i-Istada (lake, near the city of Gazni)
abi 1 ancestral 2 native native land
bb z m. vb z 1 swimmer 2 sailor
bbz f. vbz 1 swimming 2 aquatic sport
bp sh f. 1 pouring; watering watering machine
2 watering can

bpsh f. watering, irrigation


bt b m.
btb f.
ibtid Arabic 1 f. beginning, undertaking
in the very beginning from the very beginning
linguistics cluster of consonants at the beginning of a
word to begin 2.1 firstly 2.2 for the first time
ibtid Arabic adjective 1.1 elementary; first-stage; firstechelon, primary elementary school

to refuse, decline,

3 b m. Arabic plural of 2
b t
abtb m. fatherhood
bt f. abt f.
b d ab d 1 populated, settled, inhabited
This district was settled by Afghans. 2 tilled,
cultivated cultivated lands 3 flourishing
! Long live our Native Land! 4 restored 5 well-

primary organization 2 rudimentary, primitive, weak (e.g., of a


chief 4 chemistry elemental

nourished, fat (of animals)

abtr avtr adjective 1 destroyed; spoiled 2 useless;

unnecessary; good-for-nothing

abtarz m. technology level


abtaravl denominative, transitive

services and amenities; construction

bdavl abdavl 1 [past: ] denominative,


transitive .1 to populate, settle 1.2 to till, cultivate (the land);

[past:

1 to

destroy, pull down 2 to spoil, make worse 3 to make useless,


make unnecessary

revitalize (e.g., the desert) 1.3 to restore 1.4 to provide with

ibtiz l m. Arabic 1 carelessness; negligence 2 meanness,

baseness

settlers 2 prosperity; well being 3 organization of public

abtar f. 1 destruction, disintegration 2 spoiling,

worsening, uselessness idiom

to build a building 1.5 to

promote development, promote prosperity

assistant department
raw material

play) 3 administration junior

bd n abd n 1 2 m. plural Abadan (city)


bdn f. abdn f. 1 population, number of

the amenities; construct

Arabic plural

fathers and grandfathers, ancestors

(honorifically) father

confusion
1

to cause

Pashto-English Dictionary

abtaredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


destroyed, be pulled down 2 to be spoiled, be worsened 3 to

be useless, be unnecessary

2 ibd l m.
ibdlavl

ibtik r m. Arabic 1 initiative, undertaking


ibtikr creative, full of initiative idiom a
m.

ubtla f.

imprisonment

according to the numberical values assigned to the letters, socalled from the first 4 letters , , , i.e., 1, 2, 3, 4)

alphabetic calculation, use of Arabic alphabet for

abdzhad pertaining to the abjad (i.e., the Arabic alphabet

arranged according to the numberical values assigned to the

letters) the letters of the abjad


bidzhu m. plural beer
abdzhsha f. [plural: abdzhshi]

often plural

urgently, demand

ibrhm m. Arabic proper name Ibrahim, Abraham


ibrhimkhl m. birrimkhl plural 1 Ibrahimkheli

bchakn moire, having an undulating appearance or

velvet moire

abh s m. Arabic plural of

disputes, heated debates

abr r m. Arabic plural [singular: ]devout people, just

ibr z m. Arabic 1 discovery, revelation 2 demonstration


compound verb a to discover, reveal b to demonstrate
ibr m m. Arabic urgent request to request

"sabza" (a variety of currant having pale fruit- usually dried)


texture

(subdivision of a tribe) a of the Waziri-Utmanzaj b of the

Gil'zaj-Sulimankhejlej c of the Zamusht 2 Ibrakhimkhejl

heated

(tribesman)

abh r m. Arabic plural from


bkhn f. reservoir
bkhra f. watering; a watering place
bkhur f. vkhur mug (for water), flask, water bottle
abd m. Arabic plural eternity constantly, eternally,

brv m.

vrv aqueduct

water-

Muscovite,

3 abr m. [plural: abru n] eyebrow


brumn brumnd 1 honorable

1.2 juicy (of fruits)

to shame,

2 deserving,

respected, estimable

1.3 sparkling, shining (of pure water, precious stones) 1.4

(steel) 2 m. .1 butler 2.2 major-domo 2.3 person who

brumandn 1 deserving, estimable

in a deserving fashion or manner 2 in a worthy fashion or

affects irrigation
bdravl denominative, transitive [past:
glorify; esteem, honor, revere

br m. br f. plural honor, dignity, reputation

to do honor, respect

worthy, respected, glorious, honorable 1.5 tempered, hardened

manner

abr 1 right side (i.e., of clothing) 2 small shawl (worn at

the waist) 3 sash, girdle 4 kashmir shawl 5 paper with a

bdr f. 1 glory, honor, dignity f. 2 hardening (steel)


bdredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be

design (for wrapping or bookbinding)

2 ibr f. harvest; picking (e.g., fruit)


3 ibr f. Arabic 1 needle 2 pointer
ibravr pertaining to harvest or crops; fertile

glorified, be esteemed, be honored, be revered

abrk m. singular & plural mica

dishonor

water supply

irrigation ditch

He hasn't a clue. He doesn't know

bid t m. Arabic plural from


bd r vd r 1.1 watery, humid, damp

white mica

abdn Arabic 1 constantly, eternally, forever, for good 2

quite, entirely

brasn f.

tank truck

forever, for good

at all.

life

men, saints

"abjush" a variety of large, light-colored currant, the light

liberate (e.g., from a debt) b to forgive (e.g., a debt)

numbers

abad Arabic 1 eternal, endless 2 life-long

abadijt m. Arabic plural eternity


abr m. cloud, storm cloud
ibr f. Arabic 1 liberation (e.g., from an obligation) 2
forgiveness (e.g., of a debt) compound verb a to

abdzhd m. Arabic abjad (i.e., the Arabic alphabet arranged

abdl m. avdl plural history the Abdali (tribe, now

thing

a render useless, futile b ruin, spoil

ibtih dzh m. Arabic 1 gaiety 2 pleasure 3 rejoicing,

bd n m. vd n tank, reservoir (for water)


bid f. Arabic m. [plural: bid t] sacred and holy

gladness

denominative, transitive [past:

called the Dur(r)ani)

invariable 1 unavailing, futile, unsucessful 2 perished,

destroyed

Arabic change, alteration

change, alter

impromptu b unique pronunciation

ubtl
abat

abd l m. avd l Arabic 1 saint; hermit, anchorite (solitary

holy man) 2 proper name Abdal

He/they displayed initiative. 2 invention

ibd ' f. Arabic discovery, invention


2

Pashto-English Dictionary

abr cloudy

abr

abledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


bared, be exposed 2 to have someone's shoes removed

paper with design (for wrapping or

bookbinding)

brz vrz lavatory, latrine


abrekhm m. plural
ubj f.
-bs Well, that's it!; That's all!
abasanj
bsh r m. waterfall
bshin s m. pilot (maritime)
1 ibt l m. Arabic 1 destruction 2 rejection medicine
idiom anaesthesia
2 abt l m. Arabic plural abt l m. from Arabic
ab' d m. Arabic plural [singular: ]1 distances 2 math

ibls m. Arabic devil, satan


bmnd honorable, worthy, respected
ibn m. [plural: abn ] Arabic son (in proper names)
bn f. bnj m. strait, sound Dardanelles
ibn-i-sin m. ibna-Sina, Avicenna (Arab physician and
philospher, 980-1037)

bn s m. Arabic singular & plural black wood, ebony


bnus adjective of black wood, of ebony
uba f.
1 ab m. father (in proper names) Abubekr
2 ub Western oblique plural of
abv b m. Arabic plural of 1
abulhul m. Arabic sphinx
ubuvvt m. Arabic 1 fatherhood 2 patriarchy
butb m. 1 brilliance, splendor 2 dignity
to speak importantly, speak with dignity, speak

dimensions, measurements

abk m. affectionate Papa Oh Papa!


bknd m. ravine
b-i-kavsr m. religion 1 water of the heavenly river
Kavsar 2 nectar 3 proper name the Kavsar River (in NW
Afghanistan)

grandiloquently

bg m.
bgsht m. vgsht bouillon
abl 1 naked 2 barefoot ( to go, be) barefoot
Eastern (to go, be) barefoot
ibl gh m. Arabic notification, report, information
iblgavl denominative [past: ] to notify, report,

ubudz la f. sponge
b-u-dn f. 1 subsistence, food

obs m. howitzer
obus adjective howitzer
b-u-hav f. climate
abavijt 1 fatherhood 2 position or role of an ancestor or

ibladadl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


communicated, be informed

forefather

iblgijn f. Arabic 1 (official) communication,

communique

abltb m. nudity, nakedness


abl ablk Arabic 1 motley, parti-colored 2 piebald
3 figurative two-faced, hypocritical He is a
hypocrite.

2 youthful

abla f. plural of
2 ablh Arabic stupid, bad
ablahn 1 stupid, foolish

female worker

bij f. pace

horsemanship)

1 to

to pace (i.e., special gait used in

abj t m. Arabic plural 1


bjr f. watering, irrigation to water, irrigate
bjn f. collection or accumulation of water
abidzh n m. Abidzhan (city)
abr m. singular & plural ambergris, fragrance, perfume
abjz Arabic combining form white White Sea

stupid words,

foolish words 2 stupidly, foolishly

to get by, live in poverty, live from hand to

to an elderly woman) 3 (child's) nurse, nanny 4 servant,


to

attain adulthood, reach maturity

ablavl denominative, transitive [ past:


bare, expose 2 to take off someone's shoes

mommy (affectionate form of address) 2 mom (form of address

ablsta 1 feminine singular of 2 f. girl


ablutsedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

ab

2 ab m. abbot
ibhm m. Arabic 1 doubt 2 vagueness, uncertainty,
confusion to eliminate doubt, introduce clarity
1 b ab 1 moist, humid 2 pertaining to watering,
irrigation 3 sky blue sky-blue eyes 4 water
water routes hydraulic power
2 abj f. [plural: abj abjg ni] 1 mama,

operations)

teenager, lad, youth

abavjn m. Arabic dual parents, father and mother

mouth

situation report, SITREP (re military

ubln
ablts 1 adult, of full legal age

2 that which is

necessary to exist

inform

ablah f. Arabic foolishness, nonsense, folly

ablakub f. inoculation, vaccination


3

Pashto-English Dictionary

abjza buhajr the White Sea


abjavr dialect fast, swift (horses, etc.)
abjavar f.
ap a to scrape together, accumulate,

apin jn m. apinjn the Appenine peninsula


the Appenines
t Arabic plural suffix 1 usually used with Arabic nouns, and
rarely for nouns borrowed from other languages, e.g.,
necessities wishes 2 forms the second plural of
Arabic nouns, e.g., newspapers
htzunav atzunav pertaining to the United States of

acquire with difficulty b to steal (something)

aprtm n m. 1 multiple dwelling house (of the European

type) 2 apartment

pt m. ! That's bad!
apat
aprn m. apron
upr 1 adjective foreign 2 m. singular & plural

America; belonging to the USA; American

USA the United States of America, the USA


tsh m. [ plural: tsheg n] attach
military attache military attache
at m m. 1 2 crumbs (of bread)
1 itb r m. regional Sunday
2 ittib r m. colloquial
ittibr colloquial I believed

foreigner,

foreigners

iprt m. plural yperite, mustard gas


aprid m. singular of
aprshn m. operation (surgical)
aprl m. April
prn
apasanj to play "tip cat" (a game in which a pointed

him.

1 atb 1 masculine plural of 2 subjects, nationals


foreign subjects, foreign nationals
2 ittib f. Arabic 1 obedience 2 following, shadowing

stick of wood is made to spring up from the ground by being


struck on the tip with a stick, and is then batted as far as
possible)

someone 3 observation, maintenance (of principles)

apss m.
apl adverb barefoot
apl t empty, nonsensical to babble, talk nonsense,

apltnd babbling, talking nonsense, talking rot


babbler, windbag

tendency

ittih d m. Arabic 1 unity 2 union

Union

Soviet

Union of Soviet

Socialist Republics, the USSR 3 union, bloc alliance

ipl s m.
aplt
aplatnd
aplt m. babbler, windbag
apn m. plural opium
apin jn m.
pandist m. medicine appendicitis
pandks m. anatomy appendix
apu 1 turned over, unscrewed 2 oppressed, despotized,

defense alliance
ittihd-i-isl m m. Pan-Islamism
ittihdnm f. allied treaty
ittihd 1 union union republic, federal
republic 2 federal

ittihdij f. Arabic 1 unified body, union

All-Union
Union of Soviet
Writers history League of Nations 2 alliance,
bloc military alliance
ittikh z m. Arabic 1 collection 2 reception, acceptance,
taking compound verb a to collect b to receive,
accept, take He decided.
atr knowing, witting, informed I know
trade union

Chamber of Commerce

enslaved

apavl transitive
ap f. endeavor, striving
ap [plural: apijn] 1 viper, adder 2 snake
apz m. colloquial
apl m. regional law 1 appeal to appeal

ittidzh h f. Arabic [plural: ittidzhh t] 1 direction,

course (of a ship, aircraft) 2 inclination, bent, aspiration 3

talk rot

nothing of this matter. I am not informed about it.

2 request

for a new hearing

apell transitive [past: ] swallow, gulp down,


ingurgitate

apm m. plural opium


apimch m. apim
apn m. plural opium

htzun atzun m. & f. the United States of America, the

utr m. stand, mooring, parking, halt, rest to be halted, be parked, be moored; have a rest-

utr gh m.

stop

stop, arrange a halt

atrng m. singular & plural botany henna, alkanna


ataravl denominative, transitive [past: ] to inform,

m. opium smoker

notify

atra f. trunk, body, torso

Pashto-English Dictionary

atri doublet
ataredl denominative, intransitive
informed, be notified

based (upon), be founded (upon) b to rely, depend, set hope


[past: ] to be

upon (someone, something)

strong point

otrsh m. Austria

tsh m. tsh 1 fire 2 gunfire

line of fire

volley

tashafsh n

firepower 3 used as the first element in

itl f m. Arabic
atlntk adjective Atlantic
ataltn m. operational department (Soviet strategic,

tashand z 1 adjective flame-

tashbr f. artillery fire


tashbz f. fireworks
tashparst m. fire worshipper
tashparast f. fire worship
tashkhn f. 1 focus, pocket, center (e.g., infection)

tactical term)

1 atls m. 1 satin (cloth) 2 proper name Atlas


2 atlas numeral
3 atls 1
4 tlas m. atlas (e.g., geographic reference)
atlasm ordinal
atlsa f. proper name Atlasa
atalgd m. military transfer, redeployment of troops
atalvl m. military Chief of Operations Department
atalv la f. talent, (personal) gift
atm ordinal eighth
itm m m. Arabic completion, conclusion
1 utmndz m. plural 1 2 utmnzj m.

utmnkhl 1 m. plural the Utmankhejli 1a a tribe 1b

shelf; lock, block, bolt (of a rifle, etc.); fuse, primer, detonator
(armament)

tashd r 1 incendiary 2 pertaining to firearms


weapon (firearm)
tashfish n 1 pyrogenetic, volcanic
volcano 2 m. flamethrower

tashfishn f. volcanic eruption


tashk m. 1 agriculture anthracnose (plant disease)
vineyard anthracnose 2 syphilis
tashgr m. tinder, wick
1 atash m.
2 tash 1 adjective fire, pertaining to gunfire

a subdivsion of the Orakzai tribe 2 Utmankhejl (person)

curtain of fire 2 accumulated, amassed 3 bright 4 figurative


given to anger, quick to anger idiom

the Utmanzai

atamb r m.
atmosfr m. atmosphere
tn m. Athens (city)
htna f. Etna
htnogrf f. ethnography
utna f. doublet
atnm vice at eight-thirty
at m. 1 the Atan (national dance) 2 dance
a to dance b to whirl in the air (of birds)
atavl m. one who dances the Atan; dancer
ata adjective dancing dancer
1 ut m. flatiron flatiron compound verb

associate oneself with someone 3 continuity

ittisl Arabic joining, connecting


ittif k m. Arabic 1 contiguity, coincidence 2 consent,
agreement to come to an understanding, come
to an agreement with someone
all are in agreement with the fact that
they have agreed that 3 unanimity consensus
a in concord, with mutual, common consent b
unanimously 4 case, event, occurrence 5 good luck, success

ittif kn Arabic 1 unanimously, by consensus 2 by chance,

to iron, press

2 at m. proper name Ato


3 at oblique of 2
itvr m. regional Sunday
1 atb m. dialect a sweet odalda or pancake (cooked in

now and then

ittifk Arabic accidental, fortuitous

1 utmnz m. plural Utmanzi (a subdivision of (a.) the

Waziri tribe; (b.) the Momandi tribe) 2 utmnzi m. plural

magnifying

ittis l m. Arabic 1 contiguity 2 joining, junction, tie, bond


connecting link to join, connect
to join (something to something else),

atl 1 courageous, brave, valorous 2 m. .1 distinguished

person, talented person 2.2 epic hero 2.3 hero 2.4 champion

throwing 2 m. flame-thrower

glass

defended post,

2 grandmother (affectionate form of address)

compounds, e.g., fireworks

atkaj f. handcuffs, manacles


atk f. atkj f. 1 mother (affectionate form of address)

ittis ' f. Arabic 1 broadening, expansion 2 extensiveness,

magnitude, roominess, spaciousness

ittik military supporting

accidentally, by chance

ittik f. Arabic 1 support 2 hope, reliance, expectation


hope, reliance, expectation a to be

butter)

Pashto-English Dictionary

2 atb m. Eastern sweet gruel; scrambled eggs


otorit f. 1 power 2 authority
otokr m. bus, intercity bus
atm m. atom
atomt m. automatic device automatic

guess b to make a statement by guesswork 2 likening,


comparison 3 judgement, opinion 4 check, test, trial

akalavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


suppose, think, consider 2 to compare 3 to make a judgment

concerning something; evaluate something

to underestimate 4 to estimate 5 to check; test


to check oneself
akalavna f. 1 assumption, guess 2 comparison 3

telephone station, automatic telephone switching installation

atomtik automatic automatically


to automate
atomobl m.
atom atomk adjective nuclear, atom
atomic energy nuclear power station

evaluation 4 estimate 5 check, test

atkal 1 approximate, rough, near (as in guess, estimate)


according to rough calculations 2 notional
akaladl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to

physics atomic weight

be assumed, be considered 2 to be capable of comparison, be

atoj m. last person (e.g., in a queue), bringing up the rear


ta f. 1 cubit (measure of length)

length 2 pace

to measure a

compared 3 to be evaluated 4 to be checked, be tested

at numeral eight
3 at f. regional prison cell
ittihm m. Arabic accusation, suspicion
ittihmnm f. Arabic bill of indictment
atanzaj m. half-rupee (eight annas in Indian money)
atlas numeral eighteen
atlasm ordinal eighteenth
atvsht numeral twenty-eight
t Arabic following, next, supervenient
atj numeral eighty
atjn Arabic afterwards, later on, subsequently, in the future
itjt m. colloquial
atte f. 1 patience 2 satisfaction a to endure,
2

sore spot

be treated by the application of a hot object to a sore spot

1 akj f. hiccough to hiccough


2 ukj m. pipe, flue
als m. atlas
tli f.
aambr m. crowd, assemblage, gathering
aambaravl denominative, transitive [past: ]

aambraredl denominative, intransitive [past:

1 to be assembled, be united, be accumulated 2 to be arranged,

be set right

aodzj m. bazaar, market


a-u-s hither and thither, back and forth
am m.
aomik
aom aomk
am wasl f. dirty bomb
1 a f. ball, skein (of thread) to wind, reel

2 farmstead, villa (usually

al 1 uneasy, worried 2 banned, not permitted, detained 3

unoccupied, unemployed 4 repulsed, repelled


alavl denominative, transitive

to assemble, unite 2 to arrange, put right

with two stories and a tower) 3 Afridi upper story

akr m. the application of a hot brick or other object to a

akoravl denominative, transitive [ past:


]to treat by applying a hot object to a sore spot
akoredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to

stand, suffer b to content oneself with, be contented

tij f. Arabic future


aaj f. 1 country house, dacha

[past:

1 to

trouble, disturb, alarm 2 to detain, bother, obstruct 3 to


prevent from working 4 to beat off, repel

to

be wound, be reeled

aledl [past: ] 1 to worry, be agitated, be alarmed


2 to be detained, be stoped 3 to be prevented from working 4

2 a f. whim
aa-o m. plural finely-milled flour
1 atj f. 1
2 atj f. shop, store
3 a plural of 1
4 i plural of 2
aern m. 1 spool, reel 2 pachisi, ateran (game with dice)
compound verb a to reel b to play pachisi
aerl [past: ]1 to suffer from indigestion, suffer from

to be repulsed, be repelled

aled m. plural 1 worry, agitation, alarm 2 delay, halt


av f. Ottawa (city)
ur m.
atskaj m. sneezing to sneeze
ak Atak (city) the Ind River
akl m. 1 supposition, guess, proposal
miscalculation, blunder to suppose, guess
to make a rough estimate a to divine,

dyspepsia 2 to overeat, overfeed, be stuffed

Pashto-English Dictionary

aern suffering from indigestion, suffering from dyspepsia


aerna f. indigestion, dyspepsia
aenshn regional military Attention! (as a command)
compound verb to stand at attention
aiv l m. shopkeeper
as s m. ass-ul-bjt m. Arabic furniture;

idzhrt Arabic m. idzhr f. Arabic 1 lease, rental


rent lease, rental contract 2
purchase (of land) 3 contract a to
lease, take on lease, rent b to assume ownership c to put

(something) out to contract, contract (something) out 4 leased


sector of land idiom history lend-lease law
idzhr akhistnkaj m. leaseholder, lessee, tenant
idzhradr m. Arabic 1 leaseholder, lessor, tenant 2

household furnishings; utensils

2 ruins (antiquities),
historical monuments

s r m. Arabic 1 plural of

monuments

freeholder 3 contractor

idzhradr f. 1 lease, rent 2 possession based on lease


idzhrav l m.
udz dispersed, scattered, dissipated
udzhavl denominative to scatter, disperse, dissipate
udzhedl denominative [past: ] to be scattered,

hifs-i protection of ancient moments 3 works, writings,

compositions


to confirm,
prove I can prove it.
It has been also proven that
compound verb compound verb
isbtavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to
m. Arabic confirmation, proof

He nodded his head affirmatively.

be dispersed

udzhed m. plural sparseness, dispersion


idzhzt m. idzhaz f. Arabic 1 permission,
authorization with someone's
permission without authorization
to receive someone's permission
to request someone's permission to
give permission, authorize compound verb to be
authorized; be granted (rights, etc.) May I? May one?
Do I have your permission? it is allowed, One can, you
may, 2 approval, sanction to have received
approval, be sanctioned, be approved 3 right to have

confirm, prove

isbtedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


confirmed, be corroborated, be proven to be
attested by signature

asr m. [plural: asarna Arabic plural: s r

plural: asar t] 1 track

tracks; find

to detect someone's
No tracks of any kind were

detected. 2 sign, symbol 3 impression, influence, action, effect

to influence, affect
to exert a bad influence upon
to influence to act, operate,
exert influence on 4 leadership a under the

the right

udzhgh m. hearth
dzh l m. Arabic plural of
adzhnb m. Arabic plural of
adzhj to think only of food
adzhb colloquial
idzhb r m. Arabic compulsion; obligation

influence b under the leadership 5 literary production,


literary work idiom

as a result of

idzhzanm f. 1 license, authorization, certificate 2

pass, permit 3 admission (i.e., to premises); admittance

as a result, consequence of

asr f.
asar bewitching, alluring
askl m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 ballast
asn m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 interval, mean 3
interval of time, interval of space in time in
the course of at that time, in the meantime
asvb m. Arabic plural of
sr m. history Assyria
sur 1 adjective history Assyrian 2 m. Assyrian (person)
asr m. Arabic plural ether
asjub 1 adjective Ethiopian 2 m. Ethiopian (person)
asjubij f. Ethiopia
idzhbt m. Arabic 1 granting (satisfaction) of a request 2
favorable attitude 3 careful (attentive) hearing a to

to

force, compel, oblige, constrain

idzhb rn Arabic by force, compulsorily, by compulsion


idzhbr Arabic compulsory, obligatory
obligatory military service to be
compelled (e.g., as a result of a court decision)

adzht m. colloquial
idzhtim ' f. Arabic

1 m. [plural: idzhuma' t] 1

meeting; gathering 2 military build-up, massing (of the enemy)


3 public, social life 4 [plural: idzhtim 'vi] society,

collective

satisfy a request, respond to a request b to regard favorably c

idzhtima' n Arabic 1 in a social relationship 2

unanimously

idzhtim' Arabic 1.1 public, social public


life social system social sciences

to give a careful (attentive) hearing


7

Pashto-English Dictionary

to socialize (the means of production) 1.2

adjective collective 2 m. [plural: idzhtim'ijn]

elements 3 matter 4 organs, members (or similar)

sociologist

grammar parts of a sentence

idzhtim'j t m. Arabic plural social problems,

principal parts (of a sentence)

public life
idzhtinb m. Arabic 1 avoidance, evasion; removal 2

abstention

to avoid, shun something,

abstain from something

idzhtih d m. Arabic 1 diligence, endeavor, zeal 2


adzhd m. Arabic plural of 1
adzhddparast f. ancestor worship adzhdd

dzhr m. brick (baked in a kiln)

dzhr m. dzhar Arabic [plural: udzhr] 1 reward,

recompense, compensation

to receive
to compensate

idzhr f. Arabic [m. plural: idzhr t] fulfillment,

implementation, accomplishment, realization

to carry (something) out to


accomplish compound verb to fulfill,
implement, accomplish, realize, carry out compound

idzhrjav

executive power
administrative

idzhml Arabic short, concise, recapitulative, summary


adzhml Arabic 1 most beautiful; perfect 2 m. proper

to put a law into

name Adzhmal, Ajmal

heavenly

adzhnb m. Arabic plural of


adzhns m. Arabic plural of

export goods

idzhr Arabic 1 executive


executive committee 2

exports,

adzhnab Arabic 1.1 strange, alien, foreign, outlandish


foreign words 1.2 unfamiliar 2 m. [plural:
adzhnabij n Arabic adzhnb] 2.1 foreigner, alien 2.2
stranger

adzhnabijt m. Arabic condition of being alien or foreign;

foreignness, alien

adzhn m. regional agent


adzhen f. adzhen f. agenda, order of the day
to include in the agenda
adzhens f. 1 agency 2 organ (establishment,

firing bricks

to
to pay

udzhrt m. Arabic pay, recompense, wage

to earn
to demand an increase in wages or salary
adzhrist n m. Adzhristan (district)
udzhr f. colloquial
dzhu adjective brick
idzh m. [plural: idzhag n] scoundrel, villain,
receive pay

idzhmln Arabic briefly; concisely; in general, outline; as

an abstract; summarily

idzhrij f. 1 executive power 2 administrator


administrative department, management directorate
mudr-i head of the management directorate
dzhurpz m. bricklayer
dzhurpaz f. firing, kilning bricks kiln for

idzhml m. Arabic 1 short account, brief description,

bodies

to confer, hold a conference

abstract, summary 2 short survey, compendium, resum

verb to be fulfilled, be implemented, be accomplished, be


effect

idzhlsij singular & plural

congregation, council

command)

2 udzhar m. Arabic plural of


adzhrm m. Arabic plural of

opinion of theologians 2 assembly, convocation 3

military command of execution (i.e., as opposed to preparatory

idzhls

plenary session, plenum session


adzhldzj m. back of the head, occiput
adzhl-rasid doomed, dying
idzhm ' f. Arabic 1 religion unanimous decision or

proverb be patient, patience is liberally

carried out, be realized

idzhls m. Arabic session, sitting, conference

plenum, plenary session

rewarded 2 pay, payment 3 repayment, retribution

adzhp moral, pure (of a person)

compensation for one's labor

a basic elements b

term

Arabic ancestral, traditional


1

adzhsm m. Arabic plural 1 of 2 substances


adzhskaj colloquial pitiful, poor
udzhghna f. udzhghna f. goat's wool
adzhl m. Arabic [plural: dzh l] 1 end of life; hour of
death; death folklore And now came my
last hour, my end doomed; dying 2 limit; (fixed)

problems of public life, problems of social life; social life,

adzhz m. Arabic plural 1 of 2 2 component parts,

organization)

dzha f. woman who has completed a haj (i.e., pilgrimage

to Mecca); pilgrim

adzhvt 1 united 2 side by side, next to; adjacent,

contiguous

rascal

adzhvtv laj m. 1 joining, junction, connection,

combination 2 bring next to, bring alongside; closeness of fit;


contiguity

Pashto-English Dictionary

adzhvatavl denominative [past: past:


]to unite, join, connect, close
adzhvatavna f. joining, junction, addition, binding

pour (in, into)

blanket 1.4 to spread 1.5 to put, place, put together

together

adzhvta


adzhvatedl

adzhvta

pass, give

to sprinkle salt, salt

pour me a cup of tea

a to

to refuel 1.9 to

pass me the bread 1.12 to register

(mail) 1.13 to lower, let down, launch


launch a boat

to

He hung his head. 1.14 to

establish, set up (e.g., communications with someone) 1.15 to

to

earn

build 1.16 to bind, fasten (to) 1.17 to place, put, settle, lodge;

udzhutakr hired, rented


udzhurakr f. Arabic work performed for pay; salary,

assign a billet, quarter 1.18 to assign work, put to work 1.19


to send (to school) 1.20 to hand in (an application); institute (a

to bring a suit against someone 1.21 to


to make someone responsible for
something 1.22 to set aside, adjourn; drag out (an affair) !
Put it off until tomorrow! 1.23 to draw up (e.g., a
plan); sketch in, make a rough sketch or outline to
draw up a plan to plot something

earnings
adzhvf m. Arabic plural 1 of

give, feed (animals) 1.10 to fertilize, fertilize the soil 1.11

denominative [past: ] unite; join,

connect; close (up, in)

to lead a pack on a camel 1.6 to lay (eggs) 1.7 to strew,

strew seed, sprinkle grain b to sow 1.8 to pour, pour out

udzhr m. Arabic plural of 2


udzhur f. Arabic pay; wages; compensation

suit)

entrust

2 anatomy cavity 3

belly, interior 4 womb dzha f. dialect leech


adzh m. colloquial hadji
adzhin m. adzhidn m. colloquial adjutant
adzhidn f. duties of an adjutant
adzhir m. Arabic [plural: adhir n Arabic plural:

against someone 1.24 to make oneself out to be someone;

udzhar ] temporary worker

pretend to be someone else; claim something as one's own

adzhir hired, leased


uch dialect
ch r pickles to pickle (literally and figuratively)
achnk regional suddenly; unexpectedly; all of a sudden
to make an unexpected request
1 achv m. plural 1 throwing, flinging, hurling 2

property

He pretended to be deaf. 1.25 to

start, set going; put into service, put into operation; utilize

to commit troops to battle 1.26 instill (in);

install (in), establish

to inculcate

love for the motherland 1.27 to make, produce, effect


to set on fire

to greet

a to throw oneself,

knocking down 3 attacking, assaulting 4 filling in 5 pouring,

rush b to make oneself out to be someone else, imitate someone

pouring out 6 lowering; letting down, pulling down

else, pretend to be someone else

achv achavj Western imperfect of


ucht
uchatv laj m.
uchatavl transitive
uchatedl intransitive
uchlaj m.
1 achakz m. plural 1 2 achakzj m.
2
uchkl m. six-month-old lamb
uchakj f. dialect small island, islet
achmch m. achmch m. the game of tip cat (a
2

dead

to pretend to be

to feign illness, malinger c to expose

oneself to something, subject oneself to something

to be on friendly terms, establish friendship with

someone 2 m. plural

quarrel

1 1

idiom

to

2 uchavl transitive dialect


uchvlaj m. uchvlaj brow, forehead
achavunj m. achavunj f. miscarriage
achavnkaj present participle of 1
mortar bomber
achch f. prop, support
achht regional 1 untouchable 2 m. member of the

game in which a pointed piece of wood called a cat is made to

untouchable caste

spring up from the ground by being struck on the tip with a stick

uchedl intransitive dialect


adzabatb m. flight, desertion
adzba f.
adzbaj m.
atsk m. proper name Atsak
atsakz m. plural 1

and is then batted as far as possible)

ach f. blackberry (the plant or the fruit)


1 achavl 1 transitive [past: ] .1 throw, fling,
hurl, drop (from a height); throw out, cast to throw
on the ground to drop bombs 1.2 to bring, knock
down to bring an aircraft down 1.3
throw on, throw over, put on to cover with a
9

Pashto-English Dictionary

1 atsakz m.

astaskijn plural the Achakzai

(tribe) 2 atsakzj m. the Achakzaj

utskza f. post, pole (of a tent)


atsal transitive [past: ]

goods (for the purpose of speculation); profiteering; speculation

to buy up goods; speculate


ihtikr adjective profiteering, speculative gouging
ihtim l m. Arabic 1 probability, possibility, supposition,
likelihood this is improbable; this is impossible
in all probability 2 patience, endurance 3

1 to level, make even,

smooth over 2 to arrange, put right, adjust, regulate 3 music to


tune 4 to baste, join loosely

ats f. thighbone, femur

tsa f. 1 endeavor, aspiration 2 attempt, trial 3 rush 4

forward movement, advance

chance, unexpectedness

ihtimln Arabic probably, possibly


ihtiml Arabic probable; possible; supposed; conjectural;
hypothetical, presumable; permissible math
theory of probability grammar past conjectural

a to endeavor, strive b to


I rushed him. d to conduct an advance
hd m. Arabic plural of 2
ahds m. plural of
iht f. Arabic 1 encirclement, envelopment, action of
try, attempt c to rush, throw oneself upon

(mood)

pressing needs; basic requirements


in case of necessity to need, require
to satisfy needs, satisfy requirements
a fall into extreme need
ihtij t m. Arabic 1 care, caution, discretion, precaution
very carefully not withstanding
all the precautionary measures which were taken to
be careful 2 prudence 3 reserve, reserve supply

compound verb a to

encircle, envelop, surround b to beseige c to understand,


comprehend 6 district, sphere

ihta military flanking, outflanking

flanking movement

ihl f. Arabic transmission, handing over, presentation (of

an award, etc.), delivery carrying to an absurdity


ihtidzh dzh m. Arabic 1 protest 2 refusal
ihtir z m. Arabic 1 care, caution, prudence,
circumspectness, discretion to act with

military reserve platoon

caution, act with discretion 2 avoidance, abstemiousness,


temperance

measure, in any event

internal combustion engine


with great respect, with great esteem
guard of honor artillery salute
self-respect, self-esteem respect for rank
to pay respects, render homage to someone; treat

ahdzhib m. Arabic plural of 1


ahd Arabic 1 united, single, one 2 m. [plural:

ihd s m. Arabic [plural: ihdsna Arabic plural:


ihads t] 1 invention, innovation 2 finding, discovery
(i.e., of resources) a to invent b to find, discover

to pay someone a courtesy

visit 2 observance (of a law or custom), carrying out,


accomplishment (of an obligation or duty)

ihtirmn with deference, with respect

(i.e., resources)

observe neutrality

ahad Arabic single, separate, only


ahadijt m. Arabic 1 singleness, singularity (i.e., in math)

to
I

2 consent, assent 3 unity

ihtis b m. Arabic supervision of municipal authorities of

ahr r m. plural [singular: ]1 history freeborn, freemen

2 nobles 3 politics liberals

ihrz m. Arabic 1 achievement (act of receiving), reception


the assumption of a post (e.g., of the president of a
republic); entry into office 2 meaning, significance
to acquire paramount significance
ahzb m. Arabic plural of

the accuracy and correctness of weights and measures in the


market

h d]

discrete (separate) person, individual, person

someone with respect; esteem someone; take someone's opinion

have the honor to inform you

ihtij tkra 1 careful, wary,

military reserve platoon 2 m. military reservist

consideration, homage, respects (e.g., "last respects")

ihtijtkr f. 1, 2
ihtijt Arabic 1.1 and 1.2
spare, reserve military reserve

m. Arabic 1 reprect, honor, esteem, deference,

ihtijtk r

provident 2 prudent

m. Arabic burning, combustion; ignition

into consideration

ihtij tn Arabic out of caution, as a precautionary

a beware of, be wary of, be careful b

avoid, abstain from

ihtir

ihtir m

ihtij dzh m. Arabic [plural: ihtijdzhna Arabic

plural: ihtijdzh t] need, want, necessity

surrounding 2 seige 3 enclosed place 4 fence, enclosure 5

understanding, comprehension

ihtik r m. Arabic buying up or cornering the market on

ihtf l m. Arabic 1 meeting, gathering 2 festival, fte,

solemnity
10

Pashto-English Dictionary

ihss m. Arabic [plural: ihssna Arabic

ihzredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1


to be trained (of personnel) 2 to be summoned (i.e., to court) 3

plural: ihss t] feeling, sensation

compound verb


We

to be admitted (i.e., of candidates) 4 to be called up (into the

did not feel the cold at all.

army) 5 diplomacy to be recalled

ihsst sensitive, emotional


ihssavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1
to feel, sense He felt a strong shock. 2

ihzrij f. Arabic summons (to court), subpoena


ahfd m. 1 Arabic plural of 2 descendants
ih m. Arabic 1 the ascertainment of the truth, the

to experience, feel

establishment of the truth 2 recognition of the legal right,

ihssadl denominative, intransitive [past: ]


to be felt, be experienced

recognition of justice

ihsn m. Arabic 1 favor, grace, kindness, goodness


to be gracious to someone, show kindness to
someone to consider oneself obliged to someone
I am not obliged to him for anything.
You have done me much
kindness. I am very much obliged to you. 2 gift,

ahr Arabic comparative & superlative degree of

most contemptible, most paltry epistolary my most


contemptible, worthless or paltry self

ahkm m. 1 Arabic plural of

2 religion

commandments

ahkmt m. second person plural of


ahlm m. Arabic plural of
ahmd m. proper name Ahmed Ahmed-Shah

donation

ihsnfarmush f. thanklessness, ingratitude


ihsnmn ihsnmnd obliged, grateful,

Durani, Ahmed-Shah Durrani

ahmadz m. plural 1
1 ahmadz m. plural the Akhmadzai (a sub-tribe of: a

thankful to someone, have been shown much favor (by

the Waziri Tribe; b the Sulayman Khel Tribe (in turn

someone)

ahsnt Arabic excellent; bravo; well done


ihs f. Arabic 1 calculation; math calculus 2
enumeration, census, accounting a to count, calculate

ahmad Arabic pertaining to Mohammed (the founder of

ahmadij f. Arabic the Akhmadija, the Ahmadiya (a

subordinated to the Gilzai); c the Ushtarani Tribe) 2 ahamadzj


m. Akhmadzai (person)
Islam); Mohammedan

b to enumerate

ihsijav

statistical data

ihs statistical

Muslim sect)

ihsij f. Arabic [plural: ihsij m. plural:


ihsijt] 1 calculation, counting, tallying, census
a population census to calculate;
conduct a census 2 statistics Chief of the
Statistical Directorate Chief of the Statistical
Department statistics (the science) 3 [plural:
ihsijt] statistical information; data, numerical data
ihsijanavs m. statistician
ihzr m. Arabic 1 training (of personnel)
training of teachers 2 summons (i.e., to court) 3
admission (i.e., of candidates) 4 draft, call up
to draft or call up for military service 5 recall (i.e., of
a diplomatic representative) compound verb
compound verb
ihzrnm f. diplomacy letter of recall
ihzravl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1

ahmr red

salb-i International Red

Cross Society

ihmirr m. Arabic reddening, redness


ahmra buhajr f. the Red Sea
ahm Arabic 1 stupid, foolish 2 fool, dolt, ignoramus
ahman 1 stupid, foolhardy this was stupid
2 stupidly, in foolhardy manner

ahmatb m. 1
ahmav laj m. 1
1 ahma f. stupidity, foodhardiness, a stupid trick
2 ahmi feminine plural of
ahvz m. Arabic plural of
ahv l m. singular & plural m. Arabic plural of
[plural: ahvlna plural: ahvl t] 1 position,
state (e.g., of health, affairs)
biographer to make inquiries about

to train (personnel) 2 to summon (i.e., to court) 3 to admit

health, ask about the state of affairs 2 circumstances (business,

(i.e., candidates) 4 to call up (into the army, etc.) 5 diplomacy

affairs, etc.)

to recall

cases

ihzr Arabic adjective training maktb-i

history cadet corps

under any circumstances, in all


to notify someone

I'll let you know subsequently. I'll tell you afterwards what

the story is. 3 conditions


meteorological conditions
11

Pashto-English Dictionary

ahvl t m. second plural of

zbt-i

Feast of Kurbanbajram b Kurbanbajram (12th lunar month)

! Many happy returns of


proverb When there's a holiday,
everyone knows it. Another's holiday is but
half holiday. saying literal

counterintelligence

ahvlpurs f. ahvlpuhtl m. plural


ahvlpuhtna f. ahvlpuhtl m. plural
ahvlpuhtna f. 1 inquiry about the state of health,
being informed about the state of health 2 exchange of

When the holiday is over, throw away the henna. figurative

courtesies, exchange of greetings . having

Everything in its own time. proverb

inquired about the condition of health, having exchanged

Some fast, some feast; One man toils, another grows wealthy 2

courtesies, greetings

good omen, good horoscope, good luck 3 proper name Akhtar

ahvl Arabic slanting-eyed, squint-eyed


ihj f. Arabic 1 reanimation, resurrection, revival 2
restoration, rebirth a to reanimate, resurrect b to

ahjn m. plural of

kh

new discovery

ikhtir' relating to invention or discoveries; inventive


akhtrmbarak f. congratulations on a holiday
1 akhtar 1 adjective holiday 2 sacrificial to

ahjnn Arabic 1 sometimes, at times 2 in the event that

, in case , if
1

akh interjection 1 used to express joy or satisfaction

! Good!; Excellent!; Bravo! 2 used to express regret


to exclaim Ach!; exclaim Oh!; sigh
2

sacrifice

2 akhtrj f. proper name Akhtari


ikhtisr m. Arabic 1 shortening, abbreviation, reduction
reduction of a fraction 2 brevity, compression,
conciseness briefly, in short to

x interjection gid-ap, ho! (or similar exclamation to urge on

an ass)

akha f. 1 poultice 2 plaster 3 application (as poultice or

plaster)

set forth briefly, state briefly

akhbr m. Arabic of singular & plural [plural:


akhbrna plural: akhbr t] 1 newspaper

tidings, news

ikhbravl denominative, transitive [past:


notify, inform
1

ikhtisr abbreviated

ikhtiss m. Arabic 1 participation, connection, anything

abbreviated

to do with 2 peculiarity, characteristic quality 3 assignation,


appropriation 4 specialization

ikhtiss 1 special, peculiar to 2 specialized


ikhtif f. Arabic camouflage
ikhtil t m. Arabic 1 mixing, mixture, confusion, blending,
merging 2 crossing 3 intercourse, contact

to

akhbri 1 adjective newspaper, periodical (used in

connection with information)

designation, conventional sign

carrier, newspaper deliverer 2 colloquial journalist

ikhtisrn Arabic briefly, in short, in abbreviated form, in

general outline

2 ikhbr m. Arabic information, communication


military preparatory command
akhbrvl m. 1 newspaper salesperson, newspaper

ikhtir ' f. Arabic [plural: ikhtir'gh ni plural:


]m. [plural: ikhtir' t] Arabic invention, discovery
to invent, discover compound verb to be
invented, be discovered to invent, make a

restore, revive

to celebrate

the day!

press
documentary film

representatives 2 documentary

to associate with someone 4 complication

news items
2 ikhbr Arabic adjective that which serves to notify or
inform; informational grammar indicative mood
akhpl dialect
1 akhpr colloquial
2 khpr m. khpor ikhpor soldier; rifleman (in
extended line) sniper extended line of

ikhtilf Arabic [plural: ikhtilfna Arabic

plural: ]1 difference, disagreement, discord,

divergence, discrepancy, contradiction, dissension


tiff, disagreement

to disagree with someone, quarrel with someone; differ with


someone in viewpoint

They disagree as to

opinion. 2 break, breaking off, discrepancy, lack of

riflemen

correspondence 3 difference, distinction

ikhtitm m. Arabic termination, finishing, completion, end


end, finish, come to an end, be over with, end in
to end, finish, complete, conclude, carry through, put

to differ

from something 4 math difference

disputed

ikhtilf disputable, contradictory

question, disagreements

This is a moot point.


ikhtill m. Arabic 1 disorder, disorganization
to be disordered, be disorganized 2

a finish to

akhtr m. akhtr 1 holiday, festival a the Feast


of Ramadan b Ramadan (the 10th lunar month) a the
12

Pashto-English Dictionary

disturbances, disorders, sedition, agitation

to cause a

disturbance, incite disorders

to net, catch in a net 4 having a musty or high

a to be subject to something, be

subjected to something, experience something

to starve, famish, go hungry b to be occupied, be busy, be

engaged in c to go bad, get high (meat) 5 obsolete castrated,


emasculated

exclusion, withdrawal, removal 3 extraction 4 expense,

akhtav laj m. being busy, being employed


ikhtijr m. Arabic 1 will, choice, preference
He is free to act as he wishes. This
happened spontaneously. voluntarily or not
2 authority, right, plenary power a of age b
independent emergency powers
to decline power, right to
subordinate oneself to grant broad powers 3
competence, jurisdiction, power This is
not within my competence (jurisdiction, power, etc.) a

expenditures

right, be empowered d to have plenary powers


to you. As you wish.

to incur expenses, give rise to

expenditures 5 export goods 6 evacuation


ikhrdzhavl denominative, transitive [past: ]
1 exile, banish 2 exclude, withdraw; remove 3 extract

ikhrdzh Arabic adjective evacuation


khirt m. Arabic the next world, the life beyond
Judgement Day send into the next world
I still have to deal with you.
khir Arabic 1 last, final the last letter 2
definitive 3 conclusive the last word
akhiredl denominative [past: ] to end, finish, come

It's up

to an end, terminate, close

I don't want to. I cannot.

ikhtijrdr authorized, empowered, competent


ikhtirdr f. jurisdiction, competence
ikhtijrnm f. power of attorney, written authorization
ikhtijravl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1
to choose, prefer to choose a residence, settle 2

khirn

latest news

khrinj last, final

khrinj the

khist imperfect of
akhistl transitive
akhist m. plural 1, 2
akhskh akhh akhh interjection oh; ah
akhht m. plural substance for puttying up chinks or

to use, employ 3 to conduct (a policy) 4 to assume (a form),


take on the air

cracks in a wall

ikhtijr Arabic 1 voluntary 2 optional 3 arbitrary


There is no other choice.
akhkh m. cough, intermittent coughing to

akhhl [past: [ ] present: ]1 to knead


(dough) 2 figurative to inculcate, make habitual

passive a to be kneaded (dough) b to be inherent, be innate

akhkhna f. yeast, leaven, leavening (of dough)


akhhnkaj 1 present participle of 2 kneader

cough, cough a little or intermittently; clear the throat

akhch f.
akhcha adjective

Akhchaj

(i.e., bakery worker whose duties consist of kneading dough)

Akhchai

akhh m. plural
khhaj m. [plural: khhi

carpets
akhz m. Arabic taking, reception, assumption, collection,

recruitment of an army,
conscription into the army khz-i chief of the
miltary conscription department khz-i chief
of the information department compound verb a to

receiving, receipt

c to draw a conclusion, come to a conclusion

plural:

akhhijn] 1 brother-in-law (wife's brother), wife's sister's

husband 2 sister's husband

words
of warning to warn, caution to be
warned 2 alarm, signal an alert was

take, assume, collect, receive b to call up (into military service)

to have, possess the wish or will b to rule, direct c to have the

sound-

akhz f. radio receiver radio receiver


shortwave receiver
akhr akhr Arabic 1 last, final lately, in
recent days to battle to the end, fight to the
last drop of blood 2 m. [plural: khirna plural:
akhrna Arabic plural: avkhr] end near the
end, at the end, toward the end at year's end,
toward year's end to end, complete to be
ended, be completed 3 finally, at last Well, that's it!
ikhrdzh m. Arabic [plural: ikhrdzhna Arabic
plural: ikhrdzh t] 1 banishment, expulsion 2

occupy, take up; involve in something 3 caught, captured, taken


smell (e.g., meat)

locator, sound-ranger

ikhtin m. Arabic asthma


akht indeclinable 1 subject to something; experiencing
something He is mourning. 2 occupied, busy
with something He is occupied with work.
a to subject to something; plunge into something b to

akhz-as-sut m. Arabic

ikhtr m. Arabic 1 warning, caution

declared

I came to this conclusion, that

13

Pashto-English Dictionary

ikhf f. Arabic cover, concealment camouflage


to camouflage
akhkl transitive Eastern
akhgr m. 1 spark 2 hot coal 3 hot ashes
akhl transitive dialect
ikhls m. Arabic 1 sincerity to be
sincere with someone 2 attachment, affection, devotion
a sincerely, with all one's heart b with all one's
strength, with all one's power a sincerely b
devotedly, lovingly, tenderly c unanimously
to serve someone faithfully 3 diligence, industry
ikhlsmn ikhlsmnd 1 sincere 2 dedicated
akhlf m. Arabic plural of
akhl m. Arabic 1 plural of 2 2 morals, moral
system, ethics high moral principles

akhir
akh m. 1 plaster 2 clay mixed with straw (used as plaster)
akhegr m. plasterer
akhel transitive
akhena f.
akheavl denominative [past: ] to plaster, putty
akheavna f. plastering, puttying, coating (i.e., with some
substance like plaster or putty)

akheredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


plastered, be puttied

akhistl transitive [past: present: ]1 to


take take this book 2 to seize, conquer, capture,

occupy, take possession of

collect (e.g., taxes) 5 to accept, admit


examination; examine 6 to receive

confusion, disorder

khla-vkhista f. skirmish, encounter, battle


khli present tense of
akhlj-pakhlj m. cooking, preparation (of food),
cookery akhl-pakhl kitchen utensils
akhnd m.
[ plural: akhundzdag n] descendant of an

10 to fall (into despair), be consumed, be seized (e.g., by panic)


11 to derive benefit (profit, advantage, etc.)

something

to take by force

to disarm someone 14 to shorten, take up (e.g.,

clothing) 15 to deprive

to

Consider it to be thus. 17 to observe, keep to; perform, execute


to

(e.g., a ceremony) 18 to carry out, fulfill, satisfy (e.g., a whim,

Satisfy my request. 19 to begin;


to begin a feud with
someone. The old woman

cough; have a slight cough; clear one's throat

desire)

venture; undertake

lauched into a long conversation about her children. 20

m. [plural: ]

approximates the sense and function of a compounding or

akhund (Muslim ecclesiastic, theological or religious teacher)

to take pleasure in

deprive of citizenship 16 to consider, regard

2 religion

community, commune

akhd colloquial Well, there you are!


akh-u-b m. skirmish; clash; battle
khr m. manger, stall; stable
akhn m. akhn m. akhnd

to repulse, take away

to derive benefit from something, derive advantage from

something 12 to borrow, adopt; give, present (an example) 13

akhund (i.e., a Muslim ecclesiastic), akhundzadeh

akh-u-kh m. cough, slight cough

What have you laid in for the winter? 4 to

to give an
to receive an
order, receive an instruction to receive an answer
to receive money to receive an
assignment to receive a medal 7 to take (with
oneself); drive (cattle) to take along or with
oneself Take this book with you. 8 to catch,
contract (a disease) to fall ill, become ill, be taken
ill 9 to envelop (in flames) to blaze up, catch on fire

ethical norms

to capture a city, occupy

a city 3 to buy, buy up, acquire, lay in a stock of

akhlkn Arabic morally, ethically


akhlk Arabic 1 principled, moral, ethical
moral upbringing morally
to give someone moral support 2 m. Arabic
[plural: akhlkijn] moralist
ikhll m. Arabic 1 violation (e.g., of neutrality) 2 disarray,

ukh
akhv-dekhv dialect around, everywhere
ukhavvt m. Arabic 1 brotherhood, fraternity

to stride to
passive a to undertake b to be purchased,

auxiliary verb
breathe

akhunddzh m. akhund's (title and the form of address to

him)

be obtained c to be collected, be levied d to be driven idiom

khundzd m.
ukhj f. witch
akhjr m. Arabic plural [singular: ]virtuous people
good and bad people
akhr recent, latest
akhrn Arabic not long ago; recently, lately

to be transmitted from one to another, be bequeathed


to remove, eliminate; get rid of
from grandfather to
grandson, beginning with the grandfather and ending with the
grandson

14

akhistna f.

Pashto-English Dictionary

akhistvl m. tax collector


akhistn m. 1
akhistkaj 1 present participle of 2 infectious,
contagious infectious disease, contagious

division

stationery
adk r m. artist, actor, performer (of a role)

disease 3 m. .1 recipient, addressee 3.2 purchaser

movie actor

akhist m. plural 1 reception 2 taking (i.e., food,


medicine), receipt for participation 3
taking, capture, seizing 4 purchase, acquisition


recruitment into the army 7 adoption, borrowing
2 akhist imperfect plural of
akhist-ihhod m. plural skirmish, clash
1 akhstaj past participle of
2 Western imperfect of
ad f. Arabic 1 implementation, execution, fulfillment 2
payment, pay, paying 3 utterance (of a sound, word) 4

compound verb a
to fulfill one's obligation

expression (of some feeling or other)

to the Fatherland b to pay, make payment c to utter (a sound,


word) d to set forth, formulate (a thought, sentence) e to

civil, respectable

adab Arabic
adabij t m.

express (e.g., gratitude) f to render (that which is due) g to

compound verb a to be fulfilled,

be executed b to be paid c to be expressed (of gratitude) d to


d b m. Arabic plural of

literary society

belles

adabijn decent, proper, decorous (of conduct); civil (of an

idkh l m. Arabic 1 introduction, establishment 2 inclusion


idkhl approaches
idr r m. Arabic plural urine to urinate
idr k m. Arabic singular & plural perception a

military entrenching tool


intensifying particle 3
grammar preposition, postposition conjunction
adverb of manner or mode 4 suffix
id d m. Arabic requital, recompense, retribution
idr f. Arabic [plural: idr Arabic plural:
device, tool, apparatus
2 grammar particle

to comprehend, understand b to perceive, feel c to guess

adrs m. address
adrk m. plural green ginger
adrm m. 1 influence, action, pressure (moral)
to influence, put (moral) pressure upon to affect,

idr t] 1 directing, directorate, management, administration,

military fire control arbitrary


rule compound verb to direct, lead, manage
to manifest self-control 2 directorate,
institution, office apparatus (administrative)
counterintelligence quartermasters office
military-political directorate
military-medical directorate 3 bureau
information bureau inquiry office 4

leadership

have an effect on 2 shame

udravl transitive dialect


adritk 1 adjective Adriatic

the Adriatic

Sea 2 m. the Adriatic seacoast

undredl intransitive
iddi' f. Arabic claim, pretension, demand
ad'ij t m. Arabic plural of wish, desire
to send one's sincere best wishes
idgh m m. Arabic 1 linguistics gemination 2 confluence,

administration 5 editorial office 6 base (supply, etc.)

idrach m. 1 administrator, manager 2 leader,

supervisor

expression)

ad t m. [plural: adv t] Arabic 1 means, instrument,

literary

Arabic plural literature

lettres

be performed (of a role)

adkr f. performance (e.g., of a play), acting


idm f. Arabic prolongation; continuation to
prolong, continue to be prolonged, be continued
adjt m. Arabic
adjna f. expression, statement, formulation
adb m. Arabic [plural: d b] 1 breeding, good
breeding; politeness, civility, respect politely,
respectfully to esteem someone, respect someone
2 literature belles lettres written
language folklore 3 level of education
udab m. Arabic plural of
idb r m. Arabic misfortune, disaster
adb kavnkaj adabnk well bred; polite;

taxes) 6 military recruitment, bringing up to strength

perform, play (a role)

adk ra f. artist, actress, performer (of a role)

movie actress

It is not worth buying this article. 5 collection (e.g., of

to implement, execute

clerk adminstrative
administrative directorate

board of directors

junction; tightening up, pulling together

adka f. mommy, mama ! Oh mamma!


adkj f. 1 2 mom (a form of address for one's

idr kavnkaj 1 m. manager 2 adjective

administrative

idr Arabic administrative; managerial; bureaucratic


administration, governing body, administrative apparatus;

mother or an elderly woman)

15

Pashto-English Dictionary

adl-badl 1.1 inconstant 1.2 disorderly, careless


to mix up, confuse (e.g., words) 2 m. .1 trade, commerce

adir f. cemetery
ads-bb f. Addis Ababa (city)
adekoln m. plural eau-de-cologne
din f. Friday
a la f. shaft (of an underground irrigation channel)
a na f. ornamented cover or dust jacket of a book
a f. regional support to lean, rest upon
a va f. frame, framework
ar m. regional order to order, reserve (not a

2.2 oscillation

dm m.

adm m. 1 proper name Adam

(the human progenitor)


time of Adam 2 man

2 adm m. thigh
idm n m. physical training
adamkh n m. 1 proper name

Adam

old, antediluvian, of the

Adamkhan 2 Adamkhan

(designation of a number of settlements)

military order, but a commercial or customer order)

ak m. leap-frog (the game)


aanj m.
a 1
aaj m. auj f.
akaj m. dialect bone
a f. 1 stop, (bus or tram) stand, station 2 base
military bases airport 3 military post 4 blind (for

damkhr m. cannibal
damkhl 1 plural the Adamkhejli (a sub-tribe of the

Afridi) 2 m. Adamkhejl (person)

damz d m. man
damzda f. woman
1 dam m. damj m. man
2 damj f. woman
admir l m. admiral
adn Arabic indeclinable 1 low (in position) 2 small,
paltry, insignificant insignificant damage 3 low-

bird-hunting)

quality, low standard

adv t m. Arabic plural from


adv r m. Arabic plural from 1
ad-bad indeclinable 1 Eastern swollen, bloated 2
Western beaten down to ache, hurt (of the body,

aj f. singular & plural Ulmus foliacea (a kind of tree)


aj f. singular & plural fields or land surrounding a

m.

crowing (of a cock)

medicinal herb

advijapsh f. agriculture sprinkling, spraying


compound verb to sprinkle, spray

roosters

early, very early, with the

to crow (of roosters)

azarbjdzh n m. Azerbaijan
azarbjdzhn 1 Azerbaijanian

compound verb to be sprinkled, be sprayed

advijafursh m. pharmacist, apothecary


advijafurush f. 1 commerce in pharmaceuticals

air m. technology adapter

stone facing (for the shaft of an underground

proverb No one responds to the azan of a poor mullah. 2

medicine, spice,

2 m. .1 Azerbaijanian

(person) 2.2 Azerbaijani, the Azerbaijanian language

pharmacy

izk r m. Arabic mention, reference

to mention,

refer to

ud 1 1
1 ad m. mommy, mummy (form of address to mother or
older woman) ! Mommy!; Mummy!
mommy's boy to regard as a mother, name or give the

azik r m. Arabic plural from

to perform

the ritual of zikr (i.e., remembering) or zeal (with reference to


dervishes)

azallt m. Arabic baseness, meanness


I cannot stoop to such baseness.
izn m. Arabic authorization, permission to
receive authorization to request
authorization from someone to authorize

honorary title of mother

2 adj f. singular & plural 6


adj n m. Arabic plural from 2
adb m. Arabic [plural: adib n

az n m. Arabic 1 azan, call to prayer prayer time


to summon to prayer

thigh

1
a plural from 1
a plural from

irrigation channel)

1 adoz m. plural the Adozai (a sub-tribe of Durrani) 2 m.

adozj an Adozai (person)


Arabic plural from

i m. plural

aipr
al m.

adaj m. tanned buffalo hide

adm m.
advij f.

adj m. fortifications around a city

village

from fatigue)

Arabic plural:

udab ] man of letters, writer

someone, permit someone

adibn indeclinable literary (of a literary work, style)


adib f. writer (woman)
16

Pashto-English Dictionary

zu f. singular & plural 1 provsions,


rations, food supply base, provision depot 2 fodder
(for cattle) to lay in fodder for winter
zursan f. food supply
azhn m. Arabic from plural to
azgh m.

1 to

r literal & figurative basis, foundation

mausoleum
rmavl denominative, transitive [past:
quiet 2 to eliminate (e.g., disorder)

a to lay the

foundation (of a building) figurative b to establish the main


point of something c to evaluate as to merit figurative d to

1 to

utter calm 2

world

military At ease! Order Arms!

rjsh m. decoration, adornment; attire

boudoir

irj f. Arabic producing, presentation (of documents, etc.)


arb b Arabic 1 masculine plural from 1
gods (pagan) 2 m. [plural: arbb n] senior elder of a
settlement or extended family; village elder

urbsha f. 1 barley corn 2 dialect life, existence


urbshi f. plural barley
urbshn adjective barley barley bread
urbshna f. 1 singular of 2 barley bread
arbaktj f. the maintenance of order
arbakj m. tribal constable (minor tribal official having

proverb Come here freely, but leave only with permission.

police powers)

urbz m. urbuz f. 1 muzzle 2 snout idiom !


Be off with you! Don't bother me!
urbushn
1 arab f. 1 bullock cart, wagon, carriage 2 gun-carriage 3
wheel spoke 4 landing gear,
undercarriage (of an aircraft) idiom
My affairs are going badly. Will you not help me?
At present I am in straitened

encroachment on someone, intrusion

on someone

ird 1 conscious consciously 2 volitional


arr t (Mount) Ararat
rstag f. 1 adornment 2 beauty
rst indeclinable 1 adorned 2 well-dressed, smart,
dressed-up a to adorn b to dress up
arz m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 country, locality,
district orienting or getting familiar

circumstances.

2 urb f. tendon, ligament


arbakh draught (i.e., draught animal)
arab larkaj having a wheel; wheeled
1 rt m. art
2 art art 1 wide, spacious, extensive
extensive deserts a great expanse
The shirt collar is large. 2 open an open
space 3 open, free, exposed, pure (of air) in the

with respect to the area

persons holding high


arkn-i nobles, dignitaries

arkn m. plural from

positions, leaders

2 rm m. lazy person, lazybones


3 arm Armenian the Armenian language
rmedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to
soothe, quiet down This soothed me. !

Shahrara (name of a section of Kabul)

rm f. 1 calm, peace

wide peace

1 arb f.
arb f. volley
ar m.
arkh m. rkh 1 irrigation ditch 2 sluice; canal
irdtn Arabic intentionally, premeditatedly
ird f. Arabic 1 will strength of will
with considerable decisiveness 2 intention,
decision, wish (desire) b to intend; desire; official a
to command b to intend; desire I have
decided , I intend He decided to go to
Kandahar. to intend, desire In
which direction do you want to go?

tranquillity 3 peace (i.e., absence of war)

in essence
1
r m. Arabic plural from
with a majority of votes unanimously
r -ji plebescite disagreement
2 r used as the second element of a composite word
take someone into consideration idiom

idiom

2 burial-vault,

torture, oppress 2 to annoy, bother, pester

peaceable

people

rmtj f. 1
rmchokj f. easy chair
rmsh m. calm
rmtalb fond of comfort
rmg h m. 1 stand, stopping place

enlighten intellects

azijt m. Arabic torture, torment, oppression


azijatavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

peaceful, quiet 2.2 resting 2.3 peaceable

ar l m. the Aral Sea


r m 1 m. .1 peace, rest peacefully, quietly
to rest, sit with body relaxed, lounge to allow to
rest, soothe, make easier to find peace, calm
not to know peace to rest 1.2 comfort 2.1
17

Pashto-English Dictionary

open air 4 widely spread apart, bowed (of legs)

artist
irtsh m. the Irtysh (River)
irtif ' f. m. Arabic [plural: irtif' t] 1 altitude,
height a great height a low
altitude astronomy perigee

He is bowlegged. idiom He stood off to the side.


rtv m. artv m. 1 throw, toss 2 Eastern shot
compound verb compound verb

artvz m.
artvvl denominative [past: ] 1 to throw,

astronomy apogee 2 thickness

development of language 3
to increase, rise, grow
irti evolutionary evolutionism, the theory
of evolution Darwinism
irtik z m. Arabic support, basis

fling, toss 2 Eastern to produce a shot, shoot

development, evolution

artavj f. singular & plural sun-dried currants


artvedl denominative, intransitive to be thrown, be

growth, increase

flung

artvz 1 m. windbag 2 empty, insipid

irtib t m. Arabic connection, link, communication,

nonsense

to rest upon facts

artin f.
aratv laj m. 1 width, spaciousness, extensiveness
the extent of a territory 2 development (i.e., of a

to have
communication with someone to
establish communication with chief of the

intercourse, relationship

language); expansion (i.e., of trade) 3 tension 4 area (e.g., of a

foreign department

country) 5 diameter (e.g., of a wheel)

irtibtch m. military messenger, runner (liaison,

orderly)

Orthodoxy (the Eastern Church)

widespread, state of being far-flung

figurative flexibility

artedl denominative, intransitive 1 to widen, make


spacious, make extensive 2 to be widely spread out, be widely

extended 3 to be disengaged

artst m.
artsta f.
artist 1

2 renunciation 3 religion tergiversation, recreancy,

a to apostatize from

something, deviate from something b to reject, renounce (e.g., a


faith)

1 artist 2 painter

actress, artist
artistic 2 artistically skillful, talented, pertaining

to art generally

irtidd 1 disloyal

artin f. 1 woman 2 wife


1 ar m.
2 ar m.
arasz m. master craftsman engaged in the construction

disloyalty, treason 2

apostate

irtiz m. Arabic nourishment, subsistence


irtiz Arabic attributive food, produce
food, produce

of wells equipped with the noria (bucket-wheel)

irtizkij t m. Arabic plural foodstuffs, produce


aratz artzaj 1 frank, honest, forthright

rs m.
arsa f.
aris
irs m. Arabic inheritance

(person) 2 generous, noble

irtism m. Arabic 1 representation, portrayal


to stamp, impress itself upon; stick, be

to leave a

bequest of property

irs Arabic hereditary; inherited


irdzh ' f. Arabic 1 return, recurrence

retained in memory 2 sign, mark


artst m.

to extend the fingers 3 to

2 artavl transitive [past: ] to throw, fling, toss


artn m. width, spaciousness
artavna f. 1 broadening, expansion 2 state of being

irtidzhl impromptu, written extemporaneously


irtidd m. Arabic 1 desertion, treason, apostasy, deviation

artst f.

widely, extend

irtidzh' 1 reactionary 2 regressive 3 elastic; resilient


elasticity; resiliency
irtidzh'jt m. 1 elasticity; resiliency 2 literal &

artavl artavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

disengage

recoil (of a weapon)

1 to widen, make extensive, make expansive 2 to spread

character 3 regression, retrogradation 4 elasticity; resiliency 5

artod ks 1 orthodox, canonical 2 Orthodox (i.e.,

pertaining to the Eastern Orthodox Church)

irtibtchigar f. military communications service


irtibt attributive communication
maritime communications grammar conjunction
irtidzh ' f. Arabic 1 politics reaction 2 reactionary in

backsliding

irti f. Arabic 1 rise (action); eminence, elevation 2

3 institution (of an action, suit)

18

2 direction, address

Pashto-English Dictionary

ardzhl 1 confused, muddled 2 m. the common people


ardzhl-bardzhl ardzhl-u-bardzhl mixed,

archakr f. 1 plank panelling, planking; the wooden

ardzedl intransitive
arkhlk m. arkhaluk (an outer garment)
arkhah m. 1 sobbing
to sob, weep 2 asthma

exchange value 3 significance


to evaluate
m. Uruzgan (city)

rzumnd desiring something, aspiring to


He wants to go very much.

to belch

argibd
m. indigestion

irs l m. Arabic singular & plural shipping, sending


compound verb to send, ship, dispatch
I sent the book through the mail.
aristokrtk aristocratic
aristokrs f. aristocracy history
aristocracy, the aristocratic form of government

arsl n m. arsaln proper name Arslan


urus f. window with a frame capable of being raised and
lowered

arsenk m. plural arsenic


irsh d m. Arabic [plural: irshdna Arabic
plural: irshd t] precept, lesson, instruction
to give directions to someone; instruct someone
ursh f. [plural: urshog ni plural: urshvi]

supplies

Dear is

dandy cheap is shoddy. 2 cheaply

common pasture; pasture; meadow

arshitkt m. architect
arshf m. archive
arz m. Arabic [plural: arz] earth, land
arz Arabic 1 attributive land, earth; territorial

to

reduce the price of

fall in price, cheapen

rzumand f. desire, wish, aspiration


arzedl intransitive [past: present: ]to cost, be
worth This thing is not worth it.
That's worth knowing.
1 argamj
m. Eastern

2 argam
j
f. Western yawning, yawn to yawn
urg m. plural
argaj m. Western belching

household

troops

arzna feminine singular from


arzn f. cheapness
arznedl denominative, intransitive

use value

rzumn

something

arznbj' arznbja cheap


arzntb m. arzntj f. cheapness
arznfursh selling cheaply
arznfurush f. economics dumping
arznv laj m. cheapness, low prices
arznavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

to be of equivalent worth, be of

These dreams did not come true.

urdn m. urdunij f. Arabic Jordania


urd 1 m. .1 army, forces the Afghan Army
marines a land army
a field army regular army
Combined Arms Directorate (in the War Ministry)
the army reserve 1.2 m. military camp 1.3 f.
Urdu (language) 2 attributive the Urdu language
books in Urdu
urdubzr m. post exchange facilities
urdugh m. military camp
urduvl m. Urdu speaker
urdu attributive army, forces
arr m. 1 order 2 instruction
arinns m. regional edict
1 irj m. ram (non-fat tailed breed)
2 irj f. sheep, ewe (non-fat tailed breed)
arz m. 1 from 2 provisions, food stores, food

uruzg n
history Uruzgan Province
rz f. rz [plural: rzog ni plural: rz]
1 wish, desire desire for success
despite a great desire 2 hope, expectation, expectancy
a to wish, desire I wished that b to
hope, expect 3 dream, daydream

portion of a structure 2 cabinetwork, carpentry work

arz n 1 cheap

surplus value

4 evaluation

coniferous tree

arzht m. 1 value

equal worth 2 economics cost

ardshmnd 1 valuable, expensive 2 excellent


ardshantjn Argentina
arch f. 1 archa (a kind of juniper bush) 2 kind of

rdb f. mash (food)


ardv f. fodder (for cattle, barley or wheat)
ardl m. 1 bodyguard 2 orderly, batman
ardal m. obsolete orderly

very valuable research

intermixed, disorderly, muddled

arzsh m.

2 surface,

land (as in land or ground forces)

argh m. plural
arghashj m.

[past: ] to

vodka
1 clearing of the throat

the throat 2 inhalation (when smoking)

19

arghum n m.

to clear

Pashto-English Dictionary

arghndzh m. [plural: arghandzhna plural:


arghandzh n] plum
arghandzhk m. kind of damson plum (the tree or its

argn m. riding school, riding hall, riding arena


argamj m. Eastern 2 argam
argan f. latticed door; door in form of grill
urgn m. Urgun (town, district)

fruit)

arghandzhj m. cherry (the tree or its fruit)


arghnd m. [plural: arghandna] Western [plural:
arghand n] paddle, bat (used in playing knucklebones)
the game of knucklebones
arghand b m. arghand v m. Argendab (river,

2 figurative

earthly paradise

to carry out
to fulfill a
cherished desire 2 dream I still dream
about this all the time. He died without
realizing his dreams 3 melancholy
folklore Fatekh-Khan grew melancholy in his
solitude. Thus he was
inwardly at peace. 4 regret, repentance; grief to regret
something to set one's heart at ease a
to dream b to yearn c to regret; grieve; mourn over
to regret the past a to pity
someone b to miss someone ! Look
out, you'll be sorry! ! I'm very, very sorry!
I regret not having gone into town.
proverb They are sorry when it is already too

arghaun m. music organ

arm n m. 1 strong desire

someone's desires

arghav n arghuv n ledum (marsh tea); pink acacia, Cercis

siliquastrum Sophora griffithi

arghavn purple, crimson


arghsh dark-complexioned
arghushavl denominative, transitive

Katawaz and

Urgun

argj
irm m. 1 Irem (legendary garden in Arabia)

district)

he

yawned

[past: ]

to make dark

arghushedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]


to be made dark, tan

1 urghmaj m. kid, young goat


2 urghme f. diminutive goat
arghn m. music organ
arghunchj m. rope, cord (braided from three strands)
to twist a cord, plait a cord
arghn m.
urghvaj m. palm (of the hand)
1 ar m m. Arabic plural from
2 ir m m. Arabic spelling
urk dialect
arkr f. 2
ark n m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 leaders, leadership,
leadership apparatus ark n-i higher official
personages, dignitaries generals, general officers,

late.

armndzhn 1 desiring something; dreaming of

something 2 grieving, yearning 3 regretting

armnd m.
armn 1 desirable 2 ideal, perfect
aramb f.
aramchk m. abusive cur, mongrel
urm 1 m. plural the Ormuri (also called Bakari or Bakisti;
a nomadic people living in both Pakistan and Afghanistan south
of Kabul) 2 m. Ormur (person)

higher command personnel 3 military staff, headquarters

General Staff
Chief of the General Staff
arknikhrb m. arkniharbij f. staff
arktk arctic
urkz m.
arkestr f. orchestra
arkestr attributive orchestra
arkijlodzhst m. archeologist
arkijlodzh m. archeology
arg m. fortress, citadel (primarily used of the Kabul Arg, the
king's residents) the Arg Garden (in Kabul)
org n m. organ (of political or government power)
argn f. food, nourishment
orgnzm m. organism
argadzh mixed, heterogeneous

atk n-i harbij-ji

armagh n m. gift, souvenir; remembrance

to keep in one's memory

aramgj m. shepherd's crook


armanist n m.
arman 1 Armenian the Armenian language
Armenian (person)

armanij f. arminij Armenia


urmlaj m. armlaj diarrhea (in children)
rmun f. music harmony
1 armunj f. aluminum
2 armunj f.
armunk m. accordion, concertina
armunij f. harmonium an organ
urmg m. neck
armenj f.
20

2 m.

Pashto-English Dictionary

rn m. bugle (musical instrument)


rnd m.
urj m. swaddling clothes
arv f. [plural: arvg ni plural: arvvi] 1
spirit 2 soul idiom to think only of
food a to be greedy (esp. for food) b to conduct

pruning saw idiom

2
3

to sacrifice something for a departed soul

arvavgv
laj m. greed, avidity, insatiability

arhr m.

singular & plural dove pea, Cajanus

arjn f. history Ariana (the western part of the Iranian

plateau)

folklore He surprised everyone.

1 arjn f.
2 arj ni f. plural
3 rjan
arjnedl intransitive
rj 1 attributive Aryan 2 m. Aryan (person)
urjdz f. urjdza f. [plural: urjdzi] cloud,
cloudiness It is cloudy. It is overcast. The

1 to oblige to listen 2

sharp (loud, high-

1 rvi present tense of


2 rve present tense, second person of
arvedl transitive [past: present: ]Western
to hear; listen; heed Listen carefully to
what I shall tell you. arvedli I heard that
You probably heard that
passive to be heard One hears good things

weather is getting overcast.

ari f. myrobalan (the tree or its fruit)


arik-shark m. regional tribal feud, blood feud
rijan
1 irjj m. dried rhubarb
2 irjj m. 1
a 1 m. .1 obstacle; hinderance 1.2 error, delusion 1.3
cover, ambush to lie in ambush 1.4 hobbles; fetters,

about him. He enjoys a good reputation. He has a good name.

arvedna f. hearing, audition


arvedn m. listening

chains 1.5 colic 1.6 constipation 2 predicative .1

You said this about him; that he listened to what you said.

arhar

arh m.

arjntb m. arjntj f.
arjnavl transitive

to read aloud

arvne f. noise, sound

land irrigated by means

dumbfounded, surprised

muddled 2 f. ill-matched company, motley crew

pitched) noise

araksh m. sawyer, woodcutter


arakash sawing (of lumber)
aragl m. karakul (fur from the pelt of an Asian sheep)
arhn m. singular & plural arhna f. castor-oil
plant castor oil
irj m. 1
arj n I am taken aback. I
do not know what to do. completely thunderstuck,

arvvgaj greedy, avid, insatiable


urup f. Europe
urup 1 indeclinable European 2 European (person)
arvta f. 1 woman 2 wife
1 ar m. stutterer, stammerer
2 ar m. 1 spite 2 envy
aro 1 mixed, intermixed, muddled up to mix,
intermix, muddle to be mixed, be intermixed, be

arha attributive well

indicus

arvaj f. singular & plural dandelion


arvvgtb
m. arvvgtj

f.

aroatb m. blend, mixture


urus f.
urugvj m. Urugvaj
arumar
arvavl transitive [past: ]

Eastern saying Her tongue

of a "noria" (i.e., water wheel)

literal May God diminish the

arv h m. Arabic plural from

has been loosened. She is babbling all over the place.

consequences! figurative What are you thinking of doing?

ra f. foundation, groundwork
ur m. plural 1
arha well provided with a noria (i.e., water bucket wheel)

idiom

a to have a presentiment,

have a foreboding b to think of, devise, invent; think up

to saw up, cut up 2


Ahmed suffered a

ra f. 1 saw (the tool)

good deal of unpleasantness. Ahmed is in difficult straits.

oneself basely; toady, grovel, bootlick c to be stingy, be

niggardly d to sniff at

arvednkaj 1 present participle of

connected, tied together 2.2 detained; apprehended 2.3 stuck;


caught

2 m. radio

listener ! Dear radio listeners!


arved m. plural 1 listening
Having heard of this, he became very angry. 2 rumors
rwajaj m. keyword

a My arm is caught. My arm is entangled.

b I am busy. I am engaged. 2.4 experiencing difficulties;

being in need

of nothing. 2.5

2 He is in need
compelled, forced He is

compelled 2.6 muddled, confused; intricate, complex;


21

Pashto-English Dictionary

difficult to understand 2.7 very busy; absorbed, engrossed

2.8 suffering from constipation


1 idiom
1 driveler 2

(e.g., in work)

anatomy true rib, upper rib

i m.
a m impudent, brazen
a mna f. impudence, impertinence
a nd 1 detained 2 straitened, burdened 3 disordered,
disturbed a to detain b to put restraint on; burden
to disturb a to be detained b to be straitened, be

side seats, seats at the sides

flank attack 4
angular, uneven 5 wide, flat idiom physiology
leucocyte, white blood cell to speak
sharply

ud f. Eastern civil tunic, military formal coat


1

akj m. akj 1 staircase; stepladder 2 bar; bolt 3 part

of a weaving machine

2 arkj f. arkj singular trap


aked m. plural hinderance, delay

commission

without

interference, without delay

2 at m.
at v m.
atb m.
atn m. prison
aat m. broker; merchant; one who conducts business on the

aga f. 1 stable 2 horse-breeding farm


alng m. imagination, thought, idea
1 am m. 1 crowbar; lever 2 bar, bolt compound
verb compound verb 3 brake,
hindrance 4 prop, support to rest, set

basis of brokerage commissions

(against)

to have a
requirement for to have a need for
to satisfy someone's wants,
satisfy someone's requirements to

2 m regional 1
aimn m. "ariman" (an evil spirit, demon, devil)
aramavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

atj f. necessity, requirement, need

the pronunciation of retroflex consonants) 3 to rest against

side by side on each side


close by , at,
near side by side with one to lie on
one's side to sleep on the right side
to turn over on the side a to lean one's
akh 1 side

something; lean against something

aramj m.
aamedl

of

denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to be

employed in the capacity of a lever 2 figurative to set


energetically to work

elbows (on); lean, rest (against) b to go to sleep, rest c to suit,

1 to

employ as a lever 2 to apply the tongue to the hard palate (in

liberate, relieve someone of dependence

fit, be suitable, be proper

of a hall or auditorium 2 extreme, outer, last, located on the

aistl transitive [past: ] to compel, oblige


arj f. bad harvest, crop failure
1 at m. commission trade, trade on a brokerage

akhz 1 side, lateral

edge 3 military flank, flanking

burdened c to be disturbed

arkhaj m. 1 slope (of a mountain) 2 incline, declivity 3

He undertook

this matter energetically.

arnvj m. 1 riches 2 solvency, richness


ang m. 1 doubt; vacillation 2 suspicion 3 blame
a to doubt; vacillate b to suspect c to find deficiencies;

a to be up to, have within


He moves from side to side. 2 edge (e.g., of a table); side
The book lies at the edge of the table.
to cross over to the other side of the street 3 board
one's capacity b to calm, quiet, settle down from

blame

(of a boat) 4 military flank 5 slope (of a mountain) 6 math

ang-bang

ang-dung 1 doubting,

uncertain, vacillating 2 confused, embarrassed

aangj f. step, running board to backheel (i.e.,


to throw an opponent in wrestling by tripping him, throwing his

edge, intersection 7 slant, aspect, point of view

akh r
akhk m. hunting battue (a method of hunting in which

heel over one's leg)

av laj m.
aut m. 1 persuasion 2 measure
avatl intransitive [past: past: ]

animals are driven into some place for the convenience of the
shooters)

akh larnkaj having edges, faceted, multifaceted


a cut pencil

1 to be

occupied, be busy with something 2 to be obliged, be forced

polyhedron

akhn 1 2 traversing a slope 3 going along


something The road goes along

aud m. 1 skirmish, melee; battle 2 argument, conflict,

disagreement

a to engage in battle b to create a

conflict

the riverbank. 4 bordering; edging

22

aohtaj m. economy

Pashto-English Dictionary

aavl aavl transitive [past: present: ]


1 to move, stir 2 to shift, move elsewhere 3 to turn, turn over,

a to be connected with something,


depend upon something
Everything in its own time. b to belong to
b to need to need fresh air 3 obstacle 4 iron
stove lid, iron stove cover idiom to relieve oneself,

leaf through

to leaf through a book 4 to

transpose 5 to plow, dig, dig over again

He

ploughed the entire field. He dug over the entire field. 6 to


hold fast, bring to a stop, restrain 7 to take away, remove from

answer the call of nature

3 u m. plural dialect
4 a f. singular 2
aakj m. 1
1 a f. 1, 3
2 ij m. 1
3 aj plural from 1
adzj m. guardroom, brig (place for short-term detention

the road 8 to put, put in, load 9 to load something from one
place to another

to load (and transport)

over the mountain 10 to throw repeatedly; throw across

a to cross the legs b to sit (e.g., on a horse)

to cross the legs 11 to place in or convert to other


circumstances or status

to convert the

army to peacetime status 12 to translate (from one language to


another)

to translate into Pashto 13 to drain (e.g.,

of arrestees)

aedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to need,


experience a need for; requirement 2 to be forced

water) 14 to turn against (someone) 15 to attach a different


meaning to something; turn things against someone 16 to inflict

to inflict
great loss on the enemy to inflict material
losses on someone to wreck a ship 17 to
unload to unload 18 to drop in, pay a call, stay
somewhere to stay too long
He has already been our guest for a month.
He stayed at the caravansarai. 19
to spend, pass (time) a to turn over, overturn, topple
b to change to turn away from

(damage, harm, loss), harm

uedl denominative [past: ] to be milled, be made


into flour

aedna f.
requirement

aed m. plural 1

2 need,

ajistl transitive
ais boiled boiled meat
aiktjij ssm m. communication system
aknaj ts r m. call waiting
aekj m. 1 need, requirement; necessity, requisite 2
relationship, connection aeki to strengthen
trade links a to be in need, experience a need or
requirement What do you need from me? b

situation 4 to force, compel, oblige, make

aavlaj 1 past participle of 1 2.1 muddled up 2.2


inappropriate, unseemly, obscene aavli a

aavli

a disconnected speech b grumbling, mumbling

ae f.

aej f. the crosspiece of a noria (i.e., water


wheel) to which the buckets are attached

aavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 prevent,


hinder 2 to detain, seize, catch 3 to place in a difficult

failure

muddled matters b unseemly, indecent acts

The aircraft made a forced landing. 3 to be in

great difficulties 4 to stay too long, linger on, stick

not to listen to someone, to ignore

to have a relationship, have a connection 3 obstacle,


hinderance, difficulty

avndzh m. 1 basis, foundation 2 leg (of a furniture piece)

a to establish a relationship

connection b to hinder, put obstables in the way, impede,

3 supporting member

hamper 4 medicine constipation 5 bolt, bar

aavna f. 1 turning over, capsizing, reversing 2


translation, transference 3 substitution, replacement 4

alteration

z m. Arabic 1 desire, passion 2 greediness, avidity


z d az d 1.1 free, open, unrestricted
in the open air the open sea a don't

aavnkaj 1 present participle of

ana f. 1 need, requirement, necessity, requisite 2

dependence

1 2

grammar preposition

aawnay m. adapter
1 avi present tense of 1
2 avi present tense of 2
3 vi vice of 2
1 a f. furrow
2 a f. 1 relationship, connection, association; dependence 2
need, requirement; necessity

hinder him b let him go 1.2 independent; autonomous 2 m.

.1 a free man 2.2 proper name Azad idiom

to pass

completely through

zdn 1.1 free, unrestricted

to live

freely, lead an unrestricted life 1.2 independent 2.1 freely,


unrestrictedly 2.2 independently


23

zdkhij l freethinking

Pashto-English Dictionary

zdkhijl f. freethinking; free thought


azdag f. 1
zdavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

zurdag f. offense; injury, disorder, grief, displeasure


zurd indeclinable offended; injured, disordered, grieved
to be offened at someone
zurdakhtr zurdadl
azr m. Azru (district, Pakti Province)
azghakj m. 1 prickle, thorn 2 regional mimosa,

to free,

liberate

z da 1 indeclinable 1 2 feminine singular from


1 zd f. 1 freedom freedom of speech
freedom of the press
freedom of organization freedom
of conscience freedom of action
the struggle for freedom the liberation

Prosopis stephaniana

azghn
azghj m. 1 prickle, thorn
proverb There is no rose without thorns. 2 barbed wire
idiom It is like a sore on my eye.
uzghr
uzgrtb m. uzgrtj f.
uzgravl denominative, transitive
uzgredl denominative, intransitive
uzgaj m. Eastern 1 large kid (i.e., young of goat) 2

movement 2 independence

2 zdj m. proper name Azadaj (diminutive of Azad)


zdikh h 1 freedom-loving 2 liberal
zdikhh f. 1 love of freedom 2 liberalism
zdedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be
liberated; be free 2 to receive freedom; be independent

zdidst freedom-loving
zded m. plural liberation
zd guhtnkaj freedom-loving
1 z r m. az r m. 1 illness, disease 2 offense; injury
to offend someone to take

Western goat

izg f.
azl m.

folklore Thus it was fated for me.

offense at someone 3 pursuit

2 shrewd, crafty

insidiousness

carry out an experiment 3 roll call, muster

at someone


compound

izl f. Arabic 1 elimination

the elimination of errors 2 disappearance

azmjl transitive
azmjna f.
azmudl transitive
asmud indeclinable experienced; worldly-wise
to make experienced He was an experienced

verb to remove, eliminate

echo, sound)

uzbk m. Uzbek (person)


uzbakist n m. Uzbekistan
uzbka f. Uzbek (female)
1 uzbak attributive Uzbek

military leader.

azmudak r tested, experienced; checked out


azmojht m. azmujht
azmojht experimental field
azmojl transitive Western [past: ] 1 to verify;
try, attempt 2 to experiment, test a to test, take

Uzbek, the Uzbek

language

2 uzbki plural from


izdih m m. Arabic assemblage, mob, crowd
izdiv dzh m. Arabic wedlock, marriage bond, marriage
matrimonial law to enter into

stock of oneself b to be in training

izdijd f. Arabic increase, augmentation

increase, augment
azarbajdzh n m.

azmujndzj m.

azmujndzj m. 1

experimental station 2 laboratory

marriage with someone

azmajhti 1 attributive verifying, test; trial 2


nuclear test ban

experimental

az n m.
azng f. zng 1 echo to ring,
resound to ring out, resound, reverberate (of an

azmrtb m. shrewdness, craftiness, deceit, trickery,

zmjsh m.
zmjishgh f. laboratory
azmjht m. 1 verification, check, trial, test 2
experiment to experiment,

azr 1 m. sick person, patient 2 sick, ill, unhealthy


azaredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be
offended; be grieved, be pained to be offended
izlt m.

azmr 1 m. sly and cunning one; deceiver; cheat; intriguer

iz r m. breeches, loose trousers tucked inside boots

azravl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


offend; pain, injure 2 to pursue; pester, harass

the alphabet

spelling words out


Arabic eternity

to

azmujna f. 1 verification, trial 2 experiment 3


proverb Life is filled with

temptation
trials.

24

Pashto-English Dictionary

azumjnkaj 1 present participle of

proverb a good horse feeds


itself proverb The
hooves earn a horse's bread, but for man it is the tongue.
proverb To a restive horse the public
square is too small. proverb You can't

handle it.

2 tester,

experimenter

izmr m. Izmir (city)


azmajht m.
azmajht
azmajl transitive
azmejht m.
azmejl transitive
zt m. plural nitrogen
zot nitrogen, nitrogenous nitrogen fertilizers
nitrogen-mineral (fertilizer) factory
azr the Azores Islands
azgh m. singular & plural m. azugh f.
storeroom
azf m. the Sea of Azov
azu f.
azjl azejl transitive
zh ns m. 1 agency
telegraph agency the Bakhtar
Agency TASS (Telegraph Agency of the Soviet
Union) 2 bureau, office tourist bureau
information office employment office
azhdr m. dragon
azhdah t m. singular & plural bronze
uzhghndzhn made of goat's wool
uzhghna f.
azhejl transitive [past: ] to wind (threads)
agbka
f. black martin (bird)

ugd
ugd
oblique plural of along
ugdv
laj m.
agramj
m. 2

ug f.
agj f. dialect
agjl transitive [past: ] 1 to impel; incite, urge on

teach an old horse to jump. (i.e., you can't teach an old dog new
tricks)

2 s m. 1 millstone 2 milling of grain


3 s m. 1 ashes (on a grate) 2 site of a fire; figurative home
4 s m. myrtle
5 s m. ermine
isrt m. Arabic 1 captivity 2 slavery; enslavement
isratmz isratmza 1 servile, slavish;
servitude conditions of slavery 2 attributive
slave

as s m. Arabic [plural: assna Arabic plural:


ass t] 1 base, basis, foundation
on the basis of radically, fundamentally
2 principle

assnm f. statute, regulation


ass Arabic 1 fundamental, basic
fundamental law, constitution constitution 2
fundamental fundamentally, basically 3 in
principle, in the main, in essence

astr m. Arabic plural from


aslb m. Arabic plural from
s m m. Assam
asmbl f. 1 assembly General
Assembly of the United Nations 2 meeting general
meeting

asm m. Arabic plural from


1 s n as n easy, uncomplicated, simple
This is quite easy to do. easily
2 s n plural from 1
asntr more easily
asntb m.
sntj f. 1 This is very easy

2 to twist (cord) 3 carpentry to saw into dovetail form

as m. [plural: asna plural: s n]


horse gelding pack horse
draught horse mounted on a horse
harness technology horsepower
veterinarian races
racetrack herd of horses a to ride a horse
1

s m.

to obtain.

asnsr m. elevator; escalator


asngr m. accessibility, wizard
asnavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to
make easier to lighten difficulties
asna feminine singular from 1

hard figurative b to make efforts; try c to think, reflect upon

You also reflect upon it and think what to


a to ride horseback b to learn to ride horseback
They were shoeing horses

do.

It

may very easily happen that

and even the frogs raised their little paws (i.e., everyone wanted
to get into the act)

assn Arabic 1 in substance, in essence 2 fundamentally

3 in principle

asn f. 1 lightness, easiness

facilitation, assistance, furtherance

proverb If you wish to control a horse you must know how to


25

easily

to help

Pashto-English Dictionary

someone, assist someone

usttb m. position or job of teacher, master, expert


astdzv laj m. astdzval f.
astdzaj m.
ust d m. 1 teacher, instructor, tutor regional
director of a school 2 master, expert master

Has his pain

subsided?

2 asni feminine plural from 1


asnedl denominative, intransitive

[past: ] to

become easy, be made light (e.g., of work)

asajsh m. peace, rest

to disrupt someone's rest

to rest

craftsman, brigade leader 3 professor

asjlam m. asylum the right of asylum


asb b m. Arabic 1 plural of reasons; circumstances
motivation; motives force majeure 2
[plural: asbbna] equipment, weapons
means of transport, transport equipment the
means of existence 3 [plural: asbbna] possessions;
articles, utensils, baggage, equipment bedding
equipment and situation
asbbs z m. plotter
asbbsz f. intrigues
asb p m. colloquial
asb m. Arabic plural of
asbn plural from
asban feminine of
asbn m. [plural: asbn] herder of horses
asbunavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

ustdn 1 expert, craftsman 2 skillfully, in a masterful

fashion

ustdavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to


make into a teacher, make into master

ust da feminine of
1 ustd f. 1 collective noun

teachers; teaching 2

craftsmanship; art

2 ust di m. from
ustdedl denominative, intransitive

[past:

to be a teacher 2 to be a master, be an expert

ust z m.

Under whom

are you studying?

ust za feminine of
1 ustz f. 1
2 ust zi plural from
astzv laj m. religion the official mission of a religous
body or the staff of such mission

astzaj m. 1 envoy, respresentative, delegate


to send one's own man; send one's

make someone a horse herder, designate someone a horse herder

asbunedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


become a horse herder, be designated a horse herder

representative 2 spokesman (for feelings, hopes, etc.) 3

asb m. [plural: asnn]



ispnij f. ispnij f. Spain
aspit l m. aspi l m. hospital
aspandavn f. horse races
aspirnt m. graduate student
aspirntr m. course of graduate studies
ispaghl m. plantain, Plantago ispaghula
spk m. breastbone (bird)
aspakj m. hobby
ispnd m. singular & plural perganum harmala, wild rue
aspands m. aspndsa f. polo to

prophet

istsjn m. station radio station


ustk r m. 1 master, expert 2 artist
istlf m. Istalif (city)
st n m. 1 threshold; entrance 2 tomb (of a saint); shrine,
reliquary 3 tribe or family of a saint or religious figure

aspnkaj m. pack (attached to the saddle)


uspna f.
1 spa f. mare
2 asp f. 1 typhus 2 nettle rash 3 asthma
1 asp indeclinable, attributive horse, mounted

istmbl m. Istanbul (city)


st n f.
ustv laj m.
istibd d m. Arabic despotism; autocracy
istibdd Arabic indeclinable despotic, autocratic
istit r m. Arabic camouflage
istism r m. Arabic exploitation the
exploitation of man compound verb
istismrch m. istismrgr m. exploiter
istismravl denominative, transitive [past:
]1 to exploit 2 to use 3 to exploit (i.e., natural resources)
istimredl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

spi plural from


3 asp plural from 2
ust m. 1 teacher

istisn f. Arabic
istisng ni

play polo

mounted patrol
2

master, expert

1 to be exploited 2 to be used; be exploited (e.g., of natural

resources)

2
26

[plural: istisn vi plural:

m. Arabic plural: istisn t]

Pashto-English Dictionary

without exception with the


exception of to make an exception
istisn exceptional in exceptional
circumstances in the nature of an exception
istidzhbt m. istidzhb f. Arabic m. [plural:
istidzhb t] reaction, response
istihl f. Arabic change, transformation, transition (from
one state to another); metamorphosis qualitative

istikhdmavl denominative, transitive [past:


] 1 to accept, take on for work, sign (someone) on for a job
to hire workers 2 to employ, use
istikhdm hired
istikhdmedl denominative, intransitive [past:
]1 to be accepted for a job, be signed on for a job 2 to be

exception

used, be employed

natural resources) 2 extraction compound verb

istihs l m. Arabic 1 getting, receiving 2 production


compound verb to produce 3 [plural:
istihsl t] manufactured article production

istihslavl denominative, transitive


istihslavl to produce, manufacture, make

mine 3 figurative to reprimand

istihsledl denominative, intransitive


istihsledl to be produced, be manufactured, be made

istihz r
istih

m. Arabic [plural: istihna


istihkk

augmented ration

2 to be extracted, be mined

framework 2 structural framework

istihkkij 1 due, due to 2

istihk m m. Arabic [plural: istihkmna

consolidation 2 military reinforcement, fortification


bunker

(temporary) nature 3 combat engineering

meaning; cognition

combat-engineer unit

arguments in proof of

strung beads concerning the outcome of matters planned or in


the future)

str m.

astr m. 1 lining (of clothing); the wrong

2 astr m. mule
istirht m. Arabic rest; peace rest home
to rest
astrkh n m. Astrakhan (city)
astralij f. the Australian Union
astralija 1 attributive Australian 2 m.

Arabic plural: istikhbr t] notification, finding out,

istikhbr t m. Arabic plural 1 from

information

intelligence data, intelligence 3 intelligence (agent)

side 2 socle (of a wall)

istikhb r m. Arabic [plural: istikhbrna

department

istidr k m. Arabic understanding; the ascertainment of

istid' f. Arabic [plural: istid' vi plural:


istid'g ni] 1 request, entreaty 2 inquiry 3
complaint bureau of complaints
istid'nm f. application, petition
istidl l m. Arabic 1 conclusion, inference 2 production
of proofs; reasoning; arguments; reason, justification
arguments 3 to advance

istihm m m. Arabic bathing bathing suit


istikhr f. Arabic fortunetelling (by means of books, by

gradually

istihkmch m. combat engineer


istihkmchigar f. combat engineering
istihkm 1 reinforced, fortified static
warfare 2 attributive combat engineer, engineer

reconnoitering; information

istidr dzh m. Arabic gradualness

fortifications of a field

combat engineer battalion

ustukhnkr f. ostokhnkr structural work,

skeletal work

Arabic plural: istihkm t] 1 strengthening,

the mining of ore

istikhl s m. Arabic deliverance, liberation


ustukh n m. ostokhn 1 bone 2 stone (of a fruit)
ustukhnband f. ostokhnband 1 skeleton, frame,

attributive ration, pertaining to a ration or allocation

istikhrdzhedl denominative, intransitive [past:


] 1 to be extacted, be mined (esp. natural resources)

Arabic plural: istih t] 1 virtue, merit 2 ability;

competence; right 3 allowance, allocation, ration

istikhrdzh pertaining to the extraction of mining (esp.

natural resources)

m. Arabic summons, invitation

daily ration

istikhr dzh m. Arabic 1 development, extraction (e.g., of


compound verb
istikhrdzhavl denominative, transitive [past:
] 1 to extract (esp. natural resources) 2 to obtain, extract,

changes

Australian (person)

istikhd m m. Arabic 1 hiring for work, acceptance for a

job hiring directorate 2 employment, use


compound verb
compound verb

usturdl m. back part, hind part, back; rear


istirh m m. Arabic request, entreaty (for mercy, quarter)
to request mercy of someone
27

Pashto-English Dictionary

isti'm r m. Arabic 1 settlement 2 colonization


compound verb to colonize 3 colonialism
isti'mrparst m. isti'mrdzh m.
isti'march m. isti'margr m. 1 colonizer

istird d m. 1 request for return, request for claiming 2

taking away 3 restoration

istirz f. Arabic 1 request for agreement 2 agreement 3

satisfaction

astarkr f. cementing of masonry; plastering


astarksh m. asuarksh military driver
astronm m. astronomer
astronom f. astronomy
ustur f. razor
1 ustrj Western 1 last, latest ustr the latest
news the little finger ustr
recently 2 at last He has got dressed at

2 imperialist

isti'mr colonial, colonializing


isti'm l m. Arabic use, utilization, application
to find an application for
isti'mlavl denominative, transitive [past:
]to use, utilize, apply misuse
isti'ml Arabic 1 having been in use, used, secondhand
2 practical

isti'mledl denominative, intransitive [past:


]to be in use, be used, be employed, be applied
istighs f. Arabic 1 request, entreaty, petition
to ask someone (for cooperation, assistance)
to intercede, solicit, petition 2 suit, complaint
istighr m. Arabic 1 absorption 2 concentration 3

last.

ustur plural from

ustr f. regional flatiron

a suit which

has been pressed compound verb to press, iron


strij f. astrij f. Austria
strija astrija 1 attributive Austrian 2
Austrian (person)

rapture

astrelij f.
astrelj
istis f. Arabic medicine dropsy
istishh d m. Arabic summoning as a witness
a to summon as a witness b to attest to
istisv b m. Arabic 1 approval 2 consultation;

istighf r m. Arabic appeal for forgiveness; repentance


Lord have mercy!
istighn f. Arabic absence of need; material
independence; (being) provided for, sufficiency
to manage without something
not to need something

istifd f. Arabic use; utilization



to use, utilize something to be
used, be utilized to use something
istifdadzh m. exploiter
istifdadzhu f. exploitation
istifdav economics use value
istifs r m. Arabic inquiry to inquire

solicitation of opinion

istizd
istiz ' f.
istit'at

antagonistic
Arabic inquiry
m. Arabic 1 force, strength 2 resources;

means; assets 3 ability

istitl ' f. Arabic 1 investigation, research 2 explanation,

information idiom

inquisitiveness

isti'r f. Arabic [plural: isti'r] m. Arabic

[plural: isti'rt] extended meaning, metaphor;

picturesque expression, figurative expression; allegory

of someone

to adduce metaphors
isti'r figurative, metaphorical, allegorical
isti'nt m. Arabic request for help; appeal for help
isti'b d m. Arabic enslavement
isti'dzh b m. Arabic astonishment, amazement
to regard with astonishment, be astonished, be

mark

isti'dd m. Arabic 1 ability, gift, talent

question

istifhm istifhmij Arabic interrogative


interrogative pronoun
istikmt m. Arabic 1 steadfastness, persistence 2
straightforwardness, frankness, plaindealing 3 decency 4
direction, side

surprised, be amazed

istifh m m. Arabic question

in a northern direction

able, have ability 2 predisposition, bent


to

istib l m. Arabic 1 meeting, reception

on the occasion of the forthcoming holiday

to be

a meeting was
compound verb a to receive, meet

receive, meet someone

isti'f f. Arabic retirement, going into retirement


to retire to resign, put in for retirement
to accept resignation, accept retirement
isti'l m m. isti'lmij f. Arabic 1 inquiry 2

arranged for him

b to comment on something 2 future 3 grammar future tense

istib l kavnkaj 1 present participle of


m. 2 istikb l kavnki m. plural those attending the
meeting

inquest

28

Pashto-English Dictionary

istir f. Arabic 1 conclusion, inference; induction


to make an inference, draw a conclusion
istir r m. Arabic 1 strengthening, stabilization 2

idiom

ratification

istis f. Arabic 1 attainment of the limit, end 2

istil l m. Arabic 1 independence

intensified study

Independence Day, Independence Holiday 2 steadfastness;

resoluteness

istill 1 independent 2 steadfast; resolute


ustak r m. 1 village craftsman, rural craftsman

2 master

craftsman

istiksh f m. Arabic 1 military reconnaissance,

istikshf Arabic attributive military reconnaissance,

at a hotel

astogndzj m. 1 residence, abode 2 hostel, dormitory


astgna f. astogna f. astga f. astgja f.
dialect 1 residence, stay, sojourn a guest
room b residence to live, stay, sojourn
to settle somewhere, reside somewhere, stay

intelligence, scouting 2 research

intelligence, scouting 2 research expedition


istg h m. stand, stop, station airport
istl transitive Western
istilz m m. Arabic 1 demand 2 acknowledgement of
necessity a to demand b to acknowledge necessity
istim ' f. Arabic audition; hearing (i.e., witnesses)
compound verb to listen, hear
istimd d m. Arabic request for help, request for

somewhere 2 life, existence 3 residence, abode

astogjj m. dialect resident


astavl [past: ] to send, dispatch, direct
to dispatch information, send news, communicate to
send a greeting to dispatch goods
eston 1 Estonian the Estonian language 2 m.

assistance

istimr r m. Arabic 1 duration 2 persistence,

Estonian (person)

estonij Estonia
astone pat f. mailing address
astwne la, astone l m. mailing list
astone nhka f. shipping label
astavnkaj 1 present participle of 2 m. sender
istihz f. Arabic mockery
istihzmz istihzmza attributive

steadfastness 3 past tense of the imperfective aspect, the


imperfect

istimrr Arabic 1 attributive prolonged, durative 2

grammar pertaining to the imperfect

past tense

of the imperfective aspect, the imperfect

istin d m. Arabic 1 reference to something


referring to the communication from Kabul 2 support
military a strong point 3 military reinforcement,

mocking

support

istinb t m.

istambl m. Istanbul (city)

ustuvr f. 1 literal hardness, firmness 2 steadiness,

ustuvn cylinder
1 ustuvn cylindrical shaft
2 ustuvn plural of
istiv equatorial; tropical Equatorial Africa
equatorial climate
astzaj m.
astzha f. Eastern astogna
f. astga

astogn living, residing, staying somewhere


to settle, reside, stay somewhere to stay

to

borrow, receive a loan from someone, be given credit

the equator

firmness, steadfastness

istir z m. Arabic 1 granting of a loan, granting of

credit, crediting 2 receiving credit

ustuv r 1 literal strong, hard, firm 2 steady, firm,

steadfast

settling; transition to a settled way of life 3 confirmation,

istiv f. Arabic 1 balancing, equilibration 2 parallelism

It

istihl k m. 1 liquidation (e.g., of a debt) 2 consumption

3 amortization

follows from this that

compound verb a to liquidate (e.g.,

a debt) b to consume c to amortize

a to be

liquidated (e.g., a debt) b to be consumed c to be amortized

istintdzh m. Arabic logical inference, logical conclusion;

to draw an inference, draw a conclusion;


deduce, conclude Eastern One may
deduction

istihlk attributive consumers'

consumers' cooperative

estetk 1 m. aesthetics 2 aesthetic, artistic


estetik attributive aesthetic
astedl intransitive [past: ]1 to live, reside

infer that

istint m. Arabic law interrogation, investigation


to interrogate someone
istink r m. Arabic 1 disapprobation 2 aversion

abide, stay, make a stop

29

2 to be,

Pashto-English Dictionary

astednkaj 1 present participle of

2 inhabitant,

resident

nether regions

istiz n m. Arabic authorization

authorization

to receive

lamentable occurrences

compound
to be conquered, be

istil f. Arabic 1 conquest; capture

verb to conquer, capture, seize

given at burial services

istil attributive epidemic


stn m. sleeve
istin f m. Arabic law appeal; reclaim
appeals court, appelate court

m. ishzj

beginning in 78 A.D. with the rule of Kanishka, one of the rulers

Ikshakzai (tribesman)

ish m.
asd m. Arabic 1 lion

of the Kushani governments called in India shaki) 2 m. plural


the Shaki

iskelt m. skeleton
iskeletband f. frame, framework

2 astronomy Leo (constellation) 3

Asad (the fifth month of the solar year; July-August)

asadull m. Arabic proper name Asadullah


usr m. Arabic 1 captivity 2 medicine retention of urine
usar m. Arabic plural from
1 asr r Arabic plural from 2 military secret
2 isr r m. Arabic keeping of a secret to keep a

framework of a building

iskandr m. proper name Alexander, Iskander


iskandarij Alexandria
askerl transitive [past: ] to make sorry, make
unhappy

askerlaj pitiable, unhappy, wounded by fate


askerna f. misfortune, ill-fortune, disaster
eskim m. Eskimo (person)
sl just right, exactly right, well-fitting (e.g., of clothing)
This (embroidered) skullcap is just for me.
These shoes fit perfectly.
asl f m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 ancestors
isl m m. Arabic 1 Islam, the Mohammedan religion, the

secret

isr f m. Arabic wastefulness, prodigality


asrfl m. Arabic religion 1 Asraphel (one of the four
archangels) 2 seraph (angel of the highest rank)

isrl m. 1 Israel

usf m. bishop archbishop


1 isk m. 1
2 ask dialect
isk t m. Arabic 1 calming 2 pacification; calm
esk dr m. military squadron, naval squadron
eskdrl m. military squadron, air squadron
isk n m. Arabic transition to a settled life; settling
isk history 1 Sakian, Shakian (referring to an era

captured, be seized 2 supremacy 3 epidemic

astrlj f.
abbreviation from
ish m. Arabic proper name Isaac, Yitzak
ishz m. plural 1 the Iskhakzai (tribe) 2

asafn k regrettable, unfortunate, sad

1 is t m. Arabic miscarriage; premature birth; abortion


to miscarry; give birth prematurely; effect an abortion
2 is t m. Arabic religion 1 interment, burial 2 alms

istis l m. Arabic 1 destruction, annihilation 2

demolition

asfal-us-sfiln m. Arabic religion nether world,

Israelis, Jews 2 Israeli

(person)

isril 1 attributive Israeli 2 m. Israeli (person)


asr f. hope; dream to hope; dream
asrht m. vice
asar indeclinable enchanting; charming; attractive
aszghl m. horseman
aszghalabna f. horse races
asisnt m. assistant, aide
astur f. m. [plural: ]fable; myth
as' r m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 currency

Muslim world 2 religious orthodoxy, religiousness

islmb d m. Islamabad (city)


islmka'l f. Islamkala (border point)
islmi Arabic 1 Islamic, Mohammedan 2 orthodox
theology (Muslim)
islmijt m. Islam, Mohammedanism
isl v m. Slav (person) the Slavic languages
islv m. 1 Slavic 2 m. Slav (person)
aslih f. Arabic 1 plural of 2 weapon; armament
personal weapon concealed weapon
automatic weapon bladed weapons
(cold steel) firearm by force of arms
aslih dzhoavnkaj 1 attributive manufacturing
arms, arms arms factory; munition

foreign currency 3 finance draft (payable abroad in foreign

currency)

as'r attributive currency


currency operations
asghl m. horse thief
asf m. Arabic regret
asf lt m. plural asphalt
asfltkr f. paving with asphalt

monetary system

factory 2 gunsmith

30

Pashto-English Dictionary

aslihakhn f. arsenal
aslihad r m. military chief of supply (in the field)
aslihasz f. arms production, armaments
aslm m. Arabic proper name Aslam
aslb m. [plural: aslb] Arabic 1 method, way
methodology 2 style the style of a

starry sky

The weather is clear today.


Yesterday was a clear day.
a to look at the sky, look at the stars figurative b
to put on airs, take pride in, be puffed up literal to

become elevated, rise up high figurative to become "stuck-up"

book

aslavl aslavl denominative, transitive [past: ]


to adjust to, fit to, adapt to idiom to teach

a If you try to count the stars in the sky, you'll be agape. b to

to be
to have trouble afoot;
have a dangerous situation arise to fall into
misfortune; be in danger a to be beset by great
undertake an impossible task
extremely tall, be lanky

misfortune b to have trouble fall like snow on one's head

asmantsk very high


asmntsklaj m. skyscraper
asmntsklkaj m. bat, flying mouse
smnkhar sh high-altitude

high

building; skyscraper

asmnkhul antiaircraft antiaircraft gun


asmn shklavnkaj very high
asmnl r f. asmnl ra astronomy the Milky
Way

asmn 1 celestial; heavenly

meteorite 2

azure, light blue, sky blue 3 religious, spiritual, sacred 4


figurative foolish, absurd

a to speak nonsense

b to boast; fabricate; invent; lie c to joke, jest idiom

to go far away; be missing, to


folklore Dear one, thou hast

to leave

disappear

gone away; thou art missing.

asmnj 1 feminine singular and plural from 1 2


f. plural foolish nonsense to talk foolish

the Chagarzi tribe) 2 m. Ismailkheil (tribesman)

nonsense

1 ism'ilz m. plural the Ismailzai (a subdivision of the

Usmanzai Tribe and of the Orakzai Tribe) 2 ism'ilzj m.

asmnirng azure, sky blue

blue eyes

Ismailzai (tribesman)

sky-

asm Mount Asmai (in Kabul)


isma'l
isma Arabic indeclinable grammar nominal, substantive
1 isn d m. Arabic 1 reference to someone 2 substantiation

ismil Arabic 1 Ismailitic 2 m. Ismailian (person)


ism'ilij f. Arabic Ismailism; the teachings of the

Ismailians
sm n m.

proverb He who spits at the sky


will soil himself thereby. astronomy Ursa Major
(the constellation) saying Nothing can be done
without it's presence. to punish
someone cruelly

asled m. asled plural fitness, conformity


ism m. Arabic [plural: ismna Arabic plural:
asm plural: asm] 1 name, appellation 2 grammar
sm-i demonstrative pronoun
a diminutive sm-i the
comparative degree sm-i collective noun, plural
number sm-i tribal name, noun
sm-i proper name sm-i noun sm-i adverb,
temperal circumstances sm-i adjective
sm-i onomatopoeic word sm-i common noun
sm-i numeral sm-i noun of action, agency
sm-i collective noun sm-i
masculine noun sm-i productive noun the
indeterminate mood, infinitive, masdar (type of verb
sm-i abstract noun sm-i passive participle, the
object of an action sm-i adverb, circumstances of
place sm-i relational adjective
sm-i definitive (i.e., adjective limiting the
significance of noun) sm-i relative
pronoun sm-i feminine noun
common noun 3 invocation, incantation, exorcism
to pronounce an incantation over someone
sm-i military password
asm m. Arabic plural from
asm r m. Asmar (district, Nangrahar Province)
ism'il m. Arabic proper name Ismail, Izmail
ism'ilkhl 1 m. plural Ismailkheili (a subdivision of

high in the sky

proverb He who throws

clods at the sky will himself be injured by them.

to be suitable, to suit, be just right

proverb literal Though he grows to

someone a lesson, punish

the sky, a fool is a fool figurative A fool's a fool for that!

islt m. 1 (school) slate 2 plural slate (roofing)


asledl asledl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

literal to think that the sky is the earth

figurative to fail to understand something

asm n m. sky, heavens


a sky studded with stars; a

3 grammar subtatic relationship

31

Pashto-English Dictionary

2 asn d m. Arabic plural from loan-bonds


bonds payable to bearer literary

asunsjn m.
as m. regional

asir f. captivity
asist nt m. assistant
asasr m. regional member of a jury
asimt m. azimuth
asem f. hunting mare
1 sh m. 1 dumpling 2 food; meal, soup 3 kasha
saying Same old soup warmed over. 4 tannin extract
compound verb to tan to tan leather
2 ash m. children's speech ass, donkey
ash f. 1 misfortune, trouble, disaster 2 danger
ishr t m. Arabic plural from
ishrt m. Arabic
ishrtn Arabic by means of a hint
ishrat attributive signal signal cartridge
ishr f. Arabic [plural: ishr Arabic plural:
ishr t] 1 sign, symbol, mark dash
exclamation point punctuation marks
the Morse alphabet 2 signal, sign
He made a sign indicating that one should halt. 3 grammar
demonstrative pronoun demonstrative pronoun 4
military signal, bugle call military signal
(prearranged short order) the signal for attack
reveille 5 sign, token, mark 6 indication
to point to something 7 hint to

usar ]

monuments

Asuncion (city)
Asu (the sixth month of the Hindu calendar;

September - October)

3 content; satisfied

sudah l 1 successful, prosperous 2 content


sudahli f. contentment; satisfaction
sudag f. 1 rest, peace, calm 2 prosperity, well-being
3 material success 4 comfort

usur f. the Ussuri River


isogl s m. linguistics isogloss
asveldzhn grieving over, mourning over
asvelkj m.
asveln mourning over, grieving over
asvelj m. 1 yawn 2 deep breath, sigh a
heavy sigh; deep breath to sigh heavily; breath
deeply 3 shivering (from cold) a breath; sigh b
shiver (from cold)

ish l m. Arabic diarrhea


ash m m. Arabic plural from

shareholder, stockholder

ashm Arabic attributive joint stock; share

joint-stock company

as Eastern se

as 1.1 stingy, niggardly, avaricious

prisoners of war
to surrender

to

take captive

svl m. horseman
asu n m. Aswan the Aswan Dam
asvd Arabic black
sudag f.
sud indeclinable 1 quiet, peaceful 2 satisfactory, happy

asr m. Arabic [plural: asir n Arabic plural:

drop a hint to someone

isharch m. signalman
ishra 1 attributive signal 2 grammar demonstrative
ashatb m. ashatj f. ashv laj m. 1
bitter taste 2 figurative cruelty to act

to be stingy,

to stint 1.2 unfortunate, luckless 2 m. .1 miser 2.2 luckless

cruelly, treat someone cruelly

1 ashj m. dried fruit with a bitter pit


2 ash f. bitter taste
ish't m. Arabic [plural: ish' t f. singular:
ish' plural: ish' m. Arabic plural:
ish't] 1 publication; edition regional

wretch

asj m. 1 hoarfrost 2 dialect fog, mist


4 asj feminine singular from 2
1 sj f. asij 1 1 2 used in geographic
designations Charasiya (settlement)
2 sij f. Asia Southeast Asia
Central Asia Asia Minor (peninsula)
sij b m. mill
sijb f. history collection (of tax-in-kind) from mills
sijan f. whetstone
sjv n m. sijvn miller
sij attributive Asiatic
sb m. misfortune, trouble, disaster
asitb m. stinginess, avarice
asd m. acid prussic acid
3

publishing house 2 dissemination (e.g., of learning, points of


view)

ashb h m. plural Arabic from

ishb ' f. Arabic 1 satiation 2 saturation 3 satisfaction

(i.e., of requirements)

ashpz m. ashpz m. cook


shpazkhn f. kitchen
shpaz f. cookery, cuisine
ashpr m. 1 conversation f. 2 noise, din, hubub
ishtib h f. Arabic 1 doubt; suspicion; skeptical attitude
32

Pashto-English Dictionary

there is no doubt that


to have doubts about someone, regard someone
with suspicion 2 mistake, blunder a to doubt b to
err, blunder 2 I have not erred.
ishtibh 1 suspicious; dubious 2 erroneous
ishtir t m. Arabic provisional state; agreement
ishtir k m. Arabic 1 participation 2 subscription (to a
newspaper, etc.) a to take part, participate b to
subscribe (to a newspaper) to subscribe to a

ishtirk t m. Arabic plural 1 from

outlines, the big picture

ishtirk kavnkaj m.
1 ishtirk Arabic obsolete

2 general

1 participant 2 subscriber
1.1 socialist 1.2 collective,

1 ash' r m. Arabic plural from 1


2 ish'r m. Arabic information, notification
ash' m. Arabic plural from
ishgh l m. Arabic 1 occupancy 2 entry into (a position)
occupying a position 3 seizure, capture,
occupation

ishti' l m. Arabic 1 ignition 2 provocation (deliberate

ishghalabl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1


to be the occupant (e.g., of a job) 2 to seize, capture, occupy

instigation of an incident)

ishghal attributive occupation


ishghladl denominative, intransitive

ishti m. Arabic derivation (of words)

derivative words

occupied

f. peace, conciliation


I've lost my

shuft indeclinable worried; downcast


shuftahl 1 worried; downcast 2 impoverished
ashr m. potash, caustic soda
1 shk m. meatballs made of meat and flour
2 ashk m. poetic tears
1 ishk l m. Arabic difficulty, trouble; impediment
without special difficulties to hamper,
create difficulty; impede to eliminate an

to

appetite.

ishtih r m. Arabic 1 proclamation, announcement;

publication

to proclaim, announce; publish; make a

public announcement of 2 proclamation, declaration 3 poster

ishtihr Arabic regional law criminal

seeking to avoid punishment

asht f. conciliation
ishtij m. Arabic

shuftag f. 1 confusion, concern, alarm, worry; disorder

2 calamity, misfortune

Arabic 1 desire 2 appetite

arouse an appetite in someone

[past: ] 1

to be filled, be occupied (i.e., a job) 2 to be captured, be

hold, fill (e.g., a post, position)


word derivation

ashrf Arabic 1 most noble, most radiant 2 m. .1 prince

headed

ashtarn m. plural 1 the Ashtarani (tribe) 2 ashtarnj

ashtka
ishtih f.

ashrapj f. Eastern 1 gold, gold

1 ashraf f.
2 ashrafj f. 1 Ashrafi 2 botany marigold
ashar 1 immoral, dissolute; wicked 2 obstinate; wrong-

to have in common

ashtgh m. dried apricot (without the pit)


ishtigh l m. Arabic occupation, taking, capture, seizure
compound verb a to seize, capture, occupy b to

2.2 proper name Ashraf

m. Ashtaranaj (tribesman)

from

coin piece 2 proper name Ashrafi

ishtirkijt m. obsolete socialism;


the epoch of primitive

communism

ashrf n]

aristocrats, aristocracy, elite, nobility

ashrib m. Arabic plural


ashrap f. Western

ishtirk f.

communism

ashr Arabic 1 unpleasant, disagreeable 2 indecent,

2 ashr r m. Arabic plural from


ashr f m. Arabic plural [plural:

common, general 2 m. Socialist


2

ashr m. help, assistance

unseemly

newspaper 3 military cooperation, teamwork

obstacle; get out of a difficult situation


1 strong desire, yearning

desire passionately 2 passionate desire

2 ashk l m. Arabic plural from


ishkashm m. Ishkashim (settlement, district)
ishkamsh m. Ishkamish (settlement, district)
ashk interjection well done, bravo
shn ashn 1 m. .1 close friend, chum, buddy
to make friends with someone
Do not forget a friend in misfortune. 1.2

to

shtidzh m.
shtidzhu f.
shtitalb m. conciliator
shtitalab f. spirit of conciliation
ish m m. regional paper bearing an official seal
ashk r m. potash idiom to split hairs,

acquaintance 1.3 beloved one 2.1 acquainted with something

quibble

ashkh s m. Arabic plural


ashkhorka f. child's bib

2.2 knowledgeable about something

from

got to know the truth.

33

ashn j m.

He

Pashto-English Dictionary

repeated and determined demands

ashnja 1 f. .1 female friend 1.2 female acquaintance 1.3

beloved (female) 2 feminine singular of 2


young woman acquaintance

insist upon something

Peshawar)

officially designated, as they say, as one says

to be

istilh Arabic 1 phraseological 2 idiomatic


an idiom 3 special, technical (esp. of a term)
asghr Arabic junior; lesser, little
asghar minimal
sf m. Arabic 1 proper name Asaph 2 figurative wise

disgraced

shb m. 1 noise 2 confusion, anxiety, alarm, worry 3

calamity, misfortune

shubkn m. alarmist; person given to panic


ashur f.
shl m. noise, hubub, cry to make a noise, make

counselor

isfah n m. Isfahan (city)


asl Arabic 1 m. [plural: aslna Arabic plural:
usl] .1 basis, base, root the stem of a verb 1.2
article (of a law); statute 1.3 fact; substance; principle
in essence, in substance; in actuality; factuality 1.4
origin; race; family (extended) a by origin; by family b

a hubub, make a din, cry out

sha interjection get going (cry used by one who is driving

an ass)

2 sh f. proper name Aisha


saying They make a good pair!
1 ishh d m. Arabic law 1 summoning as a witness 2
establishment of a fact with the assistance of witnesses

originally 1.5 original 1.6 economics fixed capital 1.7

ashh d m. Arabic plural from


1 ashj m. Arabic plural from 1 minerals
2 eshj f. Asia
shjn f. 1 nest 2 cell 3 dot, point 4 hangar
hangar
ah m. 1 consideration; scrutiny 2 patience
uhka f. tear to shed tears
1 uhki plural from
2 uhkj f. praying mantis (insect)
ihodl transitive
isbt m. Arabic 1 hit (on a target) to


to
speak the solemn truth the main point is that
2.2 proper proper weight in the

classifier used in counting trees, saplings


saplings 2 attributive .1 real, veritable

very center 2.3 suitable dimensions, proper dimensions 2.4


economics fixed (of capital) idiom

proverb A good saber cuts according to its blade.

sln Arabic 1 in fact; all intents and purposes; in essence 2

by origin, descent, family

isl isl h f. & m.

Arabic m. [plural: islah t] 1


improvement of a breed of cattle 3 reform
reorganization compound verb a to correct;
correction; emendation; amendment 2 improvement

hit the target 2 accuracy (e.g., of a comparison); preciseness (of

an expression) 3 perspicacity

to

1 asr f m. Arabic plural from


2 isr f m. Arabic extravagance
istbl stable, horse-barn
istik k m. Arabic friction to rub against
istikk physics static static electricity
istil f. & m. istilh Arabic 1 phrase, expression,
locution, idiom in other words 2 term
technical terms
istilhn Arabic 1 idiomatically 2 technically 3 as it is

shn f. ashn f. 1 friendship; acquaintance


close friendship; close acquaintance
to befriend, carry on a friendship, be close to
someone I am on very close terms with
him. It is not worth being his friend.
ashnaghr m. Ashnagar, Khashtnagar (district near
ushnl transitive
ashv disgraced to disgrace

amend b to improve; mend, repair c to carry out a reform d to

aslt m. Arabic 1 nobility, decency 2 firmness of

character 3 personal responsiblity 4 personal representation 5

carry out land-reclaimation work

substance, essence

to be correcetd b to be improved; be mended c to be reformed

islhtalb m. Arabic reformer


islhtalabn 1 reform; reformative; reformatory

asltn Arabic 1 from oneself personally, personally 2

fully 3 as a matter of fact, in point of fact

aslatvudzhud f. philosophy existentialism


ash b m. Arabic plural from [ plural:

in a reform manner, in a reformative manner

islh reform, reformative, reformatory


aslbst m. military personnel

ashb n] associates of Mohammed

isd r m. Arabic export

the export of wool

personnel unit

aslavl transitive
1 sla feminine singular of 2

isr r m. Arabic insistence, persistence, persistent demand;

determination, pertinacity

compound verb a

thanks to
34

Pashto-English Dictionary

2 sla
asl Arabic 1 real, veritable, true 2 natural; innate
natural silk 3 practicable; effective 4 inborn 5 native
native language 6 basic, fundamental 7 chief, main
military main forces 8 literal; authentic
Where is the original? 9 own (one's)
territorial waters 10 original in the original

izfav laj
m. 1 addition, augmentation 2 development
the development of agriculture to increase, grow
izf Arabic 1 additional, supplemental
economics surplus value economics surplus
product 2 grammar pertaining to "izafet"
genitive case the "izafet" state, construct state
izhil l m. Arabic dissolution, liquidation

form

asl ba f. lmanjba prototype


aslijt m. Arabic nature, property, essence, being
asl hfiz f. virtual memmory
asledl intransitive
asn f m. Arabic plural from
asv t m. Arabic plural from shouts
of approval exclamations of regret
curses
usl m. Arabic plural from [ plural: usulna
Arabic plural: usul t] 1 principles, bases
basic laws; constitution basic propositions 2 system;
method different ways, methods
according to such a principle the Berlitz Method
index cardfile system after the
old way, after the former fashion 3 order, system
the slave-owning system
usln Arabic 1 basically, for the most part 2 according to

sacrificial offering

situation, desperate situation; desperation, despair


iztirr 1 unusual, extreme, extraordinary

extraordinary session

forced

in extreme cases 2

azl m. Arabic plural from


azj f m. Arabic plural from
it't m. Arabic 1 obedience, submission, subservience
unquestioning obedience
blind obedience to obey, submit to someone 2
respect, esteem 3 military subordination

experimental
Chamber of Commerce
at m m. food, meal proverb Eat first talk
later.
atibb m. atibb Arabic plural from
ittir f. & m. ittirh Arabic 1 physiology excretion 2
ut m. 1 room

laboratory 2 chamber

2 grammar

the izafet

izfag f.
izf Arabic 1.1 addition, augmentation, accretion
over and above that besides that
to add, increase to increase pay 1.2

waste matter, offal, garbage

ittirh physiology excretion


itr d m. Arabic banishment to banish
atr f m. Arabic plural from

development 2 attributive .1 exceeding 2.2 economics

iztirb Arabic concerned, anxious

iztir r m. Arabic 1 extreme necessity 2 hopeless

the expression of the genitive relationship by the use of the

surplus

to offer a

a the alarm was sounded b a state of emergency was declared

current

purebred cattle 1.3 real, genuine,

sign

iz-hij f. Arabic sacrificial offering

natural 1.4 fundamental 1.5 firm 2 m. proper name Asil

construct or izafet form of two nouns

d-i the Feast of

to offer a sacrifice, make a

internal contradiction

leave of absence

asiltb m. noble origin, noble birth


asilzd noble, highborn, of noble origin
izft m. Arabic 1 addition, augmentation

1 azr r m. Arabic plural from


2 izr r m. Arabic harmful influence
iztir b m. Arabic 1 agitation; concern, alarm
to agitate; cause concern, cause alarm 2 oscillation
electrical oscillation; oscillations of an electrical

asl Arabic 1.1 noble, of high birth 1.2 thoroughbred;

sacrifice, make a sacrificial offering

stipulated by law 4 correct, legal


purebred

izfag m.

1 azd d m. Arabic plural from


2 izd d m. Arabic 1 opposition 2 philosophy antithesis
conflict of opposites 3 contradiction

2 systematic, methodical 3 based on a constitution, based on

az-h f. Arabic sacrifice

Sacrificial Offering

usul t m. second plural of


usulnm f. 1 statute; legislation 2 regulations
regulations
usul Arabic 1 basic, of principle, pertaining to principle

liquidation of a state stock company

statute; according to law; according to the legal code

legislation; constitutional, legal

isfatb m.

surplus product
35

Pashto-English Dictionary

atrf 1 outlying, peripheral

outskirts;

evidence, testimony

periphery 2 m. [plural: atrfij n] circle of associates,

compound verb
izhrnm f. 1 statement 2 notification
izhravl denominative, transitive [past: ]

cronies; colleagues, close associates

utr m.
otrsh m. obsolete Austria
itf m. Arabic extinguishing of a fire
atf l m. Arabic plural from
itf Arabic attributive fire firemen; fire
company fire engine
ittil f. Arabic m. [plural: ittil' t] 1 information
Ministry of Information
Information Bureau to obtain information 2
communiqu, news the latest news
There is a dispatch from Rangoon to the effect that
3 knowledge, state of being conversant with
He was very poorly informed. 4 notification, notice
compound verb to communicate, notify, inform to

izhredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


be stated, be said, be expressed

uzhr m. Arabic plural from 2


a'dzhb m. Arabic plural from
i'd f. Arabic 1 return; restitution 2 restoration 3
renewal; resumption 4 repayment (e.g., of a debt)

compound verb a to return b to restore c to renew d to repay,

discharge (e.g., a debt)

subsistance

4 law effect, implementation, force (of a law)

effective, operative

to

period of validity (of a treaty)

in view of the fact that

7 certificate of immunity, safe-conduct; guarantee

Mountain

i'tibrlk m.

i'tibrnm f. 1 mandate,

warrant, certificate 2 diplomacy credentials 3 finance letter-

2 atls m. Arabic satin


atlas Arabic 1 satin, made of satin 2 m. black eunuch
itmin n m. Arabic 1 confidence, reliability
favorable, satisfactory 2 verification; confirmation

of-credit

i'tibravl denominative, transitive [past:


give credit

a to believe in something, be certain of something b to verify,

to

i'tibr 1 enjoying confidence, reliable 2 attributive

credit

to assure someone of
something receipt (i.e., of a letter) 3
peace, calming, tranquility spiritual peace
itminnbkhsh itminn bahnkaj
itminn 1 satisfactory; favorable 2 calming 3
confirm

credit operations 3 conditional,

tentative; nominal

i'tid l m. Arabic 1 justice 2 moderation (e.g., in

viewpoints) 3 steadiness, even-tempered idiom

equinox
i'tidlpasnd

reliable; reassuring
azl l m. Arabic plural from

on the grounds that

the Atlantic Ocean manshr-i


the Atlantic Charter the Atlas

atls m.

atv r m. Arabic plural from

forage,

5 authorization; authority 6 basis, grounds

to grant a divorce (to a woman)

food supply chief 2 nourishment,

commercial credit 3 importance, weight; authority; reputation

relate to something, refer to something 2 to name, designate 3

history

j'natn Arabic in the form of a donation


i'n f. Arabic 1 donation charity
evening affair 2 payment, dues party dues
i'tib r m. Arabic 1 faith, confidence
to trust, have confidence in someone
One cannot depend on you. He is a
frivolous man, and does not enjoy people's confidence.
It was believed that he was very rich.
2 economics credit bank credit

Information Agency

i'sh f. Arabic 1 provisions; victuals

provender

notify, inform

1 to

state; say; express (opinion, etc.) 2 to testify, give evidence

ittil 'n Arabic as a matter of information


I have the honor to inform you.
ittil't attributive information
itl'dih f. informing, making cognizant
ittil'ij 1 notification, information 2 communiqu
itl 1 reference (to something) 2 giving a name;
designation 3 granting of a divorce (to a woman)
compound verb
itlkavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1

oral testimony, deposition


1 just, fair 2 moderate (e.g., of

viewpoints) 3 counterbalanced, countervailing

izh r m. Arabic 1 statement, utterance, speech

i'tidlpasand f. 1 justice 2 moderation (e.g., in

viewpoints) 3 steadiness, even-temperedness

iz-hr-i expression of one's opinion, views, point of view 2

i'tidl 1

2 m. [plural: i'tidlijn]

Arabic moderate, person of moderate views

36

i'tiz r m. Arabic apology, excuse

Pashto-English Dictionary

i'tir z m. Arabic [plural: i'tirzna Arabic

a'dzhub f. Arabic miracle, wonder, phenomenon


a'd m. Arabic plural from
1 a'd d m. Arabic plural from
2 i'd d m. preparation
i'dd 1 preparatory 2 middle, secondary (of a school)
i'dadija Arabic 1 feminine singular from 2 f.
middle, secondary school, gymnasium (i.e., high school)
secondary school
i'd m m. Arabic execution, capital punishment
sentenced to death to condemn to
death, sentence someone to death compound verb
compound verb
i'dmavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

plural: i'tirz t] 1 objection, reclaim 2 protest 3

dialect Your
remonstrance is a just one. a to object b

remonstrance

to protest

c to remonstrate 4 attack, hostile action 5 finance protest of a

bill

i'tirznm f. written protest


i'tirzvl 1 m. critic 2 attributive objecting
i'tir f m. Arabic 1 acknowledgement 2 confession
a to confess to
something b to confess one's sins, unburden oneself

i'tis b m. Arabic [plural: i'tisbbna Arabic

plural: i'tisb t] strike, work stoppage

general strike

carry out a work stoppage

lockout


to strike,

i'tisbshikn f. strikebreaker, scab


i'tisb kavnkaj striker
i'tisb 1.1 i'tisb attributive strike

sentence to death, condemn to death

i'dmavl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


be sentenced to death, be condemned to death

a'r b m. Arabic plural from


a'rbij n m. second plural from
a'r z m. Arabic plural of 3
i'r f m. Arabic religion purgatory idiom
This is a veritable Hell.
a'izz m. Arabic plural from
i'z z m. Arabic honor; esteem; respect in honor

1.2

attributive walkout 1.3 pertaining to a work stoppage 2 m.


striking worker, striker

i'tis m m. Arabic 1 steadfastness 2 self-preservation


i'ti d m. Arabic faith, confidence to believe in,
trust I don't trust
you. I don't believe you.

of someone

i'til f. Arabic development


i'tim d m. Arabic 1 trust, confidence i'tim di mutual trust to have full confidence in
someone deserving of confidence, reliable 2
reliance, confidence, certitude
They are not self-confident. 3 expectation, hope,
reliance a to express confidence in someone b

honor guard,

guard of honor; ceremonial guard

fraction

someone)
i'timdbinnfs m.

i'z m m. Arabic sending, dispatching


i'zm Arabic expeditionary expeditionary
forces delegation, mission
a'sh r m. Arabic plural from
a'shr Arabic math decimal decimal

to have strong expectations, have confidence (in, of, for

i'zz Arabic attributive honor

a'shrij Arabic math

fraction

i'timdbanafs self-

number with a decimal

a's b m. Arabic plural from


a'sr m. Arabic plural from
a'z m. Arabic plural from
i't f. Arabic gift, presentation of gifts; granting, bestowing
azm 1.1 big, high 1.2 great, most important, greatest
im m-i the great Imam, Imam Knanifa (the founder of the

confidence, self-reliance

i'timdnm f. diplomacy credentials


to present credentials
i'timd reliable, trustworthy, dependable
i'tin f. Arabic attention, concern, anxiety
to be considerate of someone to pay attention to
someone; be concerned about someone
They are paying a great deal of attention to this.
i'tij d m. Arabic [plural: i'tijd t] habit, wont
1 a'dzhb m. Arabic plural from
2 i'dzh b m. Arabic 1 astonishment 2 pleasure 3

Knanifite Sect) 1.3 maximum, most high 2 m. proper name


Azam

u'zm f. singular from

make maximum use of

1 a'l
2 i'l f. Arabic height, loftiness
a'ltern the best

complacency, self-satisfaction

i'dzh z m. Arabic miracle, wonder


i'dzhz wonderful, miraculous
i'dzhmij Arabic punctuation marks
37

to

Pashto-English Dictionary

i'l m m. Arabic 1 notification, information;

air-raid alarm 2 news,


compound verb
2
a'l m m. Arabic plural from 2
i'lmavl denominative, transitive [past: ]
communication

i'lmadl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to

be announced

i'lmij f. Arabic communiqu; declaration


i'l n m. Arabic [plural: i'lnna Arabic plural:
i'ln t] 1 announcement without
announcement; without warning 2 advertisement
commercial advertisement illuminated sign
compound verb compound verb

i'lnavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

expropriation

i'lanedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


announced

religion Since God knows best, Allah will direct the matter.

governor
military governor district 1.2 of the highest
quality; excellent a short fur jacket of the highest
quality It could not be better. 2 excellent (grade,
evaluation) idiom to make every effort
a'ltarn
a'lhazrt m. Arabic His Highness ! Your

trickery

ughz m. [plural: ughuz n] walnut (thin-shelled)


aghzakj m. kind of mimosa, Prosopis stephaniana
aghzn prickly, spiny barbed wire idiom
thorny path

aghznavl denominative, transitive [past:


make prickly, cause to be spiny

Highness! (as a form of address)

a'm Arabic universal, general


i'm f. Arabic blinding, dazzling; blindness, dazzled state
1 a'm r m. Arabic plural 1
2 i'm r m. Arabic creation
a'm m. Arabic plural from to explore

aghzj m. 1 prickle, thorn Eastern barbed wire


proverb No rose is without thorns. 2
splinter 3 figurative bitter taste, pain; bitterness
the bitterness of separation 4 dialect Fagonia cretica (a kind
of plant) 5 dialect Sonchus arvensis (a kind of thistle)

blind gut, cecum 2 one-eyed, blind in one eye

a'j n m. Arabic plural 1 from

people, the nobility

Do not be afraid of difficulties in the course of your life.


aghzija f. thorn-bush thickets
aghg present stem of and
aghg l transitive [past: present: ]to knead;

a'vr Arabic 1 m. anatomy blind gut, cecum

proverb literal I found a thorn in the halva.

figurative A fly in the ointment.

and

to

aghznedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


be prickly, be spiny; prick, sting

Chevalier of the Order of the Sun, Second Degree

the depths

a'm l m. Arabic plural from


a'ml t m. second plural from
a'mltkhn f. workshop
a'm Arabic deeper, deepest
official abbreviation

ightis b m. Arabic 1 seizure, taking away 2

aghzij f. Arabic food, meal fodder, forage


1 aghr m. drawing a bowstring, stretching a bowstring
to draw a bowstring, stretch a bowstring
2 aghr self-satisfied, complacent
agh z m. Arabic plural from
ighr m. Arabic exaggeration
aghrgh m. singular & plural fraud, swindling,

announce

a'l Arabic 1.1 highest

older brother

disturbances occurred, disorders occurred

ghtb m. supremacy, mastery, rule, sway


aghdzh n m. proper name Agadzhan
1 gh z m. beginning compound verb to begin,
undertake, start up He began the speech.
2 agh z m. technology wedge
aghjn Arabic plural from
ightiz f. Arabic nourishment
ightiz 1 relating to nourishment 2 digestive
digestive disorder
ightish sh m. Arabic mutiny, revolt

1 to

declare

a'lm Arabic most knowing, most informed

agh [plural: aghjn plural: aghg n

master idiom

notify, inform, announce 2 to express (e.g., sympathy) 3 to

Arabic plural: aghjn] 1 mister, Agha 2 prince 3

announcement

agh

mix (dough)

aghg na f. aghg m. plural kneading, mixing (dough)


aghgnkaj
1 present participle of 2 m. dough

2 distinguished, noble

Senate, Upper House, House

of Lords

mixer, dough kneader (special worker in a bakery)

38

1
2

aghistl transitive dialect


aghustl transitive

Pashto-English Dictionary

aghust m. plural
aghhl transitive
ighf l m. Arabic fraud, deception compound
verb compound verb
ighfalavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

aghjr n]

without outsiders, in the absence of outsiders

aghel dialect 1 [past: ]intransitive to suffer from


indigestion, suffer from dyspepsia 2 [past: ] transitive

cheat, swindle; lead into error, delude

ighfledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


be swindled, be cheated
1

to cause nausea

aghelaj 1 past participle of 2 m. person suffering


from dyspepsia, person suffering from indigestion

ghl m. ghl ghl enclosure, corral ( for cattle)

ghl 1 mixed, kneaded (of dough) 2 blended,


intermingled

aghl t m. Arabic plural


aghlb Arabic 1 having preference, having advantage

agaj suffering from dyspepsia, suffering from indigestion


agheedl intransitive [past: ] to vomit, throw up
He is nauseous. He is vomiting.
aghezdzhn aghezank
ghez f. aghez f. 1 influence, action the
action of a medicine to have an
influence on something to act upon someone,
influence someone 2 result; effect 3 conclusion
What conclusion did you draw from this?
aghez kavnkaj aghezank effective,

2 m.

majority, greater part 3.1 for the most part 3.2 in all
probability
there.

In all probability he went

aghlbn Arabic for the most part; ordinarily

aghlaj 1 beautiful, elegant, refined 2 pleasing, pleasant,


nice 3 excellent 4 fitting, proper

ighm z m. Arabic indulgence, spoiling; condescension


a to show indulgence towards b to be a hypocrite, act

operative

ghl 1
1 uf interjection

contrary to conscience

! Ugh! What a
filthy room! 2 oh, ah ! Oh! What a calamity!
! Whew! How hot it is today! to

ighv Arabic 1 instigation, incitment, provocation 2

seduction 3 calumny, libel

a to instigate b to

provoke c to seduce d to slander, calumniate, libel

ighvgar f. 1 disturbance 2 instigation, provocation 3

exclaim oh!, exclaim ah!

to

prepare malt, make malt 2 to malt (go through the process of

insects and other pests harmful to crops

making a malt)

aghudedl denominative [past: ]


aghr m. vengeance to take vengeance
aghz m. plural
aghustl aghostl transitive [past: [ ] present:
]1 to put on (clothing) to dress oneself,

I wrapped him in

a manner of

compound verb to communicate, express


to express the meaning of a word


compound

utility

to be of use to someone 3 law

testimony, evidence

ifdijt
ifz f.

m. efficaciousness, utility, benefit


Arabic exact description, circumstantial

description; pithiness

afgin m. Arabic plural from


ut-f 1
f m. Arabic plural from
if f. Arabic recovery, restoration (to health)
f objective
ft 1 m. [plural: fatna plural: f t] Arabic .1
misfortune, distress, disaster to suffer

lap

agh regional colloquial

verb to be communicated, be expressed 2 usefulness, benefit,

embrace, clasp in the arms 2 an armful 3 figurative bosom,

to compel to put on, dress

ifd f. Arabic 1 expression

aghustn m. attire, clothing clothing


aghustna f. aghust m. plural the act of putting
on clothing, dressing clothing
ghsh m. 1 embrace to

expressing a thought, a formulation, a statement (esp. written)

an overcoat. 4 to clothe in some sort of uniform

aghnd present stem of


aghundavl necessitive verb, transitive

ifdav expressive; eloquent

expressiveness of language; eloquence, facility of language

get dressed 2 to pull over oneself (i.e., a blanket) 3 to wrap up


in something

1 ugh

2 abbreviation of
f t m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 agriculture pest
the struggle with agricultural pests

breach of discipline

ghd m. plural 1 malt 2 rotting flour, spoiled flour


aghudavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

aghr m. 1 dyspepsia, indigestion 2 illness accompanied by

nausea

2 [plural:
stranger; outsider; foreigner literal

aghj r m. Arabic plural 1 from

[past: ]

1, 2
39

Pashto-English Dictionary

misfortune has befallen them proverb


There is no greater misfortune than idleness. 1.2
damage or loss from agricultural pests 2 attributive
at the time of this heavy rain
ft b m. the sun
ftb f. pitcher (for washing the hands, etc.)
aftbalagn m. pitcher and basin (for washing)
ftb 1 sunny 2 yellow 3 faded
uftd indeclinable 1 cheerless, downfallen 2 unfortunate;

afri f.
afri 1 African 2 m. African (person)
afri f. Africa the African mainland,
African continent the South African
Republic the Central African Republic
Southwest Africa
frn prn 1 praise, approval to consider
praiseworthy to praise someone, approve of
someone ! You've done excellent work! 2

iftit iftit h f. & m. Arabic m. [plural: iftith t]

compound verb to
compound verb to have

beginning, ceremonial opening


begin, open (e.g., a meeting)

interjection good, wonderful, bravo

frinsh m. creation, making


afz r m. implement, tool, instrument

begun, be opened (e.g., of a meeting)

iftith Arabic relating to an opening; introductory


introductory speech
iftikh r m. Arabic [plural: iftikhrna Arabic
plural: iftikhr t] 1 glory; honor
gloriously a to be famed for b to have the honor
I have the honor to 2 pride a to be
proud of, take pride in b to have the honor a I

instruments

pride myself in the fact that b I have the honor to 3


iftikhr Arabic honorable

presidium

invention. This is pure fiction. 3 regional novel, romance

the honorable

afsnanig r m. regional novelist


1 afsr m. crown, diadem
2 afsr afisr m. regional 1 officer
naval officer commander; general officer
commanding officers 2 civil servant, public
employee afsr-i tax official
afsurd indeclinable 1 freezing; congealing 2 fading,

iftir f. Arabic slander, lie; calumny, obloquy


iftir z m. Arabic assumption, hypothesis idiom
moral words and turns of phrasing, moralizing and turns
of expression

iftir m. Arabic 1 parting, separation 2 disconnection;

juncture 3 dissidence, split

afkhm Arabic excellent, magnificent, outstanding


afr d m. Arabic plural 1 from

withering 3 figurative sad, cheerless, depressed 4 figurative


disheartened, dispirited

2 military personnel,

complement privates, soldiers; enlisted personnel


enlisted reserve seaman, sailors
enlisted personnel on active duty signal
corpsmen recruits, rookies
ifr z m. Arabic 1 section, compartment, apportionment 2

afsurdadil 3, 4
afsari attributive regional officer, pertaining to officer
rank or office

expressions of
regret to express regret
a feel sorry for, pity to pity
someone b to regret I regret that 2

physiology secretion

iffr t m. Arabic 1 excess 2 extreme; excessiveness


a to give oneself up to excesses b to go to extremes, run to

afsosn k worthy, deserving of regret; sad


a sad situation
afsn m. witchcraft, sorcery; spell, incantation

ifrt Arabic 1 extreme; ultra- 2 m. [plural:

ifrtij n Arabic plural: ifrtijn] extreme elements,

afrz compound expression


illuminating (or similar) illuminating the world (of
extremists; ultras

to bewitch, charm, put under a spell

afsungr m. sorcerer, magician, enchanter, wizard


afsungra feminine of
fse m. offset (printing)

the sun)

afss apss 1 m. regret

interjection woe, alas

excesses

surgical

afzrdn f. box, case, bag for tools or instruments


afzjsh m. addition; increase
afzud indeclinable increased, enlarged
afs r m. halter
afsnav attributive fairy tale; legendary; mythical
afsn f. 1 fable; tale, fairy tale like a fairy
tale 2 invention, fiction This is sheer

proper name Iftikhar

afrid m. aprid plural Afridi (tribe) 2 afridj m.

apridj m. Afridi (tribesman)

abased

fridag r m. creator, maker

afruz f. proper name Afruza


frid indeclinable created
40

Pashto-English Dictionary

ifsh f. Arabic disclosure, publicity

ufl m. Arabic setting (of the sun); decline, going down


to set (of the sun)
fuh interjection ugh
ifh m m. Arabic exclamation; interpretation
Language is a means of communication.
afr m.
fisr m. regional 2
afimch m. opium smoker
afjn m. plural 1 opium 2 figurative narcotic, dope
1 1 white 2 used in geological designations Aktepa
2 abbreviation from horsepower
m.
alm m. Arabic plural from
imt m. Arabic 1 stay, sojourn, residence to

compound

verb to disclose (a secret); give publicity to something

afsh r m. singular & plural Afshar (Turkic tribe)


afsh n compound disseminating, spreading
chemical mortar

afzl Arabic 1.1 most virtuous 1.2 best, excellent m. 2

m. proper name Afzal'

afzalijt m. Arabic excellence


ift r m. Arabic the first meal taken after a (religious) fast
to eat after having fasted
af' l m. Arabic plural from
afgh n avgh n 1 m. [plural: afghan n Arabic
plural: afghin] Afghan (person) 2 attributive Afghan
the Afghan people
afgh n pezhandnkaj m. Afghanist (academic

live, stay, settle 2 religion precise observance (of some rite)

specialist)

afghnist n m. Afghanistan
afghn 1 attributive Afghan modern
Afghan literature the Afghan press 2.1 f.
Afghani, the Afghan language, Pashto 2.2 [plural:
afghanj] Afghani (monetary unit) one-half Afghani
afghnedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to

a to live, stay, settle b to stand and sit (during

to pray diligently
f. & m. imatg imatg h
prayer) c to pray diligently

place of residence; residence 2 military army reception center

im f. Arabic 1 settling, placing, accomodation 2

presentation, presenting, institution (of a suit)


initiate legal action, institute a suit

to

uf m. Arabic [plural: ufkna Arabic plural:

jn m. Arabic plural from


f. supremacy, rule, sway
ib l m. Arabic 1 prosperity; well-being; material success

military artillery fire area 2 figurative mental outlook, mental

2 good luck; luck 3 Eastern law consent; acknowledgment

become Afghan, become an Afgan; be Afghanized

af ] 1 horizon

the visible horizon

horizon

ufuk horizontal

horizontal line

economics horizontal concentration idiom


move forward, advance

4 proper name Ikbal

to

opinions

iblmn

happy

exchange of
the general opinion

iblmnd 1 prosperous, flourishing 2

a-p
itib s m. Arabic 1 adoption, borrowing 2 extract,
quotation idiom quotation marks
itibsavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

afk r m. Arabic plural from

frame of mind
afg r avg r 1 injured, hurt

to admit one's guilt; plead guilty

2 mutilated; covered with

wounds

to adopt, borrow

ifl s m. Arabic 1 poverty, want 2 insolvency, bankruptcy


to declare someone bankrupt
afl k m. Arabic plural from
aflte f. plural regional
ifldzh m. Arabic paralysis to paralyze
a paralytic
afand m. effendi, mister
afv dzh m. Arabic plural from
afv afv h f. & m. Arabic [plural: afvg ni plural:
afvhg ni Arabic plural: afvh t] rumor
to spread groundless rumors
afvh pertaining to rumors There is a

itid f. Arabic imitation; following someone's example


to imitate, follow someone's example
itid r m. Arabic 1 strength, power, might 2 authority
exercising authority to limit
someone's authority, reduce someone's rights 3 superiority
a to triumph over something b to surmount
something 4 mastery

itir f. & m. itirh Arabic f. [plural: iktirg ni

plural: iktirhg ni m. Arabic plural:


iktirh t] 1 improvisation 2 initiative, creativeness 3

suggestion (e.g., to play, have a good time) 4 casting of lots (in


foretelling, etc.)

rumor that

itis d m. Arabic economics; the economy

national economy

41

the

Ministry of the National

Pashto-English Dictionary

Economy

political economy

Iktisad

(the periodical)

[plural: iktisdij n Arabic plural:


itisdij t m. Arabic plural economics; economic

ilimshins f. climatology
ilim climatic
am r m. Arabic plural from

Economy

av t m. Arabic plural from 2


av l m. Arabic plural from 1
av m m. Arabic plural from

following, taking after someone

ad r m. Arabic plural from

ak m. 1 uncle (father's brother) 2 elderly man; adult man


akbr m. Arabic plural [singular: ]1 grown-ups 2
adults the eradication of illiteracy
akkhl 1 m. plural Akakhejli (a subdivision of the Afridi

id m m. Arabic [plural: idmna Arabic

plural: idm t] 1 measure, arrangement


it is necessary to take all measures 2 speech, oral
presentation 3 military operation to conduct

tribe of Tirakh) 2 m. Akakhejl (person)

operations 4 endeavor, effort

ad m m. Arabic plural from


idmt executive (of authority, organs)
akds Arabic most sacred, holy
ir r m. Arabic 1 acknowledgement, admission, confession
law a confession in accordance with the
2

civil law based on the Koran)

Sciences

m. academician

I attest that , I affirm that

irrnm f. Arabic law contract (written), agreement;

obligation

irravl denominative, transitive [past:


admit, confess, acknowledge 2 to attest, affirm

1 to

irredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


have admitted, have confessed, have acknowledged 2 to have

akmik m.

akemk

akbarj f. regional kind of candy, kind of sweetmeat


akpk
iktis b m. Arabic 1 acquisition; gain; money-grubbing

attested, have affirmed; be attested, be affirmed

the Academy of

Akbar

arb
arib

akdmik m.

akem f.
ak 1 cruel, fierce, severe 2 hostile, inimical
1 akaj
2 ak f. cruelty, ferociousness, severity; oppression
a to demonstrate cruelty b to oppress
akaitb m. cruelty, ferociousness, severity
ukb m. grandeur, greatness
ikb r m. a kind of buckthorn
akbr Arabic 1 greatest, most high 2 m. proper name

He admitted that he was guilty. 2 attestation,

affirmation

akdem f. academy

observance of Shariat (i.e., the Moslem code of religious and

the

United Nations Organization

ach f. Akcha (city, district)


1

1 fellow travelers 2

satellites

requirement, demand

itif f. Arabic movement, folowing, taking after

agl m. akgul (a kind of karakul, i.e., Asian sheep or its

country, land area; territory 3 geography belt, zone

the Council for the National

itisdiph m. economist
itiz f. Arabic [plural: itizg ni m. Arabic
plural: itiz t] Arabic 1 need, necessity, want 2

at t f. Arabic botany elder

al Arabic least; minimal, smallest minimum


alln Arabic at least, although, at a minimum, not less than
al m m. Arabic plural from
items of export principal export items
aallijt m. Arabic minority national minorities
ilm m. Arabic [plural: alm] 1 climate
continental climate severe climate 2 region, district;

iktisdijn] economist

shr-i the Far

wool, fur or pelt)

1.2 economical, profitable, economically advantageous 2 m.

problems

East

itisdn economic, in an economic sense


itisdpoh nd m. itisdd n economist
itisd 1.1 economic, pertaining to the economy
economic policy the
economic power of the country history the
New Economic Policy the economic structure

as Arabic distant, far

preparation, training

m. Arabic plural [singular: ]relatives,

iktisb 1 acquired; earned, gained 2 preparatory,

academic training idiom


naturalization
iktish f m. Arabic [plural: iktishfna Arabic
plural: iktishf t] 1 discovery, invention 2 research

relations; kinfolk

preliminary

rab t m. Akrabat (city, northern Afghanistan)


as t m. Arabic plural from
as m m. Arabic plural from 1
42

Pashto-English Dictionary

aksizhn m. oxygen
akseler m. pedal, accelerator

3 intelligence, scouting, reconnaissance 4 development,

progress

intelligence; reconnaissance

akl m. Arabic food, nourishment foodstuffs


akll m. Arabic coronet
ikm l m. Arabic 1 completion, end 2 execution (e.g., of a
commercial order) 3 military replenishment
replenishment of ammunition 4 supply compound
verb compound verb
ikmlt 1 military pertaining to resupply 2 attributive

reconnaissance

aircraft

iktif f. Arabic contentment, satisfaction

to be contented, be satisfied with something

to be enough for something


aktbr m. October
aktf active, aggressive
a m. 1 theatrical presentation, act 2 acting, stage acting
kng m. performance, acting (on the stage)

supply, of supply

to act, perform (on stage)

ikmlavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


complete, finish, end 2 to fill an order 3 military to replenish,

the most part, mostly, in the majority of cases, mainly; in

higher, highest

aksrn

resupply 4 to supply

ikml
ikmledl denominative, intransitive

it usually happens thus 3

the maximum

aksra 1 feminine of

2 principally, for the most part,

military to be replenished, be resupplied 4 to be supplied

akml Arabic 1 completed 2 maximal; highest possible


akumultr m. storage battery
akn f m. Arabic plural from idiom

a simple
an absolute majority a
majority of votes to have a majority
akr m. giddiness, dizziness
kr f. Akkra (city)
ikr m m. Arabic respect, esteem with great
respect, very respectfully to treat someone with
aksarijt m. Arabic majority

majority

personal plot, land allocation (of a collective farmer)

aknn literary at once, now


ekv dr m. Ecuador
akuv n m. plural children's speech little children, children
ku-bku m. 1 kind of bird 2 kind of children's game 3
dialect person with protruding eyes

respect

ikrh m. Arabic aversion, repugnance, disgust, loathing


akrb 1 poor a poor man, poor person 2 m.

akorden accordion
ak m. [plural: ako n] walnut
akokhl 1 m. plural Akorkhejli (subdivision of the

poor peasant

akrabtb m. poverty, want


akarbakr m. plural regional 1

Khammok tribe) 2 m. Akorkhejl (tribesman)

ako f. Akora (capital city of the Khammok tribe)


akoj m. Morocco
1 akoz m. plural Akozai (a subdivision of the Yusufai

expression, look 2

character, spirit (of a time, epoch)

akrba feminine singular from


akrm Arabic 1 most generous, most bountiful, most

tribe) 2 akozj Akozai (tribesman)

gracious 2 m. proper name Akram

[past: ] 1

to be completed, be finished 2 to be filled (of an order) 3

mostly, in the majority of cases, mainly

ikml kavnkaj 1 attributive supply, of supply 2

m. member of supply services

aksr Arabic 1 the many; the majority, the greater part


in the majority of countries 2 principally, for
general; often, usually

to

depress the pedal with the foot

iktishf Arabic 1 attributive research 2 attributive

mankind

akrma f. dialect fourth finger


akarj f. plural ruins
1 k m. oh dear uncle (as a form of address)
2 ak 1 childless; fruitless, barren 2 despairing
ks jd m. oxide
iksrz m. eksrz plural 1 x-rays 2 x-ray room
ksidzhn m. oxygen
aksr m. Arabic 1 elixir 2 alchemy aksr-i

akk m. plural 1 unripe fruit

to set

(as of fruit) 2 the juice of unripe fruit; a seasoning made from

akram-ul-makhlu t m. Arabic crown of creation,

unripe fruit

ekonom f. economics
ekonomst m. economist
ekonomk m. economics
ik f. obsolete iki, pice (i.e., 1/30 of a rupee)
akaem f. regional academy
agav
g h 1 experienced, learned, informed to inform,
notify to be informed, know 2 conscious
ghmn

panacea

43

Pashto-English Dictionary

agh regional 1 sharp-sighted; farsighted 2.1 beforehand,

in advance, in good time 2.2 earlier


earlier

nine years ago

somewhat

gh f. information, notification
agb m. agb regional steamboat
agdr strong, robust
1 ag r m. 1 base person, low person; toady, sycophant

al-bal 1 all, altogether 2 quite, completely idiom


to worry, to be disturbed, be alarmed
al p m. regional solo part, melody to lead
the singing, strike up a tune, begin to play

l t m. Arabic plural
al dzh m. aldzhgr m.

slave

agrment to someone

cotton

al dzha feminine of
1 aldzh f. wooden gin or spike revolving barrel (for
separating the cotton from the seeds of the cotton plant)
to skutch, gin cotton, free the cotton from the seeds
2 aldzhi plural of
alch f.
ilch f. cardamom (the plant or the spice)
alrgh m. falcon (bird)
al sti indeclinable disappearing; unseen
alsk f. Alaska
alsh f. jaw, maxilla
alghbahd f. manufacture of silver and gold, lace, braid,

to accord

gst m. agst August


agl m. ditch, drainage ditch
agn m. mirafra cantillans (a kind of lark)
agvj f. reins
agchi a to be exhausted (with), break down
from b to strive to attain (something)

gh

etc.

alkulng m. swings
al l
1 l m m. Arabic plural from
2 al m
al v m. flame; bonfire
alvrti f. plural 1 ill-considered action
to act rashly 2 nonsense 3 improvisation a to

Let me know what the story is.

Let me know what is happening.

agj f. singular & plural dialect egg, eggs


omelet idiom an innocent baby

literal to sing while in the egg figurative to be very adroit, be


dexterous

agejl agjl transitive [past: ] 1 to irritate,


annoy 2 to incite, instigate 3 to abrade, rub sore 4 to sew up

speak rashly b to talk nonsense c to improvise; make

(i.e., a sack)

something up

posterity

household and property

ljsh m. 1 profanation 2 soiling, defilement, spoiling


elb m. the Elbe River
elb f. the Island of Elba
albnij f. albnij f. Albania
albnijj Albanian the Albanian language
albtta Arabic of course, undoubtedly; to be sure; without

l m. Arabic singular & plural children, posterity

the human race

al cord connecting the yoke with the main beam of a plow

l scarlet, red

al interjection hey, look, look here

al Arabic the definite article in the Arabic language; before

fail

the "sun" letters it is

elbrz m. elbrs m. Mount Elbrus


albis m. Arabic plural [plural: albis]

assimilated by these sounds, and is read accordingly with them;


i.e., the phoneme /l/ of the article preceding a "sun" consonant

general sense), clothing

albush ka f. token, sign, indication


albm m.
ilbnd m. summer pasture, mountain pasture
albng mute
albm m. album
albumn m. chemistry albumen

is not only assimilated but has the effect of doubling the


consonant phoneme in question; at-tarikh; ar-

rahman etc. It is pronounced in Pashto in borrowed compound

words as "ul," "ur," "ut," etc. e.g., abdurraham


1

1 skutcher, operator of a

combing machine in a cotton mill 2 hand combing flax, beating

diplomatic recognition to a diplomatic representative by the state

al -al heave-ho, all-together (or similar expression used as a

cry in unison when doing heavy work)

2 agr conjunction if, though although


3 agr m. regional 1 kind of perfume 2 aloe
agr-bagr m. regional bustle, turmoil
agramj m.
1 ugr f.
2 agra feminine of
agrem n m. diplomacy agrment (i.e., the granting of
to which he is to be accredited)

ill Arabic 1 excluding, besides, aside from 2 however

al f. run; running; rush

rush up to someone

to run up to someone,
44

dress (in the

Pashto-English Dictionary

lp m. the Alps the Alps


alpi-al indeclinable ruined; bereft of resources
to ruin to be ruined
lt m. Arabic [plural: lat na Arabic plural:
l t] instrument, tool, device, apparatus, contrivance
military entrenching tool musical instruments
machine tools machine-tool

alt j m. 1 Altai

iltib s m. Arabic confusion, vagueness

of a fox pelt
confuse, muddle up

vagueness

ilh m. Arabic 1 joining, annexation 2 appendix,

supplement 3 contiguity, junction

ilhavl denominative, transitive [past:


join, annex 2 to apply; supplement; adjoin

1 to

ilhaedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be joined, be annexed 2 to be applied, be supplemented

the Altai Mountains 2 paws

in short

manufacture; toolmaking; instrument manufacture

alhsl Arabic in a word, in one word, in short

ilhj f. 1 appendix, supplement 2 extension, wing (of a

building)

alh n m. Arabic plural from


alhamdulillh Arabic thanks to God, glory to God, praise

to

to avoid confusion, avoid

to Allah

iltidzh f. Arabic running for shelter; seeking asylum


to run to shelter; seek asylum to turn to

ilkh Arabic and so on, and so forth, etc.


alr m. Eastern penholder (for letter-writing)
arrij z m. Arabic
ilz m m. Arabic 1 charge, accusation; conviction
Eastern law to accuse someone, charge 2 reproof, blame,

someone for assistance

iltiz m m. Arabic debt; obligation


iltizm Arabic under obligation; obliged idiom
grammar present tense of the perfective aspect
iltif t m. Arabic 1 esteem; honor; courtesy 2 attention
to attract someone's attention a

censure 3 shame, disgrace

uls m. 1
alsti unexpectedly, against all expectations
happen unexpectedly

to show respect, honor for someone b to pay attention to

elastik flexible; elastic


elastikijt m. flexibility; elasticity
as-salm 'aljkum Arabic Peace unto you, Peace be

someone

iltim s m. Arabic earnest request; entreaty; supplication


to entreat, supplicate
someone to earnestly request, address a request
iltim s kavnkaj m. applicant, petitioner; one

with you; Hello, Goodbye

elsalvdr m. El Salvador
alsin m. Arabic plural from
1 als m. plural Eastern flaxseed flaxseed oil
2 uls
alsh
alishavl transitive
alishedl intransitive
1 ilgh f. Arabic cancellation, annulment; abolishment
compound verb to cancel, annul; abolish
2 algh to make a noise, create a hubub
1 alghs f. piece of bread taken in order to allay one's

addressing a request

iltih b m. Arabic medicine inflammation


iltihb inflammatory inflammation
ultimtm m. ultimatum ultimatum

to

to

present an ultimatum

altimtr m. altimeter
aldzhazr m. Arabic plural aldzhazjr m.
Algeria (state, city) People's
Democratic Algerian Republic

aldzhzajir 1 Algerian 2 Algerian (person)


aldzhazir f. Algeria (state, city)
uldzh f. trophy, captured equipment, military loot, booty
compound verb to acquire as trophies, obtain as

hunger

2 alghs upset, saddened to feel upset over


algh v-talgh v m. regional
alghat n restless, active (of a child)
algharz Arabic in a word, in short, in brief
algh-talgh 1 noise, din 2 confusion
algh f. ring, hoop idiom to dupe, deceive someone

alf m. 1 aliff (the name of the first letter of the AfghanArabic alphabet) idiom I am as poor as a church
mouse. to stand at attention
alf z m. Arabic plural from

captured equipment

aldzhi n m. plural water plants


aldzhirij f. Algeria (state, city)
alchak n m. plural handcuffs, manacles
alach f. alacha (spotted or striped cloth)
ilch
1 ilh d m. Arabic heresy, atheism
2 alh d m. Arabic plural from
45

Pashto-English Dictionary

alifb f. alphabet; ABC book

according to the

alphabet, in alphabetic order

2 alm m.
alm -at f. Alma Ata (city)
almrj f. cupboard, cabinet with shelves
bookcase wall cupboard the

ulft m. Arabic closeness, intimacy; affection; friendship


to enter into a friendship with someone
to strike up a friendship with someone
luft indeclinable 1 upset, annoyed 2 unhappy a
to upset b to make unhappy a to be upset, be

cupboard is open

clippers

il f. Arabic persuasion; suggestion; incitement


to suggest insistently; persuade
al b m. Arabic plural from official titles
il h m. biology impregnation, fertilization
impregnation, fertilization artificial insemination
aliss Arabic 1 in a word, in short, in brief 2 finally
alk m.
elektrn m. [plural: elekrronna plural:
electronic theory

alimpk olimpk 1 olympic 2 m. the Olympic Society (of

Afghanistan)

alimpik olimpik olympic


almr m. the Order of the Sun,
Second Degree the Order of the Sun, First


electronic computer

Degree

almar f. Almara (district, Khost)


almaghrib m. almaghrb 1 Morocco

2 countries of the

Magreb (i.e., those in northwest African Arabic-speaking lands)

almaghrib almaghreb 1 Moroccan 2 m. Moroccan

(person)

alkozj m. Alkozai (tribesman)

alam-ghalm 1.1 good-for-nothing, dissolute 1.2 reckless

2 m. .1 intriguer, plotter; cheat, swindler 2.2 nonsense,

alkl m. Arabic plural alcohol


alkuvjt m. Kuwait
1 ulk f. obsolete 1 province 2 proprietorship
2 alka vocative from
alkj zhba f. alkj zhbj f. anatomy uvula
idiom I used all

fiddlesticks 2.3 inarticulateness 2.4 dialect swindle, fraud,


trickery

alamn k 1 agonizing, painful 2 sad, melancholy;

almunijm m. plural

sorrowful

aluminum

almunijm m. plural

ulm f. fine weather, clear weather


alamij sadly, dolorously
aling r m. the Allingar River
alang f. wall
1 l m. [plural: lug n] plum
2 l interjection hello
3 al m. regional potato
4 al
5 al m. proper name Alo
6 ul m. kindling wood (i.e., dead brush, fallen branches)
7 ulv m. 2
alv h m. Arabic plural
alv r m. plural wood; lumber; timber (logs)

my persuasion to get Ahmed to give me his book.

alga f. barren (e.g., of a cow)


allh Arabic 1 m. God, Allah ! Oh my God! 2
interjection I swear proverb He is
destitute. He is poor as a church-mouse.

the Olympic Games, the

Olympiad

elektron electronic

elektronk m. electronics
elekrn m.
elektron
alkozj m. plural
1 alkoz m. plural Alkozai (one of the Durrani tribes)

lmni German

language 2 m. German (person)

alamvr
alimpj olimpj f.

elektron t] electron

alm s m. singular & plural 1 diamond 2 small scissors,

lm n m. Germany
lmnav 1
almn lmnj 1 German

annoyed b to be unhappy
alifub f. alphabet; ABCs; ABC book

a to suffer from gluttony, be insatiable b to be impatient

in alphabetic order

the Morse code, Morse alphabet

alm m. Arabic [plural: alamna Arabic plural:

l m] 1 grief; sorrow 2 torment, torture idiom

alifbaj alphabetic, pertaining to the alphabet


alifb f. according to the alphabet,

allahuakbr Arabic 1 Allah is great! 2 used as a battle

cry by troops going in to attack 3 Thanks be to God; Glory to

God; Praise be to God

allah-khjr Arabic God forbid!


allahdd m. proper name Allahdad
allahjr m. proper name Alajar, Alayar
46

Pashto-English Dictionary

alv n Arabic 1 m. plural of

2 m. cotton print,

1.6 to blow off, carry away (by wind) 1.7 to evaporate 1.8 to

brightly-colored cloth (used for shawls, dresses)

separate, detach, chip off; chop off; break off 1.9 electrical

lubl m. singular & plural cherries


lubukhr f. Bukharian plum; prunes
1 alvt m. flight to fly away, take off
2 alvt imperative of
alvutk alvatk 1 flying 2 being fledged, becoming

fuse 1.10 to break, break up

skull 1.11 to kill, get someone out of the way 1.12 to spend
frivolously; squander, waste, throw to the winds 2 m. plural .1
piloting (e.g., an aircraft) 2.2 explosion

fledged (of nestlings)

aircraft
carrier antiaircraft gun
bomber military aircraft
airdrome ground-attack aircraft
fighter aircraft jet aircraft
alvutl alvatl Eastern 1 present tense past
tense future perfective intransitive .1 to fly 1.2 to
engineering to burn out 1.5 to fly away; be detached, be

A blizzard is blowing

up. 1.7 to evaporate, lose fragrance, go flat (of a concentrate


solution, perfume); disappear, volatilize, disappear into thin air
1.8 to fade, lose color (of paint, dye) 1.9 to turn yellow; grow

pale (a face)

2 m. pilot,

alvzi present tense of


uls m.
ulus
alvl 1 sinuous, tortuous 2 collapsing, tumbling down
to collapse, tumble (in ruins) 3 disorderly
aluminijm m. plural aluminum
alun-baln m. concern, alarm
I spent the whole night in a state of alarm.
alunj in hiding; disappeared from sight
to be hidden from sight, disappear, vanish
aluvl
alvojl transitive [past: ] 1 to burn 2 to fry, grill

take off; be launched (in air) 1.3 to be blown up 1.4 electrical

cold wind is blowing today.

alvuzavnkaj 1 present participle of

flier

alvutka f. aircraft, airplane

broken off 1.6 to blow; rise (of the wind)

to burn out a
to smash one's

engineering to burn through, burn out

3 to torture, torment

uluhijt m. Arabic 1 deity 2 divinity


1 alvaj lvaj 1 fried, grilled 2 tortured, tormented
2 alvj f. roasting of an ear of corn
alvez n upset, pained, grieved
alvh m. plural light wind, breeze
l f. Arabic 1 device; tool, apparatus; contrivance; machine
tool musical instrument rangefinder
radio transmitter 2 figurative a tool
to be a tool in someone's hands 3 grammar agent
noun of agent
ilh m. Arabic God
ilah Arabic interjection oh God
ilh m m. Arabic [plural: ilhm na Arabic plural:
ilhm t] 1 suggestion; inducement compound
verb to suggest to someone 2 inspiration to

He grew

pale. 2 m. plural .1 flight, flying 2.2 explosion idiom


He died. a He lost his head. b He grew
pale. ! You have gone out of your mind.
He has sunk down (morally).
alvutna f. 1 flight; flying 2 explosion 3 take-off
alvutnkaj 1 present participle of 2 attributive
flying, pertaining to flight cruise missile
alvut m. plural
ludzh f. aluch f. alycha (a kind of damson)
alvdz present stem of
alvudzavl transitive
aluts f. altsa alycha (a kind of damson) idiom
to screw up one's eyes
ld combining form stained, soiled, covered with blood
gory, bloodstained
alvid' attributive parting, valedictory
farewell, leave-taking to pay a farewell visit;

inspire 3 stimulus, incentive

al-bal f. cry, howl


alatsk m. thawed patch
alsti f. plural rashly spoken word
la-gla f. al-gul f. 1 riot, revolt, sedition;
disturbances 2 noise a to rebel, revolt; instigate

go say goodbye

lud indeclinable stained, bloodstained


alvuzavl 1 transitive future prefective
present tense .1 to make to fly, arise, rise up; toss up,
throw up to release pigeons 1.2 to pilot (an
aircraft) 1.3 to blow up to blow up a bridge
to shoot one who has

disturbances b to make a noise, be noisy

alhng m. regional 1 sorrowful weeping 2 torments,

agonies, sad experiences

alavrti f. plural
alvaj interjection 1 ow, it hurts
lih m. Arabic plural divinity

been lashed to the muzzle of a cannon ( a form of capital punish


in former times) 1.4 to fan (flames) 1.5 to winnow (grain)
47

2 ouch

Pashto-English Dictionary

amzn m. the Amazon River


amkn m. Arabic plural from
m l m. Arabic plural from 3
umm-al-bil d f. Arabic history the Mother of Cities (i.e.,

ilah Arabic 1 divine; celestial, heavenly 2 interjection oh

God

ilahij t m. Arabic plural theology


1 l attributive toolmaking; used for making tools
2 alj interjection 1 oh, oh really, my God !

Balkh)

1 aml f. Arabic enema


2 iml f. Arabic linguistics softening of a vowel sound
im m m. Arabic 1 imam; chief priest; spiritual leader 2

Oh! Oh! What have you done!

ilj s m. Arabic proper name Ilyas


alj f m. Arabic plural from
aljf Arabic fibrous a fibrous substance
ali-pal regional 1 turned head over heels 2 m.

religious minister (leader of prayer) 3 figurative leader, teacher

immt
am n m.

li-dzli f. plural request for forgiveness, request for

absolution

alesk f. Alaska
alsh substituted, replaced
alishng m. the Alishang River
alishavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
change, exchange, replace to change (one's clothes)
2 to change, alter to shed hair (of animals)
passive
alishedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be
changed, be exchanged, be replaced to alternate,
take turns The water is turning to steam.
alishednkaj 1 present participle of 2

someone idiom ! Goodbye!


amnt m. Arabic 1 honesty, conscientiousness, decency
to be honest 2 goods or money put into escrow or

loaned for temporary use 3 custody 4 guardianship, trusteeship


5 power of attorney 6 finance deposit, account

amnatd r Arabic 1 honest, conscientious, decent;

worthy of confidence 2 m. trustee, custodian, guardian

amnatdr f. honesty, conscientiousness, decency


completely honestly
amnatk r Arabic
amanatkr f. devotion; honesty
amnatgr
amnatgar f.
amnat 1 deposited to an account 2 place in trust, given
into custody He has charge of my

alf m. plural drying oil


ilekshn m. regional elections; electoral campaign
aliushn the Aleutian Islands
iljh Arabic combining form mentioned in passing,
referred to

alejl transitive
1 m m. am m. 1
2 um
3 um f. umm Arabic mother
4 um
amm Arabic conjunction however, but however
am dzh m. am ch m. omelet with greens
mdag f. 1 readiness, preparation 2 procurement
procurement of fodder
md indeclinable 1 ready; prepared
We are ready. 2 laid in, prepared a to prepare, make
ready b to lay in, store, ready a to be ready, be

money. 3 under guardianship

amndzhn sorrowful, sad


amn 1 relating to the rule of King Amanully-Khan 2 f.

amn Arabic sound, worthy of confidence (of money,

history amani (a coin minted in the time of Amanully-Khan)


2

goods, property)

to entrust, deposit, make a deposit

a to keep money (in a safe place) b to put

money aside

3 amn Eastern quite; all; entirely, in full


amb m. the Amb River
umb f. bleating of sheep
amb r m. 1 sewage; manure 2 fertilizer
agricultural fertilizer factory; chemical fertilizer plant
to fertilize the soil
to be fertilized 3 storehouse, barn 4 heap, pile (of

prepared b to be laid in, be stored, be readied 3 susceptible (to


illnesses)

umrg f. boil (on children)

the total assets deposited by a

population in banks 7 security; calm

alished m. plural 1 substitution; change a


change of address 2 change, alteration, transformation

to

make a deposit, deposit, deposit money into an account

imrt m. Arabic 1 emirate, principality 2 power,

Arabic 1 security; calm

spare, show mercy to, forgive someone, give amnesty to

changeable, unstable, inconstant

m. Arabic the rank of imam

to
be protected from something 2 mercy; pardon, amnesty
to spare, show mercy to to ask for mercy;
throw oneself at the mercy of the conqueror to

disorders; disturbances

authority

manure) 5 haystack, hayrick 6 trash, rubbish

48

Pashto-English Dictionary

ambrkhn f. 1 storeroom 2 warehouse 3 regional

plural: imtijz t] 1 difference, distinction; peculiarity


national traits to distinguish,
differentiate a to be distinguished, be differentiated b
to occupy the first places _ to be distinguished for, be
notable for It is hard to tell them apart. 2
advantage; privilege 3 economics concession to

barn; grain-storage facility

ambrkh m. one who collects dung, manure, etc. for

use as fertilizer

amblj f. seat with canopy (on the back of an elephant),


howdah

embrilodzh f. embryology
amb-chamb regional 1 wound around, twined
around, wrapped (i.e., with a blanket) 2 interlaced
to interlace the fingers
ambr m.
ambul ns m. ambulance
ambh
amb f. mango (tree or its fruit)
impirtrs f. empress
impirtr m. emperor
impirtur f. impirturijt m. empire
impirjlzm m. imperialism
impirjlst m. imperialist
impirjlist indeclinable imperialistic
ampl m. ampule
ummt m. Arabic religious community, flock
imtis l m. Arabic following, obedience to someone
in execution of the order
imtih n Arabic 1 test, check-up to test
someone 2 examination oral examination
to take an examination to pass an
examination He failed the examination.
imtihnavl denominative, transitive 1 [past:
]to check up on, test 2 to examine
imtihn Arabic 1 attributive test, check-up 2

grant concessions

imtijznm f. Arabic economics concessive agreement


imtijz Arabic 1 distinctive, different from; special
special rate; special pay rate 2 advantaged;
privileged; preferred 3 economics concessional
settlement, concession (e.g., the International Settlement in
Shanghai in pre-1949 China)

ams l m. Arabic plural from 1, 2


imh f. Arabic destruction, annihilation
destruction of the enemy

suitable

frequent

a to ply (a route) b to visit,

mr m. Arabic [plural: mir n Arabic plural:

department chief 2 staff officer 3

leader; manager 4 sovereign 5 person who gives commissions


or instructions to others

amr m. Arabic [plural: amrna Arabic plural:

subordinate
operational order under someone's orders;
subordinate to someone to order
someone, command someone to issue an order
to command someone 2 grammar imperative mood
3 mr m. mr Arabic [plural: umr] matter, affair, the
state of affairs, the circumstances It is
avmr] 1 order, instruction

preventative

medicine prophylaxis

imtin n m. Arabic thankfulness, gratitude


to thank someone, express gratitude to someone
amt f. 1 reliance, hope, expectation 2 wish, desire

understood that It is natural that

umr umar m. Arabic plural from


amr z m. Arabic plural from
amir n m. plural 1 from 2 senior officer complement

a to hope, entertain hope, have expectations b to wish

mirn] 1 chief

to reject, abstain from

first aid

roundtrip traffic between two points 2 intercourse, connection,

something
imtin' preventative, deterrent

useful, necessary; fit,

reinforcement

imtin ' f. Arabic refusal, rejection; abstention from

measures

madn m. plural 1 arrival 2 income; receipts


income and expenditures
madan f. income
mad-u-rft m. 1 arrival and departure; traffic; regular

combination

annihilating

imd d m. Arabic assistance, support


pecuniary aid
imdd Arabic military auxiliary

communication

md m. 1 arrival 2 income, receipts 3 assets; resources 4

combining form capable of use

examination

something

imhk r destroying, annihilating

fire

imtid d m. Arabic 1 extent, stretch, duration


for the duration of the journey, along the route 2
prolongation, extension to prolong, extend
imtidd Arabic continued, extended, prolonged
imtiz dzh m. Arabic 1 blend; blending 2 chemistry

imtij z m. Arabic [plural: imtijzna Arabic

amtad r 1 hoping for something 2 achieving, attaining

something
49

Pashto-English Dictionary

amrbr m. Arabic messenger, orderly, runner

that , in view of the fact that , because

for this very reason, that


2 aml m. drug addiction
3 aml m. Arabic [plural: amalna Arabic plural:
m l] hope, expectation
iml f. Arabic 1 dictation to transcribe diction
to dictate 2 spelling, orthography standardized
spelling You write with errors.
aml k m. Arabic plural from 2 chief of

liaison officer

amrbar f. Arabic the job of orderly, messenger or runner


amrt m. guava (the fruit)
amras f. "amrasa" (a kind of a sweet dish made of flour,
boiled butter and syrup)

amrt m. amrd m. 1 2 pear (the fruit)


amroz regional on the very same day
mra f. head, chief (female)
amr Arabic grammar imperative mood
mirijt m. Arabic 1 authority, supremacy
to be under someone's authority 2 leadership;
management a to lead, be chief b to command, have

the directorate of state property

someone at one's disposition 3 job, post, position

pals.


proverb In one's own home the dog is a tiger.
proverb literal in the tiger's lair lie
tiger cubs figurative Like father, like son.
saying Do not awaken a sleeping tiger.
amzlaj m. 1
ams f. stick, walking stick, staff
amast f. 1 arrangement, adaptation 2 agriculture scion,

tiger

imz f. Arabic signature

signature
signed

Complete tranquillity was reestablished. 2 order

2 amn thoughtful, serious


3 imn calming, consoling
aman f. consent, assent to agree, assent
amnipasnd peace loving peace loving
people

aman f. snow mixed with rain, sleet


amank m. 1 asylum, refuge, place of refuge

the place for a

compound verb to sign

to be

to calm,

amna-amn f. peace, tranquillity


aminijt m. Arabic 1 security, tranquillity
Security Council 2 military protection, security
aminijat pertaining to security
aminedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be
calmed

amnij f. Arabic 1 security

Council 2 security police

Security

m m. the Amu Darya River


amv dzh m. Arabic plural from electrical

grammar the

potential form

currents


for defense purposes For the sake of
attaining this goal. 2 reason, basis for the reason
1

amnavl denominative, transitive [past:

soothe

will be difficult to bring this matter to fruition.

stronghold

mghn f. dialect groin


umghaln 1 unripe 2 embryonic, incipient, rudimentary
imk n m. Arabic possibly; feasibility
to the extent possible
if possible impracticable to
have the possibility It is possible that
to turn out to be possible; come true
He could not even come. It
imknbkhsh possible; practicable
imkn Arabic

amka f. plural a kind of persimmon


saying He suffered along with his

amlk m.

1 aml f. to attack someone


2 ml f. a kind of myrtle
1 amal m. 1 smoker 2 drug addict 3 drunkard
2 imlj f. botany tamarind
amlejl transitive [past: ] to hide, conceal
1 amn m. Arabic 1 security, tranquillity, peace a to
secure (e.g., tranquillity, peace) b to make secure
to threaten the peace to
settle a question by peaceful means
to live peacefully, live in tranquillity Eastern

American (person)

graft

imlj orthographic

idiom

amrik f. America
the United States of America
South America North America
Central America
amrik armikan regional 1 American 2 m.
amrik f.
umj 1
mzarj m. Eastern

amv l m. Arabic plural from


amkht m. 1 habit

aml m. 1 aim, goal, object, end, purpose

to grow

accustomed to something 2 practice, custom, wont

50

Pashto-English Dictionary

amid m. & f. namesake


amr m. Arabic [plural:

amokht amukht indeclinable 1 knowing something;

being accustomed to something

I do not
a to train
b to tame, domesticate

have the smoking habit. 2 tamed; tame

amir n Arabic plural:

umar ] 1 ruler; emir; prince; nobleman

to train for work


a to be trained; make oneself familiar with b to be tamed
proverb It is hard to break bad habits.
idiom folklore the serene falcon
amohtag f. 1 state of being tame, state of being

amir l m. amir-ul-bhr m. Arabic admiral


admirn Arabic princely
amirzd 1 m. son of an emir; prince; young son of a

noblemen 2 military leader 3 proper name Amir

prince 2 f. daughter of an emir; princess; young daughter of a

domesticated 2 knowledge of locality


1

umr m. Arabic plural from

matters

current

philanthropy, charity

combining form being mixed up; mixed, blended

umedv r 1.1 hoping for something

hope, reassuring

to

submitted to their fate. In the end they were reconciled to their


lot.

on 1 exactly; precisely 2 right up to

even up

to , right up to

n plural suffix usually for animate nouns

plural hawks

hawk

an f. [plural: ang ni plural: an vi]

grandmother

a to be a grandmother b to mature early;

become mature early, become grown up (of a girl) c to grow


wise, be wise idiom

already a thing of the past.

This matter is

nn Arabic instantly, at once, right away


an b m. plural botany any member of low shrubs of the

pregnant

Buckthorn family

f. 1 hope, expectation 2 pregnancy


plural from

Emin Aminuddin Aminulla


amintb m. guardianship; trusteeship
amnki amen, so be it
aminv laj m. reliability, faithfulness, conscientiousness
1 n m. Arabic instant, moment all the time; every
minute in an instant, at once, instantly,
immediately in a twinkling idiom to try with all one's
might Western I tried to
persuade him in every way, but he did not come.
Western He is at death's door. to submit to, be
reconciled with In the final analysis they

m.

hope that 1.2 optimistic mood 2 m. candidate, competitor

umedv ra f.
1 umedvr
2 umedvri

mn Arabic 1 amen; so be it 2 m. amen

proxy 2.2 guardian 2.3 arbitrator 2.4 proper name Amin,

... I

umedvravl denominative, intransitive [past:


to give rise to, instill hope

say amen idiom ! Eastern I wish you the same!


2 amn Arabic 1 correct, reliable, conscientious
He is a very reliable person. 2 m. .1 confidential agent,

giving rise to

someone's neck

is hope. 2 proper name Umed

mz

amez n m. the Amazon River


mezsh m. blending, mixture
aml m. 1 necklace 2 wreath; garland 3 proper name
Amel idiom to throw one's arms around

1 amjn f. handbag, purse, wallet, money belt


2 amjn f. plural from 2 2
mb m. mb amoeba
mebk amebic dysentery
umd m. umd m. 1 hope, expectation
despite expectations I lost hope for
this. He gave himself up completely to
despair. to nourish a hope, hope ... to
hope that to nourish hope, hope to give
rise to hope, instill hope There is no
hope that this matter will succeed. ... I hope
very much that There is no hope
for his recovery. a I rely on you. b I
expect you. proverb While there is life there
umedafz umd bakhhnkaj

painted, colored

& f. ignoramus

amir 1 pertaining to an emir, princely 2 f. .1 emir's,

prince's court 2.2 emirate, principality

amr m. the Amur River


umur t m. second plural from 1
mz mz combining form instructive
novice recruits
umumt m. Arabic 1 maternity 2 matriarchy
amonij f. chemistry ammonia, ammonium hydrate
amonjk chemistry ammoniac
1 ma f. mango (the tree or its fruit)
2 um from 2
3 um 3
imh l m. Arabic postponement; delay, procrastination
1 am m. ignoramus
2 amm Arabic umm Eastern 1 illiterate, uneducated 2
2

prince

51

antm m. anatomist

Pashto-English Dictionary

antom 1 f. anatomy animal anatomy


plant anatomy 2 anatomical
anatj f. blindman's-bluff (the children's game)
ins Arabic feminine, woman's lis-ji

2 ant n m. history the Entente


intib f. intib h Arabic 1 cheerfulness, courage 2
awakening the Renaissance 3 vigilance,
circumspection

intibhnm f. appeal, leaflet, broadside


intidzh ' f. Arabic foraging
intih r m. Arabic suicide
intih l m. Arabic plagiarism
intikh b m. Arabic 1 election, selection, choice
reelection compound verb
compound verb 2 biology selection
natural selection
intikhb t m. Arabic plural from elections
secret ballot election statute
electoral law electoral district
general elections direct elections
reelection
intikhbt electoral, pertaining to elections

women's secondary school

andl m. Anatolia
an r m. singular & plural pomegranate
pomegranate (the fruit) pomegranate juice
pomegranate syrup
anrpst m. pomegranate rind
anrdar f. Anardara (district)
nrsh f. anarchy
nrchizm m. anarchism
nrshst m. anarchist
anrk f.
anrkzm m. 1 anarchism 2 anarchy
anrvl m. seller of pomegranates
antl
an feles m. anopheles mosquito, malarial mosquito
an ns m. regional announcement, notice
anng f. cheek
ananijt m. Arabic 1 egotism 2 arrogance
anv m. dialect 1 damage, loss 2
anv laj m. position of a grandmother (in a family)
anv m. scrap business, scrap
1 un m. the Unai Pass
2 anji m. fool, blockhead
amb r m.
ambrkhn f.
ambravl denominative [past: ] 1 to put (down,
together, in, on) 2 to put or lay (in, on) to

the term of a convocation or session (e.g., of a parliament)

intikh b kavnkaj m. elector, voter


intikhbavl denominative [past: ] to elect
intikhabvnkaj 1 present participle from 2
elector; voter

intikhb 1 electoral; voting 2 sports elimination


intikhbedl denominative [past: ] to be
elected to be elected
He was elected chairman.
intikhbednkaj 1 present participle from
intid b m. Arabic mandate
intidb Arabic mandate, pertaining to mandate
antrst m. plural anthracite
inters interest
antrks m. medicine malignant anthrax
interneshanalzm m. internationalism
antropolodzh f. anthropology
antrshaj m. sneezing
intis b m. Arabic 1 relationship, connection; belonging

pile one on another 3 to drift (e.g., of snow)

ambredl intransitive [past: ]1 to be put, be


placed, be piled (on one another) 2 to be drifted

amblj
inbis t

f.

m. Arabic 1 gaiety, joy, delight 2 broadening,

expansion

ambr m. tongs, pincers


ambh 1 numerous 2 m. crowd, gathering (of people)
amboh f. abundance, plenty
amb f. mango
anbij m. Arabic plural from
amb m. ambk m. still, distillation apparatus
int dzh m. Arabic 1 production; creation 2 produce;

origin, provenance 3 preface, foreword

antrktk m. Antarctica

disseminated (of rumors) b to be published, be promulgated 3


dispersion 4 finance issuance

the continent of

int n m. festering, suppuration, abscessing

fester, suppurate

installation
a to be

rumors) 2 publication, promulgation


of radio receivers on a broad basis

Antarctica

intish r m. Arabic [plural: intishrna Arabic

plural: intishrt] Arabic 1 dissemination (e.g., of

product 3 work (of art, literature, etc.)

instis b m. Arabic establishing, fixing, setting,

designating

person elected, candidate elected

intisb having been fixing; set, designated


intis r m. Arabic victory

to
52

Pashto-English Dictionary

intiz r m. Arabic 1 waiting, awaiting


having waited for a while
to wait, await
For whom is he waiting?
I waited all day ... They expect that
I am waiting for you. 2 hope, expectation
intizrkhn f. 1 reception room 2 waiting room
intiz m m. Arabic 1 order organization,

interneshanalzm internationalism
ansaj m. anshaj m. sneezing; sneeze
andzh m m. 1 end, conclusion, outcome
to end, conclude, complete; execute to be
ended, be concluded, be completed How will
this come out? compound verb
compound verb 2 end, tip 3 extremity
andzhmavl denominative [past: ] to end,
finish, complete, execute to carry out his duties
andzhmedl denominative [past: ] to be ended,

orderliness 2 administration, management 3 arrangement,

organization 4 measure

a to administer something,

manage something b to adjust, put something to rights

finished, be completed; be executed, be carried out

a to set up tea-drinking, arrange tea-drinking b to

prepare tea

organize something, adjust something

equipment idiom carriage, bearing


intif ' f. Arabic utilization, use
inti d m. Arabic criticism literary criticism
to criticize to be

a compound verb
infection 5

transference (e.g., of energy at a distance)

intilavl denominative [past: ] 1 transfer;


transport 2 assignation (e.g., of property rights)
period) 3 progressive (of a movement)

legislative proposals 3 literary society

andzhumn m. Andzhuman (valley, district in

Andzhuman Pass
indzhn m. [plural: indzhinna plural:
indzhin n] 1 motor; engine internal combustion
engine 2 locomotive railroad engine
indzhinkhn f. 1 railroad depot 2 machine room,
Badakhshan)

to the extreme degree

intihpasnd m. extremist
intih 1 final, extreme, last, maximum the
ultimate speed, maximum velocity limit 2 senior,

engine room

indzhinr m. engineer mining engineer


indzhinir 1 attributive engineering 2 technology;

older

subject matter of engineering

entebb f. Entebbe (city)


antitz antitz antithesis
antisjklon m. anticyclone
antiserm m. anti-diphtherial serum
antk antique, ancient antiquities
antik f. rarity, rare thing, rare object
antl the Antilles (Islands)
antn m. antenna loop antenna

andzhor f. kind of vegetable


ndzha f.
andzhr m. medicine scrofula
1 indzhl m. gospel
2 indzhl m. Indzhil, Injil (district)
inch m. inch
inch rdzh m. regional manager; administrator, head, chief
inch f. distance equal to an inch
indzr m. singular & plural fig fig, fig tree
andzkj f. moan (of a sick person)

directional antenna

to give an

1 andzhumn m. 1 society, organization; meeting


The Afghan Boy Scout Organization 2 commission;
committee preparatory committee; committee for

intil 1 portable, transportable 2 transitional (e.g., of

inrni m.

of being phlegmatic; apathy

inti m m. Arabic 1 vengeance, retribution


to avenge someone 2 repression
antvrp m. Antwerp (city)
entomolozh f. entomology
intih Arabic 1 f. end, edge; terminal point 2 attributive
extreme, last, maximum to the utmost degree,

indzhekshn m. injection,

injection; an infusion, an inoculation

indzhka f. moan (of a person who is ill)


indzhim d m. Arabic 1 thickening, congealing, freezing
freezing-point 2 hardening, thickening, callosity
a to congeal, freeze b to harden 3 figurative state

transition 3 demise, passing, death


b to die 4 infection

indzhksjon m.

infusion; vaccination, inoculation

inti l m. Arabic 1 transport, transportation 2 passage,

an

skein

subjected to criticism, be criticized

andzhart m. plural gum of milk vetch


andzh 1 m. tangled skein 2.1 tangled, confused; in a
tangle 2.2 complex literal to tangle the

to be

arranged, be organized, be adjusted 5 regularity 6 installation;

indzhiz b Arabic 1 attraction, gravity

attractive force 2 enthusiasm, bent, attraction

to arrange something,

inrne intranet
53

Pashto-English Dictionary

andzr m. 1 drawing, design

excessively great to the


extent possible excessive !
What good is this! to a certain extent
to the extent possible
compound verb a to measure something to
measure a distance b to weigh, evalute
to undertake a task which is beyond one's strength or
capabilities to try to the extent of one's
capabilities to overload, load down
excessively compound verb a to be measured, to
come to b to be weighed, be evaluated 2 norm

to

necessary

draw; cover with drawings 2 style

andzr khal wzla f. imaging device


andzorshna f. drawing
andzorgr m. artist; graphic artist
andzoravl denominative [past: ] Eastern

to

draw; cover with drawings

andzorz drawn; covered with drawings, covered with

designs; pictorial

document

hieroglyphic letter, hieroglyphic

andzrz dzh l m. computer science video network


indzr m.
intsj f. woolen thread woolen thread
inhir f m. Arabic 1 deviation, digression to

ration scale 3 total (e.g., of a debt) 4 inner sole

andzagir f. measuring, measurement


measuring instruments
andz combining form throwing

diverge, digress 2 politics deviation 3 technology deviation;

encroachment on someone's rights

derivation

inhirf 1 m. deviationist 2 evasive, deviational


inhis r m. Arabic 1 monopoly

extremities, arms and legs

reserving (credits, etc.) for an individual


inhisr t m. plural 1 from

state monopolies

2 administration of

inhisravl denominative [past: ] 1 to


monopolize 2 to reserve something for someone
inhisr monopolistic

monopolistically,

andarpj f. staircase
andrk f. andrkj f. short coat, short jacket
andr-i-mi' d regional timely, on time
1 and 1 m. plural the Andary (Gilzaj tribe) 2 m. Andar

inhisredl 1 denominative [past: ] .1 to be


monopolized; be the object of a monopoly 1.2 to be reserved
for someone 2 m. plural .1 monopoly

tribesman 3 m. plural the Andar District

2 and m. yellow-colored songbird


indikj m. dialect
andor f. Andorra Andorra (city)
nds m. the Indus River
endok rd m. anatomy endocardium
andom n m.
indonezij f. Indonesia
indonezijj 1 Indonesian 2 Indonesian (person)
1 nda f. nda f. thought, consideration
2 ind m. 2
3 nda f. full gulp to gulp; gulp down (liquid)
andr m. 1 pitch darkness 2 misfortune
anderj f. crowd
nds m. plural the Andes
andesh f.
andehhmn troubled, perturbed
andehn f. 1 concern; anxiety; thought to be
concerned about someone, be anxious about someone
to be extremely worried, be alarmed,

inhit t m. Arabic 1 lowering, fall 2 decline, depression

3 disintegration; breakdown, ruin

inhil l m. Arabic 1 liquidation, annulment 2 dismissal

(e.g., of parliament) 3 economics decline, depression 4

decline of forces, weakening 5 disintegration, decomposition

1 and m. 1 thought, reflection 2 worry, alarm; anxiety, cares


2 and m. 500-year time period
and kht m. shooting; firing firing from
concealment artillery salute
firing range

andkht attributive military fire-; firing and z combining form 1 throwing, casting casting
anchor mortar 2 m. .1 style of expression, manner of
expression 2.2 regional pose

indir dzh m. Arabic 1 item, entry (e.g., in a periodical) 2

an entry on a list

on a monopolistic basis

monopoly in fruits 2.2 reserving

Andarab (embankment in Kabul)

andm n m. the Andaman Sea


andmavr tall, big
andkhj m. Andkhoj (city, district)
andar b m. 1 Andarab (district in Badakhshan)

foreign trade monopoly 2 siege 3 quota for a certain person;

and m m. 1 body; frame, figure 2 extremity


to what
extent? to what degree? to such an
extent some quantity to the extent
andz f. 1 measure; dimensions

to a considerable extent; on a large scale

54

Pashto-English Dictionary

be very concerned

ins n m. Arabic man primitive man


proverb Man is harder than stone, yet

to experience worry, to be

worried, to have apprehensions 2 foresight

indiktr m.
anra f. anatomy large intestine
an m. unripe boll of the cotton plant
anohar m. 1 2 figurative crowd, assemblage
1 anl m. metal mortar
2 anvl m. 1 steadiness, equilibrium, balance 2 equal
a to balance; equalize (in weight) b to compare
to measure oneself against someone 3

more tender than a blossom.

insn ni plural from


insnparst m.
insnparast f.
insnpezhandna f. anthropology
anthropologist

insndst m.
insndost f.

equivalent; equal amount

insnshins f. knowledge of people; life experience


ins na feminine of
insn 1 human (race, shape, form, likeness) 2 living,
human manpower to
sustain manpower idiom the humanities
insnijt m. Arabic 1 humaneness, humanity 2 mankind
inspetr m. regional 1 inspector 2 chief

anol 1.1 stable, brought into equilibrium 1.2 swinging,

equivalence; equal in meaning

inoneshj f.
1 anj m. 1 bale, load

to load up, load with 2

side

2 anj f. soup
anerj m. mat
aniz m. plural
indikr m. log of incoming and outgoing papers; record
log a logbook for incoming and outgoing

officer-in-charge of a police station

insidzh m m. Arabic 1 order, state of order 2

institt m.

insiu m.

insid d m. Arabic 1 obstruction; blockage 2 medicine

embolism, thrombosis 3 figurative restraint

ansiklopedij f. encyclopedia
insuler m. technology insulator
insule technology insulating

aniv l m. anevl 1 companion, friend; comrade 2 table

companion 3 traveling companion; fellow traveler 4

accomplice
anev la feminine of

insij m. Arabic obedience


insh f. Arabic 1 compilation, spelling; composition 2
structure, construction 3 correspondence 4 style
handbook of style compound verb a to draw up, write;

f. andevl 1 companionship; friendship,

to take up with someone;

enter into a friendship with someone 2 sharing food with;


condition) 3 figurative common dish
inardzh f.

compose b to structure, construct

enerzh f. energy

inzidzh r m. Arabic aversion, disgust

aversion

with

branch

of sheiks among the Afghans and Pushtuns among whom are

found descendants of the original associates of Mohammed in


Medina)

a to be just to someone
...
justly speaking , justice requires that
This accusation is unjust. Judge for
yourself. You are unjust. ...

ans dzh m. Arabic plural 1 from

3 pedigree, genealogy

2 familial relations

2 anatomy tissues

ins f m. Arabic justice

b figurative to give that which is due

2 sociability

ans b m. Arabic plural 1 from

inshi' b m. Arabic 1 branching off; ramification 2

ans b m. Arabic plural from


ansr m. singular & plural the Ansari (an ethnic group

anzkj m. bright child


inziv f. Arabic 1 solitude, seclusion, retirement 2 isolation
isolationism
inzivpasnd m. politics isolationist
inzivpasand f. 1 politics isolationism 2 isolation
anzr m.
inzheksjn m.
uns m. Arabic 1 attachment, affection; sympathy; friendship

insulating

wire

dining together with (noun indicating a habitual or frequent

andj-kunj f. entertainment; treating of guest to

comradeship

instit m. & f.

smoothness

refreshments

aniv la
andivl

institute

documents

humanism, philanthropy, love of

mankind

rocking to and fro 1.3 equivalent, of equal worth 2 f.

humanist

I have justly judged that

55

ins fn Arabic justly, in justice, in conscience

Pashto-English Dictionary

insfpasnd ins f khahavnkaj


insfd r insfnav z just
insfnvaz f. justice
inzib t m. Arabic order, discipline
inzibt disciplinary

medicine constipation 3 physiology systole 4 figurative

anar f. Ankara (city)


inis m m. Arabic 1 division

fractionate; dismember 2 biology division (of a cell); fission

land which has been deeded over or

settled upon someone

in'id m m. Arabic disappearance; absence; nonexistence


a disappearing b on the wane (of the moon)
in'i d m. Arabic convocation; opening
opening of a conference to take place (e.g., a

solstice

revolutionary

inilbijn] revolutionary

to

inij d m. Arabic obedience, submissiveness


to be subordinate; be obedient, be submissive to someone
ink r m. Arabic negation, nonrecognition; repudiation
to deny, not recognize, repudiate someone
Eastern He refused to leave.
I cannot deny this.
inkr refusing, declining to refuse, decline
inkis r m. Arabic 1 breakage; fracture 2 physics

literal a to be reflected b

to receive responses

inilb Arabic 1 revolutionary

poet 2 m. [plural: inilbij n Arabic plural:

conference)
in'ik s m. Arabic 1 reflection; reflex

to divide;

iniz f. Arabic end, expiration (of a term, deadline)


init' f. Arabic 1 interruption; discontinuance
to interrupt, discontinue 2 break, disruption
with minimal disruption
inil b m. Arabic 1 revolution social
revolution the Industrial Revolution
the Agrarian Revolution 2 overthrow, coup 3
wrongness, falseness, variability idiom astronomy

recompense, reward

reflect 2 response

infita Arabic explosive

depression, despondency

publishing department, publications department

pressure, compression or volume; crumpling, puckering 2

intib' polygraphic
intib m. Arabic 1 reference, allusion 2 adaptation,
adjustment to adapt, adjust
in' m m. Arabic 1 favor, grace 2 reward, recompense
monetary reward, recompense to give

idiom

explosive
substances demolition bomb time-delay
fuse pyrotechnics
inib z m. Arabic 1 curtailment; decrease in scope,

disciplinary punishment

in'm

Patience is exhausted.

intib ' f. Arabic imprint, impression


intib' t m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 publication,
printed work 3 publishing house

infil m. Arabic

inf z m. Arabic realization, bringing into existence,

execution, fulfillment of something

infidzh r m. Arabic explosion; burst (i.e., of a shell)


to explode; burst
infidzhr exploding; bursting; demolition
infir dn Arabic individually; personally
infird Arabic 1 individual, personal
individuality 2 regional separate; one-man; solitary
solitary confinement
infirdijt m. Arabic individuality
anfs m. Arabic subject
anfus Arabic subjective
infis l m. Arabic 1 separation 2 solution of a problem
to solve a problem
infi' l m. 1 shame; embarassment, confusion 2 grief,
vexation depression, depressed state 3
experience emotional experiences 4 reaction,
response weak reaction
infi'l 1 depressed, despondent

refraction 3 figurative regret; repentance

inkish f m. Arabic 1 development; growth; upsurge;

economic and cultural


development compound verb to develop
to be developed, grow; progress 2 discovery; research
inkishf 1 plan of development 2
progress

attributive research

1 anka f. children's speech granny, grandmother


2 nki 1 even 2 inasmuch as
inkj m. 1 weeping of a bride (at the time of the plaiting of
the braids) 2 weeping

ang m. 1 spirit of contradiction 2 sense, meaning


ing m. weeping of a newborn
ang r 1 m. hot coals; hot ashes to cause coals to
heat up; cause coals to flame up to flame of (of
coals) 2 burning; sparking; sparkling idiom a

depression, despondency 2 vexatious, painful; unpleasant,


irritating

infik k m. Arabic tearing, rending


enflsijn m. economic inflation

to worry b to sit on coals; be troubled

56

Pashto-English Dictionary

angr f. the Angara River


angrl transitive dialect
angr f. stubble
1 angrj m. poor man who gathers wheat, etc.

grapevine
grapes.

which has

fallen in the field after the harvest; gleaner

angr plural from


3 angrj f. disease of camels
4 angrj feminine of 1
angz f. 1 rumor, common talk
However, this rumor has not been confirmed.
to spread a rumor, disseminate a rumor
There are rumors to the effect that 2 echo to ring
2

angr m. plural grapes

angr m. agreement, adjustment, putting into order

ngr f. [plural: ngnde] Eastern daughter-in-

law

angaj m. small pomegranate, miniature pomegranate


anguz f.
1 angol f. 1 howl, howling (of a dog, jackal)

angabn m. plural honey


angach f. intention
1 angr m.
2 angr m.
angarkj m. fire, campfire or bonfire which has been lit by

ing f.
ngah r m. Eastern groans
1 angj m. cheek
2 angj m. Eastern sneezing; sneeze
3 ingj leapfrog
4 ingj f. echo
angij f.
angej f. brazier; hearth
angerl transitive [past: ] 1

mortar

to make

angruz f. 1
angurj f.
angrz angrz 1 m. Englishman 2 English
angrez angriz 1 English regional the
English government 2 f. the English language
He knows the English language. I do not

through, assess 4 to calculate (e.g., losses)

angerna f. 1 assumption 2 imagination, imagining,


notion 3 assessment, consideration 4 calculation (e.g., of

losses)

ang m. 1 fence 2 yard, court


angsht m. finger
angushtn f. 1 ring; seal-ring 2 thimble
angushtzan f. interference, meddling
angushtnum well-known
angl m. 1 confused affair; involved quarrel; slanderous

thumb; span

annguaj m. pomegranate
anangj m. cheek
anann s m. pineapple
anv r m. Arabic plural from 1
anv ' m. Arabic plural f. plural 1 from 2 biology
species interspecific

regional history 1 person receiving a

pension 2 one receiving a miserable pittance

inglist n m. England
anglosksn 1 attributive Anglo-Saxon 2 m.
Anglo-Saxon the Anglo-Saxons
anglz m. ingls angls m. 1 Englishman 2

intraspecific

England

the English language

ng m.

worrying, alarming

history pension

angz combining form exciting, evoking

ngnde plural Eastern from 3


annd joy; delight; enjoyment
1 anng m. 1 pomegranate 2 cheek
2 anng m. anng distance between the little finger and the

affair 2 noise; confusion

inglis 1 English

think, suppose,

assume 2 to imagine, fancy 3 to weigh, consider, reason

know the English language.

to howl, begin to howl (of a

dog, jackal)

children

ingls m. regional
inglishkhr m.

to

howl, begin to howl (of a dog, jackal) 2 moaning, weeping

2 angl f. Angola
angoll [past: ]

vineyard 2 m.

vineyard tax

ang f m. chink, slit (in stonework, masonry)


angfkr f. patching chinks in stonework with lime

angr-mangr angr-mangr
excuses for; shirk, elude

proverb The jackal eats the best

angurtra f. black solanum


angur 1 attributive grape

out, resound (e.g., a song)

vineyard

the English Channel 2 f.

and m. physics anode


anvr Arabic 1.1 brightest, most brilliant 1.2 most radiant,

most shining 2 proper name Anwar, Enver

anavl [past: ] to compel someone, quiet down,

pacify

57

Pashto-English Dictionary

anonm m. anonymous work; anonymous letter; anonymous

writer

2 av ra f. plain
vragrd m. wanderer, vagrant
vredl intransitive
v z m. 1 voice, sound supersonic
loudly to lower the voice to
raise the voice, to intensify the sound; make louder
to cry out to someone to call someone ...
He whispered to me that ! Call him.
to answer someone to
resound I became hoarse from
shouting. Ahmed has matured; his voice
has deepened. proverb A pleasant voice is a
pleasure. 2 rumor, talk, talking idiom He

stamp having a 1 anna

value
3

n adjectival and adverbial suffix; indeclinable

courageous, brave b bravely, courageously

inh k m. Arabic exhaustion, depletion, attrition


n-bahn f. trick, guile, evasion

a to

trick; elude b to make excuses

inhid m m. Arabic destruction, annihilation


anan s m.
1 n Arabic 1 sudden, surprise a surprise fire

volley 2 momentary, instant

1, 2

n plural from

anj f. grandmother, grandma, granny


ni f. ne suffix plural Eastern girls

was sentenced to death.

carriages

vzkh n m. singer
vzd r v z larnkaj 1 ringing; sounding;
sound sound film 2 linguistics vowel

anjb m. Arabic plural from 1


an-bn f. plural regional tricks, evasions
anz combining form regional consisting of so many annas
8 anna coin
ans m. Arabic 1 friend 2 comrade in arms
aniln m. chemistry aniline
aagndzh m. ball game
al transitive [past: ] to pound; grind into powder;

vowel sound

vz f.
avst m. Arabic plural from
avmr m. plural from 2
av n m. Arabic plural period, time
v ns m. advance; payment on account
vns attributive advance an advance
av m. plural the Avans (people of northwest India)
avl m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 the first days of the
month; the first days of the week

crush; smash to pieces; grind up

aavl transitive [past: ] 1 to gather, gather in (a


harvest) 2 to pick (flowers, berries) 3 to choose, select

au av conjunction 1 copulative and

Durkhani

At the beginning of next week.

1 ub m. whim, caprice
2 ob m. Ob River
avb z m.
avbz f.
avb sh 1 riffraff, rabble 2 tramp; vagrant
avbsh f. libertinism, debauchery
aub l ub l m. Arabic delinquency; sin, fault

Adam and

The boy came up and stood


Ahmed went to school, but Makhmud stayed home.
but if or else
2 o 1 hey, oh ! Mamma!, Mommy! ! Hey
there. 2 adversative conjunction but

Ahmed! 2 particle regional yes

av 1 go on (or similar cry by which one drives a cow) 2 m.

4 ou m. howl (of a wolf, jackal) to howl, begin to howl


5 u Eastern indicator of the perfective aspect instead of
avkhr m. Arabic plural from 2 for

dissipation
vravl transitive

ubtala f.

submarine

ubdzhn
obch m. warrior
obl transitive [present: past: ]
loom 2 to knit (e.g., a scarf)
obdna f. 1 weaving 2 knitting
ubb m.
ubrj f. green algae

the last time

1 v r v r
2 v r m. regional ore; stolen goods
vrag f. 1 wandering, vagabondage, travelling

to

perpetrate a misdemeanor; to transgress, commit an offense

He committed an offense.
ublgr aublgr m. sinner
ubtl m. obtl [plural: ubtal n]

children's speech cow

v ra 1.1 homeless, wandering 1.2 dissolute 2 m.

wanderer, vagrant

invjs m. invoice
1 n f. saddlebow, pommel
2 n f. anna (Indian coin)

58

Pashto-English Dictionary

ubza f. moth (clothes)


obzhn
ubspj m. otter
obhht m. juniper
obln ubln 1 watery; liquid 2 juicy, fresh
oblntb m. 1 wateriness 2 juiciness; freshness
oblhaj m. tank (water)
ubnj 1 watery; water 2 blue
uba f. anatomy placenta, afterbirth
ubodz la f. botany river sponge, freshwater sponge
ubkhta f. juniper
obs m. howitzer
ubsa f. 1 swampy place, bog; marsh; moist ground,

drink b to supply with water c to irrigate, flush d to temper


(metal)

swampy ground 2 irrigated land

.1 drinking bowl, fountain 2.2 figurative sources 2.3

regional irrigation; flushing


regional watering place

irrigated 2 m. plural irrigation, flushing

obrngaj light blue

oblagavl m. plural irrigation; flushing


obv raj m. obvarj m. regional street

1 bi f. the Ob (river)
2 ob present tense from
obedl denominative [past: ]

corundum; blue

1 to be irrigated; be

flushed 2 to absorb, take in 3 to drink, quench thirst (of

animals)

vp sh m. worker engaged in watering (streets, flowers,

etc.)

vpsh f. flushing, watering

street-

watering truck to flush, water


upr
upi-pupi f. plural conversation about widely
divergent matters

oper f. opera
avt d m. Arabic
big wheels

plural [singular: ]important people,

avt r m. Arabic plural from 3


avtr 1 frightened 2 alarmed; downcast; distressed

otr m. halt, stopping place
avtr-avtr scared, frightened frightened
appearance to look upon with fright
utrj f. regional descent (from a mountain)
avtartb m. avtarv laj m. 1 perturbation, panic

a to stir up the water b to evade, avoid

to disgrace
He disgraced himself.
I am ashamed. This
matter cannot be put to rights. to be careful
with someone f. compound verb a to irrigate, flush b
to melt, melt down c to dissolve d to sell, market

something c to drag the business out


someone

2 pain, distress

avtaravl transitive [past:


alarm; distress, grieve

compound verb a to be irrigated, be flushed b to be melted, be


melted down c to thaw d to be turned into water (of steam) e

to irrigate; flush 2.4

cleaner (with water)

temper (of metal) 5 veterinary (bone) spavin 6 figurative

to grow thin

carbuncle

ubumr f. insect of the cricket family


obavna f. irrigation; flushing
1 ob f. ub plural 1 water boiling water
ground water saltwater warm water
hot water turbid water freshwater
chemistry heavy water
pure water, clear water running water
boiling water cold water, very cold water
rainwater well water drinking
water melt water
on the shore of a stream or river flood, abundance
of water to conduct water, irrigation ditch
to sprinkle water on one another, lap
to draw water from a well
to launch into the water (e.g., a boat) to scald
oneself ! Bring water! The water was
rising. Many districts suffered
from floods. 2 liquid saliva
the saliva flows 3 juice (of meat, fruits) fruit juice 4

literal to take off one's shoes

rashly He lost all shame and conscience.


I was stupified.
proverb A drowning man will grasp even at a straw.
proverb Still waters run deep.
proverb literal Water grows turbid from its source.
figurative A fish rots from its head. regional ocean
to be sentenced to exile for life
2 ob f. ob Obe (city, district)
obtal f. water level; level
ubkhr 1 subject to irrigation, requiring irrigation 2 m.

obavl 1 denominative [past: ] to irrigate; flush


to irrigate the land with the help of kiarizes
(i.e., underground irrigation canals) passive to be

honor, dignity

without going into the water figurative to be in a hurry, act

You have grown very thin.


a to give water, give to

to be ashamed

59

avtar f.

1 to frighten 2 to

Pashto-English Dictionary

avtaredl transitive [past: ] 1 to be frightened 2 to


be alarmed; be perturbed

ut m. flatiron

iron

electric iron

uchatd m. plural 1 raising (e.g., the flag) 2 rise,


increase 3 intensification (e.g., of a noise) 4 rising, ascension

to press,

5 ascent

uchkaskr regional completely dry


1 uchakj f. islet
2 uchakj emaciated; lean
uchlaj m. Eastern forehead, brow
1 uchnaj m. six-month-old lamb
2 uchne f. young ewe (which has not yet lambed)
1 uch f.
2 cha f. singular dialect from
che-pche f. plural Eastern nonsense, drivel
avts r apparent, evident; well-known
avtsravl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

welding
the

automobile industry

avtomobilsz f. automobile manufacture


automobile plant
avt ! May you know no rest!
te-bte f. plural Eastern 1 2 delirium
the disconnected speech of an insane person,

avtsredl denominative, intransitive [past:


come to light, turn out, be manifest, be apparent

exposure of a stratum or deposit at

the surface

udzh idiom Damn you!


udzhaavl transitive
udzh f. destruction, devastation
udzhrj m. regional organ meats, entrails
avdzhshi f. plural
1 dzha f. regional leech
2 dzha f.
udzhj f. children's speech insect (small)
uch Eastern
ucht 1 high to stand, jump up

to

2 m. Udkhejl (tribesman) 3 Udkhejl' (name of various

settlements)

odr m. the Oder (river)


udravl transitive Eastern
udredl intransitive Eastern
vds m. avds m. ablution, washing (body)
to effect ablution, wash the body idiom to

to puff (quietly)

uchattb m. uchattj f. uchatv laj m. 1 height 2 rise,

increase 3 loudness (of a noise) 4 steepness (of a road)


uchatavl denominative, intransitive 1 [past:

1 lift; raise 2 to raise, heighten 3 to make loud, intensify (e.g.,

a sound) 4 to emphasize; accent something 5 regional to clear

urinate, answer the call of nature

away plates and dishes 6 to cause, occasion (harm, injury, etc.)

uchatj f.
uchatedl denominative, intransitive

avdasm t m. transitive

to go to take

care of nature's call


[past: ] 1 to

avdasmtj f. evacuation (of the bowels), defecation


1 odl udl 1 transitive [present: present: past:
] .1 to weave 1.2 to twist, twine 1.3 to plait (braids)
passive a to be woven b to be twisted, be twined 2
m. plural

rise, rise above, heave up 2 to ascend 3 to be loud, be


intensified (e.g., a sound) 4 to rise up, get up

avtskk m. botany fumitory, fumaria (annual herb

ukh interjection oy, oh


okhtsk m. the Sea of Okhotsk
kha f. Eastern 2
1 vkhaj m. dialect 1
2 ukhj f. children's speech boogeyman, bugbear
3 khe plural from
vkhez high-water, flooding
1 od m. plaiting (of mats, etc.)
2 aud m. reservoir, pond
avd l m. saint; religious anchorite or hermit
avdl m. plural
avd n m.
udkhl 1 m. plural the Udkhejli (a sub-tribe of the Gilzai)

rise; lift 2 loud (of the voice) 3 steep (of a road) 4 regional

to

alteratives)

vanguard 3 aviation ceiling

whose dried leaves are used in the preparation of tonics and

uopj f. Utopia
uopjj Utopian
audzh m. Arabic 1 zenith; apogee 2 military leader of the
vanguard point of the vanguard; lead patrol of the

afore-cited idiom

to

reveal, explain; make manifest, make evident

the delirium of a madman

ov f. Ottawa (city)
akrop m. geology

sunrise 6 origin, emergence, appearance,

conception

2 vato vato past perfective Eastern from


avtobs m. bus
technology autogenous autogenous
otomtk otomtik automatic
avtomobl m. automobile

I got up to leave. 5 to rise, ascend (of celestial objects) 6

regional to come into existence, appear, be born


60

Pashto-English Dictionary

2 avdl m. proper name Avdal


odna f. 1 weaving 2 twisting, twining 3 plaiting (braids)
1 odnkaj m. weaver
2 odnke f. weaver (female)
1 ud f. 1 conspiracy, charm, exorcism 2 witchcraft
2 ud Eastern one who has fallen into a

(office)

the Ural River

orbalk m. 1 fire lighter 2 furnace man 3 steel (formerly

orbalavnkaj incendiary incendiary bomb


orband f. cessation of fire, end of firing
orbz m. muzzle, snout, (ugly) face idiom
to hang around someone What are you in a
huff about? ! Be off! Get away!
orbsha f. Eastern In a month

a to set afire, start a fire b to open a


strong fire to open up a strong fire on the enemy
c figurative to drive out of one's wits to open fire, fire
a to set fire to b to spread discord c to evoke
discontent d to spoil to
extinguish a fire a to light a fire
b to cause a fire, set a fire to fan the fire of war,
unleash war c figurative to enrapture the
house caught fire Fires broke out in several
places. proverb Whenever fire
breaks out there's no water to be found. a to
hurry, hasten b figurative to be stingy, be greedy
to arrange one's affairs by oneself (without outside help)
a to roast on a spit b figurative to torture, torment c
figurative to worry a to be roasted on a spit b to
be tortured, be tormented c not to sit quietly, squirm
a to subject to fire b figurative to torment, torture
to burn down to set on fire a to
throw into the fire b figurative to torture, torment
to squander money, throw money to the wind a
to hold to the fire b figurative to oppress
proverb It's all one to the fire, whether it's yours or another's
literal Fire is incompatible with water.

will be the barley harvest.

orb f. heating chamber for a bath


orbej f. steamboat
orp laj m. fire worshipper
orpht m. [plural: orphtna
orpht n] nocturnal moth

ortn m. temple of fire worshippers


1 avrta f. 1 woman 2 wife
2 art f. anatomy aorta
ork m. flint (of a flintlock rifle)
urd m. & f.
urg m. plural 1 colostrum, beestings

plural:

2 milk of a cow

which has just calved with spice added

urs m. obsolete
1 urus obsolete
2 urs f. window with frame which can be raised
ursh f.
orshnd ghar m. volcano
orht m. orhta f. fall of showers, rain
A heavy rain fell.
orhtj f. 2
orgh laj m. 1 fireplace, hearth 2 heating box, chamber

figurative These are incompatible things.

ludicrous,

laughable

blast furnace

or ghurdzavnkaj volcano
urvaj m. palm (of the hand)
urj f. soot
1 orkzi m. plural the Orakzai (tribe) 2 orkzj m.

orakhist m. plural 1 fire, conflagration; burning;


ignition 2 figurative hurry, haste
from

the

used in lighting a fire) 4 syphilis

suddenly, flare up

avr d m. Arabic plural


orr m. 1

chief of the archives

Orbal

fire, ignite b figurative to hurry, hasten c figurative to anger

2 archive; office; registry

Urals, the Ural Mountains

3 ud f. singular from 2
1 ud plural from 1
2 ud present tense from 1
odes f. Odessa (city)
odl transitive [past: ] to arrange, put right, adjust
ovnaj m. small chador, small veil (for women, children)
or m. ur 1 fire; conflagration volcano
the fire suddenly blazed up 2 gunfire,
fire, firing line of fire a hurricane of fire
to set something on fire a to catch

vr combining form bringing, possessing

ur l m. the Urals

urnijm m. chemistry uranium


ororkaj m. glowworm, firefly
orbatsraj m. 1 spark 2 hot-tempered person
orbsha f.
orbshi f. plural barley beer
orbshn attributive barely barley bread
1 orbl Fire! (as a command)
2 orbl m. 1 lock, curl; bang, forelock 2 personal name

deep sleep

avr m. Arabic 1 from

Orakzai (tribesman)

61

Pashto-English Dictionary

avark m. regional overcoat, greatcoat


orakj m. glowworm, firefly
org a f. org aj m. org raj m. 1 train;
rolling stock electric train, electric railway 2
railroad org di railroad
org di railroad station
org n m. press organ judicial

1 ovr m. singluar & plural 1 cloudlet


The sun is hidden behind the clouds 2 cataract
2 av ra imperative, imperfect from 2
1 ri ur present tense of 1
2 vri present tense of 2
3 aorj m.
4 orj m. Eastern lamb
5 orj f. 1 gum (mouth) 2 anatomy root bed of the nail
idiom We (you, they) are inseparably

organ

orgaj m. troublemaker
orlarnkaj fire (i.e., firearms) firearm
orlalaj troubled (e.g., times)
orlanaj m. poker idiom troublemaker,

linked with one another.

6 vrj Eastern second person plural of 2


orj f. rain
urijakhl 1 m. plural the Uriyakhejli (a subdivision of

instigator, ringleader

orlagav unkaj incendiary

bomb

incendiary

the Gilzai) 2 m. Uriyakhejl (tribesman)

orjmch m. rain gauge


ri-pri to pass through
orjdz f. urdz [plural: urjdzi] cloud; storm cloud
threatening storm-cloud grey cloud
cloud of dust It's very cloudy today.
Today it's overcast.
1 oredl intransitive [present: present: past:
]1 to pour (of rain), come down (of rain, snow)
It's raining. When it rains the

orlagt m. urlagt singular & plural matches


match factory box of matches
a match
orlagitvl m. singular & plural seller of matches
orlagd m.
orlagedna f. 1 fire, conflagration 2 flash, outbreak
orlbi f. plural fireworks
1 orm m. person in whose home there is a deceased
member

poor peasants rejoice (in hopes of of a good harvest) 2 to strike

2 om m. the Ormur, the Baraki (nationality)


ormagk
m. salamander
urml m. Eastern fig tree
ormeg m. neck
orang-ut n m. orangutan
ornsaj m. coal tongs
oranj attributive fire volcano

(of lightning)

avredl avredl Eastern transitive [present:


past: past: ] 1 to hear 2 to listen

passive to resound (e.g., of sound)


1 ored m. plural falling of showers
formation of dew

avred m. plural
Eastern It's one thing to hear , another to see.

crater

oraj m. swaddling clothes

clothes

orvl m. furnace man; stoker


urup f.
orrkaj m. glowworm, firefly
or vazhnkaj attributive fire
firefighting company fire engine
1 oravl transitive [past: ] 1 to throw, throw
down 2 to strew 3 to cause (rain) This storm
cloud will bring rain.

avravl transitive [past: ] 1 to announce


something, proclaim something; state something, express
2

something; read out something . I want to


say here that 2 to compel to listen 3 to issue (an order)
idiom

1 orz firey, pertaining to fire


2 awrz m. awriza ghagz audio
3 urz f. dialect
orgi present of 1
orinok f. the Orinoco River
orjj f. dialect gum (of the mouth)
av present stem of
uade Eastern
ud m. Eastern
ud f. regional uniform; tunic
ul transitive dialect
1 vm Eastern
2 m Eastern last year
uumbj dialect
1 oanj m. small veil (worn by Moslem women)
2 onj attributive summery, summer

orai

proverb A brave son is discerned while still in swaddling

proverb He spoke but

a word to me, I spoke a hundred to him; I am not in his debt.


62

Pashto-English Dictionary

uobj m. 1 mash (watery or semiliquid food) 2 syrup (in

jam)

long. 2

ukaj dialect 1
oavl denominative, intransitive

protracted journey
[past:

ugdbritaj
mustachioed, mustached

ugdvg
aj

1 lop-eared, having lop-ears

1 to

grind, mill 2 to pulverize, break in pieces; grind to powder

The road is not all that


protracted, prolonged to accomplish a

ugd 1 lengthy, long

o m. u plural 1 flour coarsegrained flour, coarse flour flour-milling


1

2 m. abusive

dolt, lop-eared fool, ass

The dough has


ugdv
laj m. 1 length

ugv
li

machine; milling equipment

along the western shore 2 prolongation, extension (e.g., of a

turned sour.

treaty); dragging out (e.g., of talks) idiom

To wish someone a long life.


ugdav
l denominative, intransitive

proverb They don't even have flour in the house, but still they're

a to pound, abrade, grind b to boil until soft


compound verb 1 a to be

installing a stove. 2 powder

compound verb

We're even. What is there to thank me for?

ovl m. flour

merchant, flour dealer

aj m. 1 summer

border

i summer place, vacation

ugd
megj na f. cayenne pepper
ugded
l denominative, intransitive [past: ]

place 2 summer harvest

2 vi present tense of
3 vi plural from 2
1 oedl intransitive [past: ]

1 to be ground, be

a treaty); be dragged out (of a talk, etc.) 3 to be conducted, be


laid, be applied 4 to be stretched, be pulled out 5 to reach or

powder

occupy some space

avedl intransitive
midnight.

avednkaj 1 present participle of

ugrj
m. entrails, offal
ogm m. obsolete moon
ogm
j f. ugmj moon; moonlight
1
og f. Eastern ug shoulder
shoulder to shoulder; side by side with a pitcher on
the shoulder to shrug the shoulders
to shoulder a rifle Lean on me.
He is broad-shouldered. idiom to
help, be a help to somebody A
good son is help to a father a to get rid of something
b to shun, reject, avoid something to strive, bend
the back to rid oneself of something
to undertake the work
This matter is beyond my powers.

It is past

changeable

1 to be

lengthened 2 to be continued, be prolonged; be extended (e.g.,

milled 2 to be pulverized, be broken into pieces, be ground into

1 to

a to
stretch out the hand b to encroach upon
They encroached upon our country.
Cut one's coat according to the cloth. idiom
to grow a beard
1 ugd
f. singular from
2
ugd
m. plural from
3 ugd
m. plural length along the

I
learned the lesson by heart. a to grind, mill
finely b to hem and haw idiom saying

lengthen 2 to extend; prolong (as in to extend a treaty); drag out

soft c to have learned by rote

[past:

(talks) 3 to lead, conduct, lay 4 to extend, stretch out, pull out

crushed, be pounded, be transformed into powder b to be boiled

2 va f. instrument, device, tool


okhartsavnkaj m.

uz m. goat

oz 1 m. negligible quantity, insignificant sum 2 several,

some

avz r m. Eastern weapon, arm blunt weapon


sharp weapon
avz n m. Arabic plural from
uzbk m.
uzbak 1
uzg r dialect
uzgaj m. uzgaj m.
ozn m. chemistry ozone
uz f. she-goat
1 zaj m. forearm
2 zi Eastern
uzhni f. plural goat's wool
ozhj f. oilcake

to help someone, lend assistance to someone; support someone

to strive tenaciously

to take

something upon oneself, undertake something

to help, give assistance, support


a to bear on one's shoulders b figurative
to make much of to help one another,

someone

63

Pashto-English Dictionary

support one another

osmahlawl compound verb update, to update


osn
usang quick, fast; high-speed
osanj present, contemporary, existing
osavl transitive [past: ] to settle someone,

to live at someone's

expense; be a burden to someone.

2 ga f. garlic
ogapk
military Shoulder Arms! (as a command)

ogavr
broad-shouldered

1 ogj m. oka (a unit of weight equal to about 14 kgs.)


2 gaj Eastern 2
3 og j f. ug j necklace (of silver and gold coins)
os us 1 at once, now, at the present time a just
now, now; not long ago b recently, lately now, just
now just now They just now left.
up to now, until this time, so far better
than before just now a just now b hence
forward, in the future right now, at the present time
just now still
Get on with the matter immediately. 2 attributive at the

lodge someone

sa

sa imperative perfective and imperfective of

Rejoice! ! ! Be forever vigilant!


1 osj m. male gazelle, Gasella subgutterosa
2 si present tense of
3 se second person singular present tense of !
Be healthy! ! Be healthy! ! Live
long! ! ! I wish you success!
4 osj f. female gazelle, Gasella subgutterosa
5 sj second person plural present tense of !
May reknown come to you! ! I wish you long

present time

os
avs r m. bridle assembly (of a harness)
avsravl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

life!

osechj m. knucklebone (piece in a game, the bone of an

antelope)

osed intransitive [present: past: present:


]to live, reside; abide; settle, take up one's residence; be,
be located He has lived in
Kabul all of his life. idiom He
should know that proverb You

to bridle 2 to subjugate; subordinate

osk f. Osaka (city)


avs n m. 1 feeling 2 presence of mind, self-control,
bravery idiom reckless
ospntgaj m. file
uspntkaj m. roofing iron
ospnkhaj m. slag; cinder
uspnkh m. magnet
uspnmzaj m. iron wire
spna f. uspna iron iron ore
sheet iron obsolete pig-iron (low quality)
high-quality iron
proverb strike while the iron is hot railroad
saying It's a very difficult matter.
ospnz adjective iron
avast f. avesta
ustrj Western 1 last; terminal; final, conclusive
ustr the latest news 2 m. end
at the end of the letter he wrote that idiom
the 6th month of the lunar year
avstrij f.
avstrij
ustak r m.
ustakr f.
avst Arabic 1 middle, average of
average (middling) size on the

learn from your companions.

osedna f. osed m. plural life; residence,


domicile; sojourn place of residence; residence

osednkaj 1 present participle from

resident

avseldzhn 1 sighing 2 m. a whiner


avsell transitive [past: ] 1 to sigh

2 m.

2 to grieve,

be distressed 3 to whine, complain in a tiresome way

avselna f. 1 deep breathing, sigh 2 grieving 3 whining


avselj m.
osh whoa (or similar command to halt an ass)
ush command to urge on a camel
ushnl transitive [ past: ] to unwind;
untwist; dismiss; untwine

shi Eastern
avshn m. order
1 uh m. camel five camels
saying literal Who dares seize a camel by the
neck? figurative Do not enter into combat with the strong.
Western proverb literal The
camel cries out in complaint before the load is on his back. He

average 2 intermediate

saying
!

is old but his former habits remain.

avsattalab f. moderation
osl f. Oslo (city)

A sieve will not burden a camel.


64

saying literal Tell a camel: "Play a bit!" He'll

Pashto-English Dictionary

tear up a melon field. figurative Tell a fool to pray to God and


he'll bang up his forehead.

saying literal Tie

up a camel, and get out of the way. figurative Be careful.

refusal, repudiation of something idiom


with the passage of time

avuhtnkaj 1 present participle of 2 changeable


avuht-ravuht m. plural 1 change 2

proverb literal You can't hide a camel

under a bridge. figurative Murder will out.

wrongness, falseness

saying If you keep camels, build tall gates.


saying literal Observe what side

uhghvajj m. [plural: uhghvji] giraffe


uhka f. tear tear gas to
lachrymate (of the eyes) Eastern
She smiled through her tears. Tears

the camel kicks on. figurative Keep a sharp eye out and you'll

survive.

welled up in the eyes.

uhkedzhn tearful, lachrymose


uhkinj m. rancorous person
uhln teary; lachrymal; full of tears (eyes)
uhmrgh m. 1 yellow griffon (vulture) 2 ostrich
uhmrghaj m. ushmlghj m. botany

saying They asked the camel, "Why do you have a crooked


neck?" He answered, "And what do I have that is straight?

saying literal I sat upon a camel, but the

dogs bit me. figurative I brought disgrace upon myself.

2 uh interjection oh, ah
uh ra f. zoology praying mantis
1 ushbn plural from
2 uhbn plural from
uhban feminine of
1 uhban f. camel herder (as an occupation)
2 uhban plural from
uhbun m. uhba m. [plural: uhnan]

haloxylon (small tree or bush native to Central Asian desert


country)

uhvl m. nomad who owns a camel


1 ha f. female camel
2 ha f. Eastern tear

uhbtb m.

an occupation)

past: ]Eastern

1 to overturn; turn; wallow (in mud) 2 to cross (a mountain);

to change
one's situation, undergo change The
seasons of the year have come and gone. days
and nights have passed; time has gone by
switch; change into something; shift (to another situation)
the weather has shifted

His appearance has altered. 4 to abandon something; reject


something; diverge from something, deviate from something
(losses)

to reeducate oneself; break bad habits 5 to be inflicted

They have inflicted heavy

losses. 6 to exceed 7 to turn (of a road) 8 to bump into, run


into (someone) 9 to be translated
into the Pashto language 10 to flood (water)

vhaj m. [plural: vhi plural: vshij n] 1

2 oh m. plural mane (of a horse)


3 uhi plural of 1
4 sh plural of 2
uhem f. female camel in heat
ohen eyes filled with tears
avs f m. Arabic plural of
avz ' 1 m. plural of 2 f. position, situation; status
the internal situation the political
situation the situation is catastrophic
social relationships
ot m. room; premises; chamber guardroom
otr m. bivouac, halt
av'ij m. Arabic 1 plural of 2 anatomy vessel
blood vessels
ughz m. [plural: ughzan] dialect walnut
ughm m. pride; honor to honor, do honor, render

ushbv laj m. camel driver (as

climb over (a fence); cross, get across something 3 to change,

wife's brother, brother-in-law 2 sister's husband

vuht past stem of


avuhtl [present: past:

to weep

bloody tears

camel driver, camel herder

to be translated

homage
1

av t m. Arabic 1 plural of

circumstances

In spring this place is flooded with water. 11 to be

dislocated 12 to be circulated (capital)

saying Here is that which you have striven for.

2 times, moments,

the usual circumstances

av t m. Arabic 1 plural of

2 produce, victuals,

food

avuhtna f. avuht m. plural 1 turning, turn,


shift 2 wallowing (in the mud) 3 crossing (a mountain);

av f m. Arabic 1 plural of

2 waqf, wakf

(ecclesiastical property; an Islamic endowment of property to be

climbing over (a fence); passing over (anything) 4 shifting;

held in trust and used for a charitable or religious purpose)

changing into something; a transfer over to another situation 5


65

the management or direction of one or more waqfs

Pashto-English Dictionary

ojns m. ocean

okjns-i the Pacific

to be

placed on end, be made to stand erect

ok f. the Oka (river)


ukrn ukrjn m.
ukrin ukrinj

the Ukraine
1 Ukrainian

Ukrainian language 2 Ukrainian (person)

[plural: avldna]

progency; children, descendants, offspring


to produce progeny
avld f. 1 progeny 2 descent
uln-ud f. Ulan-Ude (city)
uln-b tr m. Ulan-Bator (city)
1 uldzh f.
2 uldzh intricate, complex to tangle, embroil;
complicate to be tangled, be embroiled; become

Ocean

ojnosij f. Oceania (island)


uij f. Arabic ounce
uk 1 protruding 2 on end, erect, upright

avl d m. Arabic plural from

the

complicated

ukalj f. wooden mortar


1 ka feminine singular of 1
2 auk conjunction 3 3
3 ka dialect
okinv f. Okinawa (island)
avg r 1 m. sufferer 2 suffering; experiencing, going
through Her parents have gone

uls m.
ulsv la f.
uls
oll transitive dialect
olimpk
avlanj avalanj 1.1 previous, former, late

ugd Eastern
ugrj f. Eastern 1

1 avl m. ol f. singular & plural syrup


2 ulv m. horse (of a courier)
3 ul Arabic possessing, having
ululmr m. Arabic plural commanders; chiefs; the

through a lot on her account.

plural ancestors

receipt of the cost of goods in

installment payments 2 payment, dues; share

to cook groats
saying One must wait
proverb to blame one's failures
ugr f. ogr f. groats; thin gruel

idiom

leadership

ulula'zm Arabic resolution, resoluteness


uls m.
ulus
1 avlvaj 1 fried, roasted, grilled 2 figurative

on fate

ugj f.
ug f.
ugnd f. ugn f. Uganda
avg m. regional steamship seagoing
steamship
1 og Eastern
2 ga f. Eastern
1 ogj m. 1
2 ugj f. kind of tree
3 ogj f. Ogaj (city, northwest Pakistan)
avvl Arabic 1.1 first a first number; first place b
paramount c excellent (appraisal) chairman
He went to Kandahar at the beginning of the

with suffering

lambs of the same age and development

2 avvla feminine singular of


avlij m. Arabic plural 1 from 2
authority

ulj novsk m. Ulyanovsk (city)


avvalijt m. Arabic superiority; priority, advantage
to have a prior right or advantage to
occupy first place

at the beginning of
I had no luck from the beginning.
If he had done it that way
at once, then 3.1 first, in the beginning, first off
Eastern He treated me well from the very

oligrsh f. oligarchy
avvaln the first, the very first
1 um om uma f. um m. plural um f.
plural 1 raw, not fully cooked a bit raw 2 unripe,
green 3 unfinished, partly processed raw brick,
adobe raw material 4 undressed (of hide,
pelt) undressed hide raw leather 5 not
well-adjusted; downcast 6 immature, inexperienced idiom
to work underground (of miners)
2 uvm ovm

avail] beginning

beginning. 3.2 in the first place 3.3 formerly, earlier 3.4

He has already put the candle


before leaving,

out. 3.5 before, earlier, until


before departure

2 holy men 3

parents and guardians of children 4 leader, manager, person in

spring

already

worn out

2 ulav courier's; pertaining to a courier


1 ol m. [plural: olan] flock of nursing ewes all with

winter. 1.2 beginning; elementary 1.3 former 2 m. [plural:

1.2 initial,

elementary, early 1.3 first, primary 1.4 ancient 2 m. avlan

avvln Arabic first of all; to begin with; before all else


66

Pashto-English Dictionary

avh m m. Arabic plural from


avhm 1 vacillating, doubting 2 doubtful
ovzaj m. seven-shot rifle
ovkaln seven-year Seven-Year Plan
uvakj f. uvnj f. week
ovvradznaj weekly
1 ov singular & plural 1 comb, fleshy crest (of a bird)

um n botany ephedra (a genus of jointed, nearly leafless

desert shrubs)

mtkp a f. computer science datasheet


mtkpe computer science ld datasheet view
umat f. snow mixed with rain, sleet
umaj woven of raw silk to make raw-silk
thread

mane (of a horse)

umsvaj burnt (of food) to let food burn


to burn
umghaj
umghaln semi-raw, not completely cooked
umv laj m. 1 state of being half or partly cooked 2

not being in proper adjustment 5 immaturity, inexperience

1 um m.
2 um m. plural 1
3 um f. singular from 1
4 ovma f. numeral singular from 2
um-khul immature, inexperienced (of a person)
umd m.
umedv r
umedv ra f.
1 umedvr f. 1
2 umedvri plural of
ontrij f. Lake Ontario
auns m. ounce
avng m. mortar
na f. dialect
1 unj m. onj idle talker, windbag
2 uvanj f. ovanj week
3 ne plural of
oneg f. Lake Onega
aus m.
uj m. diaper
ovark m. regional overcoat, greatcoat
avuhtl intransitive
ovl transitive dialect
ovvm uvvm ordinal seventh
uvnj f. week
ovv uv numeral 2 astronomy asterism
consisting of seven stars history the Seven Nations

av irrigational; pertaining to flushing or watering

[past:

avezndedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]


to hang, be suspended

uvht f. juniper
ujn m. ojn singular & plural termite (insect)
ji present tense of 1
h 1 m. sigh heavy sighs

a to

sigh b to gasp 2 interjection ah

ah particle 1 oh but aha 2 interjection my

My, but this is tasty!


h r m. 1 starch

to starch linen 2 textiles

to size

h m. 1 intense heat, heat 2 regional hottest month of the

year

h k m.
ahl m. Arabic plural from 1
ihtim m m. Arabic 1 zeal, diligence 2 concern, attention
a to try b to take care of, concern oneself about
to give attention to 3 editing
ihd f. Arabic 1 dedication (of a book) 2 gift, presentation
ihd d m. Arabic punishment to punish, chastise
ahdf m. Arabic plural from
ihdnm f. law settlement, deed
ahr m m. Arabic plural from
ah m.
histag f. 1 slugishness 2 mildness
hist 1 slow; quiet to delay, detain, stop 2

ov f. 1 cut place, chipped place 2 blister; pimple

thirty-seven seven

slowly, quietly

and a half

to hang, suspend

Rome, and Syria-Sham)

uv ov numeral seven

av

of the East (China, Turkestan, Hindustan, Turania, Iran, Eastovv


3 uj m. promise, word (of honor)
1 avj numeral seventy
2 au j 1
vij n f.
avdzha f. country, locality, territory
av m. medicine inhalation
vz combining form document
avez n avez nd hanging
avezndavl denominative, transitive

unripeness, greeness 3 state of being unprocessed 4 state of

1
2

histag f.
hk m. plural lime

oh interjection oh
67

Pashto-English Dictionary

hak attributive lime


ahl Arabic 1 m. [plural: ahl] people, population
heterodox people 2.1 predicative, attributive

ahl-i-im n m. plural a believer


ahl-i-hads m. plural Waqqabites, Mujtadhids (Muslim
sectarian religious teachers)

ahl-i-sunnt m. plural Sunnites


ahl-i-halm m. plural writers
ahl-i-k r m. plural office workers, employees, workers
ahl-i-kasab m. plural craftsman
ahl-u-'aj l m. plural goods and chattel, the entire
household
2

ability

ahlijatnm f. driver's license


ahm Arabic more important, most important
the foremost and most important task
ihm l m. Arabic negligence, carelessness
ahammijt m. Arabic significance; importance
significant, important to have great
significance to lose its significance
to take on significance, be important to
give great significance to give great
significance to not to attribute the slightest
significance to

hn m. hn singular & plural iron


hinb b m. plural iron; article made of iron
hn-i-chdr m. sheet iron, roofing iron
hinrub f. magnet
hinkb m. hammer
hng m. 1 melody, musical theme, tune 2 sounding,
sound to sound 3 tone, intonation idiom
willy-nilly
hangd r melodic, tuneful
hingr m. hingr smith, blacksmith
proverb One

introduce a specific point into the agend

et possessive pronoun second singular Afridi familiar 1

your 2 thy (all gender and number forms)

etso possessive pronoun plural Afridi polite your


ilav
li f. ilij f. Italy
1 tm m. atom
2 jtm m.
is r m. Arabic 1 donation 2 generosity
idzh b m. Arabic [plural: idzh buna Arabic
plural: idzh bat] 1 need, necessity 2 requirement
depending on the requirements of the

hundred blows of the jeweler's hammer are equal to one of the


blacksmith's.

hingar f. blacksmith's work smithy, forge


hin f. mirror
hin adjective iron idiom He has

moment 3 trade commission, order

idzhabvl denominative, intransitive [past:

1 to call for, stipulate 2 to demand, require (e.g., expenditures)

excellent self-control.

hori mustard oil 2

colza, cole-seed

worthy 2.2 able 2.3 knowing something; trained to do

hu m. 1 antelope 2 wild goat 3 poetic gazelle


hv z m. Ahvaz (city)
huchshm having the eyes of a gazelle
ahurmazd m. Ormuzd (Zoroastrian diety)

ah m. century; epoch
hn m.
hingr m.
hin f. mirror
1 aj eh interjection hey, oh ! Sonny! My Son!
! Hey, Ahmed!
2 aj demonstrative pronoun dialect this, these
j particle really, indeed Is this really true?
Really! What is this that they are telling me?
Will something really happen?
j t m. Arabic plural from
aj z m. proper name Ajaz
ijlt m. Arabic district; province; state
ijalat adjective district
aj m m. Arabic plural from 2
aebr kil f. product key
ajbk m. singular & plural
ebont m. plural ebonite, ebony
ajt m. Arabic [plural: jt] Koranic verse
itlav 1 adjective Italian 2 m. Italian (person)
itlij f. Italy
ajt m m. Arabic plural from
ajitarne m. ethernet
i'tik l m. Arabic geology washing, erosion
itil f m. i'tilaf m. Arabic coalition, bloc
i'tilf adjective coalition, coalitional
jtm m. point, item to

something 2.4 fit, suitable

ahl Arabic domestic, domesticated, tame


ahlijt m. Arabic 1 professional qualification, speciality

horj m. 1 mustard

idzhb Arabic required, necessary


idzh d m. Arabic 1 creation, foundation; organization
invention 3 act of forming, act of organizing

compound verb a to create, found, organize b to invent c to

68

Pashto-English Dictionary

form, design

to sprinkle the head


with ashes; grieve deeply to
make an error in calculation, miscalculate to
embroil someone with someone else to fail to
be awarded something, be passed over He
avoid someone c idiom

compound verb a to be

created, be founded, be organized b to be invented c to be


formed, be designed

idzhdkar f. creativity, creative work


idzh m. idzhgj m. idzhj

m. 1 eunuch

grew pale.

2 pederast

dzhn m. 1 agent

1 irj f. idle talk to prate, talk nonsense


2 ir plural of
irij n m. Irian
rijl m. antenna
erev n m. Erevan (city)
i m. obsolete fleet
i b m. kind of bitter shrub
z za adjectival suffix place after vowels:

political agent 2

representative

edzhan f. dzhens f. agency


edzhne doublet word to
edzhjn Aegean the Aegean Sea
ikhodl transitive dialect
ikhavl transitive [past: ] to compel a camel to
lie down

id d m.
idj l m. ideal
idjl adjective ideal
emir l m. admiral
ajij f. idea
eik ng m. regional aide-de-camp
iz f. Arabic 1 damage, loss 2 anxiety, trouble

consisting of four points

izatj f. proper name Izati


izotp m. isotope
izomr chemistry isomer
eg m.
igd present stem of
gdi present tense of
is r
isrtj f. delay; stop
isravl denominative, transitive

to inflict damage; harm b to trouble, disturb

1 ajr m.
2 ir obtained; received
3 er 1
ir d m. Arabic 1 pronunciation, articulation (e.g., of

[past:

to

delay, stop 2 to besiege, blockade 3 figurative to place in a


difficult position 4 to limit, restrict, put restraint upon

isaredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be delayed, be detained, be stopped 2 to wait wait

speech); proclamation (statement, declaration, etc.) 2 mention

3 production of proofs 4 objection; cavil


It's impossible to find fault with him.
irdavl [past: ] to pronounce, articulate (e.g.,
speech); proclaim (a statement, etc.) He made

here 3 to be beseiged, be blockaded 4 figurative to find


oneself in a difficult situation 5 to be limited, be constrained

ist imperfective of
istd
istg m. & f. istg h m. [plural:
istghna f. plural: istg vi] stand, stop

a speech.

ir n m. Iran
irn irnj 1 Iranian 2 m. Iranian (person)
irvd f. the Irawaddy River
irb curved, crooked curved line
erj m. 1
irktsk m. Irkustsk (city)
jrlnd m. Ireland
irm m. coral
irn ash grey
iropz 1 base 2 cowardly
erodinmk m. aerodynamics
erodinmik aerodynamic
erost t m. balloon
ir f. ir usually plural ash, ashes reduce to
ashes, incinerate a to be burnt up, to smoulder, be
reduced to ashes b figurative to burn with shame a

harbor

istl Western 1 transitive [present: past:

.1 to throw out, discard; chuck out 1.2 extract, take out

to unsheathe a saber 1.3 to take off (a shoe,

article of clothing)

to take off someone's shoes

to undress 1.4 to rake out (e.g., ashes) 1.5 to extract,

to mine coal, extract coal 1.6 to exclude;


dismiss to leave someone's name off ,

obtain

to exclude someone from 1.7 to turn out, issue (production,


money, etc.)

to issue paper money

to

publish a newspaper 1.8 to start, put into operation 1.9 to let


out (air from a tire, balloon) 1.10 to expell, evict; turn out;
dismiss

to put out of the house 1.11

to invent; think up, devise 1.12 to unharness

to strew with ashes b to deprive of something, figurative to

69

Unharness the horse! 1.13 to show, extend something

Pashto-English Dictionary

(for inspection) 1.14 to tear out, pull out 1.15 to extract (e.g.,
a tooth) 1.16 chemistry & physiology to isolate, secrete 1.17
to remove, get rid of, liquidate

excitation; agitation; fit, paroxysm

ishnd 1 boiling 2 figurative aroused, excited, agitated


ishavl transitive [past: ] 1 to boil 2 to bring to

to remove, get rid

of, liquidate 1.18 to withdraw (e.g., troops from a country);


evacuate 1.19 to send out, put in front (i.e., a detachment)

fermentation 3 figurative to arouse, excite, agitate

ishavlj boiled ishavli boiled milk


soft-boiled egg
ish present of
eshj f. 2
ishedl eshedl intransitive [present: past:
present: ]1 to boil; boil up 2 to ferment; be in a state of

1.20 to build (a road); dig (a canal) 1.21 to transfer (to another

place) 1.22 to export 1.23 to drain (water) 1.24 to express


(i.e., gratitude) 1.25 to emit (a sound) 1.26 to come upon, get
on (the trail of) 2 m. plural
silkworm breeding, sericulture

istna f. 1 throwing away, rejection, chucking out 2


extracting, taking out 3 taking off (shoes, clothing) 4 raking
out (i.e., ashes) 5 extracting, obtaining, mining

fermentation 3 figurative to be aroused, be excited, be agitated;

be irritated, be annoyed

issuing (production, money, etc.) 8 starting, putting into


operation 9 dispatch; eviction 10 banishment 11 invention;
thinking up, conceiving 12 tearing out, extraction 13 removal,

ishikghs m. history master of ceremonies


ehl ihl transitive dialect
ihov imperfective of
ihod imperfective of
ihodl transitive Eastern eshodl [present: Western
past: ] 1 to put, place; stand, install; locate
Place the chair there. to
place a net on birds to put aside, move aside,
move out of the way 2 to put in to install a

secretion 15 elimination, removal, liquidation 16 withdrawal


(i.e., of troops) 17 forward emplacement (of a detachment) 18
building, laying (a road); digging (a canal) 19 export 20
word

production

eston 1 Estonian

1
2

ist m. plural
sta at the side (of something)

Estonian (person)

side

estonij f.

to flare up 4 to seethe

arousal, excitation; irritation

extraction (of a tooth) 14 chemistry & physiology isolation,

ishedlj 1 past participle of 2 boiled


ishedli boiled water, boiling water (for tea)
ishedna f. 1 boiling 2 fermentation 3 figurative

mining of coal 6 exclusion; elimination, leaving out 7 output,

draining, drainage (of water) idiom

ishn eshn f. 1 boiling 2 fermentation 3 figurative

Estonian language 2

windowpane 3 to plant (i.e., trees) 4 to put aside (for a

reserve) 5 to create, develop 6 to lay or place upon someone

over here, on this

a to remove; eliminate b to draw back (i.e.,

(i.e., responsibility) 7 to invest (capital) 8 to pay in (money) 9

curtain); clear (dishes away, etc.) c to get rid of, eliminate (a


defect) d to satisfy (requirements, etc.)

to lay, build (i.e., a road)

to move off,

go away, withdraw

ihodna f. 1 establishment, putting, placing,


arrangement; location 2 planting (i.e., trees) 3 setting aside

(for a reserve) 4 investment (capital) 5 laying, building (i.e., a

the people stepped aside


Get away from
here! Get out of here! idiom From here on, in
future It's been twenty-three years
Be off! Get away! !

road)

1 ihod ihod imperfective of


2 ihod m. plural
ihavl ishovl transitive dialect
ishvna f.
ihaj past participle of
is l m. 1 joining, conjunction; contiguity 2 assistance (i.e.,

already

jslend m. Iceland
jslend 1 Icelandic

the Icelandic

language 2 Icelander (person)

isnd fitting, suitable, proper


esavl transitive [past: ] adorn, beautify
1 se 2
2 se present of
isedl intransitive [past: ]to seem to be, appear to
be, present itself as to be, seem to be, appear to be
necessary to please; present a pleasing appearance
not to please; be unpleasant
ishla f. dance performed by females
eshle f. pancake

in attaining a goal) 3 progress (in some matter)

jzn Arabic also, as well


iz iz h f. Arabic m. [plural: izah t]
explanation, elucidation, illustration to explain,
elucidate, illustrate

itlav 1 Italian 2 m. Italian (person)


itlij f. Italy
1 egh pronoun Afridi 1
2 egh protruding, sticking out
70

Pashto-English Dictionary

estrgaj 1 jolly 2 smart, quick, spritely


eghngh 1 stiff with cold 2 stiff 3 figurative

3 il f. liquid mud
eledl denominative, intransitive

artificial,

unnatural

egh pronoun Afridi


eghj pronoun Afridi
gha feminine of 2
if f. Arabic 1 execution (i.e., of an obligation); fulfillment

eledna f. eledna m. plural 1 taming,


domesticating 2 conquering, conquest, subjugation,
subordination

elektronk m. electronics
elektronik electronic
im f. Arabic sign, hint; nod
ajm 1 m. people, tribe 2 m.

(i.e., of a promise) 2 payment, clearing (i.e., of a debt)

if d m. Arabic sending, delegation


i z m. Arabic awakening
ektr m. regional actor
ktrs f. regional actress
ekr m. acre
eksr f. eksrz m. plural x-ray, x-rays
x-ray apparatus x-ray room
ekvdr m. Equador
1 ik f. copper coin, copper, penny a trifle
2 ek only, sole
ekemi f. regional academy
1 el m. tribe, clan
2 el il 1 quiet; tame; domesticated (of animals) 2
submissive, obedient
3 jl m. plural 1 oil 2 petroleum
el p m. snake plant (a medicinal plant)
il m.
il relating to summer pasture a summer house
eln f. submissiveness
ilbnd m. summer pasture, mountain medow
ildzhr iladzhr
ilch m. obsolete 1 ambassador 2 herald, messenger
jlsvch m. technology oil switch
ilgh r m. ilghr m. attack, raid
elv laj m. submissiveness
elavl denominative [past: ] 1 to pacify; tame 2 to
il 1.1 free, discharged, released

ajm adjective Ajmak Ajmak sheep


im n m. Arabic 1 faith, belief; persuasion deep
conviction to believe in something 2
conscience; conscientiousness, honesty, decency to
confess honestly

imnd r 1 correct, true, devoted; reliable

devoted wife

May they have faith in thee! (a wish)

2 conscientious, honest, decent 3 convinced 4 devout, pious

imndr f. 1 faithfulness, devotion; reliability 2

sincerity; conscientiousness, honesty, probity

a to be faithful, be devoted b to be honest; be decent; be

sincere

imn pertaining to religion, religious


embulns m. regional ambulance; emergency medical
vehicle

emn quiet, peaceful; peace loving


emnv laj m. calm; peaceableness
emna 1 feminine singular of 2 f. proper name Emina
em possessive pronoun Afridi my
ajm f. history estate, fief
ajmad r m. history owner of a fief, feudal landlord
ni-juni fran m. regional history movement
opposing the creation of a single united province of West
Pakistan

release b to exude (i.e., gas) c to evacuate

a to free; discharge,

inch m. inch idiom

one's native land.

a to be

Every inch of

indzr m.
ind ra f. 1 mirror 2 glass
indtb m. indv laj m. reservation of an animal

freed, be discharged, be released b to be leaked out (i.e., gas) c

I had a narrow escape.


It is just beginning to dawn. 2.2 just, only only now
... I just now noticed that
... We had only just sat down to
to be evacuated 1.2 itinerant, wandering 2.1 hardly, barely

for productive or breeding purposes

1 jand 1 future; approaching, coming 2 f. future


at a future time; in the future in future
in the near future to put off to the

eat when 2.3 in all, in toto

plural the Ajmaks (a

nationality) 3 m. Ajmak (tribesman)

conquer; subjugate, subordinate to

[past: ] 1 to be

tamed 2 to be conquered, be subjugated, be subordinated

future

iladzhr 1.1 voluntary; pertaining to military volunteers

ind m. [plural: ind n] agriculture sire, stud (ram,


bull, etc.) to reserve for breeding to be

1.2 partisan 2.1 m. volunteer; militia volunteer 2.2 a partisan

ilagard f. vagabondage, vagrancy


1 l li here, over here, this way
2 ilj f. 1

reserved for breeding


71

Pashto-English Dictionary

to drink
to drink a lot idiom

nda f. drink, gulp

off at one draught

bb 1 predicate suitable; widespread; brought into use;

accepted 2 m. spreading, dissemination 3 combining form

to dress up, dress smartly


4 ind f. colza, cole, rape
ajnka f. usually plural ajnki glasses, spectacles
a to wear glasses b to put glasses on
ing eng f. inga (the female companion of a new bride

plurality, collectivity

bb m. 1 vocative father

dried fruit

groceries

Father! 2 vocative

Grandfather! 3 grandfather 4 [plural: bbg n] ancestors

idiom Kokhibaba Range


2 bb children's speech ! Beat him!
bbdzh m. grandfather
bbz m. plural Babazi (a subdivision of the Momands)
bb-al-mandb m. Bab-el'-Mandeb

chosen from among her relatives, and who lives in the house of
her husband for some time after the wedding)

in f. anatomy liver
ev dzaj iv zaj dialect
1 ajv n m. colloquial 1 2 child
2 ajv n m. hall, gallery
ajv n-i-'m m. regional the House of Commons
ajb m. Arabic proper name 1 Ayub 2 proper name Job
1 ajubz m. plural the Ayubzi (tribe) 2 ajubzj m.

Strait

bbh f. 1 fatherhood 2 figurative ironic good deed;

patronage

Have you

decided to be my benefactor with this?

relative to this,
concerning this; in connection with this relative

Ayubzai (tribesman)

bbt m. Arabic question, problem

to, in relation to someone

j f. Arabic
h interjection hey, look here, ahoy
n m. 1 rite, ceremony; custom, procedure 2 law; legal
code; statute; regulations unlawful
in f. mirror signal mirror to look in

inakhn f. room, chamber; small room usually in the

ainas z m. mirror stand, mirror holder

the Garden of Babur (in Kabul)

bbu m.

Sultan

bb 1 m. plural Babyr (tribe) 2 Babyr (person) 3 proper


noun Babyr

bbk m. bbk m. bbk m. vocative father, papa


(as a term of endearment)

the mirror

bbr m. 1 lion 2 proper name Babur, Baber

Babur

bbl m. Arabic history Babylon


1 bb m. vocative father, papa
2 bb m. 1 clerk; office worker, employee (from local
inhabitants, in India) office workers 2 gentlemen;

upper part of a dwelling

chiefs

the abjad system

official abbreviation

bi Arabic preposition or prefix used with Arabic words

especially, particularly

3 bb f. older sister
1 bbuz m. plural

be 1 the second letter of the Pashto alphabet 2 the number 2 in

(person)

bbavl denominative, transitive [past:


disseminate; bring into use

personally, in person

b children's speech bah-bah (imitating sheep)

b Farsi preposition or prefix indicating the presence of some

significant

abbreviation

well brought up

news agency Bakhtar

the agency Bakhtar

important;

the

to spread,

bbul la f. wedding lament (a lamentation of the bride at the

form of address to an elderly woman)

bbedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be spread


around, be disseminated; be used; be accepted, be usual

badaba well brought up


bins fa honorable, honest; just
bahamijt bahammijt important, significant
1 bb m. Arabic [plural: bbna Arabic plural:

bbedna f. babed m. plural dissemination, spreading


bberj m. 1 recurrence, relapse (of a sickness)
He's sick again with a fever. 2 price increase
He raised the price of grapes. 3 addition to bride

abv b] 1 door 2 number used when counting buildings, schools,


etc. 3 chapter, section (of a book) 4 question, problem, matter

wedding rite) idiom to speak nonsense


1 bbna m. plural of 1
2 bbavna f. spreading, dissemination; bringing into use
1 bb 1 m. plural Babi (tribe) 2 bbj m. Babi (person)
2 bbj f. 1 bride (brother's wife) 2 mother, auntie (familiar

quality or attribute

Babuzai (tribe) 2 bbuzj Babuzaj

money, increase in the amount of bride amount (after bargaining)

relative to this; about this; for this reason


72

Pashto-English Dictionary

bbz

1 unimportant, mediocre 2 vain, futile

all of his efforts were futiles 3 bad, base (of a person) 4

orchestra) idiom

2 bdzh
bch m.

bad, nasty (of a word)

bbezv laj m. low quality; mediocrity


bbezkaj 1 bad (diminutive form) 2 thin, puny
bbezvl denominative, predicate [past: ]

m. brother-in-law (wife's sister's husband)

[plural: bchah n] 1 king 2 title of a sayyid

or descendent of followers of the prophet

bchdzh m. vocative master, sayyid


bch m.
bchha f. [plural: bchah ni] 1 queen 2 queen bee
bchah f. kingdom
bhssa sympathethic; responsive
bkhabr bkhabra informed, knowledgeable
informed circles
to be informed, be

to spoil

something; break off some matter

btadzhrib experienced; having experience, practice


btadbra bright, sharp, quick (on the uptake)
btaklfa difficult, heavy, burdensome; full of grief,
deprivation a bad year, difficult year
1 btr btr 1.1 mighty 1.2 heroic; brave; courageous

2 m.

.1 hero; brave man 2.2 proper name Batur

2 btr m. btr pupil (of the eye)


btur f. thorn-apple
btur f. btor f. heroism; courage, bravery, daring
to show heroism; be courageous
1 btj m. large saucepan
2 btj f. singular & plural 1 wick, fuse 2 medicine probe
1 bterj m. quail
2 bterj f. female quail
btingr m. 1 tomato 2 dialect asafetida (a gum resin)
b m. whetstone, hone compound verb to sharpen (on

knowledgeable in something; to recognize, find out something

bkhtr m. history 1 Baktriya 2

the Bakhtar (news) agency

bkhtar history 1 of or from Baktriya 2 person from

Baktriya idiom Iranian languages


bkhh imperfect from
bkhmalj f. 1
bkh f. fairy-tale witch
1 bd m. 1 wind wind from the mountains
south wind west wind north wind
east wind the wind is blowing a cold
wind blew a beaten by the wind b having caught cold c
figurative gone insane 2 air (in a balloon, ball, etc.) to

a whetstone)

b ra f. large hail
br bk boastful
blj m. diminutive pail a pail of water
b m. braggart; haughty person, boastful person
bavl m. 1 denominative [past: ] to sharpen (on a
whetstone) 2 [past: ] figurative to incite, arouse
b a f. usually plural bi boasting, bragging
to boast, brag
bhrs m. Baterst (a locality)
bedl intransitive and to brag, boast
big m. beg m. [plural: big plural:
beg bing m. plural: bing n] tomato
bsarvta wealthy, well-to-do
bsamra fruitful; sucessful
bdzh m. history tribute, tax to pay tribute, pay tax
bdzhd r m.
bdzhr f. kind of sorghum, Holcus spicatus
bdzh m. downpour
bdzhguz r m. history one paying tribute or tax
bdzhgr m. history collector of tribute
bdzhandzh la strained, tense; intensive

inflate, pump up (a balloon, ball, etc.) 3 wind (intestinal), flatus 4

rheumatism (in the joints); arthritis

b d-i a erysipelas b

St. Anthony's fire c syphilis 5 figurative breathing, blowing (of

compound
idiom oppressive hot weather remained
a to brag, boast b to make a show of bravery c to
pursue a useless task to beat the air, mill the wind
this is a vain undertaking to babble
foolishness, speak nonsense to insult, humiliate, shame;
the wind) 6 figurative boastfulness, bragging

verb

to degrade

2 bd colloquial after a while


bd r m. master (in relation to a servant), sir (landed gentry)
bd ra f. [plural: bdr ni] mistress (in return to a
servant), ma'am

bdr f. dominion

someone

bd m m. 1 almond tree

hard shell

to hold sway over

almond with

almond with soft shell 2 kind of

embroidery 3 woman's adornment worn over the temples (in a

intensive year

bdzhav m.
bdzhavj

to play (of an
harmonica harmonium

bdzh f. 1 brass band 2 music

form resembling an almond)

bdmch f. 1 wild almond


bdm f. snowstorm

Badzhaur
m. inhabitant of Badzhaur, Badzhaurian
73

2, 3

Pashto-English Dictionary

bdmng adjective fast


bdindzh n m. eggplant
bdav m badv ma firm, solid; lengthy, lasting
coal burns a long time
bdv n m.
bdr
bdurn
bdur f.
bdvaj 1 knocked down by the wind 2 m. fallen grain,

bdm 1 almond-like (of the eyes); oval 2 cream-colored;

brown; beige

bdb n m. 1 sail 2 lampshade


bdbnd r bdbn adjective

sailing

sailboat

bdbark m. botany baby's breath


bdbezj m. 1 ventilator 2 fan
bdph m. 1
bdphj m. fast runner
bdpak f.
bdpuzhn haughty, arrogant
bdpez f. nonsense, foolishness, absurdity

fallen fruit

to do

figurative spineless person; someone lacking character

bdavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to winnow


(grain) 2 to pour, spread (earth, etc.) 3 figurative to squander,

something stupid; behave thoughtlessly, act carelessly

bdpajm swift as the wind a fast ship


bddzhaj f. 1 downpour 2 snowdrift
bdkhr m. bdkhork m. kestrel, windhover (a

toss to the wind

bdavna f. winnowing (grain)


bd f. wine
bdhav f. snake (made of paper)
bd 1.1 filled with air or gas; aerial 1.2 wind (powered)
windmill 1.3 pneumatic 1.4 figurative flighty, empty-

kind of falcon)

badkhor f. 1 tuberculosis of the skin, lupus vulgaris 2

tumor 3 final stage of syphilis

bdr m. period of time corresponding approximately to


February

headed 1.5 figurative haughty (of a person) 2 m. .1 someone

bdr
bdurn
bdrb m. snowdrift
bdrng m. bdrng
2

suffering from rheumatism 2.2 agriculture winnower (of grain)


2.3 swift camel

hinged pane for ventilation


bdr m. regional second month of monsoons (August-

a to be

to be agitated, be covered

with waves; to seethe, boil up

bd ski f. plural hide-and-seek (children's game)


br 1 m. regional borderline (of tribes); border, boundary

September)
2 sayyid, lord, sir 3 queen bee

bdshhn 1 regal, royal 2 in a regal manner


bdshhzdj f. princess
bdshh 1 regal, royal 2 f. kingdom, realm

relating to a tribal boundary

bsi f. plural
bgl m. 1 reins 2 string; rope, cord
bng m. 1 cucumber 2 figurative blockhead, stupid

4 proper noun Badshah

person

to

b m. 1 blockhead, stupid person 2 coward


bl m. teapot
b f. bj f. body (of a car); hull (of a ship)
1 br 1 m. .1 load, burden; pack a to fasten a load,

hold sway

bdghz m. airhole, vent (in a stove)


bdghis t m. plural Badghisat (a region)
bdghis adjective of or from Badghisat

secure a pack figurative b to succeed in something, obtain

Badghisat wool

to winnow (grain)

bdj n m. star anise


bdh m. flue (in a stove)
bdign m.
b ska f. wave

bdrv m. 1 opening in the wall (for ventilation) 2 small

bdur f.
bdsh h m. 1 king, padishah

winnowed (of grain) b to suffer rheumatism

[plural: bdrng plural:


bdrang n plural: bdrng n] cucumber

bdkaj m. 1 breeze 2 figurative stupid person 3

bd-i-farang m. 1 erysipelas 2 St. Anthony's fire 3

something

He'll hardly succeed in this.

a to

transport a load, carry a load b m. plural transfer a load,

syphilis

bdita attentive
bdkh m. 1 flue 2 ventilator
bdkob f. snowstorm
bdkuj f. snowdrift
bdgol f. medicine colic
bdimgha sensible, clever, quick-witted; thoughful

a cart 1.2 figurative load;


to load heavily to be
subservient, to subordinate oneself to someone 1.3 fruit
to bear fruit to set (development of fruit after
transport of a load

oppression

pollination) 2 predicate .1 loaded, laden 2.2 figurative

74

Pashto-English Dictionary

overwhelmed (with worries) idiom

brubun f. travel gear; pack; baggage


brt m. plural gunpowder idiom

to receive benefit

from someone

2 br m. one time, once often


3 br m. 1 field; plain 2 combining form Hindustan
br n m. rain a fine and intermittent rain
a heavy rain, a downpour
agriculture irrigation by sprinkling a light rain, a
shower today is a rainy day it's raining
Western it has stopped raining
brnk m. 2
brngj m. rain shower
1 brn adjective rainy; monsoon rainy weather
2 brnj f. umbrella; raincoat, mackintosh
3 brnj f. dry-farming land (i.e., without artificial irrigation)
brbard r adjective freight, cargo; cartage
brbardr f. 1 transport, transfer of freight, cargo

useless venture; to act for no purpose

bruthkhn f. powder store


brd m. plural
brudsz f. manufacture of powder
br vnkaj adjective of a load; pack
cargo ship pack animal
1 broz m. plural Barozi (tribe) 2 brozj m. Barozj
(tribesman)

1 to load,

bravl transitive [past: ] to stir up (against); to

same thing

b ra f. 1 fortification; rampart 2 large dam 3 barrier,


br particle 1 and behold 2 even

he has come b Even he has come

2 double bag or

brchln f. shipping of cargo; dispatching


bts k m. gusset (in a shirt)
brkh m. cheek
brd r 1 of a load 2 fruit bearing 3 covered with fruit
brd ra 1 feminine singular of 2 f. pregnant
brid Arabic plural the Arctic
brz Arabic 1 apparent, obvious 2 successful (of a person)
brselon f. Barcelona (city)
1 brk m. proper name Bark (eponym of the Barakzi tribe)
2 brk m. barracks; wooden barrack, hut
brakall Arabic interjection bravo! well done!
brakz 1 m. plural Barakzi (tribe) m. 2 Barakzj

a And behold

brj b deserving of a reception or an audience


brjbedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

to be

deserving of a reception or an audience

bredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


loaded up 2 to be packed, be wrapped 3 figurative to be
burdensome, be a burden for someone 4 to migrate

bredna f. bred m. plural 1 loading; packing 2


wrapping up; packaging 3 migration

brksh m. scoop, bucket (of a lifting wheel)

brk 1 thin; narrow 2 tender; soft 3 figurative delicate,

sensitive (of a question) 4 figurative penetrating

refine; make thinner, narrow b to soften, make tender idiom

brkh adjective 1.1 pack; cartage; draught 1.2 humble,

meek 2.1 rope for tying on a pack 2.2 beast of burden

to say

(tribesman)

a to

a to

to go carefully into something; investigate

something

work at carrying; transport cargo b to transfer, drag loads

brka f. barka (a kind of wool fabric)


brg h m. palace, mansion; royal tent
brnm f. invoice, waybill
brnts Barents Sea

brasingh m. regional deer


1 br m. Arabic God; divine being, deity
2 brj m. crowbar
3 br 1 draught (of cattle) 2 fruitful, fruitbearing (of a tree)
4 bri bre modifies force of imperative 1 come on let's!; one
time, once just let me 2 in a word, briefly, that is

sack

brkah f. carrying; transport of cargo

obstruction, obstacle

2 unmarried, single

brtng m. botany plantain


brar f. trade clearing (of accounts)
brdzhm f. 1 duck (a kind of sailcloth)

bravl denominative, transitive [past:

bromtr m. barometer
bravna f. 1 loading, packing 2 shipping, sending
1 br f. in this respect
about, concerning something relative to the

(woman)

instigate

to load b to pack

brbelz stray, ownerless (of cattle)


brbelza 1 f. singular from

pack 2 to ship, send

collective 2 animal-drawn transport; draft animals

brbnd m. enclosure, pen (for cattle)


brband f. 1 loading, loading up 2 packing

literal

to try to shoot with no gunpowder figurative to undertake a

brikbn penetrating, shrewd, perspicacious; understanding

something to a fine degree

bill of lading

brik f. 1 fineness; narrowness 2 tenderness; softness 3

figurative sensitivity, delicacy 4 figurative acuteness,


shrewdness

75

to be penetrating, show acuity

Pashto-English Dictionary

b m. volley, salvo; firing

to fire a volley

bs r madman
bstn ancient
bsfos m. the Bosphorus

to

carry on firing

bkh m. bkh m.
bk m. botany saxaul (haloxylon)
bv k careless, negligent
1 b f. rent; freight charge; payment (for passage,
accommodations, etc.) to collect rent,
freightage, payment for something to pay in rent,
freightage; to make payment compound
verb to rent, hire, charter to rent out
2 b a f. 1 temporary fence 2 enclosure (for cattle)
3 b f. the Bara (river) bara rice (a high-quality

(strait)

in Central Asia) 2 adjective basmach

and writing

bsavd f. literacy
bs f.
bs 1 not fresh, rotten 2 stale (of bread)
bsil bacillary
bsharfa 1 honest; noble 2 honored
bshr m. Bashkir
bshir adjective Bashkir the Bashkir language
bshukh bshukha magnificent, luxurious
bh m. steed with a white star on its forehead and white

bj m. 1 pay, reward for work; remuneration 2 bribe 3

food used for a cow or goat when milking


b m. servant, worker

to hire a servant or worker

bj f. 1 fence 2 front garden 3 garden plot 4 cultivated


earth 5 military parapet 6 society

bem r m. hired worker


1 bz m. [plural: bz n plural:

bzna] 1 kind of

stockings

bhagj f.
bkh f. kind of hawk (female)
bhagj f. hawk moth, sphingid
bhn m. kind of hawk (male)
bsihhta well, healthy
bsir f. Arabic sight sight
bzbta disciplined
btr f. btar
btl Arabic 1 invalid, null, revoked 2 futile, vain, useless

btl m. swamp; bog
btilnm f. letter about rescinding a warrant,

hawk (usually the female, Accipiter gentilis) 2 hunting bird 3

Zejnb
he doesn't
he's given over to

proper name Baz idiom

doesn't want to marry Redj Gl.


love us

daydreams

2 bz m. dialect bamboo
bz r m. 1 bazaar, marketplace to go to the
marketplace )( there's now a great
demand for raisins the demand now for
wool is bad 2 figurative area, sphere, arena

bzr 1 of the bazaar, market m. 2.1 tradesman at a

marketplace 2.2 town-dweller 2.3 commonplace person

bzkh st m. making accountable; punishment


bzd r m. hunting falconer
bzras f.
bzl transitive [past: ] 1 to lose (e.g., money)

bsmach m. 1 basmach (member of anti-Soviet movement

bsm f. tightly-woven textile (used for curtains)


bsna f. 1 conclusion 2 extracting; an extract
bsav d bsav da literate to teach reading

rice)

the Bosphorus

notification refusing an assignment

btilv laj m. futility, vainness, needlessness


btilavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

1 to

annul, revoke, declare invalid 2 to make futile, vain, useless

2 to

btiledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


invalid, be revoked, lose force 2 to be useless, needless

squander, waste 3 theater to play (a role) 4 to give (a bribe)

bzna f. 1 loss (e.g., of money) 2 wastefulness, extravagance


bz m. 1 hand, arm 2 side (e.g., of a bed) 3 hinge (of a door)

btn m. Arabic 1 interior, inside 2 figurative innermost

thoughts idiom nearby, limited


btin Arabic 1 internal 2 figurative hidden; innermost
btmi m. Batmi (city)
b's m. Arabic [plural: b'isna Arabic plural:
bav's] reason, cause because of something; due

4 military flank 5 small lever

bzubnd m. bracelet (worn on the forearm)


bz f. 1 game toys playground
to play to play with someone 2 deception
to deceive
bzich f. toy
bzigr m. bzingr m. 1 player 2 conjurer 3
rogue; swindler regional idiom tumbler pigeon
1 bs m. latrine
2 bs present verb stem from

to something

ba'istj f. cause, (underlying) condition


b'id Arabic distant
b'azamta majestic; magnificient; grand
b'amla energetic, active (of a person)
76

Pashto-English Dictionary

bgh m. 1 garden

municipal garden

2 bk m. Baku (city)
bkasraj m. short-horned ram
bkj f. vomiting; vomit
bkjfa pleasant a life full of pleasures
bg zh m. baggage
bgr m. reins
bgra f. bg f. bgolj f. bgva

bgh-i

Bagibala (palace in Kabul) 2 kitchen garden, vegetable garden 3


Bagh (center of Tirach, region of the Aphridian tribes)

bghb aj bghb gh quite satisfied; beaming


to give great joy, make very happy
he's beaming from joy; he's very contented
the spirit rejoices unwittingly

bghb n m.

witch; hag

bga f. bragging, boasting to brag, boast


bl 1.1 above, from above; high up 1.2 higher 1.3

bghch f. 1 flower bed; flower garden 2 vegetable garden


bghd r m. 1 gardener 2 owner of a garden 3 market

gardener

bghdr f. gardening, horticulture

gardening

over,

above, more than 2 upper, located in the upper part of something

blb d m. southwest wind


blph m. topcoat, overcoat
bilidzhm l Arabic in short, concisely, in general outline
blhis r m. Balahisar (fortress in Kabul)
blkhn f. 1 upper story of a house; superstructure 2

to practice

bghl m. bghul m. plural beans of the field


bghvl m. gardener, horticulturist
bghv n m. 1 gardener 2 market gardener
bghvn f. 1 gardening, horticulture 2 market gardening
a to practice gardening b to practice market gardening
bgh m. 1 medicine mumps 2 anatomy parotid gland
bghul m. plural
1 bgh 1 garden, horticultural 2 market-gardening
2 bgh m. Arabic insurgent, striker; rebel _ to go on

balcony

bilkhir Arabic finally, at last


blmurgh b m. Bala-Morghab, Bala-Murghab (town)
blb l
blbachd r adjective regional family, having a
family I have a family.
bilbadh Arabic suddenly
bilbadih Arabic ex promptu, without preparation
blt m. ballet
bltk Baltic Sea
bltik adjective Baltic
blj f. [plural: bljg ni] 1 bucket 2 (galvanic)
element dry element
blk
blik
bilkhss Arabic especially, in particular
blkhsh m. Lake Balkhash
bilkhuss Arabic especially, in particular
bizz t Arabic by its nature, in essence
blistk bllistk 1 ballistic

strike, raise a rebellion; to rebel

3 bghj m. reserve, preserve


baghijn f. rebellious; unruly rebellion
bghich f.
bghajrta Arabic valiant, worthy of glory
bft m. 1 weaving 2 knitting 3 braiding the hair 4 kind of
woman's hairdo

b'id repaired, restored; regular


b'idag f. 1 state of good repair; regularity 2
agreement; harmony a in good repair; regularly
b harmoniously; in an orderly way

f.

b Arabic 1 remaining 2 m. .1 arrears 2.2 math

difference

bij t m. Arabic plural 1 arrears 2 survivals, relics


bimnd 1 remaining 2 m. remainder
bk m. 1 fear, fright; anxiety; unrest to be afraid, take
fright; he's not afraid of this 2 concern idiom
! no problem, it's all right!
bkter f. & m. bkterij f. bacteria

intercontinental ballistic missile 2 m. ballistics

blshevsm m. Bolshevism
blshevk 1 m. Bolshevik 2 adjective Bolshevik
blht m. [plural: blihtn plural:
blihtna] pillow

bacilli

bkterjolozh 1 f. bacteriology 2 bacteriological


bkterij f.
bksng m.
bkifjt talented, gifted; capable, skillful
bkifjta efficient, capable, qualified
bkam la skilled; learned, erudite
1 bk m. 1 elder brother 2 proper name Bako

blihtk m.

blihtgoj m. 1 small pillow,

cushion 2 padding, packing, separator (of wood or similiar


material)

bizzarr Arabic certainly; without fail


bittb' Arabic in point of fact, in essence
bil'ks Arabic on the contrary
bil'umm Arabic generally, in general
77

despite this

Pashto-English Dictionary

blgh Arabic 1 grown-up; mature; of age 2 m. grown man


campaign against illiteracy courses to

1 bn m. regional missile, rocket


2 bn m. Bonn (city)
3 b n m. suffix doer of an action gardener
bn m. part, a part (of a car and so forth)
bndzhn violet, lavender
bndzh m. [plural: bndzh] eggplant
eggplant tomato tomatoes
tomato juice
bndzh m. newly-born puppy
bnd f. military band
bndng m. Bandung (city in West Java, Indonesia)
bndi bnde Eastern 1 combined with the preposition
(Eastern )or without it .1 on (on the surface of something)
my book is on the table to stand or
put onto something, load onto something to be placed,
put or loaded onto something 1.2 with, with the help of
with the help of someone with the aid of

end illiteracy

bilfrz Arabic let's suppose; supposedly


bilf'l Arabic in fact, actually
bl n m. [plural: bln t] Balkans
the Balkan peninsula

bilkl bilkll Arabic


blkach m.

altogether, absolutely, completely


blk m. follower of a fakir (learning

from him and serving his needs)

bilmsl Arabic analogous; identical, the same


bilmubil Arabic in reply; in exchange; in turn
binnatidzh Arabic as a result
blng m. [plural: blang n] large wild orange tree
bl m. [plural: bl] 1 fuel 2 dung-brick fuel 3 kind
of roast (meat)

bl m. regional beast of prey


bln m. bln m. 1 balloon

something 2.1 adverb on him, her, it; on them; onto him, her, it

2 rubber ball 3 balloon,

aerostat

blon spherical
bl imperfect from to be called
blj f. earrings
blistk
bligj m. foundling
bln m.
blijs m. Balijus (ancient name of the Kandahar Province)
bm m. 1 roof 2 top (of a carriage) 3 flooring, planking
bmk f. Bamako (city)
bmbr m.
bmba f. flame
bmb m. Brahmin
bmba f.
1 bmb m. buzzing (of insects)
2 bmb m. bamboo
bmbur f. top (the toy)
bmb m. noise, uproar, commotion to make noise,

him. 2.3

gathered around him

bnditb m.
bndinj 1 upper 2 someone else's, another's

3 external,

foreign

bndiv laj m. 1 height 2 figurative superiority


bn r m.
1 bn f. 1 pen for cattle (summer pasturing); fence behind

which cattle are driven 2 small village 3 camp of nomads, cattle


herders 4 settlements 5 body, torso 6 used in geographical

place names Gudzharobanda (an inhabited locality)


2 bn m. proper name Banda
3 bn destroyed, annihilated; killed, fallen
bnach m. bnaw l m. 1 one who is living at a
mountain pasture 2 villager, peasant, farmer

bnechj m.

bnesj m. 1 nomad herdsman,

shepherd; one who lives on the steppe 2 summer resident in the

make a racket

country

bmra f. edge; border, hem, edging


bml transitive [past: ] to strike up a friendship,

bnes f. summer camp, area where nomads make camp in

the summer

bnr m. leaf of the date-palm tree


bns m. bamboo
bnish ta adjective cheerful, buoyant, hale and hearty (of a

maintain friendship, befriend

bma f. thick smoke


bmnkaj 1 present participle from

Ahmed shouted to
around him, her, it, them everyone

2.2 to him, her, it; to them

2.1 m. tutor,

educator 2.2 friend

person)

1 bm f. end of winter
2 bm imperfect from
3 b ma singular oblique from
bmij n m. sometimes plural Bamian (city)
Bamian Pass Bamian Province
bmj f. okra, Hibiscus esculentus

78

bank of commerce, commercial


bank agricultural bank
national bank Afghan Bank, Bank of Afghanistan
state bank, government bank
bnkd r m. banker, bank owner
bnkdr f. banking business
bnk m. bank

Pashto-English Dictionary

bnkr m.
bnks m.
bnks adjective bamboo
bnk larnkaj m.
bnknt m. bank note
bnkn m. bank note
1 bnk f. ankle bracelet
2 bnk m. 1 bnk m.
1 bnk m.
2 bnk adjective bank, banking
bnkj m. 1 dandy, fop 2 conceited person
bng m. 1 crow, crowing (of a rooster) 2 muezzin's call to
prayer compound verb a to crow (of a

bwar adjective reliable, trustworthy; earnest

earnestly

1 bwj f. plateau
2 bwj f. large well
bwsr m. singular & plural piles, hemorrhoids
bwll transitive [past: ] to train for hunting (a bird or
a dog)

bwlna f. training to hunt, training for hunting (a bird or a

dog)

1 bwl adjective dull, stupid; ignorant


2 bwl imperfective of
1 bwlj m. bait (used in training hunting birds or dogs)

2 bwlj adjective 1 feigning bravery, pretending to be brave

rooster) b to call to prayer (of a muezzin)

1 bngaj m. tongs (blacksmith's)


2 bnguj m. cockerel, young rooster
1 bng m. 1 crowing rooster 2 muezzin
2 bng m. yoke (for carrying buckets, etc.)
3 b ng m. Bangui (capital of the Central African Republic)
bngej m. cockerel, young rooster
1 bn m. 1 kind of insect 2 kind of apricot
2 bn f. 1 lady 2 Bannu (city in northern Pakistan)
bn f. pretext, excuse to look for an opportunity

2 pretending to be business-like, efficient

bwl m. place where a bird or dog is training for hunting

bwlj f 1 path or stairs leading to a well or kahriz 2


reservoir near a well, chute for water

bw
bw
bhr
home

to harm somebody

m.

m. syphilitic

bham adjective collective, joint; common

together

bn m. Arabic founder, initiator


bnn m. falcon
b m. rope made of palm leaves
bs m. 1 bamboo 2 bamboo rod, pole
bk f. ankle bracelet
bu m. [plural: bug n] eyelash a
to close the eyes b figurative to die c to blink
idiom to have evil designs towards someone a to
be insidious b to be sad to insult
bok adjective tipsy, drunk
b m. plural eyelashes
bechgh m. swing, seesaw
bw m. syphilis
bwidzhd na adjective honest, conscientious, decent,

in the evening I don't eat at

life

bahonr adjective skillful, able


bh m. bracelet (for arms or legs)
bj 1 m. .1 loss (in sports, gambling, etc.) 1.2 loss, waste 2
first separable syllable of the verb !
look out, don't get lost!

bj m. computer science byte


b jd adverb should, must, ought to, is necessary
What ought one to do?, What should be done?; sometimes
combines with the hortative particle
necessary that we meet

it is

b jd, b jid 1 should, must, ought to, is necessary


He ought to go We ought not to
go 2 f. due, appropriate observe wedding rites
b jskl, b jsicl m. bicycle
b jskalsaw r, b jsklsaw r m. bicyclist
bjskp m. regional motion picture projector
b ' m. Arabic seller, vendor
bj l m. Baykal
bjk m. boycott compound verb to boycott
bjk m. Salvadora persica (a kind of tree)
bjl t m. 1 loss; defeat suffer defeat

respectable

bwodzhd in spite of, despite, not withstanding, against


in spite of this
bwr m. faith, confidence self-confidence
to trust somebody, to rely on somebody
to believe someone's words ... I am sure
that

bwarch m. 1 cook 2 messenger


bwarchikhn f. regional kitchen
bwar kr m. credit card

in war, in battle 2 loss, waste

bjll 1 transitive [past: ] .1 to lose, to be defeated


1.2 lose something; forfeit something 2 m. plural .1 loss; defeat

79

Pashto-English Dictionary
2.2 loss, waste of something

idiom get lost

butkh k m. Butkhak (inhabited place near Kabul)


butkhn f. idol
batr worst; very bad
butshikn m. 1 history religion iconoclast 2 person who

Don't get lost!

bjlna f. 1 loss; defeat 2 loss, waste of something


bjlodl transitive dialect
bjldaj past participle of
They lost valuable time idiom a heart in love
bjlawl transitive dialect
bajlodzh f. biology
biolodzhik adjective biological
1 bj m. regional old chap, old fellow
2 bj interjection well Well, you can

combats prejudice, outdated ideas, beliefs

batk m. 1 batka f. flask; water bottle, canteen


1 batka f. flask; water bottle, canteen
2 batka f. goose
1 batakj m. flask, water bottle
2 butkj f. gold coin; gold piece
batla f. young chicken, pullet
bitn m. plural concrete compound verb to cover

say what you want.

with concrete, lay concrete

babr m. lion

1 bta f. goose
2 but f. type of embroidery
1 bt, bat f. glue, starch; size, sizing
2 bat f. fallow land, fallow
3 bat, bt f. reproach, rebuke

babr 1 tousled, shaggy, disheveled 2 hairy 3 dense, thick (of


wood) 4 figurative angry, cross, irate

babrstnaj m. type of English rifle


babrsraj adjective tousled, shaggy, disheveled
babrghwgaj m. English 11-round rifle
1 babrk m. proper noun Babrk
2 bbrk m. castor (textile)
babrawl, babarawl denominative, transitive [past: ]

4 batj f. 1 candle 2 wick


ba m. 1 oven for baking brick, kiln

babrj m. [plural:

hunting dog

babrij n and

luck

babr] shaggy

barj or baarj and


storage battery

bastrgaj goggle-eyed, lobster-eyed


basra f. coarse-ground flour
basraj m. straw remaining after threshing; straw left on

colloquial to snap at, bristle

the threshing floor

babghj, babghj poor; unfortunate


bibliogrf f. bibliography
1 babw m. elf, goblin (fantastic being that frightens children)
2 bab f. disease of horses
3 bab f. mother (form of addressing a mother or an old woman)
bbottaj m. bbotatj f. hoopoe
bbdzaj m. damper (in a flue)
bbzaj, bbuzaj m. 1 fan electric fan

bak
bal m. motar (for grinding hashish or naswar)
compound verb to grind in a mortar (hashish or nasvar)

bala f.
ban f. regional button; push-button, call-button
baw f. regional bag, handbag (lady's, etc.)
1 ba f. 1 fish and rice 2 dialect unseasoned boiled rice
porridge

compound verb to fan 2 sail 3 kingfisher, halcyon

babkaj m. hoopoe
1 babj m. snipe (bird)
2 babj f. 1 older sister

bar, baar f. [plural:

barig n or baarig n] battery

babrj, babrj m. basil

babredl, babaredl denominative, intransitive [past:


1 become tousled, become shaggy, disheveled 2 figurative,

2 griddle for frying kernels

of corn or peas 3 hot, burning desert 4 figurative success, good

1 to tousle, ruffle, rumple 2 figurative to anger, to enrage


1

compound verb to

reproach, rebuke

2 ba f. thumb thumb
1 ba f. barley juice, extracted liquid from barley
2 baj f. stove, kitchen range electric stove
atomic reactor compound verb to fry, to grill
3 be f. barley porridge
bebjb n hot, sweltering desert
bajrj m. baiwl m. 1 vendor of sweets and

2 sis (form of addressing an older

sister) 3 wise and beautiful woman

babzna f. shivers, shivering, chill, fever


bipr, bapr m.
1 but m. idol, statue
2 bat m. stone masonry (the walls of a well, kahriz, etc.)
bat ra, bt ra f. club, cudgel
batljn m. battalion
butparst m. idolater, idol-worshiper

roasted kernels 2 baker

budzh m. [plural:

budzh n] seed (e.g., of a melon,

watermelon)

80

badzh m. sound during milking

Pashto-English Dictionary

badzh m. log (a segment of the trunk of a tree when stripped of

branches)

bachkaj m. 1 string, lace 2 toe (of shoes) 3 ribbon (for the

hair)

budzh lazy
budzh ngi f. plural rags
badzhz Arabic with the exception of, excepting, excluding,


idiom to have success, be lucky in something
. Just now Reday Gul is having luck
in everything He was unlucky.
budzhulb z m. player of the knucklebones game
budzhlka, budzhulka f. 1 ankle, anklebone 2 knucklebone;
compound verb to play knucklebones
1 bidzhl f. 1 electricity electric industry 2

bachwaj m. 1 2 ribbon (for the hair)


1 bach m. lad, fellow
2 bcha onomatopoeia cry used in driving goats
bachagrd m. critical age (of a boy)
bachagta, bachagwta f. fourth finger, ring finger
bachamrd 1 m. young man; young stalwart, brave man,

2 budzhuli plural of
badzh f. [plural: badzhe] hour What
time is it? eight o'clock
at eight o'clock an hour and a half
half an hour
badzhj f. children's speech breast, chest
bach m. 1.1 border, edging; edge, rim 1.2 rescue, rescuing;
defense, protection 2 predicative defended, protected
compound verb compound verb
bachw, bach w m. f. 1 protection, protect
compound verb compound verb 2

bachawl denominative, transitive [past:


rescue; defend, guard

to save,

bachngaj m. 1 baby, child 2 the young of animals;

young birds

except

budzhl f. [plural:

budzhli]

man of courage 2 adjective brave, courageous

bachamrda 1 m. young man; young stalwart, brave man,

man of courage 2 adjective brave, courageous

lantern, flashlight; lamp 3 spark

bachj m. [plural:

bach and

bachij n] 1 child,

baby 2 sonny, lad (form of address) 3 young of animals and birds

2 bchj, bachj f. base, foot of a wall


3 bachj f. darling, dear one (addressing one's child)
bachbach, bchbch onomatopoeia cry used in driving
goats

bachedl denominative, intransitive [past:


rid oneself of, shake off; to be protected

bachedna f. plural

deliverance

bachwkedna f. defense, protection


bichw, bachwa m. f. large floor covering, canvas
bachwawl denominative, transitive
bachwedl denominative, transitive
bacht m. supply, reserve, savings compound verb to
be created (of reserves, supplies) compound verb to

to escape,

bached m. rescuing, saving,

budz f. termite, white ant


butskhagj f. handbag
butskh f.
batsrkaj m. small spark
batsraj m. 1 spark 2 figurative little, few

regional to save

3 figurative

particle grain (of gold, etc.) 4 spray

after
a very heated argument

bahs m. Arabic [plural:

bahsna and Arabic

abh s] 1 argument; debate, discussion


long debate

accumulate (of savings)

bachartb m. girlhood
bachar f. girl
1 buchrj m. young donkey, foal of an ass
2 bachraj m. 1 tassel on the tail (of an ox) 2
1 bachk m. 1 assistant, helper (e.g., of a irrigation system

intervene in an argument 2 consideration (of an

issue, of a question)

to

discuss something; consider a matter

Arctic Ocean

controller, miller) 2 apprentice

bahrna and Arabic


ocean
the Indian Ocean 2

bahr m. Arabic [plural:

abh r] 1 sea

meter (in poetry); rhythm; metrics

bachk m. tobacco wastage


bachkraj m. tip of a knout
bachakk m. [plural: bachki m.] 2
bachagn children's, child's
bachandr m. stepson
bach m. & f. slang my child (address)
1 bachi m. plural stockings
2 bachaj m. 1 young of animals; young birds 2 mask
2

bahr-ul-khl m. Arabic the Pacific Ocean


buhr n m. Arabic crisis economic crisis;
political crisis
buhrn Arabic critical, crucial; dangerous, perilous (of a
situation)

bahrpajmj f. navigation
bhr-u-br, bahr-u-br on land and sea
81

the

Pashto-English Dictionary

bahr Arabic marine, sea; naval

navy

merciful; all-forgiving

bakhhw 1 generous 2 kind, merciful; all-forgiving


bakhhh m. bakhhht dialect
bakhhl transitive [past: ] 1 to give, present 2

bukhttj f. and

(state of) being busy; occupation

show mercy, grant pardon; forgive 3 to release from payment (of

bakhhndj, bakhhndj 1 generous 2 m. benefactor


bakhhna f. 1 giving, donating 2 forgiveness
compound verb to beg forgiveness, pardon compound
verb a to give a present b to forgive ! Pardon me! 3
gift, present gift of nature
1 bukhl m. Arabic stinginess, greed, avarice
compound verb to be greed

2 bakhl transitive
bakhula f.
bakhml m. [plural:
bakhmal n] velvet

bakhtawr, bakhtawr 1 happy, fortunate, lucky


happy time I am happy. 2 joyous, festive
to be

busy, be occupied with affairs, with work; to enlist (someone) in

bakhna f.
bakhnaj m dyer
1 bukhur m. Arabic incense
2 bkhwr m. hunting feeding bird

participating in something

to feed (of a bird)

bakhtj r, bakhtij r 1 fortunate; satisfactory 2 m. .1 plural

Bakhtiars (tribe) 2.2 proper noun Bakhtiar

drag out a miserable existence

bakhtajr, bakhtaijr f. prosperity, success


bukhtedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

bakhuaj m. 1

that has lost its calf)

to be

busy with something, work at something; be enlisted in


participating in something

bukhted m. plural working in something


work in commerce

compound verb

bukhur-u-namr m. starvation ration


to live on short rations, be half-starved;

industry, work in industry

different colors

bukhtawna f. enlisting, involving (someone) in something


1 bkhta oblique singular of 1
2 feminine singular of 2
bukhtj f. to be engaged in

bakhmaluna and

bakhmla f. proper noun Bakhmala


1 bakhmal adjective velvet
2 bakhmalj f. bakhmal m. red bug
bakhn, bakhun suffix -ish (or similar used with the names of
colors) reddish
bakhnbakhn, bakhunbakhun parti-colored, variegated; of

bukhtw laj m.

on this joyous, festive day


bukhtawl denominative, transitive [past: ]

to

taxes) 4 to exert influence

We're busy with the case

1 bkhra f.
2 bakhra f. dialect
bakhrawr happy, fortunate
bakhsh m. part, portion, share
bakhshish m. bakhh m. 1 gift, present 2 award
compound verb a to give b to award 3 tip, gratuity 5
forgiveness, pardon compound verb a to give a tip
b forgive idiom idiom shib-i-bakhshish kind,

2 bukht, bukht busy, occupied (with doing something)


We're occupied with the matter
bukhttb m.

bukhts f.

articles)

ruin

bukhtsagj f. 1 bundle
(with belongings); bundle; packet 2 bag, pouch (with sewing

sea currents; ( sea) voyage


bahrjn m. Bahrain, Bahrain Islands
bahrij f. Arabic fleet merchant fleet
navy
bahir f. Arabic sea the Black Sea
bukh r m. Arabic [plural: bukhruna and Arabic
bukhr t] 1 steam; vapor ( charcoal) fumes,
carbon monoxide compound verb to evaporate
compound verb to be evaporated to steam, stew 2 rash
bukhr f. Bukhara
bukhrld bukhrd ra saturated with steam; water
vapor saturated air
bukhrst m. Bucharest
1 bukhr adjective steam steamship
2 bukhrj f. oven; stove; hotplate; fireplace
iron stove electric hotplate
gas stove
1 bakht m. luck, good fortune fortunately
he was unsuccessful be a minion of fortune
Good fortune turned away from
him. He was unlucky; He was
lucky He's started having good
luck.; to be the cause of one's own destruction or

bukhch f.

2 stuffed calf (placed next to a cow

bakhwl m. anatomy diaphragm

idiom to

desire something passionately

bkhwla f. trouble, misfortune


gotten into trouble, (one who has) come to grief

82

(one who has)

Pashto-English Dictionary

bakhj f. type of sewing, kind of stitch


idiom to decorate; praise, laud

baddzhawl indeclinable plain, homely; ugly, hideous


badchrukaj m. villain, scoundrel
badchalw badchalnd dissipated, dissolute, good-

bakhl Arabic 1 m. miser, skinflint, stingy greedy person 2

for-nothing

stingy, miserly

bakhil f. stinginess, miserliness

miserly, greedy

to be stingy,

badh la in poor condition


badhl f. poor condition
badkhrtsa m. badkhrtsaj

bakhi f.
bad 1 bad, wicked ... ... the
trouble is that ... It wouldn't be
bad if you call first look with malice 2 m. plural .1 evil;
trouble, unpleasantness He has had a misfortune.
Don't wish anyone evil. 2.2 bad things
He has treated you badly. You acted badly.
compound verb to swear; to scold to speak ill of
someone, give a bad report about someone mea
culpa 2.3 fine to establish the size of a fine to
pay a fine idiom to be hateful to
someone Please don't take offense at this
He was not at all offended. He is upset.
to be angry I don't like this hat.
badakhl qa 1 immoral 2 ill-bred, unmannerly

spendthrift, prodigal,

squanderer

badakhsh n m. Badakhshan

Province

Badakhshan

badkhaslta having bad character, immoral


badkhw h, badkh h 1 m. enemy, foe 2 unfriendly, hostile
badkhlaj swearing, using foul language
badkhwnda 1 unpalatable 2 unpleasant
badkhwnd f. 1 unpleasant taste 2 unpleasantness
badkhja 1 immoral; wicked 2 disobedient, unruly,
undisciplined

badkhoj f.

lack of discipline

1 immorality; malice 2 disobedience,

baddijnat f. dishonesty
badwla indeclinable 1 homely; ugly, hideous

boor

compound verb to disfigure 2 bad, nasty

badakhlq f. 1 immorality 2 lack of breeding


badrw stingy, greedy
badrw j f. stinginess, greed, cupidity
badisti'm l m. [plural: badisti'ml t] abuse,
misuse; abuse of power
badsl of low birth, of low origin
bed't m. Arabic innovation, novelty
badmn f. breakdown, disorganization, anarchy
badht m. Arabic obviousness to see

badz t m. scoundrel; mean, underhanded low person


badzt f. baseness, meanness
1 badr, badr m. 1 2 cotton tree
2 bdr m. Arabic full moon
badruddrn m. Arabic proper noun Badruddin
badrd m. plural invective, abusive language; foul language
to scold someone
badarrft m. outflow, runoff, drainage
badraqn f.
badraq f.
badarknd m. cotton tree resin
badragn f. payment for escorting, fee for convoying
badrag f. 1 guard, convoy, escort, accompanying
convoy vessel He was escorted by a

clearly, understand well

bedjt m. Arabic undertaking; measure


badbkhta 1 unfortunate, ill-fated 2 unfit 3 stupid
badbakht f. trouble, misfortune; haplessness;
unfortunately

badbaj gloomy, morose; troubled, distressed


badbja smelly, stinking, fetid
badbuj f. stench, stink
badbn 1 m. .1 pessimist 1.2 distrustful, untrusting person

convoy of Pashtoons 2 funeral feast

badrng unattractive, plain; ugly, hideous

idiom to disgrace oneself

badrangawl denominative, transitive [past tense


]1 to shame somebody 2 to deceive, let somebody down 3 to

2.1 pessimistic 2.2 mistrustful

badbin f. 1 pessimism 2 distrust, lack of confidence in


badpraj unpunctual, tardy, late (of a debtor, for

portray somebody in a bad light

badrnga
badrang f. ugliness, hideousness
badrw m. water escape
badr f. Arabic 1 sack of money 2 10,000 Dirham (monetary

example); unreliable (of a person)

badpzaj gloomy; dissatisfied, discontented


badtr
badtarn worst, very worst
badtfhm m. misunderstanding
badt f. 1 malice, harm, trouble 2 depravity

unit of Morocco)

83

Pashto-English Dictionary

compound verb to slip,


harm, damage compound verb

2 badl 1 of poor quality 2 of low birth


1 badlr f. waywardness, dissipation

badr f. 1 stumbling

stumble 2 Western

to

suffer loss; ruin oneself 3 anxiety, uneasiness, worry

2 badrj f. proper noun Badri


bad m. Euphrates poplar
badzab na badzhabbaj

2 badl raj good-for-nothing, wayward, dissipated


badl maj
badlzn m. singer
badlamna immoral, lewd, debauched (woman)
badlmch, badalmch m. rhyme
badlawl, badalawl 1 denominative, transitive [past:
].1 substitute for something compound verb to be
surmounted, be overcome 1.2 ... to turn into something
2 m. plural
badln m. badlawna f. 1 replacement, substitution,
exchange in exchange for something 2
compensation, indemnity 3 change; transformation
the situation has changed somewhat
1 badla f. song compound verb to sing a song
to lull someone to sing the praises of

cursing, swearing, using

abusive language

badggha
badgghe
spoiled, ruined (of a woman who

has had a miscarriage or who has had a still-born baby)

badstrgaj shameless, brazen, insolent


badastr in order, OK; as before, as usual
badsulk unsociable, treating somebody poorly, slighting
someone

badsuluk f. slighting, treating someone badly


badshgm unfortunate, unhappy, ill-stared, hapless
badsurt unattractive, plain; ugly, hideous
badu' f. curse, damn compound verb to curse
to curse at someone
bid't m. Arabic 1 innovation 2 religion heresy
badghg 1 harsh-sounding 2 m. sharp sound
badghnaj coarse, crude, impolite, discourteous
badf l ominous, sinister
badf l f. misfortune, bad luck unfortunate,

someone, laud someone

villain, scoundrel,

something; accompanying by something

being out of control

2 strained relations, discord,

badgum na

badgumn f.

badmrhga unfortunate, unhappy


person)

1 suspicious, distrustful 2 dubious,

1 suspiciousness, mistrust, distrust 2

doubt

badgj, badgj m. one who abuses, slanderer


badguj, badgoj f. malignant gossip, scandal, reviling;

failure (a

drink heavily

badmrgh f. bad omen, ill omen


badmast f. drinking bout, binge

badma' sh m. 1 scoundrel, blackguard; bandit, thug,

gangster 2 dissipated person

badma' sh f. 1 banditry 2 dissipation


badma'rif f. portraying in a bad light, discrediting
to discredit someone
badma'milag f. unscrupulousness, lack of integrity, lack

slander
badl m. Arabic 1 substitute, substitution

shameless

lack of harmony

to take revenge on

1 badmr f. simulation, sham, pretense


2 badm raj m. malingerer
badm sh m.
1 badmkh f. ugliness, hideousness
2 badmkhaj 1 unattractive, plain; ugly, hideous

badkr f. 1 sin 2 evil deed, crime 3 disobedience, state of

badkird r
badkirdr f.
badguzr na
badguzrn f. 1

instead of that 3 regional compensation, indemnity

monster

suspect, shady

badl f. 1 revenge

1 badl m. singer
2 badli plural of 1
3 badl plural of 2
badledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1
to be changed, to be substituted, to be exchanged 2 ...
to turn / change into something
badled m. plural 1 substitution, exchange 2 change into

fiend, monster 1.3 disobedient 2 m. villain, scoundrel, fiend,

someone 2 replacement, substitution, exchange

unhappy

badf'la
badqismt
badqismat f.
badk r 1.1 sinful 1.2 wicked

compound

verb to lead a dissipated life

instead

of to substitute something for something


exchange views with someone 2 revenge
to take revenge on someone 3 compensation,

of conscientiousness

indemnity 4 equivalent

84

badn m. body, trunk

Pashto-English Dictionary

badn m 1 to have a bad reputation, be in bad repute; disgraced,

to cause harm b shame, discredit

be dishonored 2 shameful, disgraceful

become pitiable b he got lost c he lost consciousness

reputation

badnmawl denominative, transitive [past:


dishonor, disgrace, discredit
badnm f. bad reputation; shame, dishonor

What a shame!

badnmedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] be


disgraced, be dishonored, be discredited; disgrace oneself

badnasba indeclinable unfortunate


badnumja badnumj unattractive; ugly, hideous
badan f. fuselage (of an aircraft)
1 badan physical, bodily, corporal physical culture
physical exercises, calisthenics
2 badnj, badanj f. small basin for washing, water container

(of a misfortune)

badnijta 1 unfortunate, unlucky 2 ominous, sinister 3 ill-

badnijat f. malice, malicious intent, ill-will, hostility


bad cross, angry, bad-tempered
badw laj m. poor quality; negative side
badod f. harm; damage
badwrd hostile, inimical
badwrda indeclinable unfortunate, unhappy
badwrga cross, angry, bad-tempered
badwrgedl intransitive [past: ] to get angry
badraj m.
badw dangerous (of a person)
badwawl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

person)

4 badj f. bank of a canal subject to erosion


5 badj plural of 1
badj f. 1 evil, harm, misfortune 2 depravity, perversity
badj f.
badid r m. deadly enemy, person who is in a state of
deadly enmity or who has committed an act of bloody vengeance
(murder, wounding, etc.)

badidr f. the custom of blood revenge


badedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]1 to grow
worse, spoil 2 to become unsuitable; be ruined 3 to perish

bad' Arabic remarkable, wonderful, wondrous


badi' f. Arabic [plural: bad'] m. Arabic

consider (to be) harmful, consider (to be) dangerous


badwedl denominative, intransitive [past:
harmful, be dangerous

to be

badi' Arabic rhetorical


badih Arabic clear, obvious it is clear, it is obvious
1 ba equal, identical
2 bu one-armed, having one arm
3 b clear to speak clearly; speak bluntly
bu 1 old; aged, advanced in years 2 m. old man, elder
to make someone (look) older
bagar f.
ba l m. wine
ba j 1 m. rich man 2 rich, wealthy
bajtb m. wealth, substance
bajna f. enrichment, gain
bajavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

person, a bad lot

badawl denominative, transitive [past:


worsen, spoil

make bad,

bidn Persian preposition combines with the postposition


without, except
badaw m. Arabic bedouin, nomad
badawijt m. Arabic nomadic way of life
1 bda 1 feminine singular of 1 2 f. .1 harm; trouble,
misfortune; distinguish good and evil;
to regard someone maliciously; to get into
trouble 2.2 bad; a to worsen, get worse (e.g., of the

enrich, make rich

condition of a wound) b to engage in nefarious business, take the


path of wrong; go bad, become corrupted (of a person)

wonderful

thing, amazing thing

badwgma
indeclinable fetid, stinking, bad-smelling

badk m. badkaj m. scoundrel, villain; worthless

bd f. 1 evil, harm, misfortune 2 deadly hostility, enmity 3


I hate his brother. compound verb to sin
2 bdi Eastern bade 1 feminine plural of 1 2 oblique case
singular of 1 2
3 badj wicked, malicious; worthless, good-for-nothing (of a

intentioned, malicious; unfriendly, hostile, ill-disposed

Eastern hatred, enmity

with a spout (usually made of copper or aluminum)

a he has

2 bud f. textiles weft, woof


3 budh m. Buddha Buddhism
bda-u-bir na f.
bdawradz f. rainy day; trouble; need; difficult position
. Misfortune befell Walo-jaan.
fall into poverty
to pester someone with requests, importune someone
bda-wir na f. disturbance, discord, sedition
a to create a disturbance b to make much mischief
a to be raised (of a disturbance) b to happen, occur

badn mus, badn mos f. shame, disgrace, dishonor; bad

baj f.

something

85

idiom

to be proud of

Pashto-English Dictionary

babl truthful; righteous


baboltb m. baboltj

f.

according to model 2.3 parallel, along


parallel to something, alongside something 2.4
uniformly 2.5 directly go directly home idiom
in time twice as much
brbartj f. barbartj brbarht m. barbarht
brbarv laj m. barbarv laj 1 correspondence 2

babolv laj

m. truth; veracity; truthfulness, uprightness

baag l m. fluff on the flower cluster of the cat-tail (used in

construction)

bg f. vagrancy
ba m. bribetaker
baaj m. anatomy kidney
bakaj m. kidney (of a sheep, goat)
buogj m. old boy, old chap
balaj m. clay pitcher
ba f. 1 belt or cord worn with wide pants 2 target, goal 3
waning moon 4 bribe idiom to roll up one's sleeves,
get down to work to pursue someone
persistently 5 to take up something, take up some

uniformity 3 equality, sameness 4 agreement; coordination 5


regulation, adjustment

brbaravl barbaravl denominative, transitive [past:


] 1 to balance; equalize, make even 2 to bring into
agreement 3 to arrange 4 to fit, adapt 5 to supply; stock
to lay in provisions 6 to prepare; create 7 to arrange,
organize 8 to fold, pack to fold clothing 9 to
fune (e.g., a radio) idiom to be engaged in
business

brbaravna f. barbaravna 3-9


brbar f. barbar 1 equality 2 parallel direction
mountains which stretch along the shore

business

buh
1 buj m. old man
2 buj f. old woman
3 baj m. person with no arms, armless person
4 bi f. plural bribe to take a bribe
to give a bribe
baikhr bribe-taker
baimr m. bribe-giver
bazr m. Arabic singular & plural grain for sowing, seed
bazgr m.
bazgra f.
bazgar f.
bazl f. Arabic joke; witticism
bazlag m. bazlagj wit; joker, comedian
bazlagu f. wit, wittiness
1 bar f. barr Arabic dry land (as opposed to the sea)
2 bar m. breast, chest
3 bar m. width (of fabric, etc.)
4 bar 1.1 upper Afghan living in the mountain region (in
Afghanistan) 1.2 having conquered, having come out on top
a to ascend, go up b to conquer, win out 2 m. top a

3 fitting, adjustment 4 correspondence, agreement 5 supply;

stock 6 preparation; creation 7 arrangement 8 folding, packing


9 tuning (a radio)

brbaredl barbaredl denominative, intransitive [past:


] 1 to balance; equalize, become even 2 to be sufficient,
be enough there is not enough

grass for pasturing the cattle 3 to come into correspondence, come


to an agreement 4 to be arranged, be adjusted 5 to be fitted, be

accommodated 6 to be supplied, be stocked 7 to be prepared, be


created 8 to be arranged, be organized 9 to be folded, be packed
10 to be tuned (e.g., a radio receiver)

1 bar't m. bar t m. Arabic 1 remmittance (money)


check or order for receipt of pay or maintenance finance 2
bill of exchange, transferable bill payment of a note;
issuance of a note issuer of a
promissory note acceptance of a bill of exchange
2 bar t m. Arabic fourteenth day of the eighth month of the
lunar year when funeral banquets are customarily celebrated

br dza f. tick (on a camel or great-horned cattle)


burd f. sawdust, filings iron filings
brkst m.
br r m. growth, development
brzvl m. Brazzaville (city)
barzandag f. honor, merit
brzl m. Brazil
brzilij f. Brasilia (city)
barria'zm m. continent
barria'zam continental
burk m. embankment; rampart
barl 1 evident, open 2 manifestly, openly; (to speak) frankly
brlbv laj m. pregnancy; gestation; being in foal, etc.

from above b from the mountains, from the north, from


Afghanistan (with reference to Afghans)

br m. astronomy eclipse

eclipse of the sun idiom

a madman b sleepwalker

br m. 1 branch with small leaves (e.g., of a tamarisk) 2 leafy

top of root vegetables (e.g., of carrots)

brbr barbr 1.1 equal, identical

almost

equally, in equal parts 1.2 suitable, appropriate, fit, useful 1.3

uniformly 2.1
equally, indentically in equal amounts; on a par (with), on
an equal footing 2.2 in accordance (with something)

favorable 1.4 proper, fitting 1.5 parallel 1.6 uniform

uniform heat

86

Pashto-English Dictionary

brlba pregnant; gestating; in foal, etc.


brlbedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

to be

barmd discovered, revealed, disclosed

barbnv laj

barbnavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to bare,


uncover, strip, lay bare

to be

barbnedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be uncovered, be laid bare, be stripped 2 to be denuded (of

vegetation on mountains)

barbuzk m. mountaineer's bow


barp 1 raised, erected, constructed 2 established; founded,
based a to raise, erect, construct b to establish, found,
base 3 a to be raised, be erected, be constructed b to be
established, be founded, be based

barp foolishly brave


britnav British
britnij f. England Great Britain
bartar f. superiority to be clearly superior
bart f. boiled eggplant without butter
brta f.
bart f. 1 2 technology soldering
1 burdzh m. Arabic brdzh [plural: burdzhna plural:
burdzh n Arabic plural: burdzh] 1 tower; fort;

b to

lay claim to something c to pretend to be someone

barvrd m. 1 estimate 2 valuation


barvna f. victory
brhm-putr f. the Brahmaputra (river)
brhj m. Brahui (nationality of a people living mainly in
western Pakistan)

barhn m. Arabic plural from


bar't m. Arabic 1 law acquittal 2 release (e.g., from
obligations) 3 purity, innocence

stronghold; blockhouse 2 sign of the zodiac 3 month of the solar

barji-rst regional truly; in actuality, in fact


barj barj yesterday evening last night
late last night
barbd 1.1 ruined 1.2 annihilated; destroyed; crushed 1.3

year

aviation (gun-) turret

bardzh m. 1 thin bark of a tree (used for paper); birch-bark 2

bardzh v 1 full, filled 2 thickly populated


bardzht m. trouble-maker
bardzhd established, fixed, set up
bardzhastag f. 1 protuberance, bulge, projection 2
superiority to surpass others
bardzhast 1 outstanding eminent people
for outstanding service 2 precisely,
distinctly a to speak distinctly b to emphasize (in

barbdavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


ruin 2 to annihilate, crush, destroy 3 to waste, throw to the wind
barbd f. 1 ruin 2 annihilation, destruction 3 squandering

4 nonsense, foolishness

barbdedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


perish, be lost 2 to be annihilated, be crushed, be destroyed 3 to
be squandered

1 brbt m. haughtiness; pride


2 barbt m. guitar
burbur f. bubble (on the surface of water)
1 brbrj m. propeller (of a ship or airplane)
2 burburj m. 1 kindling 2 leaves (e.g., of the tamarisk)
3 barbar 1 barbarian 2 m. a barbarian
4 barbar m. plural 1
barbs m. barbst m. 1 property; belongings, things

birch tree

wasted, spent 2 down with! let perish!

barbntj f.

1 nakedness, bareness 2 absence of vegetation (on mountains)

discovered; turn up somewhere

barmad f. regional veranda


burrn cutting; sharp
brnch m. branch, section
brna f. cry, scream to cry out, howl
brnsh m. gills; branchiae
brnshaj m. gill, branchia
barngiznd provocative (of actions)
brva f. bragging, boasting a to boast, brag

fruitful; be pregnant; become pregnant; be with young, in foal, etc.

barbntb m.

speech)

bardzh regional bardzhk full, filled to fill


to be full, be filled; fill up the
room was filled with people

burdzhagj
bardzh f. 1

m. turret
whetstone, touchstone

touchstone 2 cheek 3 kidney stones

whetstone,

brdz f. [plural: brdzi] peritoneum


brachavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

to anger;

annoy, irritate

success

burbk m. thorn apple, hawthorn


burbkj m.
barbn 1 naked, bare 2 bare, without vegetation (of

barch f. flat bayonet

bayonet battle

military Fix bayonets! (as a command)

bartsr 1 evident, clear 2 raised (to the surface)



bartseravl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to

mountains) 3 obsolete easily armed, easily equipped, easily


instigated

exhibit, show, display 2 to raise (to the surface)

87

Pashto-English Dictionary

bartsra feminine singular from


bartseredl denominative, intransitive

[past: ] 1 to

susceptibility

brz m. padded pants, quilted trousers


burs m. 1
bars t m. 1 rainy season 2 monsoon

be exhibited, be shown, be displayed 2 to be raised, rise up (to the


surface)

barh l existing, current (of a government, etc.)


barkhst m. regional 1 closing (e.g., of a session)

barst f. raincoat
brest m. Brest (city)
barsar-i-itid r regional being in power, being in office
bursavl transitive
1 barsr obsolete
2 barsr m. interface
barsern barsernj superficial, external
barsra over, above, more than something; apart from, besides
something moreover, in addition

1 brsh m. barsh [plural: brash n plural: barash n]
brush toothbrush compound verb
2 bursh m. cutting (out)
birisht roasted, fried, grilled to roast, fry, grill
brashavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to clean

barkhilf opposed (to someone, something)


despite that; counter to that (in defiance of that)
barkhlk m. fate, lot
barkh m.
barkh st m.
barkhurd r 1.1 fortunate, happy, prosperous to
be happy, fortunate 1.2 making use of something 2 m. polite

What is your son's name?


barkhna f.
brkha f. brkha f. 1 part; portion share; portion,
lot shareholder; partner two
thirds in part, partially, by parts to
be a part of something to be divided in half, into
two parts to divide into two equal parts,
split in half a to
use something b to be worthy of something a to own a
son

with a brush

britnav British
britnij f. England Great Britain
bartarf dismissed (from a job), fired

bartarafavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

part; to be a shareholder b to promote, assist, be conducive to

to play a large role

to

to utilize something in full


to provide someone with something
to pass on to someone (inheritance); for someone to
be worthy of something

measure

dismiss (from a job), fire

get what's coming to him 2 portion of land, allotment of land 3


military flight (3-4 aircraft) sub-unit idiom
happiness

bartaraf f. dismissal (from a job), firing


bartarafedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

to seek

barkhakhr m. 1 co-owner 2 landowner 3 member of a

bar'ks on the contrary


bar'alij contradictory
bragh m. 1 fold 2 layer
burgh m. steppe cat (caracal)
burgha f. steppe cat (the female) (caracal)
barghuj m.
barghazvi f. plural nonsense, foolishness
barghhaj m. upper jaw
barghn m. 1 notch (on a log, etc.) 2 wound (stab wound)

brkha larnkaj m. 1 participant 2 shareholder


barkhamn having a portion
bard r 1 a width of 2 wide, broad; of double width (of
fabric)

bard sht m. 1 patience 2 firmness, steadfastness 3 advance

(in pay)

a to endure, bear b to take an advance on

your pay 4 introduction, forward (e.g., in a book)

bardshtavl denominative, transitive [past:


to endure, be patient

bardag f. slavery epoch of slavery


burdub j m. victory and defeat
bard [plural: bardag n] 1 m. slave 2 f.

piece (of meat)

bargh m. 1 borer, drill, auger 2 bayonet


burght m.
burcha f.
barghuj m. medicine mumps
barghvgaj m. earring
barghlaj m. lid, cover (of a kettle, etc.)
barghnaj

female slave;

female captive

bara f.
barz l

to

be dismissed (from a job), be fired

commune

monsoon

from India

2 firing,

removal (from a job)

something

barzkh m. 1 isthmus, neck (of land) 2 receptivity;

botany Periploca aphylla (a kind of bush)


f. eyelid
88

Pashto-English Dictionary

barfpk m. snowplow
barfd n m. reservoir for snow
barfk m. Barfak (village, town)
barfkch m. snow avalanche
barf f. cream and sugar frozen in small bars (a kind of

barl saj strong, powerful, authoritative


barlk m. scarecrow
barlh on behalf (of someone)
barln m. Berlin (city)
bram m. power to wear oneself out

barm f. Burma Union of Burma


barm m. savage, barbarian
bramat f. baramat (unauthorized) driving away of cattle, etc.
compound verb to drive away cattle; to seize property
barml m. Bar Mil (region in Paktia province)
barmal
barmn
barmntj f.
barmnavl denominative, transitive
barmnedl denominative, intransitive
birminghm m. Birmingham (city)
barm f. auger, gimlet auger (for drilling
wells) derrick a to drill b to cut through (air,

confection)

bark m. Arabic 1 lightning 2 electricity

grow weak (of a person)

electric

light electric power station


barkarr 1 established, founded
2 firm, hard
bararravl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1
to establish, found 2 to make fast, firm

bararr f. 1 founding, establishment 2 firmness, hardness


bararredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to
be founded, be established

bur' f. veil, yashmak (worn by Moslem women)


barv l m. electrician
bur f.
bar 1 electric electric light stoplight
electrotherapy to electrify 2 m. electrician
barakt m. Arabic [plural: barakatna Arabic plural:
barak t] 1 blessing, benediction 2 influence

of an airplane propeller, etc.)

barmakr m. driller; drill operator


barmakr f. drilling

thanks to someone, because of someone 3 well-being, prosperity

barmaj used for or related to drilling, boring


bramjlj strong, great; mighty
bern m. barn m. Bern (city)
barnha barnhe in vain, for nothing
birndzh m. brass
brand 1 cheerful 2 coquettish, playful 3 attentive 4

Prosperity has left Zmaraj's house 4 proper noun Barakat

barakat fruitful, fertile


barkun m. Barkunar (region)
barka f. kind of fabric from camel fur
barakj f. large bag (for hauling straw)
barak-bark m. Baraki-Barak (city)
barak-rdzh n m. Baraki Rajan (town or village)
1 brag 1 variegated, motley, many-colored; skewbald 2 m.
leper idiom to look at angrily
2 barg m. 1 leaf leaves are falling
leaves are are coming out 2 slice to cut into thin

having

come out against someone 5 dialect opened wide (of the eyes)

to come out against someone; attack

someone dialect b to be wide-eyed

brndavl denominative, transitive [past:


furrow one's brows; frown

to

brndedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


frown 2 to become angry

slices (e.g., meat) 3 fighting equipment

baran f. 1 veranda
1 baranj 1 adjective

2 deck

yesterday

evening 2 stale (of bread)

last night, yesterday

baranj upper (living or located in the mountains)

mountain village

baranj volt f.
1 baroaj m. bundle of brushwood
2 barvaj m.
burdzh masculine plural Arabic from 1
brok s m. radio broadcast; broadcasting
by radio, on the radio compound verb to
broadcast over radio compound verb to be

turning

point

bargta f. little finger, little toe


1 barg f. 1 beam, girder 2 raft
2 brga 1 feminine singular from 1 1

compound verb to

drill

burgt m. proper name Burgut


brigd m. birgd obsolete brigadier general
bargandj m.
barguzid chosen, selected, elected; picked
bragstrgaj having a cataract on the eye
bargsht m. 1 return 2 turn, turning

2 feminine for

to

1 bragj m. leper
bragjlj motley, variegated; spotted

broadcast by radio

89

Pashto-English Dictionary

a twirl your moustache


figurative to make a show of bravery a to be
cowardly b to stint, grudge idiom a he

bara f. Ornithodorus (a kind of tick, carrier of typhus or tick

fever)

burz m. Arabic manifestation, disclosure, revelation;

appearance to become manifest, be revealed; appear


bur m.
bruksl m. Brussels (city)
bronsht m. bronchitis
barvaj m. 1 part of a bucket chain or noria 2 spot (of a
barvj 1 sticky 2 figurative boring, tiresome

stick on, glue on b figurative to bore

rejoiced (in) b he gave himself airs

a to

a to stick (to),

adhere b figurative to be fed up, be bored

bra feminine singular of 4


burh n m. Arabic [plural: burhnna Arabic plural:
barhn] convincing proof, argument to

creatures, organisms)

bridlk m. foreward
bridmn m. lieutenant 1st lieutenant
2nd lieutenant 3rd lieutenant
bridman f. rank of lieutenant
brez f. bug
brezr m. morning, dawn
barezarj m. breakfast
brezn m. breg n m. bleat, bleating to bleat
1 breh m. 1 inflammation of the lungs, pneumonia

introduce convincing proof or arguments

bra khna f.
baraga f.
barhm 1 mixed, mixed up 2 spoiled

brahmn m. Brahmin
barhamavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
mix, mix up, confuse 2 to spoil 3 to ruin, destroy

inflammation of the lungs, pneumonia 2 sharp pain in the side

barhamedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be mixed, be mixed up, be confused 2 to be spoiled, spoil 3 to be

bra volt f. Upper Volta

Upper Volta

barj m. victory; success

barr Arabic 1 land (as opposed to marine, air)

ground army 2 continental

continental climate

brehnv] 1 shine, glitter, gleam 2 lightning 3 electricity;


electric light

obligations, etc.)

electric power station

electric meter 4 proper name Brehna

brehnch m. electrician
brehnv l electric
brehnd gleaming, shining, resplendent, dazzling
brehavl transitive [past: ] 1 to cause to shine,
cause to glisten to admit rays of sunlight 2 to dazzle
with brilliance figurative idiom to set the teeth on
edge to flourish arms, threaten war
brehedl intransitive [past: ]1 to shine, glisten 2
to seem to be, be represented as something 3 to be visible
I set my teeth on edge.
brehiz sawdgarj kr m. Electronic

Arabic 1 exonerated, found innocent 2

freed (from payment of a debt, from carrying out something)

a the glitter of
a to shine, glitter,

brhlik m. brehn lik ajiml e-mail


brhlik pta f. e-mail address
brehn
brehn f. [plural: brehng ni plural:

bar Arabic 1 innocent (of), not guilty 2 freed (from

barj f.
barij-uz-zim

breh m. glitter, shine, gleaming

gleam figurative b to flourish arms, threaten war

to overcome, master something


2

a sable figurative b flourishing arms

Republic of

a to win a victory over someone, conquer, overcome someone b

a to be ill with inflammation of the lungs, be ill with

pneumonia b to have a pain in the side

ruined

britnij f.
brekh m. Eastern 2
1 brid m. 1 attack, assault 2 beginning, starting point, access
a to attack b to approach something, begin something
2 burd m. 1 separation 2 absence 3 border
briddzhenrl m. major-general
briddzhenrl f. rank of major-general
baredl bredl intransitive [past: ] to grow (of living

wheel)

bret m. moustache

a to be justified b to be liberated, be freed (from

payment of a debt, from doing something)

barj la f. air hole, vent, safety value; smoke vent


barjlj 1.1 triumphant, victorious 1.2 succeeding in
something; having achieved success a to triumph, win,
conquer b to succeed, attain success to
pass an examination 2 m. .1 victor; champion
champion in racing 2.2 proper name Barjalaj

barjlitb m. success, victory


We wish them even greater success.

Business Card

90

brek m. brake

to brake, apply the brakes

Pashto-English Dictionary

barik b m. Barikab (town, village, region)


brikt m. brik m. brikt m. briquette
briger m. colloquial brigadier general
barilk m. certificate; diploma
barajmn to conquer, achieve success
ba m. banyan (tree)
bs m. 1 vapor, steam water vapor, steam 2
evaporation fumes to be
poisoned by charcoal fumes compound verb to

busavl denominative, transitive [past:


anger 2 to annoy, vex 3 to upset, disconcert

busedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


become angry 2 to be vexed, be annoyed 3 to be out of sorts, be
disconcerted

bavj feminine for


bavjtb m. 1 looseness (of a woman)
of a woman)

to

rectum) b figurative to (over) strain oneself; tire; be played out


figurative c to grow decrepit d figurative to become poor

baj f. payment compound verb to pay, make payment


compound verb to be paid
bajjna f. payment
bats 1 m. plural Baretsy (tribe) 2 m. Barets (tribe member)
1 bets m. plural 1
2 betsj m. 2
budl intransitive [past: ]to bellow, snort (of an angry

m. roar, noise (of water)

babs m. magnificence, grandeur


bubuhkj f. whirlwind; sandstorm, tornado
bubng 1 m. .1 horsetail, Equisetum 1.2 ruler, ferule (used
for punishment in school) 2 figurative shallow, stupid

babza f. violent trembling


babuzj m. insulting talk to say insulting things
to insult, humiliate; offend with words; mock, scoff at
babkiza f. pop-up (e.g., ads, menus)
bbukj f.
bch m. 1 wraith 2 sneezing a to

camel)

laughed.

bagandj m. bagandj m. exchange of greetings


to exchange greetings, say hello
bang word paired to
ba m. weaver's beam
bav m. 1 profligate, libertine 2 procurer, pander, pimp
bavtb m. bavj f. 1 profligacy 2 pandering 3
baseness a to be profligate b to pander c to commit

Muslim calendar)

buzurgv r 1 respected 2 great


buzurgvr f. buzurg f. greatness; mightiness
buzghalj m. sprout, shoot
buzghndzh m. gall on the pistachio (tree)
bzghandzhr feeble, sickly; frail, puny; thin, emaciated
he is frail; he's thin
buzk m. karavajka (a kind of bird, ibis family, Plegadis

some base act


but m. botany Cyperus
bus bos 1 morose, gloomy; angry, sullen 2 irritated,

falcinellus)

annoyed 3 out of sorts

bustb m.

m. 1

buzkash f. buzkashi (literally: goat wrestling, a national

sport in which horsemen compete to carry the headless body of a

sternness, sullenness 2 vexation, annoyance 3 discomposure

bz m. buz m. [plural: bzna plural: bzna

buzna] goat

bazz z m. Arabic trader in cotton textiles


bazzz f. cotton textile trade cotton textile shop
baz Arabic salivary glands
bzbz m.
buzdl fainthearted, cowardly
buzdil f. faintheartedness, cowardice
buzrg bzrd 1 large, big; great; grandiose, mighty 2 m.
saint idiom Rajab (seventh month of the lunar year,

bchavl transitive [past: ] to cause to sneeze


bchedl intransitive [past: ] to become angry
bastn f. [plural: bastni] 1 blanket 2 figurative
cover snow cover
ba to laugh loudly, guffaw Everyone

very angrily, sternly


bustj f. busv laj

bainchgh m. 1 gyroscope; top (the toy) 2 swings 3

merry-go-round

become angry at someone b to sneeze

2 procuring (said

bu f. 1
baaga f. greeting; inquiring after someone's health
to greet someone, say hello to someone
1 buj m. Eastern rifle, gun; ten-shot rifle
2 buj f. rectal prolapse a to slip out of place (the

speak loudly, angrily, with authority 2 Eastern often, constantly

Come more often! Glad to see you!


bbj 1.1 loudly conversing 1.2 angered (of a camel)

1 to

evaporate

ba na f. flame with smoke


baba 1 loudly; authoritatively, angrily

goat to the goal)

bus-mus very angry, sullen

91

buzkj m.

Pashto-English Dictionary

bazgr bazgr m. [plural: bazgr plural: bazgar n


plural: bazgr n] 1 peasant, farmer 2 sharecropper

bazgra f. peasant girl, peasant woman


bazgar f. 1 farming 2 sharecropping
buzl transitive verb [past: ] 1 to quilt

bagaj
m. spasm; convulsion

seized with convulsions or spasms b to get a cramp

bgi a to be

I've got a cramp in my leg. c figurative to be frightened d

figurative to be nervous e figurative to be beside oneself


2 to mend,

figurative to burn with impatience

buged
l intransitive [past: ]1 to buzz (like insects) 2 to
drone (e.g., like an airplane) 3 to babble (a brook)

patch, sew on a patch

bazl f.
bazm m. feast, banquet
bazm lyric (of poetry) lyric poet
biz f.
bzvl transitive [past: ] to play (on the violin, etc.)
1 bza f. she-goat idiom to shame someone,
disgrace someone 2
2 buz f. patch (on garments)
3 bza f. moth
4 baz f. fault, guilt; sin to sin
5 bza
buzh r m. buzzing (of insects)
bazag r m. culprit, sinner
bazag ra f. culprit, sinner (of a female)
1 bizj m. knucklebone (of cattle)
2 bze plural of 1, 5
3 buz plural of 2
4 buz plural of 3
5 baz plural of 4
bazraj m. flag, banner
bzhrkv laj m.
bzhrkaj
buzh 1 indeclinable .1 torn, torn off 1.2 cut off 1.3
slaughtered 2 f. slaughter, massacre 2.2 sacrificial offering
a to tear, tear off b to cut, chop off c to slaughter d to make
a sacrificial offering a to be torn off b to be cut off c to

bugednkaj
m. (electrical) buzzer

1 bas 1 indeclinable sufficient to end, finish; cease


2 enough ! ! Enough! That'll do!
Okay! 3 conjunction only ... I have
only one wish 4 particle and only, that's all! ! !
that's the whole story for you; there you are, that's the whole story!

2 bus m. plural 1
bas often
bus a f.
bis t m. Arabic 1 bedding; thick broadcloth

2 furnishings,

furniture 3 chessboard

bas k m. botany anther (the part of the stamen that contains

the pollen)

baslt m. Arabic bravery, courage, daring


baslatmnd brave (in the title of a lieutenant)
bsbs f. botany mace
bspn m. bspna f. 1 donation, offering

to collect donations 2 material aid to a suffering kinsman 3 help

(of a material sort) 4 grant, subsidy

a to make an

offering b to render material assistance to a suffering kinsman c


to help (materially) d to give a grant

basp f. crumb
1 bast m. personnel; staff permanent personnel
2 bast m. refuge, sanctuary
3 bust m. Bust (city)
bust n m. 1 2 proper noun Bustan
bistar m. bistar f. 1 bed, couch 2 bed (of a river)
bistaraz bistarajz rated for a certain number of

be slaughtered d to be brought as a sacrifice

bug m.
bugbug
m. top (the toy)
nk

bugdngj
m. mountain finch, brambling

bgrkv
l
aj
m. 1 energy, decisiveness 2 fury

bg rkaj 1 energetic, decisive 2 infuriated


bglg
a f. shout, scream to shout, cry out
bugnav
l transitive [past: ] 1 to frighten; cause to

beds (of a hospital, etc.)

bistar pertaining to a bed; bedridden (of a patient); recumbent


1 bast f. 1 bunch, bundle; sheaf; pack 2 bolt, catch 3 leather
briefcase (for books, writing materials)

2 bsta enough, that will do


bastak r m. assembler, installer (of equipment)
bastakrkhn f. assembly shop (in a factory)
bastakr f. assembly, installation
bastj f. sufficiency to be sufficient; to satisfy
basr f. hawk used for hunting
bisk masculine plural
baskib l m. basketball
baskr m. avenger

tremble 2 to depress, cause extreme distress; disturb, upset, worry

bugned
l intransitive [past: ]1 to be frightened; be

startled 2 to be depressed, be extremely distressed; be worried

bugav
l transitive [past: ] to fling, throw, chuck
bg va f. Afghan fox, vixen, Vulpes nana
bug
bugah
r m. 1 2 drone (e.g., of an airplane) 3
babbling (of a brook)

92

Pashto-English Dictionary

baskra f. voluntary help (e.g., during wheat harvest, road


building)

biskt

bisk

spongecake, biscuits

bshpv laj m.
bshpavl denominative, transitive

[past:

1 to

bshpavna f.
bshpedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to

be full, be exhaustive 2 to be completed, be fulfilled 3 to be


satisfied (of requirements) 4 to be developed

bshpena f. m. bshped plural 1


completion, end 2 development

bashr m. Arabic person

nu'-i humanity,

humankind, the human race

basv l m. bus driver


basv laj m. sufficiency, satisfactoriness
bisv f. bisva (unit of area equal to 1/20 of a jerib or 975

2 bashr m. body
bashr plnkaj humane, philanthropic
basharpezhandna f.
bashardst m. humanist
bashardost f. humaneness, philanthropy

square meters)

basj 1 sufficient 2 regional processed, cultivated, tilled 3

regional populated, settled

a to satisfy b regional to

cultivate, work, till c regional to populate, settle

humanism

basharshins f. 1 anthropology 2 ethnography


bushruj f. bushruya (a kind of handcrafted fabric)
bashr f. Eastern 1 face, physiognomy; exterior; (outward)

a to

be sufficient b regional to be cultivated, be tilled c to be


populated

bisj r a lot; very


bisjrkhr voracious, gluttonous
basjv laj m. satisfaction with something
to be satisfied with something
basedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be

appearance 2 biology thin skin, epidermis

bashar Arabic 1 human

humanitarian idiom

human society 2

work force

basharijt m. Arabic humanity, mankind


bush b m. dish
bshak l m. regional 1 rainy season 2 monsoon
bshakl f. regional harvest year, good year (for a crop)
bshka f. botany 1 lepidium (a genus of herbs) 2 Erophila
bshl m. bushel
bashndzh m. reputation, fame, honor
bashr suffering night blindness
bahv
buhtna f. 1 quagmire, bog, swamp 2 being stuck (in a

enough, to suffice 2 to end, be ending, be completed; to cease


baser f. 1 twilight (when birds return to their nests) 2 nest;
to sit on a perch 3 stay of a bird at its perch

4 night's lodging (usually of bird hunters)

bast Arabic 1 wide, broad 2 simple, uncomplicated,

elementary

basitedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be wide, be broad 2 to be simple, be elementary; become simpler

bash m. main beam, girder


bashsh sh Arabic cheerful; animated, lively
bashshsht m. Arabic cheerfulness; gaiety, merriment;
animation, gusto cheerfully; in a lively or animated

quagmire, swamp)

buhtavl transitive
buhtedl intransitive
bakhak l m.
bahak l f.
bahkla f. unpleasantness; misfortune, disaster
bhglav f. 1 security 2 quiet, calm
bahl transitive

manner

to

fulfill 3 to satisfy (e.g., requirements) 4 to develop

488 square meters)

make full, make exhaustive; to exhaust 2 to finish, complete;

to begin something, undertake something


basmk m. murrain, cattle plague
bismll Arabic 1 slaughtered (of cattle) 2 brought as sacrifice
a to slaughter (cattle) b to bring as a sacrifice
a to be slaughtered; to be brought as sacrifice
basnl m. trickery; deception to trick, deceive
basna f.
bisvs f. bisvasa (a unit of area equal to 1/20 of a bisva or

bshpk clever, bright, quick-witted

talk like an adult (of a child)

(words with which Muslims begin some activity) 2 f. beginning

perch, roost

bshptj f. 1 fullness, sufficiency

maturity 6 satisfactory (e.g., of requirements)

name of God (who is) the most gracious and the most merciful

2 completeness, finish 3 perfection; superiority 4 full value 5

biskt m. plural 1 cookies 2

basked m. plural completion, end, conclusion; cessation


bismill Arabic 1 in God's name in the

bshptb m.

bush l m. honeysuckle

bshp 1 full, complete, exhaustive 2 finished, completed,


fulfilled 3 utmost, every possible 4 perfect, absolute; superior 5

of full value 6 adult, mature, grown up 7 satisfied (e.g., of


requirements)
93

Pashto-English Dictionary

bahna f. forgiveness, pardon He said


he was sorry, but he must leave religion to pray

baghdr m. 1 [plural: baghdr] hammer [plural: ]


2 [plural: bughdarna] dumbbell (for exercise)

bgharg dialect
bghargavl transitive
bghargolj twin, one who is a twin
bghrga f. 1 valley between two mountains 2 woman who
has borne twins bghargedl intransitive
bughrndzh complicated, mixed up
1 bughr f. veil, yashmak; shawl to wear a veil,

for the repose of the departed

basrt m. Arabic sharp-sightedness; perspicacity


basr m. Arabic plural from
basr f. Arabic Basra (city, Iraq)
basr Arabic 1 seeing 2 penetrating, perspicacious 3

clever;

knowledgeable

basirt m. Arabic 1 vision, sight 2 perspicacity


to show one's perspicacity 3 knowledge, (possession of)

put on a veil

2 baghra f. burrow (of a rabbit)


1 bagharj m. swearword procurer, pander, pimp
2 baghrj f. 1 mortar 2 mortar for husking rice
bughz m. Arabic enmity, hatred; malice

information

basirmn observant
basir f. Arabic
batr f. batrij f. battery
butl n m. Arabic 1 vanity 2 worthlessness, uselessness

annulment, invalidity

batn m. Arabic 1 anatomy ventricle

2 belly, paunch

batn Arabic anatomy abdominal, visceral

heart ventricle

slowly

baghl m. 1 armpit 2 side, edge

on the side (of a

a to avoid someone b not to support someone


baghl n m. Baghlan (city) Baghlan Province
baghalkashh f. baghalgir f. embrace
to embrace (someone) to hug one

to slow down

(of movement)

batit f. larva, grub; maggot


ba's m. Arabic 1 incitement 2

road, etc.) 3 edge (of material); curb 4 embrace idiom

swim

f. duck
Arabic slow

bughzijt m. bitterness, animosity

to embitter someone, arouse someone's animosity

bladder

bta
bat

hatred

of enemies

another

reason, cause 3 religion

resurrection

ba'sunshr m. religion resurrection


ba'd bd Arabic after, afterward in future,
henceforward after every six months
ba'z Arabic certain, some sometimes; from time to
b'zn sometimes, at times, from time to time
b'zi b'ze certain months
ba'd Arabic far, removed, distant shar-i the Far
East grammar pluperfect, past perfect tense
ba'ajna regional exactly, precisely
1 bgh m. heron
2 bugh m. roar, howl; cry, shout
bghrg
bugh ra f. cry; outcry to cry out, shout; to howl,
wail he cried out, he started wailing
baghvt m. Arabic insurrection, strike, revolt, mutiny
baghbagh sandpiper
bughbughj m. 1 honking (of an automobile) 2 horn, bugle;

bughah r m. shouts, cries, wails


1 bughj f. horn
2 bagh Arabic rebellious
bughedl intransitive [past: ]

to shout; begin shouting,

cry out

baghjr preposition besides; except; without

except us

Besides women, there was no one in the house


bagh suspicious
bu open to open (e.g., the eyes)
ba f. Arabic 1 duration, length 2 eternity, immortality
a to last, continue b to be eternal, be immortal 3 existence

bakk l m. Arabic grocer; greengrocer


baj m. Arabic plural 1 from

leftovers, remnants 2 survivals

bab m. 1
buch f.
ba f.
baij f. [plural:

trumpet, pipe

(of) Baghdad idiom

to force someone to cry

out

time

baghd d m. Baghdad (city)


baghddj baghdd adjective
turtledove

bughm f. envy
baghan f. lambskin
bughavl transitive [past: ]

scraps,

baij Arabic m. plural: baj ]

Arabic 1 remainder 2 debt, arrears

94

Pashto-English Dictionary

bak m. chatter, gossip; nonsense

bug m. gadfly
bugavl transitive
bga f. blackberries; bramble, blackberry bush
bungdl
1 bogur f. attack of dog (with howling and snarling)
2 bagur tousled, dishevelled (of the hair)
bago f. curds, cottage cheese
bgo f.
bgoj m. buffalo calf
bagva f.
bagj f. carriage, buggy, two-wheeled cart
bagjkhn f. building or place where carriages are kept
bgl m. 1 quail that has been defeated in battle 2 deserter
bagin m. plural
bagjv l m. bagjv n m. 1 coachman 2

to speak

nonsense

2 buk 2
bak f. frog
bak raj m. courier
bakvl m. regional cook
bakj m. bakja

f. Indian ash-tree, Indian lilac,

melia azedarach

bakbakj m. chatterbox, gossip


baktr m. armor; armor-plating
bakter f. & m. bakterij f.
bakterjolozh f.
bakterij f.
bakra f. bakrj f. flint
1 baks m. handbag, purse; drawer; box briefcase
( change) purse, wallet military map case
2 baks obsolete 1 insignificant 2 a few, not many
bakskaj a few, not many, a little
bksing m. boxing
bakalore f. baccalaureate, bachelor's degree
bakv f. bakv f. 1 dry, parched earth 2 regional

drayman

denominative, transitive [past:

bukj a f.

by one another, at one another's

they are in love

di they love each other; they


mutual respect
mutually, with each other mutual agreement
they have gathered together
Eastern from one another to depart, go
away from each other to each other 2 next, following
(day, year, etc.) a (on) the next day b the future
day after tomorrow next year next week
3 another's saying literal don't burn

with each other

to make

make hunched up

bukedl denominative, intransitive


bukedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be
1

they are living together

are dear to one another

hunchbacked; arch, hunch; make prominent, make protuberant,

bl 1 other, different a other, different b in another


someone else another time one

way

kurkut (dried balls of strained sour milk)


denominative, transitive

bal burning, on fire

after another

Bakva

baka f.
1 bukavl
2 bukavl

hunchbacked; be arched, be hunched; be protuberant, be prominent

your ears in someone else's soup figurative don't interfere in

bg bread, crumbled into ajran (a drink made from sour milk)


bug h m. mediation to be (a) mediator; settle a

... it must be added


... ... and here's something else ,

someone else's business idiom


that

conflict; reconcile

moreover

1 bugt m. means, way in such a way, in this way


2 bgt stupid; shallow (of a person)
bgat singer of folk songs (in particular the bagati)
bugta f. business, matter
bagat f. bugt folk song (performed by two singers)
bagr m. custom, habit
bagr m m. Bagram (city)
bagrm m. plural Bagrami (town near Kabul)
bagj f. turban a to put on a turban b to wear a
turban idiom to disgrace oneself
! I wish you success!
bagjgl m. camomile
bigl m. regional music horn, bugle
bagalolj f. 1
buglj m. baglj heron

bal Arabic conjunction and particle

bal f. Arabic 1 misfortune, disaster

encounter misfortune

to

let all your misfortunes fall on

me!; I'm ready to do anything for you! (an expression of


obedience, agreement)

a to suffer misfortune b to

grow poor, become impoverished 2 witch, hag


the Evil one

devil; wood-goblin

saying one hag said to another: Aaghh! (both are pretty) 3

What sort of
a thing is that? What is it? idiom Sanak is very
greedy ! I wish you success!
! He was lucky; he might have drowned!
to be outstanding in something !
(conversational) piece, item, gimmick

You have shown (us) wonders!

95

bal word paired with

Pashto-English Dictionary

bil Arabic preposition, prefix without

blkh f. textiles warp


bald m. Arabic 1 m. .1

without

exception without delay


bilihtir z Arabic carelessly, incautiously, imprudently
bilistisn Arabic without exception, making no exception
balbatr m. 1 odds and ends, all kinds of things 2 rubbish,

knowing something; being acquainted with someone or something

trash, junk

baltn m. Balaton (lake)


biltavaf Arabic urgently
blrbv laj m.
blbavl denominative, transitive

[past:

bilkamukst without a pass


bilngh Arabic bilngh

baladijt m. Arabic knowledge of something; familiarity with

someone, with something

with this work

Bengal

he is familiar

baladedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


informed, be knowledgeable; be acquainted with someone or

to create a bloc 2

something; become acquainted 2 to get used to; familiarize


(oneself); adapt (oneself)

regularly, without

bl nda f. girl who has come of age


blngaj m. dormouse
bila f. moan, groan
bilvsit Arabic direct, straight
bal vahlaj 1 remaining idle, loafing

baladij f. Arabic municipal authority; municipality; city

municipal authority, municipality, city council


rasi-i head of the municipal authority; mayor of the
council

city; chairman of the city council

baladijav municipal, (of the) city; communal


bilng m. tall building
blrzv laj m. distinction, difference
blargh m. not in agreement
blsab m. day after tomorrow
blsh nta in another way, a different way, otherwise
bolshevzm m.
bolshevk m.
bulagh Arabic eloquent; expressive
bulgh r gentle breeze, zephyr (in the spring)
bulghrist n m.
bulghr 1 Bulgarian the Bulgarian language

2 m. loafer, idler,

sponger

bulbl m. 1 nightingale

1 to

which always turned out to his disadvantage)

change; without fail

shepherd from Baladi (this shepherd was known for his greed,

quince, marmelo

denominative, transitive [past:

1 balad f. Arabic small town, locality


2 balda f. feminine singular from 2
1 balad Arabic municipal, (of the) city; communal
2 baladj m. Baladaj (village near Qandahar)
balad saying the same thing happened to him as to the

to

surrender

bal gh m. Arabic communication; notification


balght m. Arabic eloquence
balghn m. [plural: balghunn] botany
group (of settlements)

m. bulldozer

acquaint with, familiarize 2 to train, school (in)

bl rba
blbedl denominative, intransitive
bul ra f. hunting decoy (bird)
bilshat Arabic unconditional unconditional

blk m. 1 politics bloc

he knows these people very well 2.2

accustomed; mastered; having adapted to

buldozr
baladavl

fertilize; impregnate; to cover

guide; conductor; escort 1.2 country,

nation 1.3 city 2.1 being knowledgeable about something;

nightingale 2

"bulbul" (name given a number of birds with bright plumage or


which sing beautifully)

2 balbl shining, gleaming, lustrous


3 blbl 1 varied, diverse 2 different, all kinds
1 bulbla f. female nightingale
2 balbal f. dance of the Wazirs
balbalj m. torch, flare
bildzhik m. Belgium
bildzhik bildzhukj 1 Belgian 2 m. Belgian (person)
bildzhijm m.
bl chri in another place
bldzjg another's; strange, alien
balkh m. Balkh (city and region) Balkh province
Balkh river
balkh b m. Balkhab region
balkh sh m. Lake Balkhash
blkhv Eastern 1 in the other direction 2 on the other side

2 m.

Bulgar, Bulgarian (person)

bulgh rij f.

bulghrij f. Bulgaria

bulgh ka f. 1 noise; shouting; wailing 2 mourning

a to make noise; to shout; wail b to mourn (over)

balghm m. Arabic phlegm; mucus (e.g., from the nose)


bal m.
bils f. proper noun Bilkis, Belkis
1 blk
2 balk m. dialect glistening, shining to glisten,
sparkle

96

Pashto-English Dictionary

blkmshr m.
1 blki 1 adversative conjunction but, but also
not three but four pupils came 2 emphatic

baluchist n m.
baluch
1 balts m. 1 Baluchi (person) 2 proper noun Baluts
2 blots m.
1 baltsa f. 1 Baluchi (female) 2 proper noun Balutsa
2 bltsa f.
baluts
blodl transitive
blvda f. stumbling; getting stuck to stumble
bulr m. Arabic 1 crystal 2 cut glass, crystal
bulur bulurn Arabic 1 (of) crystal, crystalline 2

particle (and) even

2 balka f. dialect campfire


balg m. leaf (of a tree, etc.)
belgr d m. Belgrade (city)
bl gadz m. day after tomorrow in the morning (morning
after next)

ball transitive [present: past: ] 1 to name,


enumerate 2 to call; invite; convoke

I was invited to dinner 3 to consider, suppose,


to consider it better, prefer something 4 to
announce 5 to sing loudly, sing cheerfully to sing (folk)

crystal, cut glass

think

songs

blosl blausl [past: ] 1 to touch, brush against 2


to rub, rub down, massage 3 to cause revulsion; alienate

blalgj f. 1 woman who gives birth each year 2 cattle which


give increase each year

(someone); irritate 4 to bite (of a dog)

blmgaj blmnga tasteless, flavorless


blndza f. saxaul (Haloxylon, a small tree or shrub of Central

blsa f. 1
blosedl

figurative successful, unusual 2 m. proper noun Biland, Buland

bilandpj excellent, outstanding


bilandparv z flying high, soaring
bilandparvz 1 high-altitude flight 2 (upward) flight,
take-off idiom literal & figurative the

bal m. proper noun Balo

blosedna f. 1 collision; brushing (against), grazing 2


distress, disorder, confusion 3 hatred; revulsion, enmity, hostility

balt m. Arabic 1 oak (lithocorpus) 2 acorn


bulgh m. Arabic maturity, manhood; ripeness; majority
(coming of age) before coming of age
blk m. bulk military platoon sapper
platoon

buluk t m. plural suburbs suburbs of Kabul


blok d m. blockade, encirclement economic
blocade to blockade, encircle, surround
blukmshr m. bulukmshr military lieutenant
bluk buluk adjective military (of a) platoon

invitation; summons; call 3

evening

platoon column

proverb literal

balavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to set on fire


baln m.
bilngaj m. kind of polecat, Vormela peregusna
1 bal f. regional bayonet; pike, lance
2 bla feminine singular of 1
3 bla feminine singular of 2
bulhavs Arabic capricious, whimsical, fickle;

When there were no brave men, even Balo became a leader


figurative When there are no fish, even a crab is a fish

2 bilv m.
balv f. disorder; disturbance; sedition, revolt

to create

disturbances; instigate rebellion

baludzhist n m. Baluchistan (province, Iran)


baludzhi 1 adjective Baluchi 2.1 m. Baluchi (person)

2.2

f. Baluchi (language)

balch m.

attractive

offend, insult (someone)

bilandhimmt 1 valiant 2 noble; magnanimous


bilandhimmat f. 1 valor 2 nobility; magnanimity
1 biland f. height, altitude
2 bilandj m. proper noun Bilandaj
blang 1 fresh, young, green 2 bright (of colors) 3 beautiful,

meddle 5 to encroach upon (someone, something), infringe 6 to

blndra f. Afridi 1 invitation 2 blndra f. reception;

sorts 3 to hate; nourish hostility, nourish antipathy 4 to interfere,

entertaining (as by a host)

announcement; pronouncement 4 reception

to nourish a hatred, nourish an antipathy

blausedl intransitive [past: ] 1 to


collide, run into; brush against; touch 2 to be distressed, be out of

empyrean, the highest reaches of heaven

reception

blosavl blausavl transitive [past: ] to evoke


enmity; to alienate (someone); to irritate

bilnd bulnd 1.1 high, tall; exalted 1.2 loud, resounding 1.3

balnlk m. (written) invitation


balna f. 1 naming, enumeration 2

blosv laj m. blausv laj hostility, enmity; repulsion,

antipathy

Asia)

blos m. blaus 1 collision; touching, contact 2 insulting;

causing distress

(of)

greedy, stingy, miserly

1
97

Pashto-English Dictionary

balj f. 1 cornice; eaves 2 pole (for pushing a boat) 3 bolt,


bar 4 roof

2 bal Arabic particle yes, certainly


bilj rd m. billiards; billiard table
blechn m. history sling (weapon)
baledl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

bin f. Arabic 1 building, structure 2 basis

superstructure

to burn; catch

2 bann m. Arabic mason; builder


ban t m. (heavy, coarse) cloth
bant-un-n'sh m. Arabic plural

fire

bleghdl intransitive 1 to be wrapped in swaddling clothes 2


to become entangled, become confused

bleghadavl transitive bleghadavl 1 to swaddle,


wrap in swaddling clothes 2 to entangle, confuse

astronomy the Big and

Little Bear (i.e., Ursa Major and Ursa Minor)

bant of (coarse) cloth


banrs m. 1 Varanasi (India)

bilt m. ticket
balgh Arabic eloquent; expressive
baligh considerable, large, big
1 bum m. 2
2 bam m. [plural: bamna plural: bam n] bomb
atomic bomb hydrogen bomb
high explosive bomb incendiary bomb
to drop bombs, bomb; bombard
3 bam m. low tone; bass (voice)
bam achavnkaj adjective bombing
bombardier
bamand z m. 1 obsolete bomb-thrower 2 depth-charge gun
bomb m. 2
bamb r m. bamb rd m. bombardment
compound verb compound verb
to undergo bombardment to subject to

2 proper name Banaras 3

striped silk

binjt m. Arabic building


bin'aljhi Arabic in view of what has been said, in view of
the foregoing

bambl m. plural dialect 1 awn, beard (of corn, grain) 2

sheaf (of wheat); tuft (of grass)

bint f. [plural: bnti] Arabic plural daughter


bink m. flick (of the fingers); insult, slight, blow
1 bandzh m. 1 horse chestnut 2 henbane
2 bandzh m. bandzh trade
bandzhrag f. fancy goods, haberdasher's trade
haberdashery, fancy goods
1 bandzhr f. haberdashery; fancy goods
2 bandzhr m. regional tradesman in grocery items
bandzhkh m. thick branches
1 bundzhj m. 1 person with a small nose 2 person with a

bombardment

bambrdmn adjective bombardment


bambrdavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

collapsed nose (due to syphilis)

2 bandzhj f. botany cassia


bench m.
bunchk m. basis, essence
1 bundzj m. son of one wife (under polygamy), stepson
2 bundzj f. daughter of one wife (under polygamy),

to

bomb, bombard

bambr f. bombardment to bomb, bombard


to subject to bombing to
undergo bombing

bambr kavnkaj
bambra f. hornet
bambl m. plural 1 botany ear without seed, seedless ear


on this basis on the basis of something
a to plan, contemplate, undertake; decide;
he decided to go b to undertake something a to be
built b to be based on something 3 philosophy
1

stepdaughter

inflorescence of corn 3 panicle of a reed 4 thick beard

band 1 m. .1 bonds, ties, nets 1.2 incarceration 1.3 captivity,


bondage

to

free from imprisonment, free from captivity 1.4 dam, weir 1.5

bambolj m. wicker corn-bin


bamb f. pump
bamba f. Bombay (city)
bampr m. 1 bumper, buffer 2 shock absorber
bamlj f. balmy (a small drum held under the arm)
1 bum f. pike, lance
2 bma f. dialect 2
1 bin m. Arabic son
2 bn f. one of the wives (in relation to another under polygamy)
3 bon m. bonn Bonn (city)

anatomy joint

rheumatic fever 1.6 node (on the stem

of a plant) 1.7 bandage, binding 1.8 spell, incantation 1.9


measure; size 1.10 geography mountain range, ridge

a to

build a dam, dam b to take measures c to decide, make a decision

... they have decided that d

to prepare

(something) 2 predicate .1 blocked (of a roadway); closed, cut


off (of movement); closed (e.g., of a border) 2.2 cut short,
stopped; held back, restrained 2.3 forbidden (of a custom, etc.)
2.4 arrested, imprisoned 2.5 captured 2.6 stuck (in a swamp,

mudhole) 3 attributive stuffy, close, sultry, stifling

98

a stuffy room

Pashto-English Dictionary

bandij t f. imprisonment to pardon


bandijnavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

band m. punishment
band zh m. 1 tire, band (of metal) 2 bandage 3 dressing;

military individual field dressing, first-aid


packet to apply a dressing, dress (a wound)
bandubst m.
bandbnd by part, in parts
bandpsor m. bandwidth
banddzh m.
bandkh m.
bandkhn f.
bandr m. 1 port, harbor 2 approach, access (road), pass (in
binding

banditb m. arrest, imprisonment


bandikhn f. prison
bandedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to close,
be closed he became silent 2 to be blocked (of a
roadway); be closed off (of movement) 3 to be cut short, be
stopped, be restrained 4 to be prohibited (of a custom, etc.) 5 to
be arrested, be imprisoned, be thrown in prison 6 to be captured 7
to fall into, get caught in (e.g., a net, a snare) 8 to get stuck (in a
swamp, in a quagmire) 9 to shut oneself up; close up

the mountains) 3 parking place; halting place; moorage 4 center

(e.g., for trade)

medicine constipation

negotiations)

package

bna f. part, portion, share


1 bnzj m. 1
2 bnzj f. 2
benzn m. plural gasoline
bnz m. 1 foundation 2

measures; put through a measure b to arrange, organize

border) 2 to cut short, suspend, halt; restrain, hold back

to hold back payment

benghz m. Benghazi (city, Libya)


binfsh
binafsh f. violet
binafsh adjective violet (color)
bank m.
bank k m. Bangkok (city, Thailand)
1 bang m. 1 Indian hemp 2 hashish
2 bng m. bung 1 buzzing (of insects)

to halt an attack

3 to forbid (a custom, etc.) 4 to arrest, incarcerate, imprison 5 to

capture 6 to drag in, suck in (of a swamp, mudhole) 7 to imprint,


impress idiom

to expound, set forth; describe

bandavl denominative, transitive to log off


band m. [plural: plural: bandag n]

figurative basis, foundation 3

philosophy base, basis

bandavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


barricade (the roadway); cut off (motion, movement); close (e.g., a
1

to remove the obstables,

bandigar f. slavery, enslavement


bandiv n m. 1 prisoner, person under arrest 2 captive
1 ban r m. feast, banquet to arrange a feast, feast
2 ban r m. chat
banrkhna f. chatroom
banr m. carouser; convivial fellow
banl m. 1 bundle, bunch, pack 2 skein (of thread) 3 bale,

bandzh m. dressing station


bandsh m. 1 obstacle 2 blockade (e.g., economic)
bandht m. 1 stagnation, standstill 2 dead-end (e.g., in

bandkh m.

limitations 2 struggle, campaign (e.g., against rumors) 3 dialect

Gulf (of goods) 2 f. kind of imported chintz

bandz m. 1 obstacle, hindrance; limitation

economic limitations

bandara'b s m. Bender-Abbas (Iran, city)


bandarg h m. port; harbor
bandar 1.1 adjective port 1.2 obtained through the Persian

bakd m. history musket


bandakj m. botany mare's tail, Equisetum
bandag n masculine plural from
bandag f. slavery
bandv laj m. 1 interment, arrest 2 captivity 3 jamming
the lock is beginning to jam
bandubs m. colloquial bandubst m. bandobst
measure 2 organization, arrangement a to take

to

arrest, imprison

2 jingling; strumming

3 whispering

3 bang combined with


bang l m. Bengal Bay of Bengal
bangatj f. 1 desert brambling (a kind of finch) 2 kind of

1 slave,

slave-laborer; bondsman 2 religion God's slave; simple person,


otherworldly person

children's game

bandag f.
1 band 1.1 arrested, imprisoned 1.2 taken captive 2 m. .1
person under arrest; prisoner to arrest, imprison, lock up
2.2 captive to take prisoner, capture
2 bandj f. 1 (female) person under arrest, prisoner 2

bang f. dance (among the Hataki, a tribe in the Kandahar

region)

bangj m. bracelet
bangj-bangj

(female) captive 3 neckerchief 4 regional bracelet

99

collapsed, in ruins; destroyed

Pashto-English Dictionary

bunerv l m. inhabitant of the Buner region


binj f. Arabic 1 build, frame, (bodily) constitution

bangiv l m. 1 trader in bracelets 2 magician 3

traveling showman with a trained monkey

bangh 1 m. plural the Bangashes (tribe) 2 m. Bangash

1 ba m. garden, orchard
2 b m. 2
3 bu m. rope (made of rush, etc.)
brzh m. brezhn m. moult, moulting (of birds)
bas t m. gardener
bustrgaj weak-sighted, having poor eyesight
1 baka f. feather a to fight (e.g., of fighting

(tribesman)

bangah t m. plural history area of the Bangash


bangha 1 feminine for 2 proper noun Bangasha
bangal f. 1 bungalow, villa; little house 2 palace
banga f. 3
bangraj m. 1
bangok m. fortuneteller, soothsayer
bngavl bungavl transitive [past: ] 1 to cause to

cocks) b figurative to quarrel

2 bak f. 2
1 bukj m. 2
2 bakj f. (small) garden
bav l m. gardener
buavl transitive
1 ba f. 1 face; aspect, appearance a to grow pale,
change countenance he grew pale; he changed

buzz, cause to hum 2 to cause to jingle

bung
2 bnga
1 bang
1

f.
f.

m. 1 drug addict 2 figurative person drunk with

love; someone in love

bang m. sweeper, yardman

bungj m. harp

bungj m. 1 buzzing (of insects) 2 jingling, strumming

idiom to be shy
5 bangj m. roan horse
6 bang m. Bangi (city)
bungedl intransitive [past: ]

countenance b to fade, turn yellow, wither c figurative to show


a to change, change countenance

changed greatly; he's completely unrecognizable b figurative to

a to change, to be transformed b to
change (one's clothes) to take on the appearance or
the form of something 3 nature (of a person) idiom
a to die b to grow weak, weaken (of a person) idiom
! I wish you a long life!
2 ba f. 1 feather (of a bird) to moult (of birds) 2

1 to buzz (of insects) 2

be lost, be confused

to jingle

fin (of a fish)

Banow)

binavh m. [plural: binavh n] ash tree


ban m. bann 1
1 ban m. Arabic singular & plural son; sons; descendents
people, mankind the whole human
race Jews
2 banj f. bellows (of a blacksmith) idiom to
become poor, impoverished idiom saying to
perform some worthless task; to dress up an old woman

compound verb
to eradicate; destroy right down to the
his whole family perished

bunj d m. Arabic foundation, basis

foundation

idiom

banidm m. Arabic singular & plural


banidamtb m. human qualities
bunjd basic; fundamental
bunjdedl denominative, intransitive
created, be founded


he has

cowardice, take fright 2 aspect, image, form

1 ban f. Banow, Banu, (town, region)


2 ban m. Arabic 1
3 bno oblique plural from 2
banuchj m. banutsj m. Banuchi (inhabitant of

2 bunj a

structure b position, situation

people, mankind

[past: ] to be

banj n m. 1 knitwear, knitted item 2 jersey 3 t-shirt,

buh r m. 1 buzzing (of insects) 2 whispering 3 muttering


ba alvtaj 1 grown pale; having a changed countenance
2 faded, turned yellow; withered 3 figurative having shown

cowardice, having been frightened

to vary,

to be varied, be diversified

1 bj m. weeping willow
2 baj m. gardener
baj half-opened, slightly opened to open slightly
to be opened slightly
baj r m. dyer
bajlj beautiful; bright; well-dressed, elegant
baechgh m.
buedl intransitive [past: ]1 to buzz (of insects) 2 to
whisper 3 to mutter

(sailor's) striped vest

banjnbf f. knitwear production


bunr m. Buner (region)

baaba various, diverse; all kinds of

diversify

[plural:

bazh m.
baj m.

plural: bajag n] shopkeeper,

petty tradesman

100

bav m. 1 scarecrow 2 boogeyman (an imaginary being used to

frighten children)

Pashto-English Dictionary

bau bo interjection goo-goo! (interjection used to make a baby

smile)

3 bu m. 1
4 bu m. 1 thorn, prickle 2 syphilis
5 bo separable part of the verb
bo m. boa (constrictor)
buvraj m. 1 young animal weaned from its mother

boots or shoes)

busur m. plural chaff


buka f. girl
bukj m. 1
ban botanical gardens
buvrbuz f. dissatisfaction

2 skin,

hide, pelt

bavsr m. Arabic plural hemorrhoids


bav's m. Arabic plural from
bulhavs Arabic 1.1 capricious 1.2 lightheaded

budz m. shoemaker, cobbler


bu rangavnkaj m. bootblack (a person who shines


bi medicinal plants botany
botanist a to uproot; root out b figurative to
extirpate, eliminate 3 brushwood 4 [plural: bi] thickets 5
pattern, design (embroidered or drawn) idiom ! Go
away! Get lost! idiom Poor Ahmed is

sensual 2 m. .1 capricious person 2.2 lightheaded, flighty


bulhavasnk f.

2 flightiness 3 sensuality

bulhavas f. 1 capriciousness

bob pure, unadulterated pure Pashto


bobavl denominative, transitive [past: ]
1

bob f. money in the money-box (saved at home and put to no

use)

2 bba feminine singular of


bobj f. sister (addressing an older sister or an elderly woman)
bobedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be
cleaned, be freed from impurities

1 but m. young man


2 but m. 2
3 bot past of 1
but m. snout, muzzle; mug
1 butkj 1 m. lad, youth 2 having grown a bit

to

grow up (a bit)

Western bottle

botll transitive [past:


perfective of 1

2 buj m. 1 crop-eared animal 2 miscarriage


3 boj m. fillet (steak)
buipoh nd m. botanist
bud wearing European footwear
bodzh m. 1 burden, weight 2 volume, dimension
bavudzhd despite, in spite of
1 budzh f. 1 stopper, plug 2 gag
2 bodzh m. regional burden, weight
budzhj f. bag, purse
buch m. 1 animal with a clipped ear or ears; animal with a
mutilated muzzle 2 person with a flattened or sliced nose

2 butkj 1 f. girl 2 feminine singular from 1 2


3 butkj f. 2
butl m. [plural: butalna plural: butal n]

baj m. 1 bush 2 plant (general designation)

altogether ruined.
to clean,

free from impurities

bi weeds

1.3

person 2.3 sensual nature

to

express your dissatisfaction to someone

, imperative perfective ]

botlaj past participle from


1 bot f.
2 bta f. girl
3 bot past from 1
4 bta feminine past of 1
1 botj m. young camel
2 btj Western past of 1
1 bu morose, sullen He is morose.
2 bu m. [plural: buna plural: bu n] Western
shoe, footwear a pair of shoes a
shoe factory a shoe factory
bub m. person who collects brushwood for fuel
bup lish m. regional boot polish

buchkhj m. scarecrow (in a garden)


buch m. kind of small melon
1 buchaj m. sluice gate (of an irrigation ditch)
2 buchj m. young snake
buchk m. kind of melon
1 buchaj m. miller's helper
2 buchu f. portion of ground flour (a remuneration for the
miller's helper)

buchj m. 2 1
budz buts 1 angry, enraged

2 insulted 3 sticking out

(usually refers to the ears) 4 having pricked up one's ears

a to be angry, be infuriated b to be offended c to stick out,

protrude

a to bristle; get into a fight b to be shy, be

timid; feel uncomfortable (of a woman who has caught sight of


outsiders)

bodzl m. stone wall, stone fence


buts
butsakj m. 1 2 pommel (of a saddle)
butsavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

1 to anger,

infuriate 2 to insult 3 suspiciously to prick up one's ears

butsedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


become angry; be enraged 2 to be offended 3 to protrude (said

101

Pashto-English Dictionary

usually of ears)

He listened carefully. He

pricked up his ears.

bukht bukht 2
bukhtavl transitive
bukht f. to marinate, soak for shish kebob (meat)
bukhtedl intransitive
bukhtsj f.
1 bud m. 1 being, existence, life 2 exaction, (money) recovered
3 proceeds (from selling something) compound verb

2 bud m. storehouse for hay (plastered with clay)


3 bud m. 1 quick-wittedness 2 bright, clever person
clever person, sensible person to know the point of
something

bud m. 1.2
budpst m. Budapest (city)
budj
budtn m. (heathen) temple
buddzhav budget-related, budgetary; relating to a financial
estimate

buddzh f. budget; (financial) estimate


bodlna f. stupid; dullness
bodl bodlaj stupid, dense, dull-witted
budavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

1 to

receive; exact 2 to gain, make (when selling something) idiom

to achieve your rights


1 bud f. woof (of a fabric)
2 bod m. singular & plural [plural:

plural:

bodag n] cattle (beast or beasts of burden)

3 bud f. amount received, proceeds; amount exacted


bodarv m. cart track; caravan trail
budedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be
bu 1.1 m. old man 1.2 m. Buddha 2 attributive adjective

old

old man

to grow old

bugj m. (little) old man


2 bugj f. old woman
buj Buddhist, (of) Buddha
1 buogj m. 1
2 buogj f. 2
1 buj m. 1 (venerable) old man, elder; spiritual advisor
1

bad omen

buj f. 1 old woman, old lady 2 f. attributive adjective


old old woman idiom rainbow

the Great Bear (Ursa


to grow numb (e.g., of a foot)

idiom astronomy
major) idiom

3
4

boj f.
boj f. skull, cranium

bor brown

meat and sour milk

borbukj f. burbukj f.
bordzhl m. [plural: bordzhalna

f. plural:

bordzhli] 1 dwelling; habitation 2 trench 3 ambush

burchan f. woman whose baby died in infancy


burkhng m. tub, trough (for mixing dough); kneading
trough; unleavened dough

bord m.

council

bor m. 1 sign, signboard 2 commission,

borvl m. member of a commission, council member


burzhu 1 m. bourgeois 2 adjective bourgeois
burzhuz 1 f. bourgeoisie 2 adjective bourgeois
burs m. exchange exchange operations
burgh m. pipe (for smoking)
bur f.
borks m. chemistry borax
born f. bor f. flour (for breading fried foods)
burund m. Burundi (country, Africa)
1 bur f. sawdust, filings sawdust
2 bur f. granulated sugar
3 bua f. woman who has lost her son ! May your
son die and your brother too!

received, be exacted 2 to be gained (at the sale of something)

2 bavr m. 1 leopard 2 proper name Bavr


3 bor m. fruit 1 3
4 bur m. 6
5 bor m. caliber
6 bor m. waist, loins idiom ! Out of my sight!
he's very tired
1 bavr 1 m. moth 2 f. butterfly
2 bur f. cellar; basement
born f. bornj f. dish made from eggplant with

4 bra feminine singular of 1


1 bavrj m. 1 anatomy gall, bile 2 bitter taste, bitterness
2 burj 3
3 bri fright (object inspiring fear); witch, hag
4 bur f. borj f. bag, sack jute
5 bavrj f. corn, callus
burij f. mat, matting
bork boric, boracic boric acid
1 bo m. roast (meat)
2 bo unintelligent
bubk slow-witted, muddle-headed
bobukj f. bubukj sandstorm, whirlwind
1 bva f. ba plateau, tableland
2 bo 1 unfinished, uncompleted 2 out of order a
be unfinished b to be out of order, not working properly

102

1
2

buj f. 3
buj m. projection, protuberance, prong.

to

Pashto-English Dictionary

buj 1 with a cut off or mutilated nose, lip, ear, etc.; with a

dull or stupid face 2 with a chipped edge (of dishware) 3 broken,


smashed

4 boj m. plug, stopper; plugging, stopping up


5 boj f. bunch of lucerne
6 bi nonsense to speak nonsense
7 boj m. pattern on felt
bi-bi a to stretch out, spraw b

figurative to achieve something; strive toward something, dream


of something

He dreams about

this work.

muttering

buzbuzj m. 1 2 grumbling,

buzghlj m. sprout, shoot


boz f. 1 bouza (fermented beverage); koumiss (fermented

throat)

bog collected, located together to go together


boggh
aj 1 with a muffled, hoarse voice 2 with a sore
2

bhta f. 1 mire, bog, swamp 2 figurative stagnation,

to

effect, have an influence on


bus f. 1 stack of hay or straw which has been plastered

to strut, to be puffed up, be important


2 bus f. blow, stroke

bohtedl denominative, intransitive to get stuck (in the


mud), get bogged down (in a swamp, quagmire)

buhnd sad, depressed, dispirited


bvha f. barren desert idiom to be a hermit, be
a recluse a to go crazy b to be a hermit, be a
recluse

1 bugh m. bowl, saucer (made of wood)


2 bogh 1 rough (of a voice) 2 unpleasant; ugly
boghtb m. boghtj f. 1 roughness, coarseness

bride's family to guests at the wedding)

to influence; have an

with clay 2 hollow object 3 figurative lazybones idiom

ugliness

trick

boghd f.
bughlj m. bright kerchief (such kerchiefs are given by the

throat

bugnav
l transitive

bugned
l intransitive

bog f. 1 secluded place 2 neighborhood 3


1 bus m. plural, less often singular 1 finely cut straw,
chopped straw 2 chaff, bran, siftings, peels bran
idiom to deceive with flattery

bohtv laj m. 1 flabbiness, limpness; inertia,

standstill; swamp

1.2 silent, taciturn

bozin f. morocco (leather)


buzhumbur f. Bujumbura (capital of Burundi)
1 bog 1 indistinct, hoarse, husky (of the voice) 2 sore (of the

(of claws, etc.)

buzedl intransitive 1 to buzz (of insects) 2 to sour, be


suitable (of dough)

swamp or mudhole)

bus

bohttb m.
bohtna f. getting stuck (in mud), getting bogged down (in a

bohtavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


drag in, suck in (of a swamp, mire) 2 to plunge (into), dig (into)

2 m. .1 guileless, openhearted person; simpleton 2.2 taciturn

bus t m. influence, effect

busms m. toady, lickspittle


busavl transitive
bus inflated, swollen
boht stuck (in mud), bogged down (in a swamp, in a

person

to urge on, drive (a

hoarse, mule, etc.)

sluggishness 2

mare's milk) 2 soured food

2 boz f. glossy ibis, Plegadis falcinellus


3 boz one who does not observe fasting
4 bza perfective imperative of 1
buziband 1.1 guileless, openhearted

propagandize

bost n m. flower bed; array


buskhusj m. stuffed calfskin
bus m. smoldering ashes
buskrl transitive [past: ]

mudhole)

buz m. 1 buzzing (of insects) 2 crack, crackle, crackling

(sound)

buzb m. owlet
buzbuzka f.

bus f. propaganda _ to conduct propaganda,

boghm f. edema, swelling (in the throat)


bugh m. music trombone
boghv laj m.
boghavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

to make

coarse, make rough (of the voice)

bogh f. intoxication from smoking hashish or strong tobacco


boghedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to grow
coarse (of the voice)

bu m. Arabic pipe; horn


bualamn m. Arabic 1 chameleon 2 Himalayan pheasant
bo f. regional
1 bok m. 1 hump (of a camel, zebu) 2 rise, raising; eminence
3 protuberance, prominence, bulge

103

Pashto-English Dictionary

buk 1 fallen into ruins 2 overturned, toppled

to

topple, overturn to be toppled, overturned


bok n m. 1
bukbk a to dissemble, play the hypocrite

to pose, act

bokr conic, conical


1 bokr f.
2 bukr f.
bukraj weaned (of a baby)
bksing m. boxing
bukavl denominative, intransitive
down, bring down; to overturn, topple

bok f. bucket (of leather or wood)


bukedl denominative, intransitive

the road, etc.)


to engage in boxing
[past:

to knock

[past: ] to be

knocked down; be overturned, be toppled; overturn, topple

bog rotted within; hollow, empty


bograj m. 1 land given to the clergy for their use free of

charge 2 parcel of land allotted to farm workers as payment 3


land use whereby sharecropper and owner split produce fifty-fifty

bug 1 slaughtered (of cattle) 2 slaughtered (by a predator

or plunderer) 3 figurative victim

a to slaughter (cattle)

b to tear apart (said of a predator) c figurative to torment, torture

2 buli m. plural urine to urinate


3 bli present tense of
bolj taj f. command button
bolivij f. Bolivia
1 bum m. native
2 bum m. owl; tawny owl (Bubo bubo)
3 bum 1 m. nation; land; region 2 familiar (with the territory,

a to be torn to pieces, be slaughtered (of cattle) b to be

torn to pieces (by a predator) c figurative to be victimized, suffer

harm

2 bug f. chickpea
bognavl transitive Eastern
bogot Bogata (city)
bug f. watermelon
1 bol m. 1 word, promise 2 speech 3 rumor, talk; fame, repute
2 baul m. Arabic plural 2
3 bol present tense verb stem from
bol n m. the Bolan Pass (West Pakistan)
bolni f. small pie with vegetables
bol m. 1 bolt 2 latch to latch the door
idiom to loosen someone's tongue
bulzr m. bulldozer
bolshevzm m.
bolshevik m.
bulgh f.
bul f.
1 bolk
2 bolk consignment of goods
boll transitive
1 bla f. female relatives of bride treating groom's relatives to
boiled rice

2 bla imperative, imperfective from


3 bol word paired with
1 bolj f. command; instruction, ordinance

4 bom slack, lazy (of willpower)


bum local, indigenous
bumj m. 1 guide, escort 2 imam, leader of prayer 3 basis
to substantiate, base
bumjgalv f. 1 the title of imam 2 leadership
bumj f.
bon m. bonn m. Bonn (city)
bundzhj m. 1
bund m. a drop
bun 1 short 2 clipped, trimmed
bna: index finger
bunj 1 m. .1 truncheon, baton 1.2 cattle with docked tails
2 quite short

bons m.
bong f. bung f. ransom (from imprisonment, etc.)
to pay ransom (for a captive, etc.)
bongj with nose cut off
bungedl intransitive [past: ] to growl, curse; mutter
1 bun f.
2 bun f. 1 anus 2 seat, buttocks
3 bun f. hunting lying low (as by a grouse or quail at the
appearance of a bird of prey)

4 bun f. slaughter, massacre


5 bun filled, with a full stomach
bonj acquainted, familiar
bunj k
bonedl intransitive
1 bo m. medicine atrophic rhinitis, ozena
2 bu m. 3
3 bu m. bo m. 2 to whisper to
someone not to utter a word; not to make a sound
bubasr weak-sighted
buavl boavl transitive
bu f.
buh r m.
1 buj m. cartilage (of the nose)
2 buj nasal
buedl boedl intransitive
bav m. 1
buvrj m.
104

Pashto-English Dictionary

buh r m.
buhrj

m. 1 small child who has been weaned 2 young

colt

bihgj m. small colt, foal


bih a f. filly (foal)
behbd 1.1 healthy, well 1.2 regulated, organized, arranged
1
1.3 flourishing, thriving 2 m.
1
behbud f. 1 health 2 arrangement, organization 3 well-

animal just weaned

bad smell, odor pleasant smell;


a to smell, give off an odor b
figurative to indicate ("smack of") the approach of something
to be fragrant a to sniff, smell (at) b
figurative to be greedy, envious to go bad, go rotten
a to gain a bad name; be scandalized b to be caught in
1

buj m. smell

aroma

being; prosperity

2 behbud f. large knife, dagger


bbj f. proper noun Babi
buht n Arabic lie, slander to lie, slander
behtr behtra better What could be
better? ( it will be) better, if
a to prefer b to consider a blessing
behtar f. 1 improvement 2 advantage; preference 3 well-

adultery

2 bvi blending of the particle and the linking verb


buj f. botany licorice
bujr f. 1 insignificant or hardly noticeable trace 2 model,
specimen

bujkh greedy, envious


bujn smelly, foul-smelling
bujn k 1 giving off an odor

being; prosperity

behtarn the best; of superior quality; outstanding idiom


in the best sense of the word
bahr 1.1 from without, externally, on the outside
at a distance of several miles from a outside,
beyond the limits of something outside the city
behind the door b at, beside, near 1.2 abroad
a from without, externally, on the outside b from abroad
to go out (from somewhere)
a to be led out; be expelled, be driven out, be exiled b to go

2 smelly, foul-smelling

3 regional fragrant

bunos- jres m. Buenos Aires (city)


bujavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

to sniff,

smell (at); sniff around

bja ought, should, must

He should

now go to town.

2 boj f. grass and straw used for fertilizer, green fertilizer


buj f. 1
bujedl intransitive [past: ]1 to smell, give off an odor

out, leave (from some place) c to be extracted, pulled out d to be


released, be freed

2 to go bad, become rotten

I shall write
I'll go I'm

b ba particle 1 forms future tense

I shall write (something)


he worked (usually) 3 expresses modalities
he ought to come; it's a pity he hasn't come
If you had said (it), he would have come
he would call on, he would come

2 beh f. better
1 bah f. price, cost
2 bah f. brightness; sparkling
bahdp expensive; valuable
bahdr 1 brave, valiant 2 m.

a to send b to send abroad

a to go out (from somewhere) b to come forward,

project; appear (publicly) 2.1 external, outer

going 2 expresses repetition of an action when used with forms of


the past tense

bih m. [plural: biha n plural: bihna] foal,

outside door

2.2 foreign 2.3 going beyond the frameword (of something)

bhar s m.
bahr-p-bahr 1

from the outside; on the outside, from

without 2 far from something; beyond the limits of something

bharat f. recruitment compound verb to recruit


compound verb to be recruited, be enlisted, be won
over

baharanj 1 outer, exterior

gates 2 done,

produced outside the home 3 another's; alien, foreign


.1 brave man, hero 2.2

Bogatyr (fabled hero)

bahdurn 1 brave, valiant 2 bravely, valiantly


bahdur f. bravery, valor, heroism
he displayed valor while defending his native land
bravely, valiantly; heroically
bah r m. spring
bhnd 1 running, flowing 2 liquid liquids
bahn f. pretext, cause; excuse; evasion, trick, subterfuge
to seek a pretext, seek an excuse
bahnj valuable, expensive

baharavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to lead


out; drive out, banish, expel 2 to extract, take out 3 to release,

free 4 to thrust out, display on the outside

1 bahr f. 1 share, portion 2 wealth 3 use; advantage; profit


2 bahr m. regional waiter
bahrabadr f. use, utilization; exploitation; operation
bahramn bahramnd fortunate, happy; flourishing,
thriving to be happy; fourish
bahramand f. happiness, good fortune; prosperity; wellbeing

105

Pashto-English Dictionary

bahravr

bahraj b 1 flourishing 2 deriving profit or

immediately, quickly, without delay

benefit from; gaining 3 having been awarded something; having


received something

behz d m. proper noun Behzad


bihsd m. bejsd Bikhsud, Bejsud (region in the Dajizangi
district and in Nangarhar)

bihsht m. paradise
bihisht 1 heavenly 2 m. jocular water-carrier
bihiht m.
bihiht
bhag m. gadfly
bahll m. proper noun Bahlol
bahm together, with one another
1 bahn f. top (the toy)
2 bahna f. lock of hair left with children as a vow or promise
bhut m. regional evil spirit, demon
bhut n m. bhu n m. Bhutan (region in Indian)
bhu 1 adjective (of) Bhutan 2 native of Bhutan
bhudzh m. Himalayan birch tree, Betula utilis
bhudzhpatr m. 1 birch bark 2 papyrus
bhus m. plural 1
bahavl transitive [past: ] 1 to turn on, run (water) 2
to spill (blood) 3 to send regularly (e.g., food, provisions)

bih f. improvement; development

develop

to improve,

2 bih m. quince, quince tree


3 bhj f. 1 steps down a well 2 well with steps
bahj a
bahed f.
bahedl baedl intransitive [past: ]1 to flow, run; flow
out 2 to flow, be shed (of blood)

bahedna f. baedna 1 current, course (of water) 2


shedding, spilling (of blood)

bahr m. 1 transport and equipment of an army 2 large

accumulation; great many, horde, multitude 3 line, stream (of


people); caravan 4 chain (of events) 5 race; dynasty 6 process,
development

bahrgr m. processor
bahimijt m. cruelty, savagery
1 bj children's speech 1 f. & m. sore to hurt, make
painful to be hurt 2 watch out, be careful
2 be f. name of the letter
3 be combination of the particle and the pronoun
Will you see him (her, them)?
4 be bi preposition usually in combination with or
without; except, with the exception of without me
without interruption, unceasingly, continously

with the

exception of several people

be bi prefix without, not

recklessness, foolhardiness

inappropriate, useless, empty

When shall we meet


again? again again and again, repeatedly 2 after
that, then then I go to school 3 back to
return idiom still, nevertheless, however all the same;
(and) what is more especially; all the more
especially, particularly to be continued
It happened just as you said.
1

bj bij 1 again, anew

bj prefix re- (or similar indicating renewal or repetition of an

a to find again b to acquire, gain c to return d


to restore to reorganize
bjintikh b m. reelection
be b 1 shameless 2 disgraced, dishonored, shamed
to disgrace, dishonor, shame
bib n m. bejb n desert, wasteland
bibn uninhabited, deserted, desert
bebr disgraced, dishonored, shamed
bebru f.
beibr barren, sterile
bebavl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to
action)

disgrace, dishonor

be ba
f. disgrace, dishonor
bj bj bj hunter's cry used to summon falcon
bebedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

to be

disgraced, be dishonored

bj pjln m. reboot
bj ta' mr m. restoration (of something destroyed)
beittif a unfriendly; disunited, separated, alienated _
to separate, alienate

beittif f. 1 disagreement, divergence; disharmony 2

contradiction

bj t f. [plural: bjatj plural: bj tig ni] scissors


compound verb to cut with scissors; cut (out)
to cut a dress out
beasra 1 without leaving a trace; futile, unsuccessful;
ineffective; fruitless (e.g., of one's efforts) 2 ineffectual, vain,

useless

beasar f. futility; ineffectiveness; fruitlessness (e.g., of one's

efforts)

beidzhr unfulfilled
beadzhla sudden, unexpected
beihti ta 1 careless 2 carelessly
beihtit f. carelessness
beikhtij ra 1 involuntary 2 involuntarily
106

Pashto-English Dictionary

beadb 1 ill-bred 2 disrespectful


bead f. 1 poor breeding 2 disrespect
bj rta
bjraghe khadzlnj f. recycle bin
berz unreliable
berza
bearz f. disrespect, lack of respect
beas sa without any basis, unjustified, groundless, unsound
bj sta f. cable; cord, rope
beasr 1 pitch-dark 2 hopeless 3 deprived of one's share;

beinsf f. 1 unscrupulousness 2 injustice


They treated him very unfairly.
beinkish f undeveloped; underdeveloped
bajnnm f. announcement, declaration
bajnavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
explain; to expound, tell, describe I told
what else was the matter with him/it. 2 f. to express; announce

bajn f.
bajnedl denominative, intransitive

clarified, be explained; be set forth, be told; be described

unfortunate

beusla disorderly, without system (of life)


bajz 1 m. Arabic .1 whiteness 1.2 notebook 2 white
bei'tib ra 1 not to be trusted, untrustworthy; discredited
to deprive of trust; discredit 2 ineffective; invalid
bei'timd f. distrust
bei'tin inattentive, careless, negligent
bei'tin f. inattention, carelessness, negligence
beitidr f. 1 incompetence 2 lack of skill, clumsiness
beljsha disinterested; unselfish
beiltif t inattentive; impolite
beiltift f. inattention; discourtesy
bajlodzh f. biology
bajlodzhiph m. biologist
bjlozhik dzhang m. biological warfare
bjl f. dialect
bem n merciless, relentless
bemn f. mercilessness, relentlessness
mercilessly

bjmundl transitive [present: past: ]


bjmindl [present: past: ] 1 to find
again I looked for him a long

time, but again I didn't find him 2 to return 3 to acquire, obtain 4

bij m.
bevz linguistics consonant consonant sound
beba waterless, arid waterless lands, arid
lands

bjvadnavl 1 denominative, transitive [past: ]


to restore (something destroyed) 2 m. plural restoration (of

something destroyed)

beavlda childless
beavld f. childlessness
beahammijta insignificant; unimportant
That is of no importance.

beimn
beimntb m. 1 treachery; dishonesty; baseness 2
cowardliness a to behave treacherously b to be
cowardly

baj n m. Arabic [plural: bijnna Arabic plural:

bajn t] 1 explanation, exposition; description

to

explain, expound 2 utterance, pronouncement; appearance;

to have a right to speak


compound verb

statement, declaration
story, narrative

beintiz m undisciplined, disorganized; disorderly;

disordered, unsettled

beintizm f. lack of dicipline; disorganization; disorder,

confusion, upset, derangement

beintih endless, limitless


beintih f. endlessness, infinity
beandz extreme, extraordinary, excessive
to throw one's money about, squander
beinsf 1 unscrupulous 2 unjust, unfair

beimna 1 untrue, treacherous; dishonest; base, mean 2

cowardly

a he's a dishonorable person;

he's a scoundrel b he's a coward

beimn f.
bijn present tense of 1
bibkhl m. plural Biba-khel' (a clan of the Djadran tribe)
bebr barren, fruitless
bebka 1.1 careless, carefree 1.2 incautious 1.3

unsuitable; unscrupulous, dishonest 2.1 carelessly, without a care

to restore (e.g., independence)

[past: ] to be

2.2 incautiously

bebk f. 1 carelessness, lightheartedness 2 lack of caution

3 unseemly behavior 4 reckless bravery, foolhardiness

bebl-u-par helpless
bebl-u-par f. helplessness
bebvra uncertain
bebkht unfortunate, unhappy
bebakht f. bad luck
bebudj f. 2
bebrkhi deprived (of something); disinherited; unfortunate,
hapless

bebra
bibka f. diminutive of 1 3, 4
bebah priceless
bebahr
107

Pashto-English Dictionary

bib f.

[plural: bibijni] 1 lady 2 princess 3

elder sister 4 grandmother, grandma idiom


mantis

praying

2 beb f. children's speech 1 book 2 lesson 3 paper


bepr m. client (purchaser)
bepma
bepjba bepjva bottomless (of the sea) idiom
to destroy, liquidate someone
bepja 1 limitless, endless 2 of unknown origin, without
clan or tribe 3 uncertain, unreliable, inconstant

bepatabl denominative, transitive [past:


disgrace, defame, discredit

to

bepta 1 dishonest; untrue, treacherous, insidious 2

unworthy of respect

bepat f. 1 disloyalty, treachery, craftiness 2 shameful

business

bepatedl intransitive [past: ] to be disgraced, be


dishonored

beprta 1 shameless 2 talkative


1 bepart f. 1 shamelessness 2 talkativeness
2 beprtaj gluttonous, voracious
bepardag f. 1 failure (of woman) to wear a veil 2
bepard disgraced, shamed

open

a to disgrace b to

a to be disgraced, be shamed

Don't shame yourself, Preserve your honor! b to fall into poverty,


be ruined

bepardag f.
bepard 1 without a veil, uncovered (of the face)
to uncover the face 2 close (of relationship) close
friend

beparv 1 careless, unconcerned 2 hasty, rash, unconsidered


beparv f. 1 carelessness, lack of concern 2 hastiness,

rashness 3 inattention; discourtesy

bipl m.
bepul f. lack of money, impecuniousness
1 bajt m. Arabic [plural: bajtna Arabic

plural:

abj t] Arabic 1 couplet (verse of two lines) 2 song

2 bet m. reed, rush


3 bajt m. Arabic house, heart, family
4 bet m. dialect espionage
betb 1 weak, grown weak 2
disturbed, upset

1 betr wireless
2 bajtr m.

betavadzhdzhh 1 inattentive 2 discourteous


betavadzhdzhuh f. 1 inattention 2 discourtesty
betava' unreliable
bitman m. plural shale, slate
betn m. plural concrete
bet m. dialect spy, scout
1 be m. 1 reinforcement, help, assistance to help,
send reinforcements 2 good tempering (of steel)

2 be m. steppe
ber f. battery
bek m. 1 male half (of a home) 2 Eastern living room
1 bejan m. plural Betani (tribe) 2 Betanaj (member of
ba f. foot (of a mountain)
besabt unstable, inconstant, changeable
besabt f. instability, inconstancy, changeableness
besamra fruitless, vain, futile
besamar f. fruitlessness, futility, vainness
bedzhn inanimate; dead; lifeless
bidzhk m. way bill, invoice; bill
bidzhli f. plural a game of babki, knucklebones
to play babki, knucklebones

impatient 3 aroused,

betba uneasy, restless, agitated


betbi f. 1 powerlessness, weakness
uneasiness, agitation

betaklfa simple, plain a simple treat


betamz reckless, rash, hasty
betamiz f. recklessness, hastiness, rashness

Betani tribe)

3 inattentive; discourteous

betbf f. manufacture of wicker furniture


betadzribag f. inexperience, innocence
betadzhrib inexperienced, innocent
betartb betartba disorderly, untidy; irregular
betartib f. disorder; irregularity
betrs
betr f.
beta'alim f. illiteracy; lack of education
betakallfa 1 simple, plain 2 unconstrained, natural
betakalluf f. 1 simplicity, plainness 2 naturalness,

to behave recklessly, behave hastily

face, uncovered face 3 disgrace, dishonor


ruin

Jerusalem (city)

freedom from constraint

betrkha undated
bajtulkhal f. Arabic bathroom, toilet
bajt-ul-ml m. Arabic 1 treasury 2 escheat
bajt-ul-muaddas m. Jerusalem (city)

2 impatience 3

bedzho incomparable; superlative, remarkable


bech m. bich m. possibility
bechrag f. 1 poverty, need, destitution 2 helplessness
idiom with great difficulty, just barely
1 bechr 1.1 poor, destitute 1.2 helpless; powerless 2 m.
[plural: bechrag n] .1 poor man 2.2 poor devil
2 bechra out of work, nothing to do
108

Pashto-English Dictionary

bechrag f.
bicha f. Eastern bichua

f. bed

make (up) a bed

to

bechrta thoughtlessly, rashly


bechurt f. thoughtlessness, rashness
bechejn f. regional agitation; uneasiness, alarm
bedzna insensible; lifeless
bedzja 1.1 unsuitable, useless, empty
to be idle, loaf, do nothing 1.2 knocked out, forced out
to knock out, force out 1.3 to move,
shift, displace 2 in vain, for nothing; out of place, not to the point

to interfere inappropriately (into someone else's

affairs, in a conversation) !
chatter to no purpose!

! Don't
It's not out

of place to mention that

bedzna urgently, quickly, without delay


betsahtna ownerless
betsk
betsoktj f.
betska
1 btsa f. kind of grass used as fodder; fodder grass
2 bets useless
behsla fruitless, futile, (in) vain, idle
behla 1.1 feeling ill; weakened 1.2 faint 2 insensible,
fainted

behl f. 1 ill feeling; weakness 2 faint


behdda 1 limitless, unlimited; huge

an enormous

bekhdr root plants


bekhraj m. unconsidered behavior, rashness
to behave recklessly

person) 4 downhearted, depressed

behavsilag f. 1 impatience 2 intolerability 3

shamelessness, boldness, cynicism

bekhvnda ownerless
bekhabr bekhabra unknowledgable, uninformed,
ignorant They didn't know of the danger.
to ignore something idiom
to take someone unawares
bekhabar f. 1 ignorance to claim ignorance 2

control

behud f. 1 loss of consciousness, unconsciousness 2

intoxication

1 bekhvhaj unwillingly, without wanting to


2 bekhvah f. unwillingness, reluctance
bekhul 1 meek, uncomplaining, submissive 2 stumbling
(in speech); confused, distracted a to be meek, be
uncomplaining b to stumble (in speech); to be confused, be
distracted

bekhvnda 1 unpalatable; tasteless 2 poor; (having been)

ruined 3 disordered, out of order

a to grow poor; to

ruin oneself, to be ruined b to become disordered 4 absurd,


senseless, foolish
foolishness

to talk nonsense, talk

bekhvand f. lack of taste, bad taste


bekhsh without kith or kin; homeless, stateless
bekh bikh 1 altogether; absolutely; very

That's an out-and-out lie 2 (with negation) not at all, not in the

least

bekhajr f. uselessness
bed m. willow tree 1
bedr 1 vigilant, unsleeping

2 watchful, indefatigable 3

conscious; deliberate; aware

bedravl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


awaken, wake (someone) up 2 to urge caution, watchfulness 3 to

foster awareness

bedr f. 1 vigilance; keeping awake; awakening; (military)

blowing of reveille 2 reality


That was in a dream, and not in reality. 3
reveille

rudeness, bad manners

to be

consciousness, fall into a faint b to get drunk c to lose one's self

sluggishness 4 depression, downheartedness

behaj immodest, shameless, bold; cynical


behaj tb m. behaj f. immodesty;

bekhatr bekhatra safe, secure


bekhatar f. safety, security
bekhkan f. ruin, destruction, extermination
bekh larnkaj
bekhnvaj m. literal establishing bases; laying a foundation
bekhb sleepless
bekhb f. insomnia, sleeplessness
bekhba
bekhbaj
2 bekhob f.
bekhda 1 having lost consciousness, fainted 2 drunken 3
having lost self control a to cause to faint b to make
drunk, intoxicate c to drive to distraction a to lose

quantity, a whole lot 2 boundlessly, infinitely

behapakta motionless, unmoving, immovable


behapakat f. 1 immobility 2 passivity
behurmt 1 not respected 2 shamed, disgraced
behurmat f. dishonor, disgrace
behisba countless, huge
behssa grow numb; insensible, unfeeling
behavsil 1 impatient 2 unbearable 3 sluggish (of a

bekhrtsa moneyless, impecunious

ruined, be left without money or means

bekhdzhn well-founded, sound, serious


109

Pashto-English Dictionary

awakening, appearance (of a feeling) 4 vigilance 5 awareness

a to show watchfulness b to show awareness


bedredl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

1 to

wake up, awaken, arise 2 to awaken, appear (of a feeling) 3 to be

1 ber m. botany jujube, Zizyphus


2 bir m. plural beer a bottle of beer
ber m. 3
bern 1 having lost consciousness, unconscious

vigilant 4 to be aware 5 to beware (of), be careful (of)

bedgh unsullied, clean


bedn seedless (of raisins, berries, etc.)
bedrda hard, callous, pitiless
bedard f. callousness, ruthlessness
bedrka not covered by income, exceeding income (of an
expense)

bedirnga quickly, without delay


bedl 1 grieved, distressed, sad, depressed

bernavl denominative, transitive [past:


render unconscious, cause to faint

f. bedamgh f. shortness of temper,

berch f. 1 uselessness, dissoluteness; lack of discipline 2

error, delusion 3 unscrupulousness

back to take back,


take away to lag behind (in
movement, in study, in development, etc.) to return
to look back a to force back b to remove; to send
away c to dismiss d to clear away, clean up
clear this book off the table e to remove (e.g., difficulties) f

to put to

bedavlt 1.1 not wealthy, poor, propertyless 1.2

brta brta 1.1 back

to open (the door; a shop, courses, etc.) g to take off (clothing)

unfortunate, unsuccessful 2 m. .1 poor man 2.2 failure, unlucky


person

As you were! (military command)

a to retreat,

back off; to go away b to resign, relinquish a post

bedavlat f. 1 unluckiness 2 poorness, poverty


bidavna f. putting to sleep, lulling
1 bid bid f. m. [plural: bid f. plural:

a to move backwards, go from b to return c

figurative to back out of (one's word or promise)

to

give back, return 1.2 at some distance, a little way off 1.3 again,

bid] 1

anew 2 away, off

sleeping 2 figurative dozing; latent, unused


2

Off the road!; Stand Aside!;

Away! 3 predicate .1 forced back 3.2 removed, sent away 3.3


cleared away 3.4 open (of a door or window; of a shop, courses,
etc.) 3.5 removed (of clothing) 3.6 behind (in movement, in
unpolished,

uncouth

bidedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to sleep;


to fall asleep 2 figurative to remain in ignorance

bidedna f. m. [plural: bided] dream; sleep


bedclothes
bedn 1 unbeliever 2 m. godless person, atheist
bedin f. godlessness, atheism
beba absurd, senseless
bevla 1 shapeless, formless 2 ugly 3 ill-bred
beavn uncouth, unpolished
bev f. fearlessness
bej f. knucklebone (of an animal, used in games)
bezva 1 tasteless, bad tasting 2 insipid, vapid, flat;
unsalted

to

mistaken, in error 3 unprincipled, unscrupulous

sleep, lull

bed f. dried green forage in bunches; hay


3 bid feminine singular of 1
bedj f. plain; steppe
bedjnj 1 adjective of the plain, steppe 2

2 bernavl transitive
berna feminine singular of
1 bern f. 1 loss of consciousness 2 stupor, stupefaction
2 berni feminine plural of
1 bernedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to

irascibility, irritability

2 bernedl denominative, intransitive


berh 1 good-for-nothing, dissipated; undisciplined

bedamgha hot-tempered, irritable

bedmshk m. Egyptian willow tree


bedma 1 lifeless 2 disobedient
bed 1 the same 2 exactly, to the letter
bedav incurable
bedod f. inobservance of a custom
bidavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

lose consciousness, faint

2 poetic

passionately in love

bedimgha
bedimgh

2 frozen in

one's tracks, gone dumb, stunned

studies, in development, etc.)

brtapte 3
bertaptetb m. backwardness
bertatg m. bertartg m. return
berahmn 1 cruel, ruthless 2 cruelly, ruthlessly
berhma stern, cruel, ruthless bleak time,
bleak times

berahm f. sterness, cruelty, ruthlessness


very sternly, cruelly, ruthlessly
birkhn f. alehouse, pub
ber m. lark
berisr m. regional lawyer
beriz willy-nilly, against one's will; reluctantly
bajrgh m. banner, flag; signal flag to hoist a flag
to raise the flag
110

Pashto-English Dictionary

bajraghv l m. standard bearer


bajrk m.
berg l m. water skin from ox hide
berl m. barrel, cask
berl f. attack
berlov l m. aggressor
berndkaj cowardly, fearful
1 berng Bering Straits

buhajr-ji

Bering Sea

2 berng m. bearing
3 bajrng berng relating to additional payment
bernga colorless
ber m. wild clover
ber
bejrt m. bajrt m. Beirut (city)
berh berha 1 lifeless, unanimated, inanimate

1 bej f. vessel, ship; barge; boat on board


freighter ferry (boat)
tanker aircraft carrier
landing boat passenger ship
minesweeper idiom spaceship
He was unlucky. He had bad luck.
2 bej m.
3 bej f. regional shackles, chains; hobble
bej chlavnkaj m. captain of a ship
bejv l m. bejv l m. boatman, ferryman
bezr dissatisfied; upset, angered
bezravl denominative, transitive [past: ] to repel,
call forth enmity, disgust

bezr f. dissatisfaction, irritation


bezredl denominative, intransitive

figurative to experience, feel repulsion, hostility; to turn away

from someone

apathetic, listless 3 heartless; soulless

berozgra without income, without pay; needy


berozgr f. absence of income, absence of pay; want,
need

beravl transitive [past: ] to frighten, scare idiom


to be afraid of flying into a rage
birn bern outside, from without; on the outside
from without ! regional Get out! idiom
to go out of print to weed
birunnavs berunnavs written out (of a word, phrase,
etc.), copied out to write out, make an excerpt
berun external, exterior
berj shameless; bold, coarse; uncouth
1 bra f. fear, fright to be afraid, to take fright
2 bra f. 1
3 ber m. [plural: berg n plural: berag n]
regional 1 servant; lackey 2 waiter

berj sincere, straightforward


berj f. sincerity
beredl intransitive [past: ]

to fear, take fright; be

afraid of

beril m. plural beryl (mineral)


berljm m. plural beryllium
be m. crowd (of people)
be 1 stupid; ignorant 2 m. stupid person, dumbbell;
simpleton

bekj f. boat
ba f. 1 hurry, rush; urgency

quickly, hurriedly;
very quickly, most urgently trouble,
to hurry with something 2 striving

urgently

efforts

to strive for, seek to gain (something)


2 be f. raft

[past: ]

They all turned from him.

bezv f. need, want


bezabna bezubna speechless, dumb
bez 1 downcast, gloomy 2 weak-spirited, cowardly

timid

beztb m.

bezv laj m. 1 despondency,

depression 2 faintheartedness, cowardliness 3 timidity

bezl transitive [past: ] to darn; mend; sew

inconspicuously

bezamn

bezamng landless

landless peasant b the landless peasantry

biz

1 f. [plural: bizog ni] monkey 2 m. [plural:

bzog n] male monkey idiom

a to

exaggerate some matter b to drag out some business

bezra weak, powerless


bez f. dailect 2
1 bezhbaj 1 dumb, speechless 2 untrustworthy, treacherous
2 bezhbi f. breaking a promise, treachery
begd
n m. weathercock; fickle person, changeable person
beggha
linguistics consonant

begvg
a
1 noiselessly, without noise 2 without a murmur
to agree without a murmur
bes inanimate inanimate objects
grammar inanimate nouns

besbi

precedent

besbi unusual, unheard of, without

besraj unusual, unprecedented; without equal


besri of unusual proportions
besh
bestrgo eyeless, blind
bestra 1 uncovered; bare, naked 2 dishonored, disgraced
besatr f. 1 baring, uncovering, denudation 2 figurative
dishonor, disgrace

111

Pashto-English Dictionary

bestj f. besatj f. kind of fabric, coarse calico


besdtj f. loss of consciousness; faint
besdavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

to

cause to faint, render unconscious

besda 1.1 having lost consciousness, fainted, insensible 1.2


stupid 1.3 figurative inebriated a to cause to lose
consciousness, cause to faint b to drive insane c figurative to

make drunk

a to lose consciousness, faint b to

become foolish c figurative to get drunk 2 unusually,


unbelievably

He is an exceptionally fine

person.

besd f. fainting fit, unconsciousness, loss of consciousness


besirjt disinfected to disinfect
besar-u-smn 1 disinherited, deprived of a livelihood,
needy 2 stupid

besar-u-smn f. 1 need, a difficult material situation

2 stupidity, foolishness

besra neglected; stray, homeless; leaderless


a neglected; stray a tramp b
disorderly, chaotic, poorly organized

besarav laj m. neglect


besar f. 1 2 disorder
besavda illiterate
besavd f. illiteracy
besd bearing no interest non-interest-bearing
loan

besijl
beska weak, powerless; feeble
besm wireless radio-telegraph
beshna unusually, extraordinarily, exceptionally
beshbha undoubted, indubitable; definite
beshrma shameless; obscene, indecent; immodest
to become insolent
besharm f. shamelessness; obscenity; immodesty
beshk beshkk beshka beshkka 1
undoubted, irrefutable, indisputable 2 undoubtedly, indisputably,
absolutely, certainly

! !

Certainly!

beshumra innumerable, countless


beshamdzj invertebrate
beshmra
behdzi unmarried, single, bachelor
beh useless, futile; needless, good-for-nothing
besbr besbra impatient
besabr f. impatience
bezarr harmless, inoffensive
bezarar f. harmlessness, inoffensiveness
bajtr m. Arabic veterinarian
bajtr f. veterinary medicine
betta 1 grown weak, collapsed; weak 2 impatient

betl'a unfortunate, unhappy


betabato classless classless society
betarf neutral
betarafn neutral, neutralist policy of
neutrality

betaraftdr impartial, unbiased


betarfa
betaraf f. neutrality to violate neutrality
to observe neutrality
betm'a disinterested; unselfish
betam'a f. disinterestedness, unselfishness
bj' f. bj'a f. Arabic 1 deed of purchase
bj'-i document concerning sale
baj'n f. deposit, advance
baj't m. Arabic history recognition of authority (of a feudal
lord); vow to serve faithfully; oath of a vassal (to his suzerain)
to acknowledge someone's authority, pledge loyalty
(to a suzerain)

be'adlat f. injustice, unfairness


be'izzt
be'izzatavl denominative, transitive
to dishonor, disgrace

be'izzta dishonored, disgraced

disgrace

[past:

to dishonor,

be'izzat f. dishonor, disgrace


be'l stupid; foolhardy, reckless saying
A stupid person goes

ahead and doesn't look back; a clever person goes ahead, but looks
back

be'altb m. stupidity; foolhardiness, recklessness


be'la
be'al f.
be'al unconcerned, neutral, indifferent
be'lma ignorant; uneducated
be'ilm f. ignorance; lack of education
baj'nm f. deed of purchase
bj'a f. 1 a expensive, dear b at a high price,
dearly to sell to someone
be'jb be'jba perfect, irreproachable
beghho toothless
begharz 1 disinterested, unselfish; uninterested 2
carefree, unconcerned; careless

begharazn 1 unselfish (of behavior) 2 unselfishly


begharza
begharaz f. 1 unselfishness, disinterestedness; lack of
interest 2 unconcern, lightheartedness; carelessness


112

baghga 1 noiseless; quiet 2 noiselessly; quietly

Pashto-English Dictionary

beghma 1 carefree, unconcerned; peaceful

carefree manner; peacefully


sheltered; cozy

in a

Don't worry! 2 secluded;

begham f. lightheartedness, lack of concern; peacefulness


spiritual tranquility very lightheartedly, in
a most unconcerned manner

baghvra 1 rashly, without thinking 2 negligently,

carelessly

beghavr f. 1 rashness 2 negligence, carelessness


to have a careless attitude toward

unmarried, single, bachelor

beghajrta 1 shameless; disgraceful, dishonorable 2 timid;


beghajrat f. 1 shame, dishonor 2 timidity;

faintheartedness, cowardice 3 meanness, baseness

befid 1 useless

That's no help. 2 of

no use, in vain

befar invertebrate invertebrate animals


befkr 1 carefree, unconcerned; frivolous 2 inattentive,

bekas f. 1 lack of a bread-winner (in a family) 2

loneliness, being alone 3 defenselessness

bekamla uneducated; undeveloped; ill-bred


bekn m. beacon
bekra 1 homeless 2 single, unmarried, bachelor, without
beg m.
beg 1 last night, yesterday evening last night;
yesterday evening this evening, tonight since
evening night before last 2 m. yesterday evening, last
night

begr m. 1 forced labor, hard labor; labor obligation


to recruit to a labor obligation 2 corve
bagr 1 mobilized for compulsory labor 2 m. worker
recruited by force or one fulfilling a labor obligation

befikr f. 1 lightheartedness, lack of concern; frivolity 2

inattention, negligence

to exhibit inattentiveness,

carelessness; to neglect, disregard 3 thoughtless, inability to think


things out 4 rashness

befhma slow-witted, dull, dense


be'idag f. irregularity, incorrectness; anomaly
be'id incorrect, irregular; anomalous
be'idav laj m.
be'id
bedra 1 unworthy, contemptible 2 useless, good-fornothing

beadr f. 1 unworthiness, contemptibility 2 uselessness


bearra 1 uneasy, anxious _ to worry 2 inconstant,
unstable, changeable

beksa 1 without a breadwinner

defenseless, unprotected

careless, negligent

family

fainthearted, cowardly 3 mean, base

beks

(of a family) 2 without close friends or relatives; lone, solitary 3

something

beki 1 non-nomadic, non-migrating 2 adjective

bearr f. 1 uneasiness, anxiety 2 inconstancy,

instability, changeableness

beusr innocent (of), not guilty


bejd bejda undisciplined; unbridled,
ungovernable

beajd f. lack of discipline, dissoluteness; unruliness


1 bjak m. 1 harpoon 2 oar
2 bek m. younger brother of a khan; bek
bekr bekra 1.1 idle He sits idle. 1.2
apathetically 2 unemployed sa the
unemployed 3 m. unemployed person

bekr f. 1 unemployment 2 idleness


bajkl m. Lake Bajkal
bekch unmeasurable, unlimited, infinite

beg nag f. estrangement; separation, alienation


beg n 1 alien, unfamiliar; strange, foreign
unfamiliar people, strangers to shun
someone 2 foreign, from another country

beg nj adjective (of) yesterday last night


begh
begtt m. Begtut (village near Kabul)
begi 1.1 useless, vain 1.2 unsuccessful, having no
result 2.1 uselessly, vainly 2.2 unsuccessfully, futilely

beguzarni f. need
begr m. monal (Himalayan pheasant, Lophophorus)
begrza 1 without dust 2 dust-free, clean

air

free of dust, pure air

beg languid; lazy


bigl m. bugle, horn, trumpet
begm f. Miss (in addressing foreign females)
begunh innocent
begunh f. innocence to prove one's
innocence

beganj
begj f. cards the queen
1 bel particular; separate; another particularly;
separately that's another matter, that's a special
question

2 bel m. shovel; spade


3 bel m.
belbel
113

sapper shovel

Pashto-English Dictionary

belors White Russian, Byelorussian


belorus adjective 1 White Russian, Byelorussian
the White Russian language, Byelorussian 2 White Russian,

belri 1 without roads; impassable 2 figurative erring,

mistaken

a to wander, roam b figurative to err, to

be mistaken 3 figurative unprincipled 4 figurative lawlessness

Byelorussian

belr f. 1 absence of roads 2 figurative error, delusion

belorusij f. Byelorussia
belavz f. breaking one's word or promise

3 figurative unscrupulousness 4 figurative lawlessness

biln m.

bilnas m. finance balance (sheet)


to compile a balance

yearly balance

belv m.
bel-bl

touchstone; whetstone

places b in special cases

a in different
in different ways

1 various, different

to appear in various forms 2.1 in detail; point by

point 2.2 especially; individually, separately


one individually

for each

belavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


separate, divide, disconnect 2 to distinguish, differentiate 3 to
wean 4 to part, separate

belavna f. 1 2 weaning
1 bel f. 1 trough, gutter (for draining of water)

grief has turned me to ashes. 2 distinction 3 alienation,

2
3
4

2 sapper,

blng m. tall building


beluzm superfluous, excessive, leftover
beluzma excessively, unnecessarily, superfluously
be lg-u-r
1 irreproachable 2 fully, completely,

1 bim m. 1 fear, fright, scare, apprehension 2


2 bim m. 1 root of the cattail 2
bimr 1 sick; feeling indisposed 2 dejected idiom
a languid eyes b sleepy eyes idiom I'm sick

bimrparast f. care for a sick person

look after a sick person

bimrkhn f. hospital
bimravl denominative, transitive

to

bimr f. sickness; indisposition


bimredl denominative, intransitive
sick, be sick

menstruating

2 menstrual

period

belna f. 1 to be separated, be divided,


be disunited 2 separation, parting 3 distance, space, interval

2 bilna belna f. rolling pin (for rolling out dough)


3 bajlna f. loss
belnaj m. botany mint
belv la f. belv laj m. 1 separation, division,
disconnection distribution or assignment of

obligations 2 difference, distinction 3 weaning 4 parting,

[past:

to

to

indisposition

find evidence; to hit upon a trail 2 sign, mark, indication

cause (someone's) illness, make sick; provoke (someone's)

rival, competitor

separation

at heart.

altogether

belafz f.
belk m. 1 gifts sent by a bridegroom to his bride's home

bla feminine singular of

part, separate (from someone)

combat engineer

belmndztj f.
belmndz
belmndz f. 1 noncompletion of prayer

bel f. whistle

differentiated 3 to be weaned 4 to be diverted (of a canal) 5 to

belch f. small shovel


belihz crude, coarse, impolite
beldr m. 1 unskilled laborer (who uses a shovel)

bell transitive
belmz 1 (someone) not completing his prayers

bl preposition

beledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


separated, be divided, be disconnected 2 to be distinguished, be

separation 4 regional divorce (from one's wife)

belg f. 1 (piece of) evidence; trace, track, sign

2 branch (of a

river) 3 small island; sandbar, shallows

each has individually

beltn oblique singular of


beltn m. beltj f. 1 separation, parting
Separation, the serpent, lay in his path (from a song)
folklore Separation has consumed me;

not

to keep one's word, to break a promise

[past: ] to get

bemlgi indeclinable fresh, unsalted


bemla indigent, poor
bemjag f. poverty, indigence
bemublti f. carelessness, lack of concern; improvidence,
lack of thrift

bemtri weak, powerless


bemisl

bemisla unexampled,

unparalleled, incomparable

bemadzhla powerless, weak, helpless


bemahlla 1 inappropriate, irrelevant 2 inappropriately,

inopportunely

bemkhtb m. 1 shamelessness, impudence 2

inattentiveness, rudeness 3 indifference

bemkha 1 shameless, impudent 2 inattentive, impolite 3


indifferent

114

Pashto-English Dictionary

1 bemkh f.
2 bemkhaj
bemarm blank (catridge), dummy
bemuruvt 1 inhuman, cruel, heartless

2 uncultured 3

bemuruvat f. 1 inhumanity, cruelty 2 boorishness,

bemazag f. 1 absence of flavor (in a food), tastelessness 2

uncivilized ways 3 baseness, meanness


bemni inhuman, cruel

colorless, inexpressiveness 3 coolness, discord (between friends)


bemaz 1 tasteless, bad-tasting 2 colorless, inexpensive 3

unpleasant 4 grown wearisome; become boring

bemzi besm wjarlis wireless


radio telegraph

bemzija khabreatre plural wireless

bemasrfa unsuitable, unnecessary


bema'n bema'n 1 senseless, absurd; stupid 2 vain,

foolish, futile

bemghza 1 stupid 2 insubstantial; emasculated


bemulhaz 1 hasty, precipitate, unconsidered

impartial, unbiased

bemunsba 1 inappropriate, irrevelant


it won't be out of place 2 unsuitable (of food)
bemn'a 1 free, clear, unimpeded 2 freely, without
hindrance

bemudzhb 1 causeless; pointless 2 without cause, without

reason

bemaurd inappropriate; unsuitable

inappropriate (to announce, to say, etc.)

among people

bn used as the second part of a compound verb

pessimist optimist
bin sighted (not blind), seeing; sharp-sighted
bengh strictly, rigorously, necessarily
bajn-ul-avm bajn-ul-dul Arabic
bajn-ul-daul bajn-ul-mill Arabic bajn-ulmilal international; world (wide) world war
international law
the 'Internationale'
bajn-an-nahrjn m. bajn-un-nahrjn m. Arabic

Mesopotamia, Mesopotamian lowlands (between the Tigris and the


Euphrates Rivers)

communication

bajn Arabic preposition, prefix between, among

international

mean, base

It won't be

bemau' 1 inappropriate, unsuitable 2 inopportune,

untimely 3 excessive (of expenditures)

bim f. insurance insurance company


insurance payment accident insurance
freight insurance life insurance
insurance against natural disasters in agriculture fire
insurance theft insurance health insurance
property insurance compound verb to insure
compound verb to be insured, take out insurance
bemhr unfriendly, hostile
bemihr f. unfriendliness, hostility
bim kavnkaj m. insurer
bim kednkaj m. insured
bemajl f. unwillingness, disinclination
bemni unfriendly, reserved; unobliging, discourteous
beminitb m. unfriendliness, reserve; discourtesy
1 bn m. whistle, pipe, flute

benm inglorious, infamous


benms dishonorable, disgraceful
benmus f. dishonor, disgrace
bin f. 1 vision 2 sharp-sightedness
binbdzh f. bagpipes
bent m. 1 reed, rush 2 stick; cane to strike, beat
with a stick to be beaten with a stick
benatidzh futile, unsuccessful, vain, purposeless
to prove to be unsuccessful, futile
bench m. bench
bend f. colored mark between the eyebrows (worn by Hindus)
binj f. regional okra, Hibiscus esculentus
benazkat f. tactlessness, indelicacy
binsh m. bench technology main girder
benasba 1 done out of, disinherited; deprived of 2
unworthy of 3 unsuccessful the greedy person
is unsuccessful idiom to perish
benasib f. 1 haplessness; deprivation (of one's share) 2
lack of success

benzm unregulated, unorganized; disorderly


benazm f. lack of regulation, disorderliness; disorder
idiom restless sleep
benazra without equal, unusual, unheard of, unprecedented
bing m. root of the erianthus (plume grass)
bingj f. botany loofah
benamk
bennga 1 shameless, impudent 2 base, mean, low 3
cowardly

benang f. 1 shame, dishonor 2 disgraceful behavior,

lowdown behavior 3 baseness, meanness 4 cowardliness,


faintheartedness

benav binav poor; very needy, unfortunate


benav f. poverty, indigence
benma nameless, unknown
bajin f. Arabic irrefutable proof
115

Pashto-English Dictionary

benihjta boundless, infinite


bin used in names of populated areas Bini Hissar
benij za 1 well-to-do, well-off; not needing (anyone or
anything); independent to make indepedent, provide
for to become independent 2 well-to-do
benijz f. 1 independence (from someone, something) 2
independent nature 3 well-being

binihisr m. Bini Hissar (suburb of Kabul)


bevd adjective unmarried, single, bachelor
bevra suddenly, unexpectedly
bevsit direct, straight
bevk bevka 1.1 weak; helpless,
powerless 1.2 involuntary 1.3 indecisive 2.1 weakly;

helplessly, without power 2.2 involuntarily 2.3 indecisively

bevk f. 1 weakness; helplessness, powerlessness

2 indecisiveness, indecision

biv j potential form of verb 1


beva pure, unadulterated
bevidzhd na unscrupulous, dishonest
bevkhta inopportunely; at a bad time
bjurokrtiki bureaucratic
bjurokrs f. bureaucracy
1 bevr f. 1 oppression 2 injustice
2 bvra 1.1 obvious, evident 1.2 candid, frank (of a

beggar

woman 2 helpless

2 bevazl f. bevazal f. bevazlitb m.


bevazliv laj m. 1 poverty, need, indigence 2 helplessness
bevazn f. weightlessness condition of
weightlessness

bevs bevsa powerless to force, compel


bevasl unarmed to disarm
(intransitive) to disarm

bevasl kavl m. plural disarmament


bioshim f. biochemistry
bevatna banished, exiled; without a homeland, homeless,
stateless to banish, exile
bevatan f. banishment, exile
bevaf not keeping one's word, not fulfilling one's promises;
untrue, untrustworthy; traitorous

bevaf f.

betrayal of one's word, breaking a

promise, infidelity, untrustworthiness, treachery, betrayal

to betray one's word, to break a promise, act treacherously; to

betray

biofizk m. biophysics

bevta inopportunely, not in time (late); at an ill-advised

time

bevuf

1 stupid, slow-witted, senseless 2

uniformed, ignorant, lacking culture, uneducated

bevuuf f. 1 dullness, stupidity, senselessness 2

ignorance

biogr f m. biographer
biogrf f. biography autobiography
2 bajavl transitive
bajolodzhst m.
bajlodzhi f.
bajolodzhiph m. bajolodzhid n m.

biolozh 1 f. biology 2 biological
biolozhiph m. biolozhid n m. biologist
biolozhik biological
bevla artless, unsophisticated; sincere
1 biv imperfect of 1
2 biv m. plural 1 taking away, carrying off, stealing 2
building, breaking (e.g., a road)

conversation) 2.1 obviously, evidently 2.2 candidly, frankly

beva unsuitable, inappropriate


bevzla
1 bevzli 1 poor, indigent, destitute

3 bev f. widow
bevri brave, fearless
1 bja f. 1 price, cost at a low price at
a very high price at a matching price
to set a price to ask a price, price a to
depreciate, be devalued b to be priceless; be without equal
figurative a to beat down the price b to spoil (something)
to sell 2 sale and purchase; business, transaction
trade closing a deal to close a deal
to cancel a deal 3 subsciption price, payment

2 bij f. growth
behnd m.
beh 1 wild 2 frightened a to make wild b to
frighten a to be wild; run wild b to be frightened
a to be tactless, be rude b to do something incompetently
behudag f. uselessness, superfluousness, superfluity;
senselessness, absurdity

behud useless, unnecessary, superfluous; senseless, absurd


behudagoj m. chatterer, windbag, idle talker
behudago f. foolishness, idle chatter, nonsense, idle talk
behsh behsha without feeling, unconscious, in a
faint dialect He has lost consciousness.
behosh f. loss of consciousness, fainting spell
close to fainting
behh behha
behoh f.
behuv laj m. 1 wildness, savagery 2 fright
behajbta brave, fearless, intrepid
116

Pashto-English Dictionary

attend rites for the dead b to pray for the deceased; attend

behtsa to no purpose, without cause, for nothing; not for

anything

memorial services for the dead

behli disillusioned

to be disillusioned

bajedl intransitive
bajr m.

to disillusion

pe the third letter of the Pashto alphabet

p combining form of the preposition

in them,

in him, in her,

a necessary, indispensable b utilized

p m. foot, leg

p 1 a separable prefix in the verbs and in short

phrases

He did not arise

pbnd 1 m. chains; fetters 2.1 connected, linked, bound;

fettered 2.2 linked with something, depending on something;


limited, constrained by something 2.3 taking something into


He is very precise. He is very puntual.
observing the law pbnd to

account; observing something

punctual

take something into consideration; observe something

pband f. 1 linking, fettering; chaining 2 link or connection

with something; depending upon something; limitation, constraint


upon something 3 consideration, investigation, observation (of

something)

a to make dependent upon something; b to

consider something; investigate something; observe something

pp m.

Church)

pp m. Pope (supreme head of the Catholic


The Pope of Rome

pp-pp-pp interjection the call of a hen or a sound of

endearment made when chucking someone under the chin

ppr m. thin cookie made from groundpea flour and cooked in


hot oil proverb literal A single stick of

firewood is sufficient to bake a hundred pea-flour cookies

figurative He works best who knows his trade. Work goes with a
swing under the master's hand.

ppka f. botany Scorzonera (black salsify)


ppli f. plural first uncertain steps of a child

walk unsteadily (of a child)

at service for the dead

ptlozh f.
ptlozhik
pt n stairway, staircase
pt v m. Western large irrigation ditch
ptkha f. step; rung; tread (of a stair)
ptrn m. boss, supervisor
ptr f. scab
ptakavl transitive
ptnda 1 remaining 2 durable, stable 3 constant
1 p to f. dialect 1
2 pt f. pt m. 1 pat m. red caterpillar

red

caterpillar 2 name of a bird 3 pt f. proper name Pato

ptotsa f. usually plural


fern, Adiantum capillus veneris

ptotsi maidenhair

ptavl denominative, transitive [past:


detain

to stop;

ptolozh f. pathology
ptolozhik pathological
1 p ta 1 adjective singular & plural remaining, rest of
Seventy-five Afghans are left. to be
continued 2 lagging behind; being behind My
watch is slow. to disturb
someone, prevent someone from working
2 pt f.
ptamaj m. inheritance; property, that which is left as a
legacy

1 patavaj m. heir, inheritor


2 ptave f. heiress
1 p te Eastern 1 to lag, be behind
2 ptj m. bozbash (dish made from peas, evoking extreme
thirst) saying If you eat bozbash, you'll
stay drinking at the brook awhile.

ptedl denominative, intransitive [past: past: ]


Eastern 1 to stay, remain to remain at home 2

to

conduct the service for the dead 2 prayer for the dead, ceremonial

a to conduct rites
a to

for the dead b to arrange a funeral meal

ptkh n m. person who reads the first chapter of the Koran

ppu f. Papua
ppokr decent, honest
ppsh m. regional ppsha f. shoe
ppka f. caraway root
ppj f. children's speech foot, paw
pt f. 1 prayer for the dead, rite for the dead to read
the first chapter of the Koran at the rites for the dead to
meal on occasion of death

I left a book
on the table. 3 to miss (also in combination with and
in various meanings) to miss a train
My watch is slow. idiom Not to have
the possibility of doing something. to stop, get
to be abandoned, be forgotten

stuck

ptednaj lasting, protracted


pted m. plural
pteshn m. pteshnkaj m.
pteked m. plural 1 delay 2 a lag
ptekedl intransitive
117

leftovers (food)

Pashto-English Dictionary

ptemaj m.
1 p m. section of field 50 meters long and 60 meters wide
2 p m. theater part, role
pkh m. shoebrush
pk m. regional
1 pkj m. 1 small place (town); nook 2 small piece 3

Royal Government of Afghanistan;

to work as a herdsman

pdav n m. herdsman
pa f. 1 ribbon 2 bandage

tread of a stairway
f. 1 leather loop (of a sling, slingshot) 2 ring on

the bow-shaped tool of a wool-beater

pchj n] 1

to be addicted

to impractical dreams, build castles in the air

pchgl m. botany Malcolmia


pchvazirk m. kind of game
pchj f.
pch f. 1 sheep's feet (food) 2
pchah 1 f. colloquial to rule over,
govern 2 kingly, royal idiom highway, main roadway
ptsavl transitive [past: ] 1 to raise, awaken
He did not awaken him 2 to turn against someone or
something 3 to incite or induce to do something 4 to evoke or
elicit (feelings of some kind)

ptsedl intransitive [present: future:


past: ]1 to get up, rise He did
not get up Eastern proverb
literal If you can't stand up why bother to arise. figurative One

should not undertake this work 2 to wake up 3 to come out

He
came out against Roshan. to oppose, resist 4 to
spring up, arise, appear to engender (of some feeling) idiom
Eastern The doctors refused to treat him.
ptsed m. plural 1 rising, lifting; awakening 2 coming out,
against someone or something

speaking against someone or something

for goodness's sake, for God's sake

pr m. 1 incitement, instigation 2 will, power, authority

a to incite b to give someone free rein c to dismiss

3 pr doublet
pr f. 2
przt m. parasite
przit parasitical
przitolozh f. parasitology
prshut m.
prshut
pr f m. diplomacy to initial a treaty
prgvj m. Paraguay
prgvaj 1 Paraguayan 2 m. Paraguayan (person)
prmarib f. Paramaribo (city)
1 prt adjective history Parthian
2 prt history 1
prtij f. history Parthia
prtizn m. partisan
prtizn adjective partisan the partisan
movement

pr m. theater part, role

to play a

part

pr f. 1 politics party 2 regional evening affair, party


1 prch v m. drain, drainpipe
2 prchav 1 empty the shop was empty

prchvavl denominative, transitive [past:


stop, hold up, detain

reward; recompense 3

bishop 2 [plural:

pdzhr m. plural bezoar from Persian pad-zar (protecting

pdish h m. [plural: pdish n plural:

against poison, an antidote for snakebite)


pdishj n] 1 king; padishah 2 the title of a Sayd 3 proper

to

prchvedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


be stopped, be held up 2 to be inactive, do nothing, be out of

pdrijn] the clergy

name Padishah

pr m. attention (paid) to someone idiom

inactive, inoperative, non-working, out of action, operation

retribution 4 revenge

pdr m. 1 priest, minister

someone

pchakhzk m. 1 breed of short-legged roosters 2 kind of

fireworks

pkhs f.
pkh masculine plural of
pd sh m. 1 compensation 2

3 tailoring basting; act of basting

4 sinew (in the neck)

pdzhm f. 1 wide trousers 2 pajamas


pch m. [plural: pchh n plural:
king, shah 2 queenbee idiom

the
kingdom 2 f. .1

pdv m. messenger; boy who runs errands


pdav n f. job of messenger
pdo-kl Pas de Calais (the Straits of Dover)
pd f. herd of cattle a herd of buffalo

fortunetelling

pdshh f. 1 kingly, royal

kingdom 2.2 royal power; throne

scrap, fragment 4 verse, poem 5 witchcraft, sorcery 6

2 pkj m.
paj m. p

operation (e.g., of a machine)

prchl m. crushed fruit, bruised fruit, rotten fruit


prchng m. 1 wooden staircase 2 stair tread
prchangj m. short flight of stairs
prch f. [plural: prch] [m. plural:
prchadzh t] piece; fragment; part compound verb
118

a to

Pashto-English Dictionary

divide into parts b to split (the atom)

compound verb a

to be divided into parts b to be split (of the atom) 2 cloth 3


splinter, fragment

shell fragment, piece of shrapnel 4

bucket (of a noria or waterwheel)

prchab b m. cloth, woven fabrics, textiles


prchabf 1 f. weaving 2 weaving, weaver's
1 prs m. history Persia
2 prs m. philosopher's stone philosopher's stone
prs 1 abstinent, temperate 2 chaste 3 pious, devout
prs taj attentive
prs f. 1 abstinence, temperance 2 chastity 3 piety,
devotion

prsl m. [plural: prsalna Arabic plural:

1 p m. scaffolding; scaffold
2 p
pbndzh m. chestnut; chestnut tree
ps m. 2
ps f. ps f. 1
psov n m.
psb m.
psibn m. psiv n m.
pakj f. verse, poem; song (short)
p m. 1 charm; witchcraft, sorcery 2 snake charmer; fakir,
conjuror; sorcerer; magician; shaman, medicine man

pugr m. 2
pugar f. charm; magic, sorcery; primitive medicine

prsal t] sending

(herbs, ritual, etc.)

prsng m. 1 makeweight (something thrown onto a scale

to bring the weight to a desired value) 2 counterweight,

p f. 1 baker's paddle, baker's shovel (for handling hot

baked goods) 2 board or paddle for moving wash around in a


laundry tub 3 part of a corn-husker

counterpoise

prsa f. Parsee woman


1 prs 1 f. Farsi; the Persian language; the Tajik language;
Farsi; the Persian language; the Tajik language 2 m.

2 prsj f.
prsikh n m.

prsiv n m. Farsi speaker,

pzv l m.
pza f. 1 affair, matter; activity; work

cultural park 2 pool (i.e., place

Parsee (person)

Persian speaker, Tajik speaker


prk m. 1 park

p f. 1 agriculture blemish, flaw 2 figurative unfinished

work

pachin r m. Parachinar (settlement in Pakistan near the

Afgban border)
to set in

motion; use, employ 2 counsel, advice, admonition 3 boldness,

where fleets of various motor vehicles are kept or stored)


automotive pool, motor pool
prk l m. 1 grandeur, greatness, glory 2 power, strength,
force to achieve power, come to power
to become weak, become decrepit
prgn m. cesspool
prlm n m. Parliament
prlmn parliamentary parliamentary
delegation

prlemn m. Eastern
1 pr m. 1 rake 2 oar, paddle

to row, rake (with

rakes, paddles)

pr m. manure, fertilizer
prusz f. production of fertilizer
prukj f. comb
paravl transitive [past: ] 1
2

courage 4 quickness, promptness, efficiency 5 attention to


someone

a to act b to give advice, give admonition c to

demonstrate courage d to show promptness, demonstrate


efficiency to produce an effect, influence
pza f. dim, weak light
pzav l m. worker, colleague, employee, functionary
pzik
pzhol f. stocking of goat's wool
pg m. swelling, tumor
pgavl transitive
pg f. 1
pged
l intransitive
1 ps 1 up, upward; above, overhead; higher
something; from above something; over, beyond something

excessively, beyond measure 2.1 upper 2.2 above-

above

mentioned, above-indicated; aforesaid

to incite; provoke 2 to

tease (an animal) 3 figurative to arouse, excite (feelings of one

kind or another); to stimulate, agitate 4 figurative to inspire; fill

ps m. 1 ointment (for treating mange in animals) 2

application of ointment (to animals suffering from mange)

with enthusiasm; encourage

1 pr f. piece; part
2 pr f. chemistry mercury
prachin r m.
prs m. Paris (city)
pris prisj 1 Parisian 2

ps m. 1 guarding, protection 2 nursing, tending, looking

after; care, concern; attention 3 esteem, respect

ps m. 1 passing a course (of instruction)

compound verb to take an examination; to finish school 2


acceptance, adoption, confirmation (e.g., of a law) 3 sports pass

m. Parisian (person)
119

to pass, execute a pass

a to pass a course (of

Pashto-English Dictionary

instruction)

to finish school b to accept, adopt,

confirm (e.g., a law) c sports to pass, execute a pass

5 ps present stem of
psbn m. sentinental, guard
psp m. Eastern psprt m. passport
passport officer to stamp a visa on a
passport

psport adjective passport


pspr m.
pspor
pst m. gratitude
pstl m. art pastel, pastel drawing
1 pst 1 masculine plural of 2 2 oblique singular of
2 to speak affectionately, softly
2 psta feminine doublet
pstaj m. 1 chapati (a sweet flat cake) 2 dewlap (of an

psv l m. ruler, padishah


psvalzj m. prince, ruler's son
psv laj m. 1 predilection, inclination
charge, tending, taking care of

psv n m. 1 watchman, guard 2 herdsman


psv n f.
ps vnkaj m. elevator; hoist
psugalv f. 1 modesty, humility 2 lowness, baseness
1 psavl transitive
2 psavl
psedl intransitive
psf passive (of measures)
psifk m. the Pacific Ocean
psh
pshn sparse, scattered, diffused
to dissipate (one's energies), disperse, scatter; be scattered, be
dispersed

animal)

pskh m. answer to answer


psd r f. 1 guarding, protection, defense 2 care; charge;
concern a to guard b to care for; have charge over;
to concern oneself about

psr f. 1 economy, savings

to effect economies,

save 2 reason, cause

psragr psrav l thrifty, economical


psl transitive [past: ] 1 to tend to someone, care for

pshte f. plural stairs, staircase


pshtk m. ceiling beam, rafter
pshtk m. crossbeam, ceiling plank
pshl transitive [past: ] 1 to pour (water on) 2 to
spurt, splash 3 to strew; scatter; spill 4 to sow to sow
seed, disperse seed 5 to disperse, drive away
the wind dispersed the clouds passive a to be poured b
to be watered c to be splashed d to be strewn, be scattered e to

somebody; concern oneself about someone; pay attention to


someone 2 to treat an (animal) for mange

psll transitive 1 a to take care of oneself,


look after oneself b to dress up, dress in a showy or ostentatious
fashion

over for custody or trust; to have confidence in, trust someone 2


psln m.
pslavna

pghund f. 1 mass, bunch (of cleaned cotton or

wadding) 2 flakes (of snow) 3 puffs (of smoke)

pfishr f. insistence, persistence

something; persist in something

1 watchman, guard 2 1

f. 1 care; concern; charge (as to have charge or

responsibility for children); attention 2 reproach

pslojna f. reproach
pslejl transitive [past: ]

to remind of a service

rendered; to reproach

psng m.
psna f. 1 1 2 fattening up (of cattle)
psnj 1 upper 2 attributive mountain, living "up there"
(from the point of view of Peshawar i.e., living in Kabul, Gazni,
Kandahar, etc. and for residents of Kandahar, i.e., living in Kabul,

4 3 aforementioned, aboveindicated; above-mentioned; wind from the mountains

(chinook, foehn)

be sown, disintegrate, be destroyed, be torn down

pashlaj 1 participle from 2 uncoordinated, odd


pashli uncoordinated notes, uncorrelated notes
psh f. second element in compound watering,
flushing

pslna f. pslodna f. 1 gratitude 2 reproach


pslavl transitive [past: ] 1 to turn something

Gazni, etc.)

2 guard 3 care,

pk 1 clean, neat 2 holy, sacred;

innocent

to insist on

sacred land 3

pk m. 1 (official) package, envelope 2


pkana m. plural packets
pkdmn
pk f. packsaddle
pkzaj 1 pure; chaste, innocent 2 modest
pk sk pure and immaculate, absolutely pure
pkist n m. Pakistan
pkistn pkistnj 1 Pakistanian 2 Pakistanian (person)
pknafas f. 1 purity, chastity, innocent 2 sincerity, candor
3 decency, honesty

fair copy

ps 1.1 humble, meek 1.2 low, base 2 m. scoundrel, villian


120

pknavsa clean, fair, written in a clean or


to write a fair copy, write a clean copy

pknavs

Pashto-English Dictionary

to be written out in a clean copy, be written out in a

6 to look after, tend

fair copy
pknavisavl denominative, transitive [past:
to write out in a clean copy, write out in a fair copy

pknavis f. execution (writing) of a clean copy, execution

of a fair copy

pkv laj m. 1 1 2 tidiness (premises)


pkavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to clean,
clear; wipe, wipe dry to brush the teeth to
clean shoes to tidy the premises 2 to wash; wash clean;
wash thoroughly 3 to pay off (a debt); settle an account
to pay up, settle, settle an account
1 pak f. wide cotton cloth
2 pka feminine singular of
3 pk imperfect of 2
1 pk f. cleanliness, neatness, tidiness
2 pk f. razor
pkedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be
cleaned; be cleaned up; be wiped up; be wiped clean 2 to be

washed; be washed thoroughly; be washed clean 3 to be paid up


(debts); be settled (accounts)

pked m. plural 1 cleaning up; cleaning; wiping clean,


wiping dry 2 washing; washing clean, washing thoroughly 3
payment (debt); settlement (account)

pkizag f. 1 cleanliness, tidiness 2 chastity


pkiz 1 clean, pure; tidy, neat 2 chaste
pkiz-khaslt chaste
pgl m. regional 1 abnormal person; psychopath

extravagant person; spendthrift

pgalkhn f. regional psychiatric hospital, clinic


1 pl m. 1 abstention to abstain; be wary of 2
agriculture blemish, flaw; lapse, balk in plowing 3 beginning,
commencement 4

pl
3 pl m. hollow
4 pl m. plowshare
pl n m. pl na f. packsaddle
p lish m. plural 1 polish; action of polishing
compound verb to polish compound verb to be
2

to show hospitality 7 to feed,

nourish, suckle (a child) 8 to observe (e.g., a law)

polished 2 polishing agent, varnish

1 plk m. plural spinach


2 plk m. foster child, ward
plkn f. smoke vent, window in roof, skylight
plkraj m. storeroom (for agricultural implements)
plkj f. elephant saddle, howdah
pll transitive [past: ] 1 to protect, care for, guard 2
to bring up, raise to bring up children, rear children 3
to cultivate, develop someone or something to

instill or inculcate a love for work 4 to cherish, foster 5 to caress

pllaj past participle of adopted daughter


plndj m.
plng m. large wooden bed (with painted legs)
plngr m. khidam ti kampjr sarwr

server

plangph m. bedspread, counterpane


plna f. 1 development; education 2 instruction; training
universal military training 3 care
to care for; be concerned about someone 4 bestowing of gifts
upon a new bride at the time of the first visit to her home by her
parents

plv l 1 abstemious, moderate 2 devoted, loyal


plv n m.
plud f. sweet jelly dish; jam
1 pla f. plowshare
2 pl f. wedge (wooden)
pl-padr without fail; willy-nilly
plj m. 1 agriculture lapse, balk (in plowing) 2

diet 3 kind

of children's game

plz m. melon field; kitchen garden


plezkr f. melon farming, truck gardening
plezv n m. melon grower, truck gardener
1 plis f. policy, politics
2 plisi f. insurance policy
pm m. attention attentively, with attention
I didn't pay attention. I didn't notice. to divert the
attention to be distracted (of attention) to pay
attention to something; look after something Pay
attention! Look out! Watch out! Don't fall!
to be riveted, drawn (of the attention) to be
concerned about something to be left without attention,
be forgotten, be unnoticed

pm l
pmlavl denominative
pm n vice ! So long! Au revoir!
pmtad r 1 expecting something; counting on something

regional reproaching, rebuking

pmtadr f. expectation of something; reproach for

something

pmlarna f. care for something; concern about


something, attention to something; seeing to something

care of public health

sowing (of crops)

looking after the

to tend to something; be concerned

about something; pay attention to something; see to something

pm larnkaj attentive, concerned


pamavl transitive
121

Pashto-English Dictionary

pmjlj
pmedl intransitive
pamr m. 1 the Pamir
pmir t] the Parmirs

the Pamir 2 [plural:

pnm f. pnm f. Panama (country and city)


the Panama Canal
pnd n m. box for betel (Asiatic plant whose leaf is chewed

2 po oblique plural of
3 p oblique plural of 1
podzj m. 1 bookstore 2 book trade
pa f. 1 leaf, leaflet (of a plant) tea leaf, leaflet
a petal The trees are starting to be covered with
leaves. The trees are growing green. to
tremble like an autumn leaf 2 sheet (of paper) 3 page

with betel nut as a narcotic)

to turn over the pages; look at every page 4 note, document, paper

pndrj f. silk and gold threads, braided into the hair (braids)
of a bride

p na f. firewood basket
pnsm n m. bandage, dressing attributive
bandage to bandage, dress
pns f.
pnsijn m. boarding school
pnkri s m. anatomy pancreas
png m. 1
pngv l m. capitalist
p nga f. 1 capital private capital
industrial capital bank capital financial
capital basic capital constant capital
variable capital working capital
concentration of capital to invest capital
to have capital, possess capital 2 figurative property;
value; wealth; resources natural resources, wealth
idiom One should be patient.
pnga larnkaj m. capitalist
pngavr m. capitalist
pngavar f. capitalism
pns m.
pn f. 1 wedge (wooden) 2 stocks, rack (for torture,
punishment) a to drive a wedge, split, cleave b to lock
up in stocks

panj t m. lesson; conclusion, moral

to
to serve

as a lesson


grave

dressing is being made)

pj regional pe m. 1 leg

a pj-i human leg b

final
at the end of the
year finally, in conclusion, at last until the end
In the final years of his life
What will this end with? to finish, complete,
bring a matter to its conclusion; execute a piece of work
to be finished, be completed, be brought to a conclusion 3
consequences (of an illness) idiom compound verb to
figurative flight, escape 2 end, termination

decision (of a Supreme Court)

plumb, measure the depth (e.g., of a river)

abyss b to be extremely quick-tempered, not to control oneself; to

2 p m. starch
parzh m. 1 fall 2 autumn
paakj f. (small) leaf
1 pa m. salad lettuce

His luck has

newspaper)

a standing at the edge of an abyss b at the edge of the

be unstable

paulj m. coin in a necklace


pviljn m. pavilion
ph f. cotton batting (which is placed under a bandage when a

figurative nar a to stand at the edge of an

pe f. 1 fate, good fortune

betrayed him. 2 leaflet 3 sterile flower

proverb literal Above I see a leopard, below I see an

2 paj f. knocking out a nut with a nut (a game)


pairzhn m. fall (the season)
pi razhavnkaj fall, autumnal (of trees)
pz 1 foliate; composed of thin layers or flakes 2 consisting
of so-many pages or sheets an 8-page newspaper
1 pu m. po m. regional 1 fourth, fourth part of something
a quarter past four a quarter to
seven 2 "sir"
2 pu m. pound pva two pounds
3 po vice
putl m. sediment, deposit
pverhus m. regional electric power station, powerhouse
pvara f. 1 footnote, note 2 feature article (in a

abyss. figurative Caught between a rock and a hard place.

the Annals of

Archives (the institution)

History c playing cards

exemplary, model; serving as an example for others (of a person)


precipice; steep bank; abyss

pnjti 1 instructive 2 learning a lesson from something 3

1 p m.

You have won. 8 [plural: pi] a leaves, foilage b archive

extract a lesson from; draw a conclusion from

5 leaflet; newspaper 6 7 card (playing)

pj b 1 m. .1 ford; shoal 1.2 proper name Payab 2

shallow, not deep, suitable for fording

pj n m. end, conclusion
pj v m.
pjv cheerful, joyous, buoyant
pjbnd m.
pjp m. pipe to smoke a pipe
122

Pashto-English Dictionary

pj-pj children's speech quietly, softly, gently

to walk softly
gently

pjpchi f. plural

pjmledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be suppressed 2 to be destroyed 3 to be violated, be infringed

to direct gently, conduct gently, carry

upon 4 to be suppressed (of feelings) idiom

May your enemies disappear!

pjtav f. leg

pints f.
pjnkh m. fruit-bearing branch of a grapevine
pjand 1 durable; constant; enduring 2 proper name

wrappings, puttees

pjtkht m. capital (city)


pjta vice
pjtsr m. 1 end, completion, termination

2 person bringing

Payanda, Painda

pjndj 1
pjnk m. rim or edge of the scabbard of a saber
pnv inundated low place, depression, flooded

up the rear 3 remains or remainder, left-overs (food)

pjts f. 1 trouser leg 2 hems of the legs of wide Middle-

Eastern trousers; trouser cuffs 3 wide Middle-Eastern trousers


idiom

land, marshy land

to be on friendly

pjna f. strength; duration; constancy


pjnj last, final, conclusive
pjv m. float, floating structure
pjavl transitive [past: ] 1 to prolong life; sustain

terms with wife's relatives

pjd r steady, stable; strong, firm


pjd r f. steadiness, stability; strength, firmness
pjd n m. running board, footboard (of a vehicle, carriage,

life in someone 2 to settle 3 to conclude, complete 4 to measure

etc.)

pjdv m.
pjz r m. shoe
pjzb m. ankle bracelet
pajht m. durability, immutability, stability to be
durable, be immutable, be stable to last, endure
silence did not last long; the silence did not

the depth (i.e., of a river)

pjk f.

piece, item (a counting word for machines, equipment)

hull rice

to

pjk m. rice cleaner, man engaged in the cleaning of rice


pjkil f. boundary, limit (of a plot of land)
pjg v m. paygav (a measure of land equal to half kul'ba,

plural life, existence

pjedna f.
pjk m.
pbb vice 1
1 pab 1 m. plural Pabi (settlement between Peshawar and

amount of land that can be plowed in one season by an ox-team)

pjg f. pjg h f. 1 foot (of a mountain) 2 military

1
2

pjl m. corn bread


pjl m. electronics battery

bridgehead; springboard for attack

Naushera) 2 m. plural Pabi (tribe) 3 pabj m. Pabi (tribesman)

atomic reactor
to create a

pjl t m. disturbance; mutiny

disturbance; incite to mutiny

pjlt mutinous to rebel, revolt


pjlm f. 1 sign, symbol, token 2 banner
pjl m.
p jla f. bracelet with bells (for the ankle, leg)
pjm l 1 crushed 2 destroyed 3 trampled
pjmlavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

1 to

crush 2 to destroy 3 to crudely suppress, infringe upon, violate

to violate or infringe on someone's rights 4 to

suppress (feelings)

two pieces of machinery (i.e., two machines) 7 dignity;

1 pj f. 1 rein; reins; bridle 2 hobbles


2 pj present of
3 p f. regional pice (small Indian coin, worth a quarter anna)
pjedl pedl 1 [present: intransitive past:
].1 to last 1.2 to be strong, be firm 1.3 to live, exist 2 m.

pjkb m. rice huller; grain huller; treadle-

motor-driven rice huller

grade, rank 8 figurative level (of development)

operated rice huller, crusher, huller for rice and other grains

pj f. 1 foundation, groundwork, basis 2 column; mast 3

supporting member; pier (bridge) 4 step 5 wheel; wheels 6

long endure

pjml f. 1 destruction 2 crude violation; infringement 3

2 pabj 1 f. 1 1 2 feminine of 1 3
pap m. small scoop (of a shopkeeper)
papkha papkha f. "papkha" (a tall hat, usually of sheepskin)
pap adjective big (of ears)
pap ghvag m. burdock
pupn destroyed, annihilated to destroy, annihilate
to be destroyed, be annihilated
1 pps m. lungs
2 pps m. 1 coward 2 dawdler
1 papj f. kiss
2 papj f. diminutive children's speech foot
1 pat m. honor, dignity; respect idiom
to remain a widow

suppression (of feelings)


123

Pashto-English Dictionary

pat m. plural 1 fine goat's wool 2 undercoat (the fine wool

growing beneath the outer wool of goat's, sheep) 3 nap, pile


(textiles)

3 pit flat; flattened, flattened out


4 pit m. core, pith, heart, pulp (e.g., of elder wood)
5 pt doublet
pt vice What happened to you?
ptrj f. board upon which the body of a deceased person is
washed a to wash the body of the decease b
figurative to teach a lesson, punish severely

pt m. large basket with a narrow opening


pats f. Eastern 1 piece (of sugar) 2 kind of candy or
sweetmeat proverb literal Sweets do not
fall from the sky forever figurative Good things do not last
forever.

pat f. cap, percussion cap


patn oblique singular of
pitv 1 sunny 2 m. sunny side
pitvaj m. 1 sunny side (of a mountain) 2 warm and sunny
winter day pitvi to sit in the sun, bask
in the sun

patkhavl transitive [past: ] to cause to perspire

freely

patkha f. revolver
patrk small-eared (used for a particular breed of sheep)
patrakj m. 1 scab 2 1 3 shaving, chip
petrl m. plural
petrolkash f. extraction of oil, output of oil
patr f. 1
1 patrj m. 1 crampon (iron, brass) to fasten together
with crampons; rivet, clinch 2 adornment, decoration

patrj f. double hepatic duct (of sheep)


patrivl m. 1 trader in hardware, iron-monger

2 kind of

German-made rifle

patr m. 2
1 patk m. flask, water bottle
2 patk m. paper (card on which thread is wound)
3 patk bald
1 patkj m. wool, hairy coat, hairy covering
2 patakj m. diminutive form of 1
3 pitkj m. 1 bird 2 squab, shorty (of a person)
patln m. [plural: patlunna plural: patlanna]
trousers, breeches a to wear trousers b to be clothed
in trousers

patlunpsh dressed in European style


patlz m. patls m. 1 agriculture graft
graft 2 organization, arrangement

patlesavl denominative, transitive [past:


agriculture to graft, make a graft

patlk m. diploma
pitnsaj m.
patng m. 1 nocturnal moth; moth, butterfly; clothes moth 2
a kite 3 moth (used as a synonym for one who is in love)
folk saying The moth falls in love
with the candle and is burned up in its flame. 4 proper name

Patang

patns m. [plural: patnus n plural:

patnusna] salver, tray

patnm m.
patanna masculine plural of
pitn f. 1 riot, mutiny; disturbance 2 enmity; struggle;
vengeance family feud
1 pat m. 1 wheel (of a spinning wheel) 2
2 pat m. 1 ferrying, crossing by ferry (river) 2 landing, dock,
wharf lighthouse beacon
patv f.
patr m. brassiere, bodice
patn m. [plural: patanna] thigh, haunch
patunj m. botany petunia
pataj lagging behind all, last
1 pat f. branch, offshoot (of a tribe)
2 pat f. 1 sign; trace to get on the track of;
track; shadow 2 pta address

3 pta f. silt, mud, ooze


4 pta f. playing card to play cards
pat pa f. computer science address bar
1 pti 1 estimable, honorable; respectable 2 honest; decent
2 pat f. feminine plural of 1, 2
3 pti plural of 4 and 2 2
4 patj m. 2
5 patj f. division of property
6 patj f. alphabet
7 pitj m. regional 3
patr
1 patra 1 feminine singular of 2 f. unleavened bread
unleavened bread
2 ptra especially
patjl transitive
patil f. 1
patejl transitive [past: ] 1 to divide; divide up 2 to
decide, make a decision

pa m. 1 step, rung 2 panel, element (of a door) 3 layer (of

cloth) 4 pan (of a scale)


to

124

pa m. 1 bark of a tree; bark stripped from a tree

to

remove bark from a tree, debark 2 tanning extract from bark


3

pa m. delirium; fever

state of delirium. He has a fever.

He is delirious. He is in a

Pashto-English Dictionary

refuge; secluded place 2


secret, clandestine, covert a secret agreement
secretly, clandestinely; surreptitiously This is
not a secret. The fact ought not to be concealed
that to conceal, keep secret to
disregard, pay no heed to He pretended that
4

p pu 1 hidden, concealed

nothing had happened. 3 latent, hidden, inner, secret 4 closed,


private

closed session 5 clothed, covered (of parts of

the body) 6 regional stricken by misfortune idiom

Not to allow to learn, to keep in ignorance.

5 pa doublet
6 pa doublet
ptp m. blindman's bluff (the game)
pa f. plural potato
pakh f. 1 military percussion cap 2 regional fly-swatter
paakhed r muzzleloading rifle
par piebald, skewbald; spotted, stripped; having white socks
(of a horse)

para f. 1 ribbon, strap 2 stripe (leather, bark) 3 stripe (on

uniform trousers)

p s m. chemistry potash
ps f. waste material from sugar cane
pataha f. Eastern
panist n m. obsolete
p p secretly, clandestinely; furtively, surreptitiously
ppnaj m. regional ppnaj m. blindman's
bluff (the game) to play blindman's bluff
ppinhm 1 completely hidden, concealed 2 top secret
ppohnd m. magician, wizard
ptj f.
pkh pkh rude, cruel, harsh
pukhv laj m. rudeness, cruelty, harshness
ptukhav [past: ] to cause to become rude or cruel;

leader or head

someone's feet; to beseech someone for assistance

2 puakj tiny, small; insignificant


3 ptki 1
puganj f. ambush to set up an ambush
plamsa f. computer science blind carbon copy

palj f. singular & plural rail, rails; railroad tracks


pam m. sluice gate of a yaryk (i.e., irrigation channel)
pan m. dock, landing
pang m.
pans m.
panm m. password
puna f. 1 2 secret
1 pa m. [plural: pau n plural: paug n] patu
(woolen shawl or rug) to weave a patu
2 pa oblique plural of 1
3 po oblique plural of 4
pav r m. patvr m. regional 1 rural accountant,
village accountant; rural clerk, village clerk 2 land surveyor

ptv laj m. 1 2 secret


pakh
pkaj m. leather trunk (for transporting load on pack
animals)

pkaj m. 1
pavl puavl denominative, transitive
conceal (from), keep secret

2 oil

Eastern to steal

pka f. cottage cheese

pak f. 1 belt, sash 2 kind of noose, snare, lariat

1 to

to conceal the truth, hide

a to hide, conceal oneself b to cover

to

cover or wrap oneself up properly c to conceal or not tell one's


low

to lie in hiding, lie

a to shut one's eyes (to) b to disregard, ignore;


I want to

fail to notice

gasoline pump

threaten b to reprimand, scold

real name, be incognito

perol pirol adjective 1 gasoline 2 oil


parj f. track (of a railroad)
pakr m. plural aluminum
1 paka f. young hen, pullet
2 pak f. 1 threat 2 reprimand, scolding

oneself up, muffle oneself up (in something)

denominative, intransitive [past: ] to grow

the real state of affairs 4 to classify (documents, etc. as secret) 5

taciturn, not talkative; reticent

perl pirl 1 m. plural gasoline

[past:

hide, conceal, take away, remove 2 to cover, cover up 3 to

coarse, grow rude, grow cruel; grow harsh

(bcc,

e.g., of email)

cause to become harsh

pkhlaj
pukhedl

the position of
to throw oneself at

pakj m. small turban idiom

go away and never see you again.

pn m. cover, concealment; sanctuary, refuge (for wild game,

wild fowl, etc.)

place.

This is a very secluded

pavna f. 1 hiding, clearing, taking away 2 covering,


screening 3 concealment

a to

1 pune f. ambush
2 panaj m. woolen shawl, woolen rug
pav f. 1 galloon, braid, lace 2 cord 3 purse
pavagr m. pavagr m. maker of gold lace, braid, etc.
1 pa 1 f. secret behind someone's back 2 feminine
plural of 4
125

Pashto-English Dictionary

2 pa f. 1 board 2 panel
3 pu f. 1 strip (of bark, cloth) 2 metal fastening or clamp
4 pa f. 1 complaint 2 deed, document
pakhul taciturn, uncommunicative; reclusive
He sits there in silence. a to compell to be

puchkhlaj foulmouthed
pachk m. eyehole in a belt
puchkulm f. large intestine (of animals)
puchk m. having set its fruit (cucumbers)
pchmoz f. mockery, ridicule
pchn 1 weak, puny 2 ugly, not good-looking
pachna f. 1 lancet 2 cut, scratch
pichvj f.
pchraj m. regional
pachnaj regional tiny, minute
pachvaj m. tail-tuft (of a cow)
1 pcha f. pcha f. 1 dung, droppings (of sheep, goats, etc.)
to defecate (of sheep, goats, etc.) 2 pertaining to lot
by lot Western a to draw lots, win b to become
the owner of something, pick up or acquire something to
cast lots to draw lots to effect the casting of
lots to have a drawing, a lottery idiom a to

silent b to neutralize (the enemy's fire)

pah n m. regional Pathan, Pushtun


pahnist n m. obsolete
paad r striped
pa dn f. regional shashlik made from ram's kidneys and
heart

pak m. barcode
1 paj m. area which has been sown, field under crops
a small field; a bed prepared for a crop
2 paj f. 1 bandage a to apply a bandage, dress
to bandage the leg b to calm, soothe 2
suspenders suspenders 3 garters garters 4

perform a stupid action, get involved in a dumb operation b to act

strip (of cloth); ribbon, tape 5 board 6 strap, belt

in a conceited manner, put on airs

patj f. 1 model, example (for correspondence or practice) 2


ABC book, primer

pcha f. ripples (on water)


trouble (water)

to cover with ripples,

pa plural of
5 pi 1 f. plural secret 2 feminine plural of 4
6 pa masculine plural of 1
paj d m. cache
p-pl 1 secret, concealed 2 disordered, distressed
pakh
paed r having a stripe of contrasting color on the neck (of

3 pcha f. kiss
4 pach f. branches (used in covering a roof)
1 pachj f. woven basket (of reed)
2 puchj f.
3 pchi feminine plural of 1, 2
pachz m. pachs m. pachisi, parcheesi (ancient

pdzj 1 on the spot, at the location 2 executed, carried out



pdzjavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

boardgame resembling backgammon, played on a cruciform board)

animals)

pedl puedl denominative [past: ] 1 to be hidden, be


concealed 2 to be covered; cover, wrap oneself to be
covered with snow 3 to hide, lie hidden, set (of heavenly bodies)

pedna f. 1 m. [plural: ped] hiding; concealment


to have nowhere to hide, have no place of
concealment

para f. 1 main beam of a building 2 boards (collectively) 3

log, beam

pael m. textiles weaver's beam


pem m. damnation
padzh m.
padzhna f. 1 scratch 2 cut
pdzhavb vice
padzh f. 1 oven (for firing bricks or pottery, for the

manufacture of glass) 2 furnace, forge 3 blast furnace

padzhav l m. bricklayer
1 puch unfit, unsuitable, bad
2 pach m. flower pattern on glass, iron, etc.
pchj f. 1 hobbles, chains 2 outer cord of a woven cot or
bed

fulfill (e.g., an obligation)

padzavl transitive 1
pts 1 dull, blunt dull knife

2 dull,

stupid, slow-witted 3 crude, rough 4 steep, preciptous

ptsnaj 1.1 insignificant, small; tiny, scanty 1.2 rare,

fortuitous 2 m. small piece, fragment of something; crumb, pinch

ptstb m. ptsj f. blunting, dulling (of a knife, etc.)


ptsng vice
patsnaj
ptsv laj m.
ptsavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to dull,
blunt, obtund 2 figurative to confuse idiom
They dealt with the enemy.
ptsavna f. dulling, blunting (of a knife, etc.)
1 ptsa f. stitch
2 ptsa feminine singular of
3 pts vice
patsj f.
126

Pashto-English Dictionary

ptsedl [past: ] 1 to be dulled, be blunted, be obtunded


2 figurative to grow dull, sink into torpor

pukhltb m. [plural: pukhlked] m.


pukhlv laj m. reconciliation

ptsr vice 1 like, resembling 2 similar


1 pkh m. tetter, mange; scab
2 pkh m. 1 sniffing (of a cat) 2 exclamation or cry by which a

pakhlvaj m. cook
pakhln m. cookery, culinary work
pakhlndz m. kitchen
pakhlng m. cooking, preparation of food
pakhlzj m. kitchen
1 pakhlj m. 1 cooking, preparation of food
pakhl cooking equipment pakhl kitchen

child is frightened

3 pakh m. 1 trap, snare 2 fetters, manacles


4 pkh m. loud guffaw; burst of laughter
pikhi f. plural pikhaj m. wool clotted with dung
(at or near the tail of a sheep)

2 cookery 3 baking (bricks) 4 maturity; wisdom

pkhpla pkhpla 1 (my, thy, his, her, etc.) -self; personally


I will go to him myself. 2 willingly; voluntarily,

2 pkhli f. plural
3 pukhle f.
pakhldzj m.
1 pkhn 1 downy, having a nap

of one's own free will 3 by oneself, spontaneously

pukht m. Eastern 2
pukhtag f. 1 ripening 2 figurative
experience

pukhtavrgaj m. Eastern
1 pukht 1 2 basic, fundamental (of a structure,
construction) 3 training (of a falcon, a hawk)

to anger, enrage 3 to invoke envy, cause envy

1 pakhsvaj Western boiled, cooked


2 pkhsav present tense of
pakhs f. layer of a pis (beaten clay) wall pis
wall to lay, put in place, make a pis wall
pakhsedl intransitive [past: ] 1 to grieve (for); be
sad; be melancholy; be distressed 2 to strive for something; try to
get something 3 to envy, covet

He envies me.

He covets his (i.e., another's) wealth.


pakhsedna f. 1 grief, sadness, melancholy 2
something 3 envy

crop

pukhl reconciled

a to reconcile b to come to an

agreement, settle (a question, etc.)

great difficulty.

striving after

pakhsij adjective liquid, fluid


pakhshk m.
pakhsh quiet
pakhshvaj 1
pakhkaj compound past participle of
He cooked a good meal.
pkhl m. preparation of irrigated land which is under a rice
to be reconciled

They reconciled them with

2 rug or shawl with nap or

pile

maturity; wisdom;

2 pakht f. cotton
pakhtakr m. cotton grower
1 pakhtakr f. cotton growing, cultivation of cotton
2 pukhtakr f. paving, tarring
pakhs k m. 1 grief; sorry; melancholy; chagrin 2 envy
pakhsavl transitive [past: ] 1 to grieve; upset

2 pakhn m. mineral
pkhndj m.
pkhv 1 before before this, before this time
before this first of all,
first and foremost before their arrival 2 earlier,
before; in former times, in the past a long time ago 3.1
previous, former in former, previous times
since former times, dating from former
times in comparison with what used to be, in
comparison with the previous circumstance more than
before as before, as
previously 3.2 ancient Eastern
from ancient times 4
pkhvtrpkhv beforehand, in good time
pkhv laj m. 1
pkhv nj 1.1 old, ancient; very old pakhv n
antiquities of old, from ancient times 1.2
previous, preceding, foregoing, early 1.3 former, ex- 2.1 person

living in ancient times 2.2 pakhv n plural ancestors


pkhv najtb m. antiquity
pkh m. juice, extract
pkhoavl m. [past: ] denominative, transitive

to

squeeze out, press out

pakhavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to cook,


prepare (food) 2 to cause to become ripe; facilitate ripening 3 to
bake, fire (brick) 4 to pave, tar 5 figurative to cause to be, make
experienced, make mature; make wiser through experience idiom

to acquire a good eye


pkhol regional
1 pkhla f. whooping cough
2 pkhul vice 1
pkhvalj m. pakhn m. 1
pkhvandj m. 1 joint (of an animal's leg)
buttonhole

127

2 knot 3

Pashto-English Dictionary

pakhavnkaj 1 present participle of

baker 2

m. cook; baker

pakhavnaj m. cook; baker


1 pkha f. 1 wool undercoat (wool-bearing animals)

pr pur Western 1 preposition usually in compound with the

suffix ;feminine nouns in (a, a) may not be subject to

inflexion; 1.1 on (to designate location on the surface of an

object, the direction of an action, and also places and expanses)

2 down,

pile

2 pakh feminine singular of


1 pkhj 1 mangy; suffering from mange (or similar skin

on the table

literal to sit in a shop figurative to trade 1.3 to

on the chair

1.2 in (to indicate the location where some action is taking place)

disease); scabby 2 person suffering from the itch or other skin

(to indicate direction toward)

disease characterized by scabs 3 lousy fellow

at
midnight during or in the midst of the storm
in his/her 30th year of life 1.5 in, into (to convey
the general sense of distribution) divide 3 into
1.6 by (to indicate the route or means of travel) by
sea He went by road (i.e., land travel) 1.7 on (to
indicate the direction of an action upon a specific object)

pkhi f. plural dandruff, scruff


pakhedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be
cooked, be prepared (of food) 2 to be fired, be baked (of brick) 3

to be prepared, be mixed (of cement) 4 to be paved, be tarred 5


to ripen, mature 6 figurative to become experienced, become
wise 7 to come into one's own (of seasons of the year); come on,
begin, fall (e.g., of night)

the road from Burma

to China 1.4 at, during, in etc. (in designating time)

to beat on the head 1.8 over, above (to indicate the location of

They

arrived in the settlement when night had far advanced. 8

someone, something higher than something else, above it)

figurative to be tormented, suffer

pakhed m. plural 1
pkhjr vice ! All the best!
pkhl m. 1 employment or use of a sudorific 2 sweating,
profuse sweating to induce sweating, evoke perspiration
pkhev laj m. sweating, profuse perspiration
pdsi vice
pidar padar paternal hereditary land

... the day will come for him (her, them)

when 2.4 according to him, according to her, according to it


2.5 for him, for her, for them

padul f. 1 fraud, deception 2 (unauthorized) disclosure of a

2 species of

popular (lit. the variegated-leafed poplar)

pr sound imitative of the flight (take-off) of birds (whirrr)

Parachi (language)

f. meeting; reception to meet

sail of a windmill 2 blade or flat board of a water


a to knock one's

ankle together while walking b to stretch, stretch out c to procede

to take wing, fly up, take off


pur combining form full, filled filled with alarm, uneasy
pr separable initial prefix of the verb in laconic
phrases Eastern I didn't open it
prt masculine plural of
prtk m. practice
par f. layered pastry
parch m. [plural: plural: parchag n] 1
cotton textiles trader; peddler 2 1
parch 1 m. singular & plural Parachi (a nationality) 2 f.

secret

(from)

For what reason? 1.11 at, with (to indicate a person

write something about him 2.3 for him, for her, for it, for them

(woman)

for the sake of honor


competition for land

associated with an action) to study with a mullah


to work at a tailor's (shop) 1.12 used to designate
dates June 15th 2.1 on him, on her, on it, on them
Take this chair and sit on it. 2.2
concerning him, about her, concerning it, about them

too shy, wean from being too shy b to make more adroit

wheel 3 wing 4 fin (of a fish) idiom

question after question 1.10 for (to indicate the

the battle for the city

pdnna pdnnakhi inside, within


pdd like, as, how
padl m. 1 gossip, scandalmonger 2 deceiver, cheat
padla f. 1 gossip, scandalmonger (women) 2 deceiver, cheat

pazir
1 par m. 1

the aircraft circled over

reason, cause, or goal)

patrimony (inheritance)

pdj vice 2
pd vice 2
padd clear, evident, manifest
png m. pudding
pul vice 1
pa f. 1 species of willow (lit. the old willow)

the city 1.9 after (to indicate the sequence of events or objects)

pdgha vice 1
padl m. padl m. 1 influence to influence something
2 fear, terror idiom a to break from being

over, above us

pr kh pir kh 1 wide, extensive, spacious 2 open (i.e., a brow)


prkhpzaj having a flattened nose
prkhtj f. 1 2 military deployment, dispersal

to be afraid of someone, fear someone


128

Pashto-English Dictionary

prkhv laj m. 1 extensiveness, spaciousness 2 territory,

area 3 broadening, increase 4 development


widen; increase; develop (i.e., trade)

to

prkhavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


widen, increase 2 to develop (i.e., trade) idiom a to
expand the chest b to accomplish a feat; perform a feat of valor

pr kha pirkha feminine singular of


prkhb n m. broadband
prkh f. pirkh idiom

quiet,

tranquility

prkhedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


widened; be increased 2 to be developed (i.e., trade)

1 pirr m.
2 prr m. 1
pirravl denominative, transitive
pirra f.
pirredl denominative, intransitive
prz vice 1
parzitolozh f. parasitology
parzit parasitic
przhektr searchlight
purasrra mysterious, full of mystery, enigmatic
purshb uneasy, anxious; tense uneasy time,
time of anxiety

parsht m. parachute

parachute jumping (as

sport)

parshut 1 adjective parachute

parachute

units 2.1 m. parachutist 2.2 f. parachute jumping

prg m. Prague (city)


pargandag f. diffusion, sparseness
pargand diffused, dispersed to diffuse, disperse
pargvj m.
purmi purmna calm, equable
prntl transitive
prntna f. prnst m. opening (the act)
to open

parch
pranstl transitive
prnstaj 1 open

with open eyes 2 wide,

spacious

prniste sarchin f. computer science open source


prns f. colloquial the French language
parn second element in compounds exploding,
blasting

prnt past of to be opened


prnitl transitive [present: past: ]

5 untwist, unreel 6 figurative to explain

2 to open (i.e., to found or establish, e.g., a school or other

establishment) 3 to untie, loosen (i.e., a knot) 4 to unfold, unroll

passive a to

be opened b to be opened (i.e., to found or establish, e.g., a school


or enterprise) c to be untied (e.g., a knot)
living

to make a

prnidz present stem of


pranistl transitive
parvz m. regional eaves (of a roof)
prh f. Prague (city)
prjmari regional primary (of a school)
purjna f.
prbndi a compound of the preposition and the suffix or
postposition 2
parpa m. botany colocynth
prpr quickly, animatedly to flow, stream, roll (i.e.,
of tears); to flow in a stream or current

prprakj m. screw, propellor (i.e., of an aircraft)


purpj caught, captured
1 prat prt 1 shallow, empty, useless 2 inappropriate, out of

place 3 distant, remote 4 maimed, disfigured 5 flabby, flaccid,

weak

2 prt connected, linked, attached


part b m. range (of an arrow, bullet, etc.)
partg oblique singular of
part v m. throwing, flinging, hurling compound verb
to throw, fling, hurl compound verb to fall, fall down,
collapse

partug l m. Portugal
partugl partgalj 1 Portuguese 2 m. Portuguese (person)
partl m. 1 equipment, outfit 2 gear of a horseman or nomad
(which is carried on a horse, camel, etc.)

partal f. 1 equilibrium, equipoise, balance 2 weighing 3

figurative evaluation

a to balance b to weigh c

figurative to consider, think over; evaluate

a to be

balanced, be evened up b to be weighed c figurative to be


considered, be evaluated

partm m. horror; terror; fear from terror, from fear


in horror
partg m. wide, Middle-Eastern trousers idiom
to take off one's belt; to grow insolent
prtug h prtugsh belt, girdle (used to hold up wide
Middle-Eastern trousers) idiom to overtax one's
strength, overtax oneself

partugh partugh wearing wide Middle-Eastern

pants, dressed in oriental fashion

1 to open

1 1. 2 foolish, stupid,
nonsensical, confused to talk nonsense 2 f.
quarrel, discord He is at odds with him/them.
2 prta preposition Eastern without; except, apart from, over
and above aside from this, apart from this
129

prta 1.1 feminine singular of

Pashto-English Dictionary

3 prat feminine singular of


prta-varta confused, chaotic
prti f. plural 1 of 1 2 nonsense, gibberish

nature in craft, etc.)


to

talk nonsense, speak rubbish

wall (protection from weather) 2 hut with a straw or wooden roof

3 coating of clay mixed with straw

botany stamen

prchavl causative [past: ] to cause sneezing,


evoke sneezing

parchn m. groceries
parch f. 1 issue (of a magazine, newspaper)

life; seclude life (of women) 9 secluded life 10 part, action,


activity, act (of a play) 11 picture 12 frame (of film) 13

2 excerpt,

prchj m. sneezing
prchedl [past: ] to sneeze
prdz j purdzj 1 fitting, proper 2 appropriate 3 executed,
carried out 4 living somewhere a to execute, carry out
b to settle a to be executed, be carried out b to be
settled

prdzandn (of a pregnant woman) near her time, in the last


month of pregnancy

to stand aside, make way

purdl 1 bold, brave 2 m. proper name Purdil


1 prad oblique plural of
2 pard oblique plural of 1
1 pard f. 1 curtain; bed curtain; jalousie, blinds 2 screen
smoke screen 3 covering, casing, membrane
membrane anatomy pleura anatomy
pericardium 4 layer stratum of earth 5 screen
cinema screen 6 figurative cover (of night, etc.) 7
secret to reveal a secret to
raise a curtain, expose I have nothing to hide from
you. He told me in secret. 8 seclusion, solitary
figurative camouflage

clipping (from a magazine, newspaper)

prdzavl transitive
prdzedl intransitive
prtsxangedl denominative, intransitive

pardz f. second element of compounds

composing; writing letters

1 prch m. regional plate; dish; saucer


2 prch m. 1 sneezing 2 snorting (of an animals)
parch v 2
parchatj m. 1 straw awning or eave on a beaten-clay (pise)
1 parchl unsuitable, bad; below quality standard
2 prchl transitive [past: ] to sneeze
parchm m. 1 lock, curl, ringlet; forelock 2 banner, flag

pard z m. execution; fulfillment; finishing (work of final

to hide, cover up

compound verb
compound verb to be hidden, be

covered up

2 prd 2
paraband f. seclusion, secluded life (of a female)
pardaph 1 keeping a secret; concealing 2 m. custodian
of a secret, keeper of a secret

pardapoh f. paradapohi f. keeping a secret;

concealment

pardad r secret, confidential


pardad ra f. female leading a secluded way of life (for
cultural and traditional reasons)

[past: ]

purhartt passionate, ardent (of feelings)


1 parkh m. injustice to act unjustly
2 prkh m. severe cold, hard frost
prkhilaf against, contrary to
1 prkhm m. brush or tuft of the tail (animal)
2 parkhm m. 1 2 fan 3 fly swatter
purkhv supporting someone, something; siding with someone

purkhvv laj m. help, assistance, support
parkhavl transitive [past: ] to squirt water, spurt
water (with the mouth); to sprinkle; to moisten, wet

prkha f. 1 dew dew has fallen 2 light shower


parkhz unjust
prkhl m.
parkdkht m. 1 expense 2 payment 3 use of something
application, employment (of force)
pardkht adjective payment
pard r 1 winged 2 having blades, fans, paddles, etc.

pardad r f. 1 trust, confidence 2 concealment,

dissimulation


to plow and sow for another; work
as a farm laborer proverb One can use
another's bed till midnight 1.2 foreign foreign
tongue prad foreign goods prad
abroad to alienate to become alienated 2 m.
.1 foreigner; alien; stranger to deliver from
the foreign yoke foreign domination 2.2 great-greatpradj prdaj 1.1 foreign, strange, alien, another's

foreign body

grandson

prdajtb m. alienation; estrangement


pards m. 1 wanderer 2 traveller 3 visitor
pardesna f. pardes f. 1 wandering; journeying;
journey 2 vagrancy

pardesitb m. the wandering life


pardesedl denominative, intransitive

[past: ] 1 to

wander; roam; travel 2 to be a tramp; be on the road

pri
priv laj
130

m.

Pashto-English Dictionary

purzahmt hard, difficult; troublesome

parshak l m. rainy season, monsoon season


1 purshr 1 animated, lively (e.g., a city) 2 energetic (of an

difficult experience

1 pirz
2 purz oblique plural of
przavl transitive [past: ] 1 to throw down on the
ground; to overcome (in wrestling) He threw me. He
wrestled me down. 2 m. plural wrestling sports to

action)

Arabic

prha f. prha f. mushroom, Russula foetens idiom


to harden, become hard idiom to stint, grudge,
skimp idiom What has gotten into you?

1
[plural: purz plural: purzadzh t]
part; component parts for a car
f. feminine singular of

What has happened to you?

purzafurush f. sale of components, parts, etc. (e.g., of

consciousness, lose one's senses, fall in a swoon 3 rage, fury

purs n 1 asking, inquiring about 2 m. inquiry, request,

questioning

parst 1 worshiping something; bowing, making obeisance to

onself about someone 3 the second elemental of compounds

fire-worshiper
parast r m. 1 person who is taking care of or showing

1 park l m. compasses, dividers


2 park l regional weak, sickly, puny
parkltj f. parklv laj m. weakening, debilitation
parklavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

training courses for hospital attendants

parastsh m. worship, veneration; cult

to bow


to worship something
parast combining form worship of something
down before someone, venerate someone; honor someone

weaken, debilitate

parkaledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


grow weak, become sickly

idolatry

to lose
to

prestzh m. prestige, authority

prestige, lose face, lose authority

undermine one's authority, cause the loss of or damage to one's


authority or prestige

pursd 1 state of being conscious, aware 2 intelligent


pursza full of emotion, heartfelt
person l m. personl m. personl m. staff,
personnel experts, technical and engineering workers
parsh m. 1 beating, throb, palpitation heartbeat
to beat, throb, palpitate 2 flight, flying
prsh adverb back, backwards a to drive off b to
lead back, take back to step back, retreat to
beat back (the enemy)

purkr f. 1 stuffing (of a stuffed animal) 2 technology filling

in with rubble

parast ra f. nurse; female hospital attendant; child's nurse


parastri 1 care of the sick 2 hospital work

prishtj vice

a to lose consciousness, be deprived of one's senses, fall in a

well put-together

concern about another 2 hospital attendant, hospital orderly

parghaztj f. irritability, edginess


pargaz 1 nervous, irritable, edgy 2 convulsive, spasmodic
purimt valuable valuable instructions
1 park r 1
2 purk r 1 full, filled, crowded; stuffed (with) 2 well-made,

perspektf m. perspective (in architecture, drawing,

something 2 paying court to someone taking care of, troubling

swoon b to get into a rage, fly into a fury

painting)

purghurr ambitious; arrogant


parghz m. 1 arrow with an iron tip (for children's games)
fainting fit, swoon compound verb to lose

pressed

przd przdd Western against, opposed to someone or

something

przedl intransitive [past: ]to fall, topple


pres m. pressing, compressing a press (machine)
compound verb to press compound verb to be

piriht f. piriht f. 1 angel 2 proper name Pirishta,

Firishta

machines, cars)

parshr m. Parshor (the ancient name of the city of

Peshawar)

wrestle

pirzav
purz f.

1 prkaj m. stepson
2 prkaj f. stepdaughter
purkah purkah pulling the bowstring to its limit
parkn parkn m. landmark
1 park f. bread baked on a stone
2 purkj m. taking wing (birds)
parg r m. 1
prgaj m. 1
prgaj f. 2
pargan f. Pargana (general term for district or state in India)
purgu f. gossip, idle talk I began to
chatter idly.

parg f. tribe, nationality


prgj pirgj m. acorn
prl transitive 2

131

Pashto-English Dictionary

prla Western 1 placed alongside, located alongside; adjoining


2.1 around, round my head is going around

Bibo has begun to whirl about from joy. 2.2

continuously, all the time 2.3 entirely, completely


His character has completely changed.
prlabndi 1 folded 2 placed one upon the other
prlapac Western 1.1 successive, consecutive 1.2
continuous, uninterrupted, unbroken 2.1 successively,
consecutively 2.2 continuously, uninterruptedly, unbrokenly
idiom latest issue, current issue (of a newspaper)
prlapasev laj m. Western 1 sequence, succession 2
continuity

prlapuri 1 connected; attached (to) 2 sequential 3 fit


(for), suitable 4 well-built; beautiful Zejnab was

good-looking.

prlapuriv laj m. Western 1 joining; contiguity 2

parnv f.
prandzh m. sneezing
prndzhl transitive [past: ] to sneeze
prndzhavl causative [past: ] to cause sneezing
prndzhavnkaj sternutatory sternutatory
(sneezing) gas

prndzhj m. sneezing
prndzhedl intransitive [past: ]to sneeze
prhdzhedna f. sneezing
prndzl transitive
prndzj m.
prndzedl intransitive
parand m. [plural: plural: parandag n] bird
pr regional
prins m. prince
prncipl m. regional principal (chief officer, dean of a

sequence 3 fitness, suitability 4 beauty, comeliness

college)

prla vahlj Western portly, fat


prlika pkarha computer science online
prm
parm n m.
parm jl transitive
prmkh purmkh Western 1 before someone, in front of
someone, ahead of someone 2.1 forward, ahead to
successfully develop, execute something dialect a

to

go ahead, move forward, advance b to develop, make progress

to forbid absolutely,
!

2.2 completely, entirely, fully

ban categorically

saying Go and have a look around! b to disappear, be missing,


get lost My book is missing.
prmkhtg m. purmkhg 1 movement forward,
attack ! military Forward! (as a command) 2
development, progress

prmkh tllaj

developed, advanced (e.g., of a

country)

prmkhtl m. plural prmkhtb m.


prmkhtj f. prmkhjn m.

permang n m. potassium permanganate


parmuhr f. hunting divination (used by those hunting
wildfowl) to cast spells, predict through
paranormal means or charms

parme f. mushroom
parn f. drowsiness; lassitude

to nod (in sleepiness);

cause sleepiness

2 paran f. the Parana River


parnl f. gutter, drainpipe
parnvaj 1 sleepy, drowsy
eyes 2 sluggish, flaccid 3 pensive

parnvi sleepy

prinsp m. principle out of principle


purnufs populous
prangj m. 1 Englishman 2 European
pr 1 turning sour; curdling 2 coagulating, clotting (of blood)
pri f. sweet thin gruel, kissel (a kind of blanc mange)
1 par par m. hot wind, simoom
2 par oblique plural of 1
3 par oblique plural of 2
4 pur useless, empty, void
parv f. 1 attention; concern to
pay attention to someone or something He
paid no attention to this. 2 agitation, anxiety !
! It doesn't matter! ! Don't worry!
parv z m. 1 flight, flying flying machine, aircraft 2
figurative (upward) flight, ascent

parv n m. Parvan, Parwan (a city, former name of Jebel-us-

Siraja)

Parvan Province, Parwan Province

parv n f. 1 nocturnal butterfly, nocturnal moth (usually in

parv n f. history 1 instruction, directions; writ; patent 2

parv nag f. commission, errand; instruction, directions

poetry) 2 propellor, screw (e.g., aircraft)


2

pass, safe-conduct document; passport

parv f. obsolete
propg nd m. propgnd m. propaganda
to conduct propaganda; propagandize
propgandch m. propagandist, propaganda specialist
propgand propagandistic
propgn m.
propganch m.
propgan
propgna f. regional propaganda
propller m. propellor, screw (e.g., of an aircraft)
132

Pashto-English Dictionary

prat f. 1 m. [plural: prat f. plural:


prat] .1 lying The book is lying on the
prot m.

table. I was sick in bed for three days.

1.2 living, being somewhere

The Utmankhejli live in the Tirakh district. 1.3 standing (of


furniture) 1.4 consisting of something; inherent in, characteristic
of something or someone 2 m. military prone position

the prone position ! Prone position! (command)


protst m. protest to make a protest
to someone; protest to someone

protest n m. Protestant
protst m.
protoplsm m. protoplasm
protokl m. 1 minutes, record of proceedings, report

adverb lying down, in lying or prone position

Afghan round dance

protn m. proton
1 perte f.
2 prtaj
parv m. 1 strong man; husky fellow 2 hero
parvatb m. parvav laj m. strength, might
prodshektr m. prodzhikr m. searchlight
parvr m. second element of compounds for the soul,
spiritual

parvardig r m. God, the All-High


parvarsh m. parvarh m. parvarhh

nourishment, feeding, fattening up 2 breeding, cultivation, raising

cotton farming animal breeding


silkworm breeding, sericulture 3 tending,
care, charge, fostering a to breed, multiply; be
cultivated b to be cherished, be fostered 4 training (e.g., of

year

prusk prussic acid, hydrocyanic acid


prushij f. Prussia
prohavl prohavl transitive [past: ] to twist,
twirl, revolve, rotate

proghr m m.
pruf m. printing galley proof
profsr m. professor
profesor f. 1 teaching in an institution of higher learning

paravl transitive [past: ] 1


run, drive, urge on 3 to steal

2 to make

prolddaj m. 1 mediation, the action of performing as a

commercial broker or middleman; commission (commercial) 2


adjective commission

proll transitive [present: past: ] to sell,

market

prolna f. sale, marketing


prolg m. prologue
prolet r m. proletarian
proletri proletarian
proler m.
prolearijt m. proletariat
parn yesterday a last night b yesterday night
a the day just past b yesterday
yesterday morning lately; in our time the day
before yesterday until yesterday
parunj 1 adjective yesterday, yesterday's the night
before last 2 preceding, past; former

specialists)

parvarl transitive [past: ] 1 to feed, nourish 2 to


breed; cultivate 3 to rear, educate, foster

provl transitive Eastern


provna f. Eastern
parvdzaj m. sieve
saying literal The sieve does not see its hundred holes,

pro m. [plural: prouna plural: prana]

saying literal to conduct

water under straw figurative to be very shrewd

a last year b (sometime during) last

intention, purpose


kind of

prta f. act of lying down, being in a prone position

Western straw

profesr m.
profl m. profile, side view
peroksjd m. peroxide, hydrogen peroxide
progr m m. 1 program; plan; rough draft 2 order, routine

protocol

parsa Eastern

2 professorship; the rank of professor

agreement, understanding 3 protocol unit; ceremonial usage,

but sees the two openings of a water pitcher. figurative To see a


mote in the eye of another, and not to see a beam in one's eye

provl m. singular & plural person trading in straw;

parvz m. proper name Parviz


parvzaj m.
parvn 1 m. plural astronomy

fodder merchant

pra f. coarse rice straw


prozh f. project, scheme, design
prozhektr m. searchlight
parosg 1 m. last year 2 in the year past, during last year
parosg n parosganj
paroskalanj

parosganj Eastern last year's a last year

the Pleiades (star cluster) 2

proper name Parvin

par f. 1 blade, paddle (of a water wheel, etc.) 2 edge, rim 3

to walk in columns, march, walk


or move in extended rank order to be placed standing
in a row 4 grouping, group; company clique-formation,

row, line; column; rank


b

in the year just past

133

Pashto-English Dictionary

a to place in a row b to group c to


create a grouping to join, adjoin someone or
something a in groups b in rows c on end, upended
to place in a row; spread out in a chain 5 peak (of a
cliquishness

mountain)

par f. search; raid, roundup

to seek

for, make a search; organize a raid

purh r parh r m. 1 wound

injury

ulcer 2 blow,

a to be wounded b to be beaten severely

purh r m. noise made by the flapping of a bird's wings at

take-off

purhrbd m. monetary recompense for a wound


purhrpa f. plantain; plantain leaf
purhrdzhn purhrz purhrzhlaj
purharzhn wounded; injured to wound; injure
to be wounded; be injured
1 purhrj m. surgeon
2 purhr
paraband f. 1 grouping 2 squabbles; spats
1 parad r furnished with blades, equipped with paddles
2 parad r m. supporter, participant, member of a group
parhr m. 1
purharpa f.
prhosg m.
prhosganj

paravl transitive Eastern


parhj m. auger (for drilling stone)
parhz m. 1 abstinence, moderation; restraint 2 diet 3 fast
(from foods forbidden to be consumed during a fast) a to
abstain from something b to observe a diet c to observe a fast

a to violate a diet b to break a fast


parhezhn f. diet
parhezk r 1 abstinent, moderate 2 devout, pious
parhezkr f. 1 abstinence 2 observation of a diet

parjd m.
parj l m. 1 enclosed place where nomads live 2 curtain; blind
parij n m.
preistl transitive
preihka preihka divorced woman, divorcee
prbs present stem of
prebdl transitive
prebl transitive [present: past: ] beat, strike
pretorij f. Pretoria (city)
1 pare m. Eastern 1 parade assembly area (for a
military operation) to organize a parade 2 roll-call
2 par m. 1 kind of haircut 2 pleat (in clothing)
prech m. saucer
1 predl transitive Eastern
2 paradl intransitive [past: ]to run, retreat, chicken out
prda Eastern vice
par m. 1
pri pre thick, fat to consolidate, thicken to
condense, thicken, become thicker

crop failure

pris f. idle woman; woman who loafs


parsh paresh n presh n 1 upset, distressed

pre Eastern a combination of the preposition and the

with his, her, their help; thanks to him, her, them, this; because of

He pitied him (her, them).

parj f. shovel (for digging irrigation canals)


par f. fairy, peri (mythical being in Persian folklore having

female form, but formed of fire and descended from the fallen
angels)

pre a separable verbal prefix, accented in the perfective

aspect

to leave

to fall

a to be upset over, grieve b to be worried,

be agitated c to become absent-minded, become incoherent

to worry about home 4 sorrowful (of thoughts,

meditation) 5 tossed about, disordered (of hair)

on him, on her, on them 2 concerning, about him, her,

agitated, alarmed; worried 3 absent-minded, incorherent

them; in relation to him, her, them 3 for him, for her, for them 4

] to

prz parz m.
parezn f. diet
pregd present stem of
pregd
l transitive
preg starving, suffering from hunger, having or suffering from

pre 1 cut off; cut; chopped off 2 clipped, trimmed 3 broken

priv laj m. fatness,

priedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


condense, thicken, become thicker

pronoun 1 on him, onto her, on them; on top of something

this

pritj f.

priavl denominative, transitive [past:


consolidate, thicken

off, torn off

observation or keeping of a fast

pritb m.

thickness, compactness

pareshnh l 1 disturbed, grieved; alarmed 2

embarrassed, confused
preshnavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1
to upset, grieve 2 to disturb, agitate 3 to scatter, spread

preshna 1 2 feminine singular of


preshn pareshn f. 1 disorder, grief 2 melancholy; sorry
3 worry, agitation 4 distraction, innattention 5 unpleasantness

prikht periht f. angel


prehka prehka f.
prehl prehl transitive Eastern
134

Pashto-English Dictionary

prehodl preshodl transitive [present: past:


]1 to leave, abandon 2 to let pass; let go; admit, allow 3 to
release (e.g., on bail) 4 to curtail, call a halt to to

1 parajj m. organizer, arranger of something


2 pri f.
prv parv m. dialect
prevt m. plural 1 fall having fallen; at the
fall, drop (of) 2 the going down (of), setting (of the sun)
The sun has set.
pariv r fairy-like
1 prev n m. anatomy placenta
2 prev n abundant, abounding in
prevn f. abundance, plenty, profusion
prevatl intransitive [present: past: ]1 to fall,

Allow me to leave. Let

him go. Let them go. 6 to desert, leave (a wife); give a divorce (to
a wife) 7 to give up (a place) idiom

Not to

mention grown-up people.

prehodna prehodna f. [plural: prehod


prehod] m. 1 leaving, abandonment 2 stopping, cessation 3
permission, leave, authorization 4 desertion (of a wife), divorce

prehvl transitive prehovl transitive


prehovna prehovna f.
preh preh imperfective dialect
prefbrik prefabricated (of houses)
prefks m. prefix
perikrd m. anatomy pericardium, pericardial sac
prektn m. military tribunal, court
prekn m. 1 solution, answer (to, of a problem) 2

drop 2 to lie down (to sleep) 3 to flow into (of a river) 4 to set,

go down (of the sun) 5 to be perpetrated (of a raid)

prka f. 1

owing from someone, impose upon someone (of a tax, fine) 7 to

mountainous locale to one lower down; e.g., from Kabul to

prekavl 1 transitive [past: ] .1 to cut; cut off;


sever 1.2 to clip (the nails) 1.3 to interrupt (e.g., a speech) 1.4

Peshawar)

prevatna f.
prevta f.
prevtaj 1 past participle of

to cut down, fell 1.5 to break off (e.g., diplomatic relations) 1.6
to pay, pay off (a debt) 1.7 to solve, answer (e.g., a question, a

passive

2 m. plural

backward nation

2 backward

prevdl transitive
prevll 1 [past: ] transitive .1 to wash; wash
thoroughly 1.2 to launder 1.3 to clean, brush (the teeth)

prekn m. 1 answer, solution (e.g., to a question, a problem)

2 betrothal, engagement

Eastern He

set up camp, arrange a rest stop 10 to descend, ride down (from a

handsome or good-looking face; beautiful exterior, appearance

jumped into the car. 8 to be lacking, not to have (appetite) 9 to

a verbal understanding 2

problem)

A raid was carried out on our village. 6 to be

fall upon, go for, fling oneself at

understanding, arrangement 3 break (i.e., in diplomatic relations)

parj m. arrangement, organization, setting something in

motion

break off the battle, curtail military operations 5 to allow,


authorize

prin m. 1 anatomy diaphragm 2 kind of children's game

betrothal, engagement 3

agreement concerning the wedding expenses

prekavna f. 1 cutting; severing; cutting off 2 clipping


(nails) 3 cutting down, felling 4 breaking off (e.g., diplomatic

washed b to be laundered c to be cleaned, be brushed (teeth) 2

relations) 5 paying off, paying up (a debt) 6 answer, solution

m. plural

(e.g., to a question, problem)

prekavnaj m. cutting tool; chisel


prekedl intransitive [past: ]

passive a to be washed out, be washed, be thoroughly

washbasin
m. prevlna f. prevl m. plural

prevln
1
washing (out); bathing 2 laundering 3 brushing, cleaning (teeth)

previndzl
prejst m.

1 to be cut, cut off 2 to

be cut off, be severed 3 to be clipped (nails) 4 to be cut down 5

transitive

plural 1 throwing down, dropping, throwing off

to be broken off (of diplomatic relations) 6 to be paid up, be paid

2 flinging, throwing, throwing away 3 shooting, firing 4

off (of a debt) 7 to be answered, be solved (of a question,

overturning 5 lying down to sleep 6 divorce (of a wife by

problem)

pregd Eastern
1 premn m. 1
2 premn 2
premishtl intransitive
premindzl transitive
premishtl intransitive [past: ]

husband)

prejstl transitive [present: past: ] 1 to


throw down, drop, throw off 2 to fling, hurl, throw; throw away 3
to shoot, fire 4 to compel to lie down, put lying (an animal) 5 to
topple, overturn 6 to abandon, desert (a wife); divorce, grant a

divorce (to a woman)


to be settled;

live; dwell

premindzl transitive [past: ] 1 to wash;


he washed himself 2 to launder

prejhtl prejhtl transitive dialect


1 p pa f. p plural pe plural 1 guilty, culpable
2 overcome, conquered
2 p m. 1 layer 2 story, floor

135

Pashto-English Dictionary

pa m. bridge

pu m. wedging, fastening with a wedge

p intensive particle

completely turbid; dark-brown

very greasy
pat f. pastry or flour product similar in size and composition
to a tortilla but made with wheat flour

pkh
pk m. regional 1 tap 2 knock
pkj m. quick-tempered man, hot-headed man
png m. snow leopard, Uncia uncia; leopard idiom
He likes to chatter. He is a gossip.
pngpsh m. wild cat
1 p nga [plural: pngi plural: png ni]
feminine of
2 pa nga f. thin stripe (e.g., in cloth)
p na-v na f. 1 game of chance 2 bet
pa v m. 1 rest stop, discount 2 stop (e.g., for a bus route)
by stages, by phases
paps m. 1 pluck (i.e., the heart, liver and lungs of a
slaughtered animal, especially as used for food) 2 figurative
scoundrel

He sat sulking.

pasb m. swelling

blow 3 cuff, box, clout

to sparkle,
idiom

p m. regional sparkling, glittering

glitter

lightning flashed

to swell

The

pakp m. rustling (of silk cloth, etc.)


paraavl transitive
paraedl intransitive 2
1 pak m. 2
2 pak m. 1 group of people (10-20 persons)

2 military half of

a platoon (an eighth of a company) 3 crowd 4 flock, pack 5

flock of sheep (numbering 5 to 20)

pk m. 1 oscillation; agitation; trembling

to

shake to and fro; be agitated; tremble 2 sparkling, twinkling 3


summer lightning 4 seething, bubbling

4 pk m. string of pearls
pak m. 2
pakmshr m.

military noncommissioned officer;

] 1 to disturb, shake; sway

psavl transitive [past: ] to inflate, fill up (with


air, with gas), blow, fan to blow air through a bellows 2

idiom to applaud, clap


pak f. puka f.
1 pakah r pakah r m. summer lightning
2 pakah r m. 1 crack, crash, crackle 2 shuffling, smacking
(or similiar sound)

pakj m. 1 shinbone, tibia; bone into which avian

metatarsals insert 2 ankle I've dislocated my foot.


2 pkaj m. cord
3 pakj f. trap, snare (for birds)
pakajt m. puttees
1 pakedl intransitive [past: ]1 to shake to and fro;
be afraid of

or tumor 3 to rise, arise (waves) 4 figurative to anger someone

to

become conceited, become swellheaded


psavna f. inflation, filling up (with air, gas); blowing
psedl intransitive [past: ]1 to swell, swell up,

pakedl intransitive [past:


shine, beam

to cause a swelling, swelling; cause the development of a swelling


5 figurative to incite against someone idiom

pkavl transitive [past:

2 to pull, tug 3 to set to trembling 4 to be in the grip of a fever

be agitated; tremble 2 to vibrate 3 to seethe, bubble up 4 to fear,

to sparkle, twinkle,

pam m.
paambj f. bubble (in water)
pmkh pmkhi 1 lying face up, lying prostrate on
one's back to fall flat on one's back; to
sprawl on one's back 2 turned over (on the back), toppled over

become inflated; become distended 2 to be inflated, be filled

to turn, topple over

a to fall sprawled on one's

(with air, gas); become inflated; get distended 3 to puff up 4 to

back b to be turned or toppled over on one's back

rise (of dough) 5 to surge, make swells (of waves) 6 figurative

1 png m. 1
2 pang m. 1 mischief, prank, trick 2 a leper
3 png m. hypocrite, two-faced person
pangj m. leper, person ill with leprosy

get huffy, grow angry

suddenly remembered. It suddenly occurred to me.

swelling is not going down.

sergeant; company quartermaster sergeant

patb m. 1 guilt 2 defeat, loss


patugh h m. partugh sh m.
patug m.
pta f. net, snare
ptj f.
patsb m. dialect
pad f. regional secrets, mysteries
in secret, secretly
padaph padapsh
pasmn 1 rotten, spoiled 2 blown up, swollen up
psnda 1 swollen, inflated 2 sulking, angry

prghsha f. knot in a sash (for holding pants up)


1 pa m. strop (for sharpening a straight razor)
2 pa m. 1 crack, crash, crackle (as a noise) 2 smack, slap,

psedna f. 1 swelling, swelling up; tumescence 2 filling


up (with air, gas); blowing (i.e., bellows, fan) 3 distention

136

Pashto-English Dictionary

pna f. 1 compulsion, coercion 2 censure, blame


pna-vna f.
pv laj m.
papaj m.
psti f. plural cooked grains of the maize or corn plant
1 pkaj m. 1 cord 2 ribbon, tape; thin braid
2 pakaj m. small bridge; ship's bridge
3 pakaj small herd of sheep
pavl denominative [past: ] 1 to find guilty; convict

pin doublet
1 ping m. 1 sobbing to sob
moaning, whining weeping (of children) 2
exclamations of "Oh" and "Ah"

2 ping doublet
pingh r m. continuous crying (of children)
pajvl m. rope merchant
prevlng m.
pazprekaj 1 having the nose cut off
proverb If he-who-was-deprived-

2 to defeat, conquer, overcome

pumb f. pumb usually plural serum


pavnd strong, robust
pavna f. 1 finding of guilty; conviction 2 infliction of a

of-his-nose experienced shame, he would not recall the knife. 2


shameless

pz vice 2
pazghamj m. nose ring
pazakj f. small nose
1 pazavl transitive [past: ]

defeat, gaining of a victory

panj m. shawl, veil, large chador

covered with a chador; wear a chador

to be

pvahna f. surveying of lands


p vahnkaj m. surveyor
1 pa paa f. dialect 1 censure, condemnation, (legal)
conviction a to censure, convict, accuse b to inflict

2 pzavl transitive dialect [past: ] to wound


pznaj m. lancet
pazvahl transitive [past: ] 1 to squeeze out; press

defeat, conquer, overcome 2 fine 3 compulsion, coercion 4

injustice

out 2 to press; mash 3 to bleed, cause the flow of blood

a to consider someone guilty b to

consider someone unjust

to flutter

(of a bird)

paatsamkan m. plural 1 Parachamkani (tribe) 2 m.

Parachamkanaj (tribesman)

palk m. obligation
paavl transitive regional
pah f. dialect shoe, slipper
1 paj m. rope, cord, string

saying literal to

braid rope from sand figurative to mill about, beat the air

submit to someone b to apologize to someone

to subordinate someone, enslave someone


2 puj f. horse-drawn scoop (for leveling a field, scraping earth
from it, or spreading something evenly over it), horse-drawn
device for cleaning irrigation channels

flat nose, snub


to blow the nose; to clear the nasal
passages by blowing to become sharp,
become pointed (of the nose, from thinness, etc.) to cause
a nosebleed a to cut off the nose b figurative to
disgrace, shame 2 muzzle, snout idiom full up to the
neck (food) idiom a to eat to satiety, stuff oneself b
to grow angry, become wrathful idiom to be in very
difficult straits, be reduced to extremities to
get angry, pout a to be without a nose b not to have a
conscience, be shameless, be brazen c to be ashamed of
to have one's nose in the air, be proud to
be arrogant, be haughty, be proud a to be inferior,
paa f. Western 1 nose

nose

2 pa f. lining
3 pa f. feminine singular of 1
4 p m. masculine plural of 1
patki f. plural fluttering (of a bird)

to smell, sniff, sniff

around; snuff

pj f. 1 construction materials (stone, etc.) prepared for the


building of a house 2 planks or poles which compose a roof

pikh flat-nosed; flattened


pikhpzaj snub-nosed; having a flat nose
pedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

1 to be guilty,

be to blame; commit an offense 2 to suffer defeat 3 to be unjust


4 to lose (in sport)

pis 1 fat, stout; corpulent 2 ugly (of a face)


pisv laj m. stoutness; corpulence
pim m. 1 clot (of blood) 2 ball, lump

1 pzi plural of
2 pazj m. flair, feeling (for)
3 paz f. portliness, corpulence
1 pzedl [past: ] to be wounded; receive a wound; get
wounded

2 pzedl intransitive [past: ] to boil, begin to boil


puzn adjective made of matting, bast matting, matting
pzhrkaj 1 energetic, enterprising 2 ready to attack 3 angry
pazhmurdag f. 1 fading, drooping 2 figurative
depression, grief

pazhmurd 1 faded, drooping, withered 2 figurative

depressed; sad

pazhv k m. echo
pzhaj m.
137

Pashto-English Dictionary

pug m. 1
pgaj m. body, trunk, torso
1 pas 1.1 after, later, after that, afterwards three
months later, after three months several days later,
after several days 1.2 subsequently 2 preposition, postposition
.1 after

after that, after


after me

after noon, in the afternoon

in the future 2.2 beyond something, beyond the limits of


something

pis m. arrogance, haughtiness; pride

pus m. ps whisper idiom

fizzer

ps dialect

back, turn back

to release gas; blow a

swept to the banks by a river current

pasp withdrawing, departing to withdraw, depart


paspard secret, hidden; suppressed; undercover
1 pspas more rarely; rarely
2 pusps: whispering back and forth to one
another to whisper, whisper in someone's ear
they were whispering to one another
puspusj m. pspsj m. whispering,
whispering back and forth
post m. 1

low mountains

on a slope 2 figurative low, base

3 pust doublet
post l postcard
pistnd r mammals
pastr f. pastries
1 pastakj 1.1 soft, yielding 1.2 mild, tender

road running

pstkaj m. ear lobe


pastavl denominative, transitive

2
3

[past:

1 to

2 m. lobe of

pustkaj m.
pastakj f. 1 sweet child, my dear (form of address to a

little girl) 2 proper name Pastakaj

tender, tractable

pastavnaj m. Indian lime-tree, Grewia oppositifolia


pastavr m.
1 pist f. pistachio (tree)
2 past 1 feminine singular of 2 soft bread
soft clay 2 f. liquid, fluid
3 psta after, later; after that, then, afterwards 1
4 post f. 1
5 psta feminine singular of 2
6 psta interjection Giddyap! Get going!
pastavr m. light rain
1 past meanness, baseness to stoop to the
performance of base acts, act basely, do a mean, or base thing

post postal

sent by parcel post

post-office line

past 1 feminine plural of

posterior part of the tongue

4 post plural of 1
pastedl denominative, intransitive

[past:

package

soft wool 2 f.

1 to

soften, grow soft 2 to be kneaded 3 to be ground, be pulverized


4 to be loosened, be hoed 5 to be boiled soft 6 to be gentle, be

tender, be tractable

pastz soft, tender


pos m. posa f. 1
posi 2
paskh k m.
paskhna f. 1
pskhnd m. mockery; gibe

to mock (at); to jeer

(at)

the ear, earlobe

pastu m. plural finely-ground flour, the finest wheaten

soften 2 to knead 3 to grind, pulverize 4 to loosen, hoe, dig all

a to cause harm, harm somebody b to stir up

past 1 low

gentleness,

over again (earth) 5 to boil soft 6 figurative to render gentle,

mutiny, revolt; cause a disturbance c to introduce a schism

to return, step back

meekness

pst m. rebel; rioter


psr singular oblique of
1 psn m. grindstone, whetstone
2 psn Western plural of 1
pasnd z m. economy, savings compound
verb to save, economize, put aside as a reserve
compound verb to be saved, be put aside as a reserve
national economies
savings bank
pis aj m.
ps v m. 1 leftovers from soup 2 brushwood, driftwood

a to return,
to return, give

past m. back room, storeroom; pantry


2 past oblique plural of 2
pstv laj m. 1 softness, tenderness 2 figurative
1

pst m. 1 evil 2 mutiny, revolt; riots; disturbance 3 schism,

split

pstn back, backwards


come back b to step back, recede, depart

flour

beyond Gazni

pskhand 1 m. scoffer 2 f. scoffer (female)


paskhurd f. leftovers; remains of a meal
paskh f.
paskhedl intransitive
psarlanj spring, vernal
psarlj m. spring, springtime psarl in spring
spring has come, spring has arrived
138

Pashto-English Dictionary

psarl proverb A fire in winter is better than the flowers

in spring. proverb literal

summer. 2 proper name Psarlaj


pasrv 1 m. follower 1.2 [plural: pasrav n]

followers; suite, retinue 2 dependent; successive, sequential

psravr wide, broad, expansive, spacious


psaravl denominative, transitive [past:

] dialect
to put on a caracul cap,
to crown (a king)

to don, put on (headgear)


wear a caracul cap

passab the day after tomorrow


puskv m. 1 one who emits gases

psoledl intransitive [past: ] to be dressed up, be


well-attired, dress oneself up, deck oneself out

One flower does

not make a spring figurative One swallow does not make a

psna plural of 1
pasnaj m. 1 ambush pasni to lie in
ambush to set up an ambush for somebody
to hide oneself in ambush, conceal oneself
pasni to come out of ambush 2 man lying in ambush
1 ps m. [plural: psna] Western [plural: ps n] 1
ram, sheep sheep breeding
wild mountain sheep (ram) ram of the Gissar breed
ram of the Gilzaj breed ram of the Khazar
breed 2 dialect small horned domestic animals in general (sheep

2 coward, faint-

hearted, pusillanimous fellow

and goats collectively) 3 figurative blockhead, dimwit

pskava f. hawthorn
1 pskj m. whisper
2 pskj puskj f. gases (intestinal) to emit gases
idiom crow
pasl m. time of the year, season
psla 1
pasmndag f. backwardness
pasmnd 1 f. leftovers, remains of a meal 2.1 remaining;
surviving 2.2 backward

pasmn f. 1 incompleteness 2 lag


pismn arrogant, haughty, proud
pasmanzr m. background
pasnd 1 selection, choice, approval 2 combining form a
approved, pleasing pleasant, nice b approving,
acknowledging peaceful, pacific
pasandavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1

2 pus f. bread made from the seeds of the mastic tree


3 psa after in the future we will try
ps roznkaj m. shepherd, one who raises or breeds
sheep

pushr m. push raj m.


1 pis arrogant, haughty; proud
2 ps pas pse dialect pas 1 postposition, either in
conjunction with the preposition or without it, and sometimes
with .1 after, immediately after one after the other
After whom? one after the other 1.2 for (to
designate a purpose or goal) to go for a doctor
to go on business Come pick me up
at the office 1.3 for (to designate a person from whom it is

Write this down


for me. 2 for him, for me, for them go after them, go for
them 3 after, afterwards proverb literal One's

necessary to obtain something)


to

approve 2 to prefer, select

shirt is rather close to one's body. figurative Charity begins at

pasandedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be approved; to please 2 to be preferred, be selected

home. Self comes first. 4 in connection with verbs

a to follow someone; pursue some one; chase


someone Follow after Bibo! b to track down,
keep a watch on someone
a to go after, follow someone b to pursue
someone a Ahmed follows Mahmud b
Ahmed imitates Mahmud; a to undertake some
work or other b to plan, conceive something
... They planned that they would do thus to
follow someone to obtain something to look
for, search for 5 verb intensifier to increase all the

pasandid 1 approved 2 preferred, selected 3 pleasant;

pleasing

psnaj m.
psnedl
whisper

intransitive [past: ] to whisper, speak in a

pasv behind the back of, in someone's absence


psor m. width, breadth in depth
psoravr
psorz landscape
1 psol m. 1 necklace of coins; necklace 2 adornment,
decoration

2 psavul transitive dialect


psoll transitive obsolete
psolna f. decoration (the action)
psolavl transitive [past: ]
someone

more, develop; increase, augment

pse f. 1 entertainment and refreshment (on the occasion of


the birth of a daughter) 2 recompense (to a shepherd in
connection with the lambing time with sheep, and the seasonal
bringing forth of kids by goats)

to adorn, attire

pusedl intransitive [past: ]to whisper, converse in


whipers

139

psedl denominative, intransitive dialect

Pashto-English Dictionary

psra besides, moreover

besides

a to

put aside, defer as less important b to place on top, put on the


surface c to display something

a to turn out to be

superfluous b to be placed on top, be located on the surface c to

pashmka f.
1 pashmj m. two-year-old camel
2 pashm pashmn woolen woolen fabrics
pashmin 1 2 2 f. 2.1 (heavy, coarse) cloth;

appear

woolen cloth 2.2 fine sheep's wool

pasesh behind the back


psikolozh f. psychology
pasn 1 subsequent 2 late; last
1 pasin f. grammar affix, suffix
2 pasin f. late sowing, late crop
pasj f. 3 2
psh vice in back of me; behind me
psh n pesh ni like as before, as formerly
pish-pish interjection Pussy! pussy! (to call a cat)
pash-pash-pash used to call a camel
1 pusht m. 1 back 2 1 3 pool, reservoir (for
irrigation system) 4 support, prop

2 psht m. laying (of eggs)


3 pusht Eastern
4 psht interjection Shoo! (to a cat)
pushtr f. 1 basket (of flowers) 2 armful; burden
pushtrd m. Pushtrud (district)
pishtk m. regional 1 short and tubby person; dwarf

resourceful person

pushtgr m. assistant
pushtgra f. assistant (female)
pishtvl m.
1 pusht f. 1 foothills 2 hillock 3 ridge (of mountains)

to support,

help 2 dust cover, folder 3 prop, support

2 pishtj 1 undersized, stunted 2 m. terrier (breed of dog)


pushtib n m. 1 patron, protector, defender 2 assistant
pushtibn f. 1 patronage, protection 2 help; assistance
psharlj m. 1
pish b m. plate
pishk m. 1 medicine ringworm 2 carrion crow (bird)
pishk b m.
pashak l m. Eastern the period of time from July to
November; the rainy season

pshkl m. plural hay, dry grass


pishkanj m. kitten
pshkj m. 1
pshl behind the back, in the absence of
behind the back of, gossip

1 pashm m. singular & plural


2 pashm m. light rain
pashmk m. kind of halvah

wool

pashminabf f. wool weaving

woolen mill, cloth factory, textile mill

pishng m. lead horse (in a caravan)


pishngraj m. kitten
pish f. cat saying literal

to send a cat to

watch the milk figurative to send a fox to watch the chickens;


send a goat to watch the cabbages
pishopj f. game played with a ball
pishokh m. galls (abnormal growth on plants)
pishrma f. marmot
pishogj m. kitten
pshavl transitive 1
pisholmj f. botany hedge-mustard, Sisymbrium
pishngaj m.
1 pash f. usually in compounds 1 gnat, mosquito 2 cards
spades queen of spades
2 psha psha 4
pashabnd m. mosquito netting
pshah r m.
pashakhn f. elm (tree)
pashakhurk m. flycatcher (bird of the finch family)
pasha 1 m. plural Pashai (nationality) 2 m. Pashai
(member of the nationality group) 3 the Pashai language

low ridge

2 pshta interjection 4
1 pusht f. 1 support, prop, assistance

1 pish f. [plural: pishij ni] kitten, cat idiom


to exaggerate, drag out or
complicate a matter to be extremely stingy, be
niggardly idiom a to fawn upon, truckle to b to
pretend to be wretched or unhappy

pishj m. [plural: pishij n] cat

pshj f. handfuls of unripe wheat, (small) bundles of unripe


wheat

pshe interjection scat


"Scat!" Scat!

to drive a cat away; to say

5 pshj m. ram or goat with short ears


pshedl intransitive
psherl m. 1
pshrla f. 2
1 psherlj m. [plural: psherlij n

plural:

psherl] young ram in the second year


to talk

psherlj f. [plural: psherlij ni] young ewe in the


second year
2

pshesh dialect
pasha
140

vice

Pashto-English Dictionary

ph m. 1 Western blacksmith

saying literal Once burned down, the smith's house is rebuilt


better. figurative Good can come out of evil. 2 smith's bellows

puh m. hissing (i.e., of a snake); rustling (of leaves); the

pahtunisht n m. Pushtunistan
pahtunistnj pahtunistn 1

noise of the wind

2 angular part (of a water skin,

phanj smith's bellows


1 peht m. 1 family, clan, tribe Their family has
died out. 2 generation, posterity from generation to
generation unto the seventh generation
2 puht m.
pahtan m. oblique singular of
puhtl transitive
puhtunkh f. puhtunkhv pahtunkhv f.
Pushtunkhva (the ancient name for the country of the Afghans);
Afghanistan and Pushtunistan

phtnv laj puhtunv laj m. the

Customs and Conventions of the Afgans; the Code of Honor of the


1
2

woman, Pashtoon woman 2 f. adjective Afghan

Afghan woman, Pashtoon woman

1 pahtan plural of 2
2 pahtan Afghan, Pashtoon
pht paht puht Eastern 1 f. .1 the Pashto language,
the Afghan language a to speak Pashto b to teach
Pushtu 1.2 1.3 honor, dignity; decency; modesty 2
adjective Afghan the Pashto language, the Afghan
language " Pushtu Tolana", the Pashto Academy (in
Kabul) the Pashto Academy (in Peshawar) a

I felt relieved, I

felt as though a weight had been lifted from me

2 puhtj f. dust cover, folder


puhtedl transitive
1 puhkj m. 2
phi dialect
phandaj m. 1 bracelet (worn on the legs by children up to
the age of seven) 2 leg irons

phnga f. wooden pitchforks with two tines


phkhb f. south
phki f. plural boot leg, stocking leg
puhavl transitive [past: ] 1 to cause hissing,

cause sputtering, cause sizzling 2 to inflate (blacksmith's bellows)

phvandj m. leg irons


phja f. grammar; spelling, orthography
pha f. 1 foot a foot in the stirrup b ready for the
road unsteady, unstable
folk saying literal He had two legs and used two
more figurative May God give him (extra) legs 2 leg (e.g., of a

chair) 3 branch (of a tribe), clan; generation 4 technology hammer


(in a crusher)

compound verb to translate into Pashto


to be translated into Pashto

in the Pashto language

a to begin to walk,

a to step in, enter b to go forward, stride


to look through the fingers at something
a to move the feet away b to refuse something a
hobbles off)

compound verb

not to go somewhere b figurative to look for grounds, seek a


pretext c to halt; linger; loiter d figurative to waver, show

to try to arrange a match, propose a


to stamp with the hoof (of a
to hasten, hurry a to ride

indecision

young man as a husband

pahtod n Afghanist; specialist

horse)

puhtavrga f. puhtavrgaj m. anatomy kidney


pahtozhbaj adjective Pashto speaker
pahtn pkhtn Eastern puhtn 1 m. .1 [plural:
paht n] Afghan, Pashtoon the Afghan
people 4 1 1.2 1 2 1.3 proper name
Pashtoon, Pakhtun 2 adjective Afghan, Pashtoon the
Afghan people Afghan Youth Pukhtun

roughshod over someone's rights b to trample, press down c to

to be run off one's legs looking for


a to develop a callous on the foot b

enter, step in
something

figurative to be in a great hurry c to seek, make an intensive


search, run off one's legs looking for something


141

a to

to be very careful

obstinate, insist upon b

to resist
a to be
to refuse Eastern

stamp the feet b figurative to hurry

Dzhirga (the Organization of Pushtuns living in India)


pahtunkhv f.

to kick

to authorize the fianc to visit the bride-to-be (literally: to take the

interest in the Pashto language


m.

walk (of a child) b to walk, stride quickly

to observe or abide by the Code of Honor of the Afghans b

3 figurative to anger

puhtna f.
pahtna puhtan 1 f. [plural: pahtan] Afghan

pahtoplna f.
pahtopoh nd

pahtunv laj m.

puht f. 1 hillock 2 low ridge


1 puhtj f. rib; ribs idiom

Pashtoons

pahtungalv f.

phtunval f.

etc.)

phtnv la f.

pahtunk m. Pashtunkot (district, admininistration

center)

phrtav l m. fianc
ph rta f.
ph nga f. 1 angle, corner

adjective Pushtustanian

2 m. native of Pushtustan, Pushtun

to be beside oneself with joy; be walking on

Pashto-English Dictionary

to prepare to flee, prepare to depart


a to stretch, extend the legs figurative b to loaf, idle
a to move the legs aside b figurative to avoid, shun
someone a to be tottering on one's legs (from
air

phedna f. hissing (e.g., snake)


phelts adjective barefooted, barefoot
phem n regretting; repenting
phem ntb m. phemntj f. repentance,

exhaustion), to strain one's strength to the breaking point b to

regret

to have no desire to go to see



to grow bolder to go on foot
a to stand on the feet (e.g., a child) b figurative to put

a to
stand upright b figurative to be independent
to fall down at someone's feet, entreat to wear
boots; put on shoes
to throw oneself at someone's feet; bow the head
to someone's, beseech someone a to throw

resolve not to go
someone

someone back on his feet; help someone c to set someone against


another to incite against someone

beneath the feet b to cross, traverse (e.g., a desert) c to trample


on someone's right d to ignore (advice, etc)

a to

be thrown beneath the feet b to be trampled (of someone's rights)

to have
to be devoted
to someone to sit idly by a
to treat someone meanly b to slander, calumniate idiom
to subordinate oneself to someone idiom
to lead nomadic life idiom He was
squirming. He couldn't sit still to be tottering on
one's feet (from fatigue, etc.) a to strain one's
idiom

south side, south idiom

been through a lot in life idiom

strength to the breaking point, get tired b to grow decrepit,

become weak

phah r m.

phah raj m. 1 noise, roar (of the

wind) 2 heavy nasal breathing 3 hissing (e.g., a snake)

pha-artn m.

pha-rta f.

pha-art f.

1 visit by a fianc to the family of the bride-to-be (after the

betrothal) 2 fete or celebration in the home of the bride-to-be


(after the betrothal)

phasraj m. chicken tied to the leg of the horse of the

bride-to-be (it is slaughtered at the entrance of the house of the


fianc)

pha-nivlaj 1 lingering 2 hesitatingly


He entered hesitatingly.

phavndj m. hobbles; leg irons, fetters


1 phj f. botany rhubarb literal (white rhubarb)
edible rhubarb literal (red rhubarb) medicinal rhubarb
2 phe plural of
phe-ble Eastern 1 barefoot
They (women) went barefoot 2 adjective barefooted

phedl intransitive [past: ]1 to hiss (e.g., of a


snake) 2 figurative to be angry, be in a bad temper to
be angry with someone

phemnavl denominative, transitive [past:


to compel to repent or to regret (something)

phem na
phemn

f. 1 2 feminine singular of
f. repentance, regret

do not regret the past

phemnedl denominative [past: ] to repent


(of) be sorry, regret

pihn m. Pishin (city)


phjabl barefoot, barefooted
pitrl petrl m. plural
pitrol petrol oil deposits
patrijark m. patrijk m. patriarch
patln oblique singular of
patln m. trousers (European type)
p'ivz vice instead of
(introducing adverbial clause)

paghm n m. Pagman (city and district of Kabul province)


the Pagman Mountain Range
paghn f. hoeing soil, loosening soil compound verb
to hoe compound verb to be hoed
pufk m. air rifle
par m. Eastern vice
1 pk 1.1 bald, hairless 1.2 mangy 2 bald man; hairless man
folk saying Two bald men and still they
don't get along.

2 puk m. regional 1 opportune time; propitious moment


not to use, to allow a propitious occasion to slip by 2

turn (as in "it's your turn") 3 fate, lot, portion, destiny 4 pak time

3 vesl m. oar, scull, paddle


4 pak m. dandruff, scuff
5 pak
pk r necessary, needful, requisite What do
you require? I don't need anything.
I would have to go.
pkravl denominative, transitive [past: ] to use,
employ, utilize

pkredl denominative, intransitive [past:


used, be employed, be utilized 2 to be necessary

1 to be

pakt m. pact defense pact


paktij f. history Paktia the Province of Paktia
pikang m. picketing to picket
1 pkar m. 1 begging, beggary 2 alms to beg; ask for
alms to give alms
2 pkr
142

Pashto-English Dictionary

pkr clash; quarrel

pkaravl transitive verb [past: ] 1 to scratch 2


to disturb (i.e., wasps) 3 figurative to anger, irritate

pkaredl intransitive [past: ]1 to be scratched 2 to


be disturbed (e.g., of wasps) 3 figurative to be angered, be
irritated

1 pk 1 poor 2 m. pauper
2 pk m. wood, timber (pine)
pkaa feminine singular of 1
pkst pksta on purpose, intentionally, deliberately
to do something on purpose or intentionally
paksimt m. rusk
pkhi pkhe Eastern 1 in him, her, it, them
... He wrote him a letter

pagj f. large turban idiom


choose as khan

pakl m. 1 light screening (of reed, rush, matting) 2 wattle

fencing

pkl transitive [past: ] to take up with the tongue


from the palm of the hand (i.e., medicine)
2

pek
pkv laj m. baldness
pk m. winter cap
pkav f. ground haricot or French beans cooked with onion
and red pepper

pkl m.
pkm vice
pkuj f. divorced woman who has remarried
1 pak pakk f. 1 fan to fan 2 damper, stove door
2 pak f. 1 small handful of something 2 fine powder
(medicine) to take up on the tongue from the palm of the

Indian calendar, February-March)

paga f.
pal m. 1 sole (of foot)

pal m. millstone

pul m. [plural: pulna plural: pul n] Western

fan-shaped (of

1 pakj m. 1 fan 2 ventilator fan electric fan


2 pkj pukj diminutive somewhat bald, a bit thin on top
3 pki
4 pek present tense of 2
5 pak plural of 1,2
6 pk plural of 4
pkedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to grow
bald; have one's hair grow thin or fall out

to work

collectively, work together, work jointly 2 obsolete to

exterminate a hostile tribe to the last man

bridge

pl bridge toll to throw a bridge (across


proverb literal You can't

hide a camel under a bridge figurative "Murder will out" idiom

to display endurance, demonstrate patience; stand one's

ground

4
5
6

pil m. 2

pl m. pil 1 moment, instant 2 minute


pl 1 liberated from something 2 forgiven 3 justified,

vindicated

7
8

pl castrated, neutered 3
pal 1 doublet 2 doublet

once, one time several


times, repeatedly colloquial at once, at one go
the first time, at first for the first time,
for the fourth time more than three
times another time this time 2 end, terminal,
terminus, one-way trip idiom to travel on
pl f. 1 time, occasion

business

an antenna)

paga m.
paga f. 1 collective work; assistance;

to identify
footprints 2 footprint a to
stride, step b to step in, enter a to follow in the
steps or tracks (of) b figurative to imitate to cover up
tracks; to hide, cover to follow the tracks, shadow
to lose someone's trail to be on the track of (e.g., a
thief) literal to take a step forward
to pursue idiom
to nourish a fierce hatred

a river)

hand (i.e., food medical powder)

3 pka feminine singular of 1


4 pek f. bran, siftings (e.g., of maize)
pka bha f. carrion crow
pka tga f.
paka pakka pakashkl pakkashkl

to elect or

pagjvl m. man wearing a turban


pag m. pag regional Pagan (the eleventh month of the

in which it was written that 2 among them

pltn m. plural platinum


pl m. idea, topic
1 plar m. [plural: plarna Eastern plural: plrna
plural: plr n] father ancestors from
generation to generation 2 founder idiom
! Eastern You have the best of automobiles!
2 plr vice
plrtb m. plrtj f. fatherhood
plrkhl m. father's tribe the tribe of the
bride-to-be on her father's side; the bride's patrilineal tribe

plrgalv f. fatherhood
to make a paternal admonition
plrmaj 1 deprived of a father, having lost a father,
orphaned 2 m. orphan

143

Pashto-English Dictionary

plrv laj m. plrval f.


plra vice
plz m. throne
plzmnaj m. capital
1 pl s vice
2 pls m. pliers
plstr m. 1 plaster (construction material) 2

medicine

plaster

plstk m. plastic
plstik adjective plastic
plsm f. biology plasma
plsent f. anatomy placenta
pl l m. pl la f. straw (usually rice)
1 pln m. plan according to plan,
in accordance with the plan plan for
developing the national economy Five Year Plan
Ministry of Planning attributive
planning, plans to carry out a plan, execute a plan
to draw up a plan, plan
2 pul n Western plural of 3
3 pln pronoun
pl nda f. sports wrestling
plnkj pronoun
plnguzr f. plnng m. planning
plnavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to plan,
draw up plans

1 pl na oblique of 1
2 pl na feminine singular of 4
plnj pronoun
plnr m. glider
1 pl a f. 1 water conveyed in a water-skin from afar

2 large

water-skin full of water

2 pl a
pul v m.

f. 1 threshing floor 2 packsaddle


1 pilaf 2 groats idiom

to build castles

in the air; fantasize

palp m. antenna, palpus


palp f. eradicating tracks; concealment

to

eradicate tracks, eliminate footprints; to hide, cover up

palp 1 hidden, secret 2 hushed-up (of an affair, mater)


to eradicate tracks; hide; cover up
pulpajs f. bridge toll
plat m. 1 plot, small piece of ground 2 sketch 3 project, idea
platrj f. squatting on one's haunches, sitting cross-legged
to squat on one's hunches
paltg m. following someone; pursuing someone
pltnd tossing restlessly (of a sick person)
Yesterday he came down with a fever, and he tossed
restlessly all night.

platj f.
pla m.
platl [past: ] 1 to look for, search for, seek out, trace
to ferret out deficiencies 2 to search 3 to investigate
plamn
pln f. regional military 1 infantry regiment 2 infantry
pland 1 2 inquisitive, curious
1 plana f. 1 inquests, inquiries 2 search 3 investigation
scientific investigations a to look for, search
for b to find something c to do research to carry
out an investigation; to subject to an investigation 4 military
reconnaissance encounters of local importance 5
examination; check

2 palna f.
plnj m. Eastern colloquial soldier
1 plan m. inquiry
2 plan m. regional military platoon
plankaj 1 present participle of 2 m. investigator
pulchk m. little bridge
plts long and thick (of goat's wool, etc.)
pltse f. plural long, thick wool (e.g., goat's)
pltsevr having long wool
pul-i-khumr Pul-i-Khumri (city)
plrganj f. relatives, relations (on the father's side)
plaranj paternal fatherland
pils m. scales (fish)
puls z 1 adjective bridge-builder 2 m. bridge construction
pulsz f. construction of bridges, bridge construction
plstr f. stocking
plshta f. prostitute
palgh plagh 1 fast walk, quick pace to walk
quickly 2 dialect quickly, at once
I quickly urged the horse on (after him), but did not
overtake him.

palgha f. swiftness, quickness


palghal 1 good-for-nothing, useless 2 hypocritical 3 base
1 plk m. blacksmith's hammer, sledgehammer
2 pilk m. 1 eyelid 2 instant, moment
3 plak tautological with
palksh m. scraper, scoop, shovel
1 plka f. 1 nail 2 button, knob 3 botany fruit stalk idiom
to beat up, pound, beat to be beaten up,
pounded on

2 plk f. hilt (of a saber)


palakj f. iron pintle locking the plowshare to the plowbeam
plag m. electronics plug
palgv ha f.

palt f. palit 1 fuse, wick 2 cord


144

Pashto-English Dictionary

palm f. pretext, occasion, excuse, subterfuge, ruse


to seek refuge in excuses, resort to ruses; use
cunning, use guile idiom to slander, discredit
1 pln plan 1 broad, wide, expansive in depth 2 obtuse
(angle) idiom to play the simpleton
2 paln obsolete pedestrian, related to walking, on foot
plnp aj m. cabbage
plnpzaj flat-nosed, snub-nosed
plntb m. plntj f.
plandr m. [plural: plandarna] stepfather
plandj f. 1 marsh, swamp 2 figurative betrayal, cheating,

lasso, lariat

plv laj m. forgiveness


pulv n m. bridge builder
pltsa f. paltsa botany Indian acacia, Acacia modesta
plor m. 1 price 2 selling, sale; buying and selling (i.e.,
trading); transaction

swindling

plna f. 1 load, burden 2 kit; knapsack


plan m. porter; stevedore
plnsraj m. 1 wooden spade 2 blockhead, fool
1 plnghvagaj m. elephants
2 plnghvge f. cow, female elephant
palng m. bed
palangph m. bedspread, coverlet
plnv laj m. 1 width; breadth; expanse 2 square, plaza
plnavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to widen;
make extensive, extend 2 to throw down and pound someone

plnadl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


widened; be extended

palv m. palu plv 1 side, direction, flank south


side to the south, on the south right side
1

on the right, to the right left side


on the left, to the left across, on the other side
(of) look here (this way)
! Put this book alongside of that one!
literal & figurative to stand aside a from the

plortn m. market
plorlaj m. company
plrdzj m. shop; place where something is sold
bookstore
plorl 1 [past: ] transitive to sell
to sell to someone passive to be sold 2
m. plural selling; sale sales agent
manager of a (the) commercial section
plorna f. selling, sale
plornkaj 1 present participle of 2 m. vendor
plorj merchant; trader
plorna f. selling, sale
pla f. anteroom, hall, lobby
m botany purging cassia, Cassia fistula
plsa f.
palvash f. 1 ray sunbeam, ray of the sun
to sparkle (diamond) 2 tongues (of flame) idiom
luminary of science
pulvha palvh
plavgha f. palavgha 1 money given by the head of a
household to relatives (on the occasion of a family celebration) 2
money given by a financ to his bride (at the first meeting)

1 plavl plavl pulavl denominative Eastern [past:


]1 to release, liberate 2 to forgive to forgive someone

point of view of b the subject of the action in the passive voice


is expressed with the assistance of this location

the edge of a forest glade

to

cover the face with the edge of something; cover up with the edge

idiom to ask someone for help,


assistance a to support someone, be on someone's side b
to ask for forgiveness to be on
someone's side so and so is on my side, so and
so supports me a to ask for help (a woman) b to
of something

ask forgiveness (a woman)

2 plo oblique plural of 1


3 pul oblique plural of 3
4 plo oblique plural of 1
palv raj m. palv aj

palavl denominative, transitive [past:


measure by pacing (i.e., land)

in an economic relationship

3 width, panel (i.e., of a tent, pavilion); side, lateral wall 4

border, edge

for sins or an offense (upon setting out on a journey); bless


someone for the road 3 to justify

Measures were taken by the government 2

figurative relationship

m. tea rose

palv ha f. pulv ha 1 loop, frog (for a button) 2 hobbles 3

to pace off,

plavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to castrate,


gelding castrated ram, castrated buck

neuter

palvn 1.1 fat, portly, stout 1.2 stupid; dimwitted, obtuse 2

m. .1 fat person 2.2 blockhead

palvantb m.

palvantj f.

stoutness, obesity 2 stupidity 3

palvan f. 1

1 plavna f. 1 liberation 2 forgiveness 3 justification


2 palavna f. pacing off, measuring by paces (i.e., land)
3 palna plural of 1
4 pulna plural 3
palva oblique of 1
1 plav palav 1.1 being alongside, neighboring, adjoining
1.2 having contiguous plots of land 2 m. partisan, supporter
145

Pashto-English Dictionary

2 plet m.
palitka f. 1 fuse, wick 2 flame, (small) light
palitavl [past: ] 1 to soil, muddy 2 to defile
plitnaj f. bobbin, spool
1 palt f. 1 fuse, primer (of a weapon) 2 corn ear with husk

to be a supporter (of a person, idea, etc.), support someone or

something

palavj m. the outside or further ox (of a team engaged in

grinding grain on a circular threshing floor)

palavj f. 1 fully-grown girl 2 palavj ni women, the


women's half of the house

which has just formed

4 palav m. kind of mulberry


plavdz m. neighbor
1 pl f. pl 1 tendon; sinew, ligament 2 nerve
to hold oneself in check; to display self-control 3
muscle 4 vegetable fiber idiom to nourish a fierce
hostility or hatred; to hate

pul f. [plural: pul] cooked corn kernels

pal f. pall pl pan (of scales) to outbalance,


weigh (all or a quantity) 2 panel (of a door), half a double door 3
3

convenient occasion; auspicious moment 4 advantage

to overcome, overpower

pal f. dialect edge; flank, side idiom

support, help

5 pla pl oblique singular of 3


6 pla f. cow, female elephant
7 pla f. feminine singular of 7
8 pl oblique singular of 1, 3
plailj f. coot (the bird)
plapas
plapasetb m.

to

plapasev laj m.

pla-pri pla-pre Eastern 1.1 adjoining, situated


alongside 1.2 closed, shut (e.g., doors) a to join,

a to be joined, to abut

(upon) b to be closed, be shut 2 nearby, with one another, near,


right up against close by the city
platga f. asbestos
1 plaj 1 m. [plural: pli] .1 pedestrian sidewalk
a to set down b to dismount a to alight; come
off of b to dismount 1.2 infantryman 1.3 [plural: pli]
infantry Infantry Officers Training School 1.4
chess pawn 2 on foot idiom stupid, dimwitted, one
who has lost possession of his faculties

plj f. 1 pod pod of Phaseolus aconitifolius (a


kind of bean) 2 clove (of garlic) 3 bundle of cut willow withes
2

3 palj f. spoke (of a wheel)


4 pluj f. 2
5 pulj f. blister, bump
6 pl pl plural of 1
7 pul plural of 2
8 pal pall plural of 3
9 pal plural of 4
1 palt 1 muddy, soiled 2 defiled

vileness, baseness,

loathsomeness

palitedl denominative [past: ] 1 to be soiled, be


muddied 2 to be defiled

ple 1 photography plate 2 regional dish, plate


plef rm m. railroad platform
plen m. weaver's beam
pald 1
palid f.
puls m.
plek m. water-powered rice huller
polign firingrange
pll m. plural
plevr m. anatomy pleura
pam m. 1 scab; itch; mange 2 dandruff 3 bran, siftings

crumbs

sequence; continuity; uninterruptedness

connect b to close, shut 1.2

2 palta feminine singular of 1


palit f. 1 mud 2 manure 3 figurative

pumbach f. pumbach f.
1 pumb f.
2 pamb f. crumbs
pambachin f. pumbachin
pambj m. 1 cattle shed; stable 2 2
pumbech m. pumbech f. 1 stalk of cotton plant,
Asiatic cotton plant, Gossypium asiaticum 2 dry cotton boll

pamp m. pump
pumdn f.
pamn scabby; mangy, suffering from the mange
pamnk m. regional 1 scab; itch 2 leprosy
pamnko m. regional 1 mangy, scabby 2 leprous
pamnavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to infect
with scab, infect with mange

pamna f. regional scab; itch


pamnedl denominative, intransitive

[past: ] to be

infected with scab (rash); be covered with mange

pamech pumech
pun m. dialect
1 pan f. 1 refuge, asylum, shelter, safe haven, cover 2
protection, guardianship, patronage a to request asylum;
seek asylum b to request protection, patronage compound
verb a to give shelter, grant asylum, hide b to defend, act as

a to seek asylum; lie in hiding, be hidden b to


be protected to conceal oneself, hide oneself, disappear
The sun was hidden behind the mountain
patron

3 disgusting, nasty, base


146

Pashto-English Dictionary

to be out of sight (hidden from


the eyes) to seek protection a to be

protection or patronage c to avoid (something) idiom

God protect us from this!

pan

pn f. 1 pouring; sprinkling

God forbid!

to remove, eliminate, take away

to pour, sprinkle 2

drizzling rain a to flow b to drizzle


pandz j m. pang h f.
pnmkh behind someone's back, in someone's absence
pnm vice
pan h f. 1
panhdz j m. 1
panhg f. panhg h 1 shelter, asylum gasproof shelter 2 military dugout bomb shelter 3
fence to fence in 4 figurative asylum, shelter
last refuge, shelter to find shelter
panhguzn m. panhgr m. refugee
pan h varkavnkaj m. patron
pan h vnkaj 1 appealing for help 2 m. refugee
panhi f. 1 shelter, asylum 2 protection, patronage
a to seek asylum b to seek protection, seek patronage

pumbdn f.
pumb pamb f. cotton raw cotton attributive
cotton cotton plant turning over
of cotton, delivery of cotton cotton procurement
harvesting of cotton planting of
cotton cotton grower cotton production
sowing cotton, planting cotton
cotton mill attributive cotton procurement
attributive cotton-planting attributive cotton
growing

pumbabf f. cotton weaving

weaving mill

cotton-

pumbachin f. cotton picking, cotton harvesting


pumbakr f. cotton growing, cotton production
pumba cotton, of cotton
cotton fabric
pandzh b m. Punjab
pandzhb pandzhbj 1 adjective Punjabi 2 m. Punjabi
(person)

pandzhlj f. small window


pandzhp o m. pandzhp j m. Pandzhpao (one of the

two principal branches of the Durrani)

pandzhpul f. panjpuli (Afghan 5 pul coin)


pandzht r m. panjtar (five-stringed musical instrument)
pandzhdh m. & f. Panjdeh (a district)

pandzharj f. 1 (window)
lattice, grille 2 (latticed) window 3 cage (for birds); open-air

concealed, be hidden, be out of sight b to come running for

pandzhar f. pandzhr

cage; voliere

pandzhshamb f. Thursday
pandzhshr m. Pianjshir (district)
pandzhsher pandzhsherj 1 Pianjshirian

2 Pianjshirian

(person)

pandzhsum f. 1 five-sum (i.e., monetary unit) 2 history

pandzhghishj m.

gold 5 sum coin

pandshghahj m. 1 rake 2

wooden pitchfork

pandzhk m. history tax amounting to one-fifth share of a

harvest

to levy or collect a tax

amounting to one-fifth part of a harvest

pandzhkor f. Pandzhkora (district, Peshawar)


pandzhakj m. 1 crossbar of sling (weapon), sling grip

door handle, door knob

pandzh f. 1 hand (from the wrist to finger-tips), hand and

five outstretched fingers 2 foot, sole 3 paw 4 claw, talon

to seize with the paws or claws 5 fork (eating utensil) idiom


to measure one's strength
to deal with a subject, treat a theme
to cut slashes into bread dough (to bake it more thoroughly)
2 pandzh f. the Pyandzh River b-i the Pyandzh
River

pandzhabb f. crab
pandzhachin r m. plane tree
pandzhhazr f. history post or function of chief of a
detachment of fifty men
pandzhag f. military cartridge clip
panchr puncture (tire)
pundz m. obsolete creation, origin
pindzakz five-shot (of a rifle)
pindztsn pentagonal
pindzrupagz m. five-rupee bank note
pindzsavz m. 500-afghan, rupee, etc. bank note; fivehundred denomination bill

pindzkblza f. obsolete a five-Kabul-rupee coin


pindzokaln
pandzko f.
pindzgvaj pentagonal
pindzgn pindzgnaj
pindzlas number fifteen
pindzlasm ordinal fifteenth 2
pindzlasvradzanj every two weeks, semi-weekly;
fortnightly pay
pindzm ordinal fifth idiom fifth
column

147

pindzs number fifty

Pashto-English Dictionary

pundn f. cottonseed
pandtj f. 1 wisdom 2 opinion; cleverness
pandnm f. 1 book of advice; instructions, precepts

pindzospulj m. pindzospul f. fifty-pul coin, half

afghani

pindzosmshr m. history commander of a fifty-man


detachment

testament

pndzavl transitive [past: ] 1 to create 2 to fill


up (e.g., a bag) 3 to cause to be successful 4 to increase, multiply

pndzn m. 1 nature, creation 2 origin, provenance


pndzavna f. creation (the act)
pindz 1 number five a five days b figurative
human life (shortness, etc.) 2 group of five, fivesome
proverb literal If the matter is delegated to
five, then it will go wrong. figurative Too many cooks spoil the
broth.

2 pndza f.
pindz ban m. plural

religion the five principles of Islam

(Kalima: Recital of the Creed; Namaz: Performance of Divine


Worship (prayer) five times daily; Fasting: Fasting in the month of
Ramadan; Zakat: alms (legal and determined); there are also
voluntary alms (sadaqat); Hadj: Pilgrimage to Mecca)

pand varkavnkaj m. preceptor


pundk m. bud; blossom
pandl m. pendulum
1 pnda f. 1 2 2 decorative mountings on a saber
scabbard

2 pnda f. 1
1 pndj f. botany Erophila verna
2 pundj f. 1 2 2 steel or iron tip of a spear or javelin
pandr m. plural
pandirk m.
pan m. 1 pack, bale 2 load, pack (animal), burden (head)
bundle of hay 3 figurative burden, incubus
2 pan m. large dam, weir to build a dam
pn m. pun [plural: pnd n pun n] 1 detachment;
group 2 tumor, swelling; lump 3 anatomy vagina

pindzpa five-story five-story building


pindztsnz m. 1 pentagon 2 pentagonal
pindztsukz five-pointed five-pointed

(i.e., one entering

the 6th year, being fully 5-years old)

pindzkasz five-man (consisting of five men)


pindzkaln pindzkalanj five-year
five-year plan

pindzgnaj 1 quintuple, consisting


panchashila (the five principles of

pindzgn

of five parts

peaceful coexistence) 2 five-fold

pindzlas number
pindzvsht number twenty-five
pindzjak one-fifth
3 pndzj f. sack (for smoking materials)
pndzedl intransitive [past: ] 1

to be created 2 to

be filled (with) 3 to have success

pindzs consisting of five parts, quintuple


pants f.
1 pand m. 1 advice, instructions, moral admonition to
give advice to derive a lesson for oneself
from something 2 wisdom 3 rule of conduct 4 dialect ruse,
deception, guile
2

pn m. pun 1 steel (for striking fire from flint)

steel 2 firing pin, hammer (of a flintlock rifle)


5

pn 1.1 fat; fatty; stout

fat person

thick

needle 1.2 rude; sharp 1.3 rounded up; assembled 1.4 Waziri

pindzzaj five-shot (of a rifle)


pindzghahj m. six-year-old camel

star

to deceive

pand m. 1 distance 2 removal; departure; leaving; exit 3

journey to go away; to leave; to depart; to exit


3 pnd m. enmity
pind r m. 1 imagination; opinion 2 conceit
speak haughtily

mustered, assembled (people) 2 fat person idiom


! May your house be a full goblet! Live in wealth!
pn r m. crowd
pnra f. payment; collection (for musicians)
pn v chrg m. fighting cock, gamecock
panvr covered with down (of a fledgling)
punbakrj f. steel (for striking fire from flint)
pant m. pundit (title of an educated Hindu)
pntb m.
pntn m. 1, 2
panta f. mockery, ridicule, gibe
pntj f.
1 pngh laj m. cattle shed; pen (cattle) sheep pen,
sheepfold

pngh laj m. place where guests are received and

entertained

pndghalj m. piece of leather attached to the heel for

walking

punk m. blossom
1 punkj f. bandage; piece of cloth applied with adhesive to
a wound to bandage a wound
2 panakj m.
pngr m. craftsman engaged in making steels (for striking
fire from flint)

to

148

panl m. 1 boundary strip; berm of road 2


pn f. assemblege, mob, crowd (people)

Pashto-English Dictionary

2 pno oblique plural of 1


3 pn oblique plural of 1-4
pnv laj m. 1 obesity 2 stoutness, embonpoint
corpulence

pnavr having thick calves, fat-legged


pns m. pns [plural: pndos n plural:
pnosna] ball to play ball 2 ball, clod
to play with snowballs, have a snowball
fight 3 pns [plural: pnus n] fat man
pnoska f. pnskaj m. pnsa f. ball,
small ball to play ball
panukm r m. 1 porter 2 petty thief
pankaj m. panke f. 1 small load, burden;
knapsack; bundle 2 sheaf (e.g., of letters)

pnavl punavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1


to make fat, fatten 2 to make look fat, overfill 3 to drive cattle

sundries

pnsraj
pansaj
pinsl m.

for conversation)

pnolgr
1 panolj

m.

cotton harvester

m. share of cotton given by the owner of the field

to a hired worker for harvesting the cotton

to pick or harvest cotton or fruit for pay

pnn m. 1
2 round-up, drive (of cattle)
1
pna f. 1 burden; bundle, sheaf 2 alms, charity
2 pa feminine singular of 5
3 pnda f. 1 heated iron 2 piece of clay taken up by a spade
4 pna f. party of guests served in turn
1 panj m. [plural: panij n] porter; stevedore
2 punj f. 1 anatomy shin; calf (leg) 2 technology funnel,
1, 2

cone 3 wooden trunk, chest, box


3

pni feminine plural of


rice, mealy rice

5 pnj f. iron tip, point


pnedl denominative, intransitive

m. dialect

pansl pensl [plural: pinsalna pansilna

pencil

pinsalp k pensilp k m. eraser (pencil)


penisiln m. plural penicillin
pinsn m. Eastern
pinshn m. regional pension
pinshan m. regional pensioner
1 png m. hum, buzz, drone
2 pang tautological with
pingp ng m. ping-pong, table tennis
punglj f. punglj native wind instrument similiar to the
Persian zurna

pngavl transitive
1 pnga f.
2 pung f. bud to bud
3 pnga f. deep-bedded river (flowing through a plain or a
pangav l m. capitalist
1 pungj f. 1 reed (for native wind instrument similiar to the
Persian zurna) 2 smooth depression, hollow

2 pungj f. peddler's wares


3 pungj f. door hinge
4 pungj f. budlet, small bud
5 pngj m.
pungjfursh m. peddler, travelling, itinerant merchant
pinl transitive
pinhm 1 concealed; hidden 2 secret, secure, mysterious
1 pinj panj m. botany 1 Western agnus castus, Kochia 2
panj Eastern beard-grass, Andropogon muriaticum 3 dialect

pin f. regional colloquial Rawalpindi (city)

forest)

panol f. picking, harvesting cotton or fruit for pay

pnolj f. sheet, bedding (onto which fruit is dumped


from the tree)

m.

pensilna Western plural: pinsal n pansil n pensil n]

pencil

(into a herd); bring together (people for a feast, for conversation) 4


to round up (cattle into a herd); bring together (people for a feast,

pansr m. pansrj dealer in paints, oils, and related

plump-kerneled

[past: ] 1 to

become thicker, condense, thicken 2 to grow fat, put on weight,

grow stout 3 to swell up; become swollen 4 to be rounded up (in


a herd, flock); stick together (in flocks) 5 dialect to assemble (of
people); throng

panirk m. mallow, hollyhock, marsh mallow


panerj m. wicker corncrib
pnevr long-legged
panr m.
1 puns numeral five hundred
2 pens m. penny (coin)

vetiver, Cuscus-Vetiveria zezanoides

2 1 m. pan plural Pani (tribe) 2 panj m. Pani (tribesman)


panr m. plural cheese
panirk m.
panirmj f. clabber, curds (for cheese)
paner 1 garden 2 attributive flowers
pank m. panic
p full, filled
pu ki f. plural bounds, leaps (of an animal) to
leap, bound (of an animal)

pa v m. competition, contest
pasj m. dialect
pul m. soft inner seed portion of the pit of a fruit
padz j m. panodzaj m. entrance hall, lobby
149

Pashto-English Dictionary

pavl transitive [past:


irrigate

to pour (on, upon); water,

puavl transitive [past: ] to skin, pare, peel; clean


(seeds)

pa f. slippers (Middle-Eastern type)

pa f. 1 pouring; irrigation, watering compound verb


to pour (on); irrigate, water to be poured; be irrigated 2
2

initial irrigation (of a field)

p pa gathered around, forming a group around


somebody; surrounding somebody to be assembled
or grouped around somebody; surround somebody

1 pa m. paj 2
2 pa plural of 1
pa gannkaj m. slipper maker, shoemaker
1 pu m. no plural form 1 blowing, breathing
2 linguistics aspiration idiom
incantation

pu light, lightweight

pu m. raids, investigations, searches

pu children's speech 1 m. fire 2 hot

to burn up

5 po f. the Po (river)
6 po dialect 1
puvr f. fountain
pv 1 dirty, unclean, foul

compound verb

potj f. 1 face, image 2 stitched book 3 notebook; blank


notepad

peel, debark, decorticate

a to skin, flay b to

po m. 1 misfortune, grief 2 disagreement, discord;

dissention

3 po social gathering, party


4 pu 4
5 pu tautological with
po s m. plural
puskaj m. 2,3
1 pokaj m. 1 skin

skin, flay 3 skin, peel, rind, pellicle

to
poki a to

pelt 2 hide

clean; remove, strip off (hide, etc.) b figurative to thrash, beat up

to worry about, torment oneself


saying the man is hardy
2 pokj small hill, hillock
pokajvl m. singular & plural tanner
puganj f. 1 shelter; asylum; secluded place 2 ambush
puavl transitive dialect
pune f. ambush
1 poj m. [plural: poi plural: poij n] hill, small
someone idiom

to be dirty, be unclean 2

paj m. paj 1 small piece 2 fragment of some substance

compound verb
cut up carelessly; crumble to be

3 crumb (e.g., bread)

m. guttersnipe

to

crumbled; be divided into bits 4 pigmy, dwarf


plural:

2 popk m. pompon
pupka f. popka 1 bump; swelling 2 pompon
popl m. 1 Popal (branch of the Dur(r)ani tribe) 2

Popal

3 puj m. Eastern small box


pudzh f. 1 weeding; thinning out 2 pruning (of branches)
a to weed; thin out b to prune (branches)
puch 1 stupid, senseless, absurd; frivolous to talk
nonsense, talk drivel ! No nonsense! to use
foul language 2 bad, evil (of a disposition) 3 spent (cartridge

(tribesman) 3 proper name Popal

mountain

pv a feminine singular of
puptanj m. hoopoe (bird)
1 pupk m. [plural: pupakna
pupak n] Western air rifle

po m. 1 hide 2 skin, rind

popalz m. plural Popalzai


(branch of the Dur(r)ani tribe) 2 popalzj Popalzaj
1 popalz m. plural

(tribesman)

popln m. poplin (cloth)


pupn annihilated, destroyed to annihilate, destroy
a to be annihilated, be destroyed b to die out, be extinct
pupj m. 1 bat 2
1 pot m. thin felt (used for oriental robes)
2 put m. son
pot s m. plural potasijum m. plural potassium
potassium permanganate
potakj f. necklace
pavtl m. garbage, waste
potlj f. large doll; puppet, marionette
pta f. ox hide (without the head, and legs)

case)

puch t m. plural empty words, mere words, absurdity


puchkhultb m. puchkhultj f. foul language
puchkhlaj swearing, using foul language
puchk m. empty cartridge casing, spent cartridge casing
puchk g m. cartridge-case ejector
puchka f. freshly-set melon-fruit
puchg m. windbag
puchgo f. idle talk to talk nonsense; engage
in idle talk

puchurd m. 1 nonsense, rubbish 2 verbal abuse


to use foul language
puchavl denominative [past: ] 1 to dupe, make a
fool of 2 to fire (cartridges) 3 to bring to naught (e.g., someone's
action)

150

pcha feminine singular of

Pashto-English Dictionary

2 pcha f. Western
puchj f. unripe melon
paudz m.
pavdz
putsk f. potska corn which has reached a state of milky
ripeness

potskj m. ear lobe

potsakj f. mushroom
ptsa f. cottage cheese; cheese of curdled milk

curdle

2 pots f. garbage, waste


1 potsj f. ear lobe
2 potsj f. skein of wool (for yarn-making)
3 potsj m. cotton ball
pokh pakh f. [plural: pkh f. plural:

to

pakh] 1

ripe, mature 2 ready, prepared (for the table), cooked 3

experienced, able, skillful

proverb

literal With a good cook, the meal is prepared slowly. figurative


Haste makes waste. 4 wordly, having a view tempered by life 5
well-considered, well-thought-out (e.g., an answer) 6 elderly; old;
of a ripe or mature age 7 reliable, tested (e.g., method) 8 not
liable to fade (cloth); fast (dye) 9 paved

paved road,

paved highway 10 learned by heart, learned 11 active (e.g., of

finished articles fire-baked bricks


firm friendship a sworn enemy; fierce foe
capital construction regional stamped paper;
(official) form well-written article to be
seriously wounded
trading)

to take a decisive step, take decisive measures

pokhtb m.

pokhtj f. 1 ripeness, maturity

2 experience, skillfulness 3 fastness (of dyestuffs)

pukhj tautological with


pukhl
pukhle f. plural 1
pukhle-tukhle f. Eastern whooping-cough
pokhn well-developed, mature, smart (of a child)
pokhv laj m.
pokhvl transitive dialect
pkha f. leather strip
pokhedl intransitive
pudr m. singular & plural 1 powder tooth

powder 2 any substance consisting of ground or pulverized

puar powdered, pulverent


pung pudding
1 por m. 1 debt; credit; loan extended credit;
long-term loan bond, debenture commercial
credit cash, monetary loan; credit history
Lend-Lease on loan, as a loan, on credit as a
loan, in the form of a loan Who is in debt to
you? I owe ten rupees.
To whom are we in debt? to take out a loan, incur a
debt, obtain credit to recover a debt
to pay off a debt to ask about the granting of a
loan to demand payment of a debt to
recover a debt compound verb to be in debt to
lend, make a loan, offer credit He is up to his
neck in debt. to sell on credit
to buy on credit
saying debt on the back and the sheep is dying (descriptive
of the hopelessness of a situation) saying Debts
spoil relationships. 2 blood-feud debt vengeance
for one killed to take revenge for a
murder ! saying Ah blood feud, thou has
ruined two houses! idiom to die
2 pore Eastern 1 2, 3
3 pr used in geographic names Sultanpur (settlement
near Dzhalalabad)

purjna f. pur f. 1 execution, implementation 2


creation of reserves (i.e., of provisions) to

create reserves (i.e., of provisions)

porttf portable; transportable


port-af-spn m. Port-of-Spain (city)
portrt m. portrait
portugl m. Portugal
portugl portuglj 1 m. Portuaguese (person)

adjective Portuguese

portanj 1 upper, higher, topmost 2 above-mentioned,

above-cited, foregoing idiom

portan literal

In the Upper Heaven figurative in the Other World, in Heaven

portoprns m. Port-au-Prince (city)


prtonovo f. Porto-Novo (city)
prta 1.1 above, overhead from above
from top to bottom 1.2 upwards, to the top

upwards, upwards from 1.3 above (of a quoted text, etc.) 2.1

particles

upper 2.2 higher 2.3 above-mentioned, above-cited, foregoing

pudarpsh f. pulverization, sprinkling


1 pud f. textiles woof, weft
2 pud putrid, rotten; worm-holed to let rot

The foregoing does not evoke doubts.


a to rise up, climb up b to grow, increase, rise (prices)
a to hoist up b to increase (e.g., prices)
c to take, attract, draw to oneself d to close
(e.g., a book) a to ascend, climb up b to rise up, tower,

to become rotten; putrify

pudav laj m. 1 rotting 2 rottenness; putrification


pur m. singular & plural

raise, elevate c to grow, increase, rise (e.g., prices) d to arise,

151

Pashto-English Dictionary

a question such as this


arose ! Raise the banner higher! idiom
to toady
portatg m. 1 ascent 2 climbing heights (e.g., aircraft)
portaked m. plural portav laj m. 1 height,


There are large fields on the other side of the road.
this bank of the river c beyond the Amu-Darya (from the
Afghan's point of view) He lives in a
settlement beyond the river. the transriparians,

porch m. regional porch; portico


pord r m. creditor
porzhnj 1 exiled 2 m. .1 exile

postposition .1 in combination with ( Eastern ), without it

bank b the other side, the opposite side

spring up, appear

altitude 2 rising, ascent 3 rise (e.g., prices) 4 superiority

inhabitants of Central Asia (from the Afghan point of view) 2

I tied the horse to the tree. 2.2 in combination


with 2.2a by (indicates the person or object which one is
touching) I took him by the hand. 2.2b
about (indicates the subject or theme of a conversation)
We were talking about farming.

(indicates that an action is directed at someone or something to)


2.2 wanderer (i.e.,

religious pilgrim)

porgh m. porgh joint working of land by two or more

families

por kavnkaj m. debtor


por larnkaj m. lender, creditor
prnm m. alias
porv l m. porvl m. singular & plural creditor
por varkavnkaj m. lender, creditor
lender state, creditor government
poravaj 1.1 in debt to somebody; obtaining funds on credit

2.2c at (indicates the direction of an action with reference to

someone)
someone

2.3a to, up to (indicates the limit or boundary of something in

from somebody 1.2 obliged to somebody 2 m. .1 debtor 2.2


avenger; one engaged in a blood fued

poravl denominative, transitive [past: ] to borrow;


assume a debt, take on a loan; obtain on credit

pur 1 full, whole, entire 2 executed, effected; implemented 3

finished, completed 4 satisfactory, exhaustive (of an answer)


full; completely

He delivered an exhaustive response to

my questions. 5 sufficient (e.g., of a supply of air)

in

a to execute, effect, implement b to

finish, complete c to satisfy; exhaust

space) up to the knees


It is three kilometers to the city 2.3b until, before
(indicates a time limit) until the present time
prior to five o'clock 3 through (used in combination with
the particle " ra" which is used as a verb prefix having a
directional sense) to pass through 4 to him, to us, to
them This will be a surprise to us all.
2 pre contraction of the postposition and the preposition

3 pori separable verbal prefix (accented or stressed in


perfective verbs) 1 trans- to procede across (some
obstacle, space, barrier) 2 indicates direction of action beyond a

to satisfy

given point or continuation of an action to excess 3 action of

requirements d to cover, defray (i.e., expenses) e to supplement


f. to compensate (e.g., losses)

attaching, direction of action from above downward

a to be executed, be

effected, be implemented b to be finished, be completed c to be


satisfied, be exhausted d to be covered, be defrayed (e.g.,
expenses) e to be supplemented f. to be compensated, be made
good (e.g., losses)

puraked m. plural 1 execution, putting into effect,


implementation 2 finishing, completion

in two week's time, in two weeks 3 satisfaction (e.g., of


requirements) 4 covering, defrayment (e.g., expenses) 5

and forth

1.2 closed, covered 1.3 affixed to something, presented along

with something 1.4 connected with, depending upon something


1.5 located on the other shore, on the other side

beyond the sea

move up to 4 to sew onto

purav laj m. 1 fullness, state of being full 2 execution,

pri pri pre Eastern 1.1 abutting, bordering something

porezhnj

pori-kavl transitive [past: ] 1 to close; close


down ! Close the door! 2 to affix 3 to place against;

to sew a

sleeve onto a shirt 5 to glue, affix, stick onto 6 to attribute (a


writing) to someone 7 to crumble (make crumbs)

satisfactoriness (e.g., answer to a question)


1

a to

close b to enclose c to sew on

putting into effect, implementation 3 finishing, completion 4

pori-ri
pori-istl transitive [present: past:
]to procede across something
pri-rpori pri-rvori there and back, back

supplement 6 compensation (e.g., for losses)

to laugh at someone, mock


2.3 in combination with ( Eastern )or without it

Crumble the bread into sour milk! 8 to lubricate, anoint

to color the eyes


with kohl idiom to set fire to
prikunaj m. Western porekavnaj m.
(with grease, ointment)

Eastern food, victuals

a the other (river) bank, the opposite


152

Pashto-English Dictionary

pori-kedl intransitive [past: ] 1 to be closed, be


closed down the door was closed 2 to be affixed, be

2 pu f. grain shovel
3 pa feminine of 3
4 pa oblique singular of and with number of 2
poazr calm, peaceful, confident, satisfied
poaztb m. poazv laj m. calmness,

placed against 3 to be moved up to 4 to be sewn on to 5 to be

attributed to someone (a piece of writing); to cast (aspersions)


to be communicated (of a disease)
porikednkaj 1 adjective adhesive 2 infectious
epidemic, epizotic
porivt m. porevt plural ford, crossing (river,

confidence; satisfaction

etc.)

porivatl porevatl 1 [present: past:


]intransitive to cross, traverse (rivers, etc.)
to swim across, float, sail across 2
m. plural ford, crossing (river, etc.)

porivatna f.
pri-vri 1 through; right through
to pierce something to pass
through 2 alongside Our villages are
side by side 3 on all sides

pori-vahl transitive [past: ] 1


to shove underwater !

to push, nudge
Don't push

me! 2 to bring up to something

pore-vestl transitive Eastern


1 po m. 1 large mat, mat 2 sugar-cane waste
2 pu m. po 1 layer, stratum a in layers b gradually
a to become stratified b to
disintegrate; collapse c to unravel (cloth) 2 story, floor
one-story two-story house 3 deck ship's
deck 4 figurative stage (e.g., of development)

po 1 m. juvenile 2.1 almost ripe (fruit) 2.2 undercooked

(food)

4 pu m. hobbles
5 po tautological with
6 po tautological with
pu calm, confident
pujna f. 1 confidence, tranquility; calm !

poh 1
1 puj f. pauj 1 Western step, rung 2 Eastern stairs
I came downstairs. 3 stool 4 figurative level, stage
gradually
2 puj f. 1 medicine 2 powder
puz poz combining form three-storied
multi-stage rocket, multi-stage missile
pozprekaj
pza f. Eastern 1 nose, prow (of a ship, rocket)
snub nose to clean out the nose, blow the nose 2
cape, promontory idiom He's very poor; He's
poor as a church mouse; idiom He has digraced
himself. He has brought shame upon himself. idiom
He is very hot-tempered. idiom This bored
me. I'm fed up to the eyes with this. idiom a He
exasperated me. b He made my life unbearable. idiom
He stuck to me like a leech. idiom
He is growing. He's not a child any more. idiom !
Walk erect! He's in a critical
state. He's so frail.

1 puzj m. small mat (for sleeping); mat


2 pze feminine plural of
pozitrn m. physics positron
pozishn m. regional 1 position 2 posture, state
puzh f.
1 pug m. Western 1 puff, breath 2 splashing, spraying
to spurt (from the mouth) 3 noise (made by a smith's bellows) 4

steam
Calm

him! 2 reassurance

pdzhagawl compound verb to upgrade


punda f. 1 hot ashes 2 friable, loose, powdery soil
friable soil
pundatb m. pundtj f. pundtj
f. pundv laj m. friability (of soil)
ponaj m. ponaj 1 feminine covering; chador 2 cover

2 pug m. dregs; remains; waste


pug l pog l transitive [past: ]

pugalaj
m. pump; sprayer

pugav
l
transitive
pos colloquial 1 2 2 fat, plump (of cattle)
pupusk m. forest bettle (plant parasite)
1 post m. 1 hide to shed hair, moult (of animals)
2 bark, rind 3 pelt 4 skin, peel (of fruit) 5 head, pod (of poppy)

(e.g., of night)

to spray, sprinkle

(from the mouth); spray (from a sprayer)

puundtj f.
puundv laj m.
ponaj m.
1 po calm, tranquil tranquilly to calm,
pacify be calm He became calm.
puuntb m.

a to flay, skin b to peel (fruit, vegetables) c


to consider something impossible or unrealizable idiom
to be penniless idiom
to insinuate, worn oneself into someone's confidence idiom
to reproach, reject a kind act idiom to
to peel, skin (bark, rind) d to beat up, thrash idiom

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Pashto-English Dictionary

posll transitive
poslv laj m.
posna f. pusna nursing, tending (e.g., a sick animal)
1 pus dialect
2 pos f. garbage
3 psa f. dish made from the fruit of the khinjak tree, Pistacia

oppress, torment about a favor which has been done to or by


someone idiom

post

to put on weight, grow heavy

pasta' f. m. [plural: past f. plural:

past] soft; tender

postbb m. furs, pelts


postr m.
1 postghaj obedient, quiet, submissive
2 postgha f. obedience, humility, submissiveness
postk m. piece of leather
postk l m. plural software
postkaj m. 1 pelt 2 lamb-fleece pelt

khinjak

posh Take care! Look out!


poshk m. clothing, attire
poshid 1 secret, clandestine, unknown
This has not been known to us up to now. 2 in
secret, surreptitiously

caracul lamb-fleece pelt 3 peel, skin (of fruit) 4 bark, rind 5

poh m. poh 1 covering; sheathing; puttees; cover


pillowcase machine-gun barrel-jacket
sheath 2 armor steel armor-plate 3 tablecloth
to set the table; spread the tablecloth 4 clothing,

shell (egg) 6 Eastern lobe (ear)

postv laj m. softness, tenderness


1 postavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

1 to

skin, flay 2 to peel (fruit, vegetables) 3 to strip off (bark)

clothes, dress; attire 5 costume and finery (of a bride) 6 binding

2 postavl transitive
1 post f. 1 mail, postal service airmail
by mail post-office box postage
stamp 2 post; outpost outpost, battle outpost
aviation communications outpost 3 military
combat team 4 post command post
2 psta oblique singular of 1
postabsh m. chief of a border outpost detachment
postakhn f. postal service; postal administrative office;

(of a book) 7 figurative shielding, hiding, concealing

pohak m. clothing, attire


puhtl transitive [past: ] 1 to ask (about),
question to put a question to 2 to ask (for), request,
require An answer from them is required.
puhtnpna f. questionnaire
puhtna f. 1 question to ask, put a question to
to ask about, inquire about someone
to answer a question to work out a
problem, try to find the answer to a question to
visit, call on someone; go and inquire about someone
to visit a sick person

post office

postarasn m. postman, mail carrier


1 post postal
2 post m. drug addict, opium smoker
3 post m. 1 mollycoddle 2 loafer; lazybones, idler
1 postedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

proverb If he keeps inquiring a man will find his way to Mecca


(e.g., one should not fear to ask questions)

1 to

be skinned; be flayed 2 to be peeled (of fruits, vegetables) 3 to


be stripped off (of bark)

2 postedl intransitive
postn m. [plural: postinna

plural:

postin n] Western (sheep's) skin, fleece coat


embroidered sheepskin coat idiom

to say spiteful things about


postinch f. pustincha, sleeveless fur jacket
postinch m. postindz
postinduz furriery, the fur business
postn gannkaj m. furrier (fur craftsman), fur

pohl transitive
pohna f.
pohavl transitive [past: ]

1 to dress

to dress oneself, put clothing on (oneself) 2 to cover, lay a cover

on, cover up 3 to bind (book) 4 to put, put away (i.e., a sabre into
a sheath) 5 construction to put sheathing on, install cladding

passive a to be covered, be laid (a cover), be covered

up b to be bound (a book) c construction to be sheathed; have

animal) 2 to calm, comfort 3 to raise, nurse, foster

to

roofing

posr m. poster; advertisement colored poster


puskj m. 1
posl transitive [past: ] 1 to tend (e.g., a sick
posltb m.

1 puht f. 1 low mountain 2 hillock


2 puht imperfective aspect of
puhtj f. rib upper ribs lower ribs
puhtedl transitive
pohh m. 1 clothing, attire 2 sheathing, covering 3 roof,

dresser

puhtna-utna f. questions, questioning

question

posltj f. ornamentation, decoration

exterior cladding installed (e.g., a house, a ship)

154

phj f. folder

Pashto-English Dictionary

pohed
pusul f. compass; surveying compass
puka f.
1 puk m. 1
2 puk m. 1
puka f. 1 bubble (e.g., in water) 2 (urinary) bladder
swim bladder (in fish) 3 inflated (leather) bag idiom
to burst like a soap bubble
pukaj f. 2
pukl transitive proverb
Once burned, twice shy.
to inspire, encourage (someone)
poklr m. folklore
1 pukaj m. music 1 pukanay (native wind instrument
similiar to the Persian zurna) 2 clarinet

pukaj f. 1 urinary bladder 2 bubble (e.g., in water)


pukavl [past: transitive past: ] 1 to blow
on something, cool something 2 to blow up, inflate to

inflate a wineskin 3 to fan, kindle (fire)


to blow out, extinguish

to fan a fire 4

to blow out or extinguish the

lamp 5 to play (a wind instrument)

to play reed pipe

6 to blow away (e.g., dust) 7 figurative to inspire (e.g., a life)

He put a bit of heart in us.


pukavna f. 1 inflation (e.g., of a ball) 2

fanning, kindling

puk vahnkaj music wind

instrument

pukj m. 1

to play the reed pipe 2

pukedl intransitive [past: ] 1 to be inflated, be


blown up 2 to be fanned, be kindled (e.g., a bonfire) 3 to be

blown out, be extinguished, put out 4 to be blown away (e.g.,


dust)

the frame of the plow)

plnd m.
poland polandj 1 Polish 2 m. Pole (person)
polonij f.
1 pla f. 1 edge, boundary (of a field) 2 earthen wall;
embankment 3 boundary strip 4 border, frontier; state frontier

to violate the frontier 5 barrier, obstacle


2 pul f. 1 cooked grain 2 lump, bump
3 pla oblique with numerals from 1 50 pul
4 pla oblique of 2
5 pol f. cataract
1 pulj polj f. 1 armful, pile (thornbush, brushwood) 2
bound sheaf (e.g., of lucerne, clover)

pulj f. 1 bump 2 ulcer, sore


folk saying My heart is covered with wounds. 3 corn, callus
2

3 pulj f. sparkles
4 pul monetary monetary policy
politekhnk m. polytechnic school
polytechnic institute
polik m. regional politics, policy
poliik regional political, policy
pols m. singular & plural 1 attributive police
police regional colloquial police chief
secret police 2 police officer, policeman

polisvl m. singular & plural colloquial police officer


polis 1 adjective police bloodhound 2
1 bellows 2 blowtorch 3

bellows operator

pug f. 1
1 pul m. 1 money to regulate the
currency rate to spend a good deal of money 2
pul (Afghan coin, worth 1/100th of an afghan) a brass pul
2 pul m. 3
3 pul m. cataract
4 pol m. Pole (person)
pol d m. pul d 1 plural steel 2 proper name Polad, Pulat
poldsz f. steel-smelting business a
steel mill

politbjur Politbureau
pauls m. medicine poultice, embrocation
polikal regional political
puld r rich, monied (of a person)
pols m. singular & plural
pulk m. double-wedge (for attaching the iron plowshare to

wind

music trumpet 3 blowtorch

pukajv l
1 pog hollow, empty
2 pug m. 1
3 pog m. 2
pugr m. [plural: pugr]

problems

(e.g., a bonfire) 3 blowing out (e.g., a fire)

pold poldinj adjective steel


pul v m. Eastern chicken pilaf
pulph m. small bridge
politik political political and social

adjective detective

poliklink m. polyclinic
polign m. firing range
plnd m. pln m. Poland
polen polenj
polinezij f. the Polynesian Islands
polij f. poliomyelitis antipoliomyelitis vaccine

pumb f.
pun m.
pundn f.
game b empty talk, idle talk

155

a in the nature of play or a

Pashto-English Dictionary

pundghlj m. heel (of a shoe)


pavandgalv f. pavandgal

povna f. pasturage, pasture


pov pov 1 povaj Western imperfective aspect of

2 pov interjection Aha!


1 poh 1.1 intelligent, quick (on uptake), clever; sensible 1.2
wise 1.3 expert, able skilled craftsman 1.4 erudite,
knowledgeable experts one

f. nomadic economy;

cattle raising

pavand povand m. singular & plural 1 povindah,

nomadic cattle herder; nomadic trader 2 steppe dweller

compound verb to spur,


He put spur to his horse. a

pnda f. 1 heel

put spur to

to spur (on) b to move on with a job, get on with a matter;


determine to do something

should know that 2 m. .1 sage; scholar 2.2 expert

a to use the heel (spur)

b to get to work, get on with it 2 technology socket; coupling

pavandatb m.
1 pun m. 1
2 paun m. 1 pound sterling 2 pound (measure of weight)
punka f. greens, vegetable
punkj f. 1
punj f. 2
punj f. 2
puns pnsu numeral colloquial five hundred
pung m. bank (the financial institution)
pungpaj m. bank note
1 pung f. 2
2 pnga f.
1 pungalj m. 1 reed pipe 2 reed, oboe, hautboy
2 pungalj m. pungj f. 1 table-top (of a mountain)

prudent, reasonable

phv imperfective aspect of


puhpan
1 puh m. large mat
2 puh poharaj 1 stupid, imbecilic

pohht m. knowledge, state of being informed


pohlanj dull-witted, unskilfull
pohntn m. university; academy (educational
establishment); institute Kabul University
pohndzj m. 1 institute (educational establishment)
conservatory female university
student 2 university department

gnaw out, eat away

pua f. leap, amble


1 paj m.
2 puj f. skein, hank (of woolen yarn)
literal Out of a ser of wool, he did not twist even one

pujavl transitive [past: ] 1 to gnaw (e.g., of a


mouse) 2 to crack, crack (with the teeth); shell (nuts, seeds, etc.)

pva f. lazy woman


povl povl puvl transitive Eastern [present: past:
] to graze idiom to act independently, not
seeking advice

pavn m.
povand

dialect English pound


m.

2 crude,

uncultivated, uncouth 3 dirty, slovenly 4 clumsy, ungainly

2 merchandise (of an itinerant peddler)

puedl intransitive [past: ]1 to be hollowed out 2 to


be hollow; be eaten out 3 to leap, bound; amble

(December - January)

his field 1.3 professor emeritus 2.1 erudite, knowledgeable 2.2

pun f. 1 light rain; rain showers 2 spraying (from the mouth)


to spray (saliva from the mouth)
1 pau m. Eastern 2
2 pu m. kind of match used in former times
puka f. puka f.
ponaj m.
punavl transitive [past: ] 1 to hollow out 2 to

poh m. regional tenth month of the Hindu calendar

3 puv f. moist, arable land


4 puh m. 1
poh interjection Aha! Well, well!
poh n plural of 1 2
poh nd Western 1 m. .1 scholar sociologist
Pashto specialist 1. 2 expert; expert in

element 3 stern (ship)

skein. figurative He did not do 1/100th of the task he was to do.

pohnd intelligent, erudite


pohndj m. 1 scholar 2 (academic) specialist; expert
pohnml m. senior lecturer, docent
pohnv l m. professor
pohna f. 1 knowledge, cognition knowledge is
light to have learning 2 learning; science
natural history Academy of Sciences 3 education
Ministry of Education 4 instruction; training
military training
pohnj r m. teacher (in an institution of higher learning);
assistant (junior member of a teaching or research staff)

pohnj l m. expert, specialist, authority


poh interjection oho, aha
pohv laj m. 1 comprehension, cleverness; intelligibility
wisdom 3 ability, skillfullness

pohvatlaj understandable, accessible to understanding


pohavl 1 [past: ] transitive .1 to explain,
elucidate, explicate; make understand to make out,
understand 1.2 to teach (students) 1.3 to inform, let know,

156

Pashto-English Dictionary

acquaint 1.4 to let know beforehand, warn 1.5 to give a few tips,
advise 2 m. plural

on the
They live on our street.
to sell in the bazaar in this
surface on which something is located)
shoulder

pohavl-rapohavl m. plural mutual understanding;


relationship mutual understanding; relationship

pohavna f. 1 explanation, elucidation 2 teaching (students)

meeting c at; at the time of something in; during (indicates time or


term) last year in March
on Friday at the examination; at the
time of the examination psarl in spring
at the time of the retreat, during the retreat at

3 information, intelligence, data 4 warning, admonition 5

exhortation, homily

pohoh interjection ah-ha-ha


pha f. 1 reason, intellect 2 comprehension 3 realization,

understanding

a consciously b reasonably
practical accomplishments,

each stage d into (indicates the general meaning of distribution)

knowledge; learning
learning

2 pha feminine singular of 1


pohjlj 1.1 clever, bright 1.2

to divide into two parts e for, in the course of, in

for these three


for a day, in one day
for four hours, in the course of four hours f from to

(indicates duration of time)


days

circumspect 2 m. teacher

(in a higher institution of learning)

on the other side b on (used to designate the place or

(indicates transfer from one to another analogous object,

pohedl poehdl 1 [past: intransitive past:


].1 to understand, comprehend, grasp

forming a bound form)

past:

house

Did you understand me? 1.2 to know, understand


to understand foreign languages ...
It is well known to him that How do you know
that? Everybody knows that
He doesn't know anything. He doesn't understand
anything. 1.3 to find out; notice No one
found out about this. Nobody noticed this. 1.4 to know how to
Do you know how to write? 1.5 to find out about,
inquire into He didn't find anything out about
it. He didn't inquire into it. 1.6 to notice, feel something
We did not feel the cold. 1.7 to resolve, sort out,
analyze (some problem) We'll figure it out
tomorrow. Tomorrow we'll come up with the explanation. 1.8

!
plural

from house to house, in each

from hand to hand g from to (indicates a

constant repetition in time, making a bound form)


year to year, annually

from

from month to month,

monthly h along (indicates the object or surface over which


someone or something is moving or proceeding)

He could not go along the road i among, with (indicates


among us,

location or stay among or with someone, a group)


among the Pashtoons, with the Pashtoons

with us j used to indicate multiplication and short numerical


correspondences

2x2=4

twice as much k indicates percent

by 2 times,
(by) thirty

percent, (by) 30% 1.2 Eastern in conjunction with the


postposition and without it: a on; at (indicates the place or
surface where someone or something is located, or where some

ironic to settle up with, get even with someone

action is taking place, and also indicates the person or object to

I'll get even with you! I'll show you! 2 m.

which the action is directed)

He went up on the
Put the book on the table.
They are eating at the table.
to control oneself b at (indicates the time or term of
something) at 10 o'clock c for so much; for such and

roof.

pohedl-rapohedl m. plural mutual understanding;

intercourse

pohedna f. cognition, learning, study


the study of folklore

pohed m. plural familiarization, informing


1 poj dialect 1
2 poj m. 2
pujng m. vine (grape) beginning to bear fruit
pojavl transitive 1
1 pja f. dialect 1
2 puj f. clothes moth
3 poj f. trot, amble
1 p dialect pa 1 preposition in several cases the noun governed
by it is not inflected .1 in combination with the postposition
or without it: a in (used to designate place, direction, or
location) in the house in the
room to put a handkerchief in the pocket

such amount (indicates compensation, reward, or price received for


something)

to sell for money

to sell for ten rupees d indicates the person or object by means of

to wash
to have clothing made
by a tailor Don't crack the almond with your
teeth. The letter writer wrote a letter
which an action is accomplished
the hands with soap

for me. I had a scribe write a letter for me. e indicates the person
or object to which something else relates or pertains

I'm responsible for this. I'll take this upon myself. f indicates the
limit of an action, the attainment of a goal

They kept going and going and they got to Bara-Bazdary.

1.3 in conjunction with the postposition


157

or without it: a with

Pashto-English Dictionary

(indicates the means or method by which an action is

accompany someone b to strive after something 2 afterwards,

to write with a pen


Buy wheat with this

accomplished)

after something

to write with a pen

money. b at; at the time of (indicates the time, or beginning of an


action or process)

And he left afterwards.

phatan regional Afghan, Pathan 2


pach f.
p dz j 1.1 settling, populating 1.2 setting, reducing (of a

with the advent of the

New Year; at the beginning of the New Year

p pori p puri adverb to something; in the presence of


something

at the

arrival (of); having arrived c with; in (indicates the


to live peacefully
in turn, in its turn in great quantity
(scope) with force firmly, with firmness d in the

condition or character of the action accomplished)

fracture, dislocation) 1.3 executed, completed, brought to a finish

with great interest

joint) c to execute, complete, bring to a finish

on the basis of the election

proper time

hundreds of thousands of automobiles

a for, after (indicates the goal or


I am going to the
market for fruit. Boy! for whom have
you come? to send for someone

pts tlnkaj very backward, reactionary, retrograde


ptsng 1 secluded, solitary a secluded place
2.1 alongside, near, close by Eastern He sat
alongside. 2.2 along

with the postposition

purpose of an action)

to strive for improvement b following, behind (indicates

Ahmed is coming

ptsangavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1


to push aside, remove, move to one side 2 to set apart 3 to set
aside, grant a postponement

tie the horse to a tree b

be postponed, be set aside

How
much does a pack of cigarettes cost? How
much are you selling these melons for? How much

indicates belonging, dependence; relationship to someone or

not to belong to any party;


to depend on the environment
indicates location close to or near something a at

something

to be non-party
a

the entrance (to a cave, etc.) b to the mouth (to bring nearer) c

with (indicates consumption, eating together with something else)

Eat some bread with these grapes. 2


adverb .1 for it, for them Also get some glass

for this (i.e., for this money). 2.2 with the help of this or these; by
means of this or these 2.3 because of this; about this

this 2 by means of this; it

p pas adverb 1 after him, her; after them

send someone after

a to follow after someone;

p ts how much, for how much

does this cost?

ptsaulv laj m. 1 quantity 2 circumstances (of a

matter)

p hl conscious, comprehending
pkhpla
p d ki p d ke Eastern 1 now then; at this time

among, including 3 in the meantime, meanwhile

pahr m. Eastern 1 watch (e.g., sentinel, guard) 2 time,

occasion

I am very glad about this. I rejoice because of this.

2 pa f. 1 plaster 2 splints
phk m. regional 1 entrance 2 gate
pamn f. farewell, parting
phns f. gallows compound verb to hang
compound verb to be hung
pb nde adverb Eastern 1 on it (any gender); on them; on

ptsangedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

1 to stand aside, withdraw to the sidelines 2 to be set apart 3 to

behind me. Ahmed is following me. 1.5 in conjunction with the


postposition a to (indicates an object which is attached or
fastened to something)

You spoke to the point.

to a finish

thousands of Pashtoons 1.4 in conjunction

following after someone)

pdzjkavna f. 1 settling, colonization 2 reduction,


setting (of an injury to a joint) 3 execution, completion, bringing

according to nomination, appointment f hundreds, thousands


(indicates a large quantity, in general round numbers)

a to be

completed, be brought to a finish 2 opportunely, apropos, at the

It is light at night when there is a

moon. e according to (in accordance with something, on the basis


of something)

settled b to be set, be reduced (of a joint) c to be executed, be

presence of; when there is a (indicates the presence of


something)

a to settle b to reduce, set (of a fractured, dislocated

to

2 puhr indecent
3 phr vice everywhere
prangavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

to

paint, color

prangedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


be painted, be colored

pahravl transitive Eastern


pahr f. regional pehr 1
pahrad r m.
pahrad rkhn f.
pah m. slanderer
158

Pashto-English Dictionary

pehj f. regional
p z puri 1

pleasant (e.g., a smell) 2 interesting,

pzkavl m. plural pzkavna f.


memorization, learning by heart

pzkavnaj m. instruction, aide-mmoire, note


p zj ta 1 especially; particularly 2 moreover 3 also
p stn
m. analog
pshlikna f. endorsement (of a promissary note)
pshn pshn like, similiar (to)
pshnokavna f. maintaining cattle on green fodder or

recall 2 to memorize, learn by heart

pjdedl denominative [past: ] 1 to be


remembered; be recalled, come to mind 2 to be memorized, be

pasturage

p h p h for good, favor, benefaction

to

learned by heart

phedl intransitive
phelavl transitive [past: ]

pghahavl denominative, transitive [past: ]


to seize something with the teeth, bite

pravl denominative, transitive [past:


anger, enrage

pheledl intransitive [past: ]1 to be spread, be


spread out 2 to be unrolled 3 to be scattered, be strewn 4 to be

pkredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


angry, be enraged

disseminated; be expanded

pkr
1 pkravl denominative, transitive
2 pkravl denominative, transitive
1 pkredl denominative, intransitive
2 pkredl denominative, intransitive
pki Eastern pke
pk
pgrda 1 in entirety, fully 2 collectively, together, jointly
plsavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to
various aspects

pahlvaj m. regional botany white dog-rose


pahlav n m. 1 sports wrestler; athlete 2 champion

paj m. [plural: pajuna] .1 tendon, sinew 1.2

foundation, base 1.3 print, track (feet) 1.4 ford, crossing 1.5
place between two rivers 1.6 cutting; chopping 1.7 layer of earth
dug up by shovel

to shovel, dig

compound verb a

to cut a tendon b to chop, chop down c to leave tracks, footprints


d to cross (a river, ford) e to measure, plumb the depth (e.g., of a

to transfer into
to belong to someone, to be
in someone's possession 2 behind, immediately after idiom
to understand, apprehend the sense, get the hint; find out the
river) 1.8 possession, ownership

someone's possession

deliver, entrust

pahl m. side (of a question), aspect

1 to spread, spread out

2 to unroll 3 to scatter, strew 4 to disseminate; expand

to

Oh, how far

away he is!

be useful to someone, go to someone for a favor

phh interjection
phav vice
phrta
pvrvro little by little, slowly
phavl transitive
phoh interjection oh-ho-ho
pah f. 1 coating (substance) 2 bandage, binding 3 ointment
pj d memorized, mastered, studied
pjdavl denominative [past: ] 1 to remember,

entertaining; attractive 3 sincere, cordial

ph interjection aha, oho

meaning

to have

pj f. plural m. plural Eastern 1 milk 2 milky juice (plant),

latex 3 dialect

idiom

They

are very friendly. They always keep together.

3 hero;

folk-hero

pahlavn f. 1 sports wrestling 2 heroism


pahm m. Eastern
pmi interjection aha, oho
pmkh
pmkhtg m.
pmkh tllaj advanced, developed (i.e., of a country)
pmkha toward to meet halfway
I went to meet him.
pmkhah f. pmkhah leave-taking, farewell
to say goodbye
pahmavl transitive Eastern
pahand r wide, expansive, broad

3 pe pe, name of the letter


4 pe Eastern 2
military abbreviation of 2
1 pj tsa f. rice or wheat bread, rice or wheat flat-cake
2 pj tsa f. 1 part (hair) 2 bell-bottoms (trousers)
1 pj khla f. 1 silk cuff 2 piping (on collar, sleeve)
2 pj khla f. 1 preparation of vegetable extract 2 sweating (of
a sick person) to make sweat, cause to sweat (a patient)
pj d
pijdag f. the work of a courier or deliveryman to
work as a courier, be a delivery man

pjdavl denominative, transitive


pijd 1 adjective .1 pedestrian 1.2 adjective military
infantry infantry infantry unit 2 m. .1

159

Pashto-English Dictionary

pedestrian 2.2 courier, deliveryman 2.3 infantryman 2.4 chess


pawn 3 on foot

strengthen

pijdap pijdap j on foot


pijdarv m. sidewalk
pijdarav f. going on foot, walking
pjdedl denominative, intransitive
pjrzhnd f. watering land at night
pjgnda f.
pj rma f. 1 crupper (harness part) 2 rope (specifically that
which laces the netting of a bed to the frame) 3 drive belt (of a
spinning wheel) 4 figurative property obtained by dishonest
means

pjmakhr m. extortionist
pjmarvr having a large fatty tail (sheep)
ram with large fatty tail

pij z m. usually plural onions, onion

onions

spring

onions, let them be (given) with kindness. figurative It's not the
m. wild onions
miscarriage, abortion 2.1 missing, disappeared;

perished 2.2 damaged, spoiled

a to abort; have a

miscarriage b to abort, destroy, damage, spoil

a to be

aborted b to be missing, disappear; perish c to be damaged, be


spoiled

pjz reddish
pjsa f. channel (of a river, stream)
1 pj ghla f. 1 1 2 scarf, muffler
2 pj ghla f. 2
pj gi f. knee tendons
pj lkha f. dialect embroidery, needlework
pijl f. 1 piala (footed teacup), cup cup of tea
to fill cups with wine 2 basin, bowl 3 pan (of a
flintlock rifle)

pijlj f. small teacup


2 pijl plural of
pajm m.
pj nda 1 lock (hair) 2 beautiful
ping-j ng m. Pyongyang (city)
pj n f. piano to play the piano
pj no vahnkaj m. pianist
pjvrkaj m. botany spurge, Euphorbia
pjv
pjvtb m. pjvtj f.

to develop,

to be developed, be strengthened 7

pjvajtb m.
pjj present stem of
1 pip m. 1 can (i.e., for gasoline) 2 barrel
2 pajp m. 1 pipe (smoking) 2 pipe
pip f. lean meat
piplj m. kind of elongated pepper
pepnj f. dress, gown
pit 1 flat 2 shallow (e.g., of a dish) 3 flat-bottomed (of a boat)
2
pajtv f. puttees
pitvaj m.
pitpzaj pitpzaj having a flat nose; snub-nosed
petaj m. warehouseman; superintendant of a depot or
warehouse

pitl m. tin plate


pitnsaj m.
pitavl denominative, transitive [past: ]
flatten down 2 to press down

1 to flatten,

to press

oneself to the earth, flatten oneself to the ground

1 pjta f. usually plural pjti deposit, film (on the teeth)


2 pta feminine singular of
3 pit f. tape measure; tape (for measuring)
1 pit f. pajt Eastern 1 petj m. Western 2
2 pitj flat-nosed, snub-nosed dialect Snyder rifle
3 pti plural of 2
4 pit plural of 3
pitedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be
flattened 2 to be pressed down

pi m. plural peat

pe 1 m. .1 damnation

damned!

May he be

to curse 1.2 shame, disgrace 2 interjection

phooey 3 quite, on the whole

3 pe m. 1
per m. 1 woven basket with a top

2 woven cage, woven

container (for snakes kept by fakirs)

pek m. 1 gift from relatives of the bride-to-be given to the

young man (on the occasion of the unveiling of the fianc's face) 2
gift to a child from relatives (soon after its birth) 3 woman's
decoration worn at the temples

pjvv laj m. 1

courtesy, good breeding 2 mind, quick-wittedness 3


development, strengthening

pjvaj 1 courteous, well-bred 2 quick-witted,


understanding, able 3 outstanding 4 vigorous 5 able, excellent

(i.e., a marksman) 6 strong, powerful, robust

talented; skillful, expert

proverb literal Even if it's only

gift, it's the thought that counts.

pjzkj
pj za 1 f.

strong, developed (economically)

pel transitive [past: ] to curse


pelaj damned
pen m. 1 aversion 2 indignation; displeasure
1 pe m. cursing someone
2 pe plural oblique of 2
pevr m.
160

Pashto-English Dictionary

pej m. 1 load; pack; bale 2 figurative burden; weight


burden, weight excessive burden, burden too
great to bear proverb literal They are

2 pech present tense of


3 pech plural of 1
pechidag f. 1 complication 2 intricacy 3 complexity
pechedl intransitive [past: ]1 to move around,

picking up the burden. figurative There is no other way out.


idiom

You gave assistance to no one.

revolve 2 to be wound around; be wound up 3 to coil

pechid
pechidag f.
pets m. 1 patience, endurance 2 dialect evil
pets aj
ptska f. pitskj f. 1 hem (of a shirt)

pej f. 1 sword belt 2 belt, girdle 3 bale, pack


pedzh v pure, unalloyed to purify to be

purified

pedzhmkhv laj m. beauty


pedzhmkhaj
1 pech m. 1 bend, twist; turn 2 crookedness 3 screw; wood
screw 4 dysentery amoebic dysentery 5 regional
cramps a to wind, coil; turn b to screw in; twist in c to

side, aspect (of a question, etc.)

petsl transitive [past: ] to bear, endure (e.g., grief)


petsna f. patience, endurance, long-suffering
petsvl m. 1 side panel of a tent 2 screen; partition
petsnaj m.
1 pets f. 1 portion, part 2 lot 3 to bear,

pin down with a hold (wrestling) d figurative to betray e


figurative to complicate, muddle up
turn round and round

pech m. Pech (river, district in Nuristan)

Valley

to revolve, twist,

the Pech

suffer, endure

pechtb m. 1 difficulty 2 emotional agitation, anxiety 3

screwdriver

pechtv m. screwdriver
pechdarpch winding, tortuous
pechsh m. 1 dysentery 2 colic
pechk m. 1 skein, hank (of thread, yarn) 2 spool; bobbin
pechkr f. 1 injection, shot, hypodermic
injection to give a shot, give an injection, administer

pechl transitive [past: ] 1 to revolve, turn 2 to


wind round; wind to turn away, turn to one side

passive

a to wind round b to be twisted; be wound; be wound

bend (in a road) 2.3 figurative turning point, crisis


f. little pigtail (braided lower than the ear)
imperative of

dialect closed, shut

to become

endangered (e.g., difficulties)

a to create; produce b to

discover, find c to acquire, obtain, get d to evoke, engender, give

a roundabout road 2 m. .1 rise, slope; uphill grade 2.2 turn,

imperfective of

to

arising 4 discovered, found 5 obtained; acquired 6 evoked,

a to be created; appear, arise


Disagreements arose between them.

rise to (i.e., difficulties)

b to be discovered, be found c to be obtained, be gotten, be

extracted d to appear, show itself e to turn out, prove to be, arise

illegitimate, born out of wedlock


In what city were you born? g to be
found, be met It is rare to encounter such
f to be born

mountains)

1 pech
2 pch
3 pech
1 pche

abundant

around c to be complicated; be involved; be unclear

pechmaj 1.1 winding, twisting 1.2 roundabout

ptsa f. annoyance, pestering, bothering

pj khartsavnkaj m. milkman, one who sells milk


pekhedl intransitive
pejd 1 created; produced 2 born 3 appearing; forming;

pechmzi f. plural pechmj f. mockery


to laugh, laugh at someone
pechvj f. hobbles, fetters
pechutb m. 1, 2
pechukhm winding, twisting
pechor f. the Pechora River
pechma f. rise, ascent, upgrade slope (e.g., in the

ptsa f.

4 ptsa imperative imperfective of


5 pets imperfective aspect of
pekh m. spur (of a rooster)
pikh a f. dung, droppings (of sheep, goat)
pikh la f. droppings (of a bird)
pekhr m. large quantity; profusion

pechlaj 1 twisted 2 turned; wound; wound around 3


complex; complicated; involved; unclear (e.g., of a problem)

annoy, bore, pester

a hypodermic injection 2 syringe, hypodermic syringe

2 cuff (e.g., of

trouser leg) 3 tip, corner (of a shawl, chador, etc.) 4 figurative

people. h to breed (cattle) i to be produced, be manufactured

pajd kavnkaj m. 1 creator, maker 2 producer


pajdked m. plural 1 creation; appearance, origin

discovery 3 acquisition, obtaining 4 descent 5 birth

pedgozh f. pedagogy
pedagogic institute

Shut up! Be quiet!


161

muassas-ji

Pashto-English Dictionary

pajdvr m. plural 1 production, output; product; goods


mineral riches 2 mining, extraction coal

1 perakj m. pirakj small pie (with vegetable filling)


small pie baked in a tonur (i.e., earthen oven)

2 pirkj m. diminutive of 1
pergr imitating
1 pirgj m. acorn
2 piragj m. wooden shovel (for shoveling snow)
3 pirgj m. diminutive of 1
1 pirl transitive
2 perl transitive [past: ] to braid, plait (e.g., a net, a

mining
birth

pajdvnht m. pajdvuht 1 provenance, descent; origin;

by descent 2 living creature; creature

pajdjsh m.
pajdjish inborn, innate, congenital
pajdjh m. pajdajh pajdjht

m. pajdjht 1
creation; appearance, beginning 2 birth 3 output; product 4
production

pajdarpj 1 sequential; uninterrupted 2 successively;

uninterruptedly

pir m. 1 old man, elder 2 pir (Muslim spiritual guide)

per m. 1 turning; turn

The horsemen
a to revolve;

immediately turned back. 2 bend, twist

turn; turn around b to coil 3 figurative falseness

3 pir m. Monday
perhn m. 1 shirt, blouse 2 dress (female's)
piraja f. 1 adornment, appointments; attire 2 embellishment
3 figurative appearance

perdz Eastern
perdzojna f.
prdzj m. post, place of assignment
per 1 2
pertb m. perv laj m. corpulence; stoutness
pirzd m. offspring of a pir (i.e., spiritual guide)
perz 1 proper, fitting, worthy to award, favor,
consider worthy of something to be worthy, deserve
something I consider you worthy of this
reward. No, I do not want you
to suffer so. 2 desired, wished a to consider worthy,
deserving of something b to desire someone (to have) something

He doesn't
wish you evil. I don't want to disturb
you any longer. However, time ordained
otherwise. I don't wish to burden anybody.
perzonk m. perzovnkaj m. well-wisher
perzov laj m. perzovna f. perzojna f. 1
awarding 2 wish, desire good wishes
to wish (someone) all the best 3 favor,
inclination, consideration to someone; courtesy
considerately, courteously perzojni to
3 pleasant, pleasing idiom

show consideration to someone 4 advantage, preference 5

indulgence, favor, goodwill, kindness


favor, ask for indulgence

mat)

pir muhammd m. proper name Pir Muhammed


permkhaj
perng m. 1 the Christian world 2 Europe
perangj m. 1 Englishman English officers

prs m. regional Paris (city)

European (person) 3 Christian (person)

pirin Pyrenees, the Pyrenees Mountains


1 perna f. plainting, braiding (e.g., nets, mats)
2 perna f.
1 pajrv m. 1 follower, adherent 2 member of a sect
2 pir m. affectionate
3 per m. Peru
1 perv n m. anatomy placenta
pajrav n plural of 1
pervtaj m. pervtaj pervte f. 1 bindweed (plant) 2

lianas

(general term for climbing plant in tropical climates)

perd m. buying; procurement


perodl pirodl transitive [present:

past: ] to

buy, procure, stock up

perodna f. purchasing; procuring; stocking up


perodnkaj 1 present participle of 2 m. purchaser
perdaj bought (up); procured
peroz f.
1 peruz f. victory
2 perozj m. strainer, filter (of cloth, muslin)
perozh f. turquoise
pernkaj 1 present participle of 2 2 m. weaver (of
nets, mats)

pervna pervne f. 1 singular & plural astronomy the


Pleiades 2 f. proper name Pervyna idiom

Autumn came on.

pervaj pervaj m. cream sour cream


idiom a to grow dark before

to ask a

one's eyes b to get into a rage c to be angry with someone idiom

a he became blind b he became intensely

hungry

perzojnaj 1 kind; well-wishing 2 gracious 3 kind,

considerate

small pie cooked in a skillet

pajrav f. 1 emulating someone; escorting, accompanying

someone

162

in company with someone 2 imitating

Pashto-English Dictionary

someone 3 observing, maintaining something (as a law or custom,


tradition) 4 law conducting a trial a trial
per f. pajr 1 guard (body of men); protection, security
advance guardpost to set up a guard, institute
security to guard, protect
They were under increased security. 2 Eastern time, occasion
He came and went two times. 3 case idiom
to travel on business
perad r m. pajrad r sentry, guard
perad rkhn f. sentry box
perad r f. guarding, carrying out security measure,
performing the duties of an armed-guard detachment
guard duty, guard service
perakj m. 1
peravl m.
1 perj m. evil spirit, jinn, demon idiom a
to grow dark before one's eyes b to go into a rage c to be angry
with someone

per Are you losing your mind?

Has the evil one bewitched you?

2 per pir 1 present of 2 m. purchase, buying


buying and selling, trading to buy, procure
3 pir f. 1 old age; declining years 2 the position of a pir (i.e.,
spiritual advisor), or a murshid (i.e., spiritual counsellor)

4 perj f. fairy
5 per f. plural imitating, mimicking
perj n perij n plural of 1 idiom mirage
perjn f. wicked fairy, witch
perjan perjnj 1 devilish; demoniac 2 possessed,
dominated by an evil spirit

perin f.
pirinz m. plural the Pyrenees
1 pe 1 m. .1 mortar (wooden) 1.2

press (for obtaining must

from berries) 1.3 squeezing (juice from berries) 2.1 stout;

corpulent; fat 2.2 large, big

a large apple 2.3 coarse,

thick (e.g., of cloth)

2 pe tautological with
petb m.
peza f. pile of earth
pem r m. worker engaged in the cooking of must
pemkh turned over, overturned to invert, overturn
pemn m. lazy fat man, lazy fatso
1 pe pe m. pay of a herdsman or shepherd
2 pe oblique of 1
3 pe oblique plural of 1
pev laj m. 1 stoutness; corpulence 2 coarseness (e.g., of

2 pa feminine singular of 1 2
1 pej f. 1 century, age from century to century,
from one century to another for centuries, in the course
of centuries to last for centuries 2 generation (30 years)
2 pej f. stool; bench
pez m. repairing; darning, mending
pajz r m. slippers; payzars (a kind of Afghan footgear with
turned-up toes)

pajzr f. pedestal
pezl transitive [past: ] to repair; darn, mend
1 pez f. peso (monetary unit)
2 pez present tense first person singular of
pezv n m. 1 nose ring (female adornment) 2 single
(swingle)- tree (for harnessing horse to a plow) 3 ring or wooden
plug threaded through a camel's nostril to control the animal 4
muzzle (for a calf)

figurative docile person, meek person 3

pza f. 1 ledge (on a mountain) 2 pinnacle (mountain), peak

3 dialect nose 4 crown 5 point, spike to sharpen


2 pez f. medicine incontinence of urine
1 pze pzi plural of 1
2 pez pezj faded, withered to fade, wither
3 pezj f. reading haltingly ABC's, alphabet
a to read haltingly b to write or pronounce haltingly
pezitb m. 1 flabbiness 2 fading, withering
pezedl intransitive [past: ] to droop, fade, dry up
peziv laj m.
pezh nd 1 familiar 2 m. connoisseur; expert
pezhndgalv f.
pezhndl transitive
pezhnd m. plural pezhnd f. 1 cognition, understanding

of something 2 familiarity with someone or something

pzhan present stem of


pezhantn m. military directorate of personnel
pezhnd m. military personnel, cadre
pezhandgalv f. pezhandgal f. 1 familiarization
or acquaintance with something; cognition or knowledge of


friendly relations

something

I am not acquainted with him.


2 recommendation 3

registration; inventory-taking

pezhandl 1 [present: past: ] transitive .1 to


know someone, be acquainted with someone Do you
know me?

to acquaint someone with

someone or something; to present to someone

cloth)

pezv nj m. pezv n 1 bullock or ox with muzzle 2

peda coarse, harsh

Permit me to introduce my friend to

you. 1.2 to recognize someone

pa f. 1 lump, ball (of dough) 2 sweet dish made of cream

and sugar

They knew one another well by this time. 1.3 to

understand, get to know, grasp 1.4 to know something 1.5 to


163

Pashto-English Dictionary

to recognize
officially (e.g., a government) to distinguish something
to be presented to someone
to distinguish one from another 2 m. plural

pezhandna f. 1 acquaintanceship
to become acquainted with someone 2
recognize someone or something

appelation, designation 3 description, depiction 4 knowledge;


study

climatology

self-knowledge

pezhandv l m. military chief of the personnel directorate


pezhandn m.
pezhndj pezhndj 1.1 knowing, informed 1.2 familiar
acquaintances 2 m. acquaintance
pegl transitive Western [past: ] 1 to make a cut or
notch 2 to cut; chop, chop off, cut off 3 medicine to amputate

pes m. 1 m. leprosy 2 leprous

pis m. vanity; arrogance

arrogant

pisaj m.
pes m. paste toothpaste
pes ugly; unattractive a

to be vain; be

to consider ugly, think

unattractive b to despise

pska f.
piskj f.
pislj m. section of land over which water passes at the time
of irrigation

pismn vain; arrogant


pajs pes f. Eastern 1 small coin, pice 2 usually plural
pajs pes Eastern pes 3 money rich man,
monied person a to take money b to take bribes
pajsad r monied, well-to-do
pajsadost f. avarice, greed
1 pes m. leper
2 pisj m. fop, dandy
pajs pes Eastern plural of
pesevl m. Eastern rich man, monied individual
1 pesh 1.1 in front, ahead; before 1.2 forward 1.3 earlier,
formerly, first first of all a to bring forward;
advance; present b to adduce, offer (an example, a quotation) 2

m. linguistics pesh, zamm (the supralinear symbol ' for the short
vowels /u/ or /o/)

organization 2 vanguard, advance party

peshbnd m. 1 martingale (harness component) 2 apron


peshband f. 1 prudence, foresight 2 care, caution
a to be prudent, be foresighted b to be careful, be
cautious

peshbn 1 prudent, foresighted 2 careful, cautious


peshbin f. prevision, foresightedness; prudence
compound verb to foresee, envisage compound verb
a to be foresighted, to have envisaged b to have anticipated

pishp ng m. panther
pish-pish-pish interjection here kitty-kitty-kitty
1 pisht tautological with
2 pisht interjection Scat!
peshtr 1 former, previous 2 earlier, before
pishtraj m. kind of sweet green vegetable
pishtvl m. 1 lintel (of a door) 2 ceiling 3 main ceiling
beam

peshkhn f.
peshkhabar f.
peshkhr extravagant, living on credit, living beyond one's
means

peshkhor f. 1 life on credit, extravagance 2 grain on loan

peshkhajm f. 1 tent sent ahead of a military unit on the

against a future harvest (as collateral)


march 2 herald, harbinger

peshd r m. military vanguard; advance party


peshdst 1 outstripping the others, running ahead

2 swift,

quick, adroit

peshdast f. 1 outstripping, running ahead 2 swiftness,

quickness, adroitness

peshr n m. breechblock (of a rifle)


peshrs early, ripening early, early-ripening
peshrft m. 1 moving forward, progress 2 success,
advancement 3 military offensive, attack a to move
forward b to produce successes c to attack

peshrft ghuhtnkaj progressive


peshrv 1 m. .1 advancement, moving forward
go forward 1.2 doubt, fear 1.3 preface 1.4 person who is

pish m. dialect cat


pish a f. 1 mockery

pesh n 1 forward, front 2 advanced


peshn f. 1 sitting room 2 dialect pantry, storeroom
peshn f. 1
peshahng m. 1 pioneer, member of the pioneer

advancing 1.5 predecessor 2.1 front, anterior 2.2 preceding

to laugh at someone 2

attack 3 smirk, grin

pish k m. scab; mange


peshmd m. 1 event, occurence 2 approach, behavior
They were rude. They conducted themselves
rudely. to conduct yourself in relation to

peshrav f. advancement, moving forward

move forward, advance

peshfikr f. foresight
peshbza f.

someone else, behave toward someone

164

to

to be foresighted

to

Pashto-English Dictionary

peshkadm 1 advanced, vanguard, moving forward


figurative forward, advanced detachment, vanguard 2 m.
herald, precursor, forerunner

peshkadam f. 1 advance, advancement, moving ahead 2

pishompj f. game with a ball


pishngaj m. pishongaj m. kitten
peshavna f. 1 presentation; delivery 2 closing, locking

(e.g., a door) 3 attaching, joining (to) 4 bringing forward (e.g.,

offensive 3 initiative

conditions) 5 proposal, overture

pesharvl m. military 1 vanguard, advance units 2

patrol

peshvza f. peshkavza (a kind of large double-edged

knife)

1
2

peshvj f. ladle, scoop


pesh f. 1 trade, craft; profession 2 practice; habit

peshavr m.

peshk m. medicine leprosy, Hanson's disease


peshk r m. 1 manager (e.g., of property) 2 overseer
peshkr f. 1 direction, management 2 the work of an
overseer

pishka f. pussy, pussycat


1 peshak f.
2 peshkj m. leper, Hanson's disease sufferer
peshgo f. peshgu prediction, forecast, prognosis
I can say nothing in advance.
weather forecast a to predict, forecast
b to make a prognosis, make a forecast (e.g., of the weather)

compound verb to predict, forecast


peshg f. peshag advance, advance money, deposit
peshl transitive [past: ] to cool (stirring with a

guard meat, set a goat to watch the cabbages

peshv m. 1 leader, chief 2 history peshwa (title of the

leader of the Mahrattas in India)


be a bootlicker

to toady,

pishopj f. tug-of-war (the game)


peshavr m. artisan; workman
peshvrz m. overskirt (worn by a dancer)
pishogj f. 1 kitty, pussycat 2 hairy caterpillar
peshavl denominative [past: ] 1 deliver; bring to
someone 2 close, lock, bolt (e.g., a door) 3 to fasten to, join,

unite 4 to bring forward, set (e.g., conditions)

He placed the following conditions before them. 5 to

present (with)

a to try to ingratiate oneself

caterpillar 3 purse

pshi f. plural children's speech pee-pee, urine

to pee-pee, urinate

peshadl intransitive [past: ] 1 to be delivered;


present oneself to someone 2 to be closed, be locked, be bolted

(e.g., of a door) 3 to be attached, be joined 4 to be closed up (of a


wound) 5 to join, converge 6 to be put forth, be proposed
(conditions)

peshn m. 1 the afternoon 2 namaz (Muslim prayer offered

after noon)

1 2

peh m. peh

peh peh 1 going on, occurring

happening to

me, happening to us; experienced by me, experienced by us

peshnih d m. [plural: peshnihdna plural:


peshnihd t] Arabic proposition, suggestion
a to introduce a proposal, propose b to submit proof
to submit evidence to a court
peshan fashionable fashionable clothing
pish f. cat proverb to set a cat to

pishobz f. toadying, bootlicking

to take

with, make up to, fawn upon b to make up to

(during Ramadan)

pish f. cat

2 pishj m. cat
3 pesh f. 1 precedent 2 conduct, conducting (of a trial)
at the time of the (courtroom) trial
4 pishj f. 1 small nose ring (female decoration) 2 hairy

spoon)

peshlra f. pishlraj m.
peshlamj m. Western
peshmanj f. mockery
peshmanj m. meal completed before daybreak

pesh f. regional 1 testimony, evidence

down testimony 2 appearance (in court)

to stab with a peshkavza

What kind of misfortune befell? 2 predicative

front, anterior to, first, moved up front

3 peh peh tautological with


pehv pehv m. 1 humorous prank, trick; eccentricity; to
be engaged in pranks, perform practical jokes 2
mockery, ridicule to ridicule 3 occurrence, event
pehvr pehvr m. 1
pehv pehv m. 1 imitator 2 scoffer
pehkh pehkh m. pehkah pehkah f.
gift; present to give a gift
peh peh m.
1 pehavr m. pehavr Peshawar (city)
Peshawar District

pehvr m. carpet maker, weaver of palases (a kind of


napless carpet)

pehavrj pehavrj 1 attributive Peshawar 2 m.

resident of Peshawar

2 pehavrj feminine singular of 1


pekhavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
cause, provoke to destroy to inflict harm,
165

Pashto-English Dictionary

cause damage

render assistance; create (conditions)


something

peghoravl denominative [past: ] 1 reproach;


reprove; judge; 2 reprimand, censure; rebuke

to trouble, disturb someone 2 to

to facilitate

pha pha f. 1 occurrence; happening; incident


conflict What happened? What's the matter?
Yesterday the following incident occurred
a sad event Everything is from God.
You can't do anything about it. There's nowhere to
go. 2 occurrence, appearance In the
event of the occurrence of danger a to begin b to appear
1

by chance, arise by chance


to imitate someone; mock someone
2 imitation to mimic someone
3 peh f. regional 2
peham r pehamr 1 imitating 2 m. mimic, imitator
1 pehj m.
2 pkhi plural of 1
3 peh plural of 2
pehedl 1 intransitive [past: ] .1 to happen, occur;
go on; arise It rarely happens that
I don't know what happened to me.
This will lead to sad consequences.
It is a surprise to you that 1.2 to be found, find
oneself, happen to be; run into He met him.
How did you happen to get here? 1.3 to come into
sight; appear 1.4 to be caused; cause, inflict (e.g., losses)
Considerable injury was done him. Considerable
2

peghoradl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


judged; be reproved

1 pajk m. fan to fan a fire 1


2 pik m. funnel for pouring oil
3 pik m. peak (of a peak cap, military service cap)
pikp m. pickup (vehicle)
pikatb m.
pik m. picket; outpost
pajkr m. 1 figure; body 2 figurative personality traits;
character

peh peh f. 1 mimicking; mocking

Stop teasing.

trapping birds) 3 figurative knotty problem; scandalous,


maliciously litigious affair

pehednkaj 1 present participle of

probable

pajkl m. 1 chain 2 clothesline 3 roller of spiny or thorny

material (used in threshing)

pajk m. 1 2 tool or device for cutting noodles


pekn m. pekng m. Peking (city)
pekvaj m. ribbon (for the hair)
pek pik 1 disordered; confused a to disorder;

embarrass, confuse b to spoil c figurative to poison (e.g., a life)

to be disordered; be embarrassed, be confused 2 pale

(color) 3 tasteless, unpalatable 4 unpleasant

pektb pikatb m.

pikav laj m. 1 confusion;

bashfulness; shyness 3 paleness 4 bad taste, tastelessness

pekj m. bangs (cut straight across)

a to cut of

the bangs b to announce to a young unmarried woman that she is

injury was done them. 2 m. plural occurrence, appearance

pajk f. 1 chains, shackles 2 hunting nooses, snares (for

to be engaged (married)

2 possible,

pik f. dive (of an aircraft)

an aircraft out of a dive

pehed m. plural occurrence, appearance


pehegr m. clown, buffoon
pajgh m pegh m m. message; utterance
to address someone with a formal message
pajghmbr m.
peghltb m. 1 virginity, chastity 2 girlhood, girlhood
years in girlhood years
peghltn m. girlhood, girlhood years
peghlke f. dialect little girl
pghla f. unmarried girl, unmarried woman, spinster
old maid
pajghm m.
pajghambr m. prophet arnebia (a kind

to pull

pekj lj wearing bangs


1 pajl m. beginning, initiative
to begin something; set about something; undertake something
to start a job, begin a task
He is in his twelfth year.
2 pil m. elephant
folk saying Even after death an elephant has a barrel of water in
his belly.

folk

saying A live elephant is worth a hundred thousand rupees, and


when he dies is worth twice as much. idiom
twigs (a pastry)
dumb; yawn

of decorative plant)

peghr m. reproach; judgement; censure, rebuke, reproof


to reproach; censure; pass judgement; rebuke, reprove
to blame one another to be ashamed
of something This is a great reproach to us.

Eastern

to doze, look stupid, look

pejl transitive
pajl t m. 1 disturbance; disorders, riots 2 fraud, swindling,

cheating

pajlt m. troublemaker
pajltitb m. 1 stirring up trouble, sedition

166

cheating at games

2 cheating;

Pashto-English Dictionary

pel r m. curtain; blind

to pull the blinds, close the

in a
certain quantity in large proportions
on a terrestrial scale compound verb to measure

curtains

pajlm f. 1 basis, foundation, base 2 sign, token 3

disposition, temper

pajmn f. 1 measure; dimensions; scale

2 cup, goblet

pelb pelab f. lightning to flash (as lightning)


pilp f. 1 elephantiasis sufferer 2 medicine elephantiasis
pilpilka f. praying mantis (insect)
pilkhn f. stable or stall for elephants
proverb He who would keep an elephant must pay for a

pajmjsh m. 1 measure, standard 2 bound, limit


pajmjish f. metrology
pjmkhtb m. pjmkhv laj m. beauty,

pilr m. pillar, column frontier marker


pelstaj growing up, growing stronger

peml transitive [past: ] to measure


1 pemj m.
2 pem present tense of
1 pin m. powder (medicine)
2 pin m. pin
pajn m. regional 1 point 2 sports point (in counting scores)
pindz 1
pna f. 1 common dish or bowl 2 dinner party, party at table,

stable.

to grow

up, grow stronger

pilghvga f. twigs (pastry)


pilmrgh m. turkey, Tom turkey
pelna f. farewell, leave-taking

to say good-bye, take

leave

pelv f.
pilv n m. elephant keeper, mahout
pilt m. pilot, flyer automatic pilot
pilta f. [plural: pilo ni] female pilot, woman flyer
female aviator
pilo f. the profession of flying, piloting
flight school flying school students,
flight cadets

pelvdzaj m.

wood

pajl m.

pelvzaj m. brush, kindling; kindling

pelum m. 1 effort, diligence 2 care,

attractiveness; good looks

pjmkhaj 1 beautiful, attractive; good-looking 2

beardless

table-mates

penj f. stone base, buttress of a column


pensl m. pencil
pajngh m. appendicitis
pujng m. 1 vine 2 support for a vine
pingpng m. ping-pong
pingn impatient; unable to endure
peng f. 1 child's swing 2 cradle
pinl transitive [past: ] to lick up from the palm of the
hand, take up from the palm of the hand with the tongue (e.g.,
medicine)

concern

pajln m. boot, launch


pajln chalz m. computer science boot drive
1 pelvna f.
2 pajlavna f. undertaking, initiative
1 pel f. cocoon (of a silkworm) silkworm breeding,
sericulture silkworm to spin a cocoon

pla f. cow, female elephant


pelakash f. silkworm breeding, sericulture
pelavr m. silkworm breeder
pelavar f.
1 pajl f. plural leg bracelets, ankle bracelets
2 pel plural of 1
pelj r m.
pajm l m. occupation, trade
pajmlv l m. artisan, handicraftsman
pajm n m. 1 promise; assurance; consent 2 obligation
to make a commitment to promise; assure
to be obliged idiom the Atlantic Charter

pe f. 1 turn 2 time
pev m. the Pevar Pass, the Pewar Pass

(of the worm)


2

pin f. 1 trough (for dough); wooden basin 2 patch (e.g., for

a shoe)

to patch 3 brace, support (for a wall)

pna f. dish
pinadz m. itinerant cobbler; cobbler
pin f. world, universe
pingh m. medicine 1 constipation 2 colic
2

3 volculus (a

twisting of the intestine upon itself that causes obstruction)


the Pevar

Valley, the Pewar Valley

pjv z m. temporary cooperative operation for the collection

of milk for making butter and cheese for the winter

pevch m. pine tree


pevdl transitive
pevdna f. 1 composition; composing

2 arranging, setting

going; regulating 3 stringing, threading together; planting, seating

in place

pevdn m. order
pevd m. plural
167

Pashto-English Dictionary

pjvra pjvra milch, milk (of a cow)


cow gives much milk.

pajvst pevst Eastern 1


This

affiliated, adjoining, contiguous

His house is right next to mine. 2

m. .1 conjunction; contiguity; junction 2.2 friendship; closeness


2.3 dialect gap; crack; break

pajvastag f. conjunction; contiguity; connection


to join, conjoin; connect; affix
pajvastn pevastn m. Eastern 1 joining; contiguity 2

side 2 to become close friends, start a friendship

1 to chop down (a tree) 2 to

pajvnd m. 1 joining; coupling 2 repairing, mending,

patching 3 agriculture grafting 4 rapprochement, friendship

idiom blood relationship


pajvandavl denominative, transitive [past: ]
pajvand 1 patched 2 agriculture grafted
pajvandedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

1 to

1 to

pionr m. pioneer (member of the Pioneer Organization)


1 pja f. bandage, dressing (for the eyes)
2 paj f. moth, clothes moth
pajedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be cut
down (of a tree) 2 to be plumbed, be measured (e.g., the depth of
a river)

t f. 1 layer; sheet

single

fold, crease 3 bend, twist

t f. 1 sound 2 noise; roar, rumble

Eastern

double 2

to set down, land (e.g., a plane); land, disembark

(troops, etc.)

to alight (e.g., of a bird); land (e.g., in a

t 1 up to something 2 conjunction in order to

not to have the strength


I don't have the strength to

tb m. power, might

to do something

fight with him. I don't have the strength to fight with them.

2 tb m. 1 2 2 brightness, radiance, sparkling; light


2 tb m. bend, twist
tb n shining, radiating, sparkling
tbakhn f.
tbd r winding, twisting
2 tbd r
tbd n m. 1 window (glassed-in, e.g., in a roof); small
window 2 small hinged pane for ventilation

1 to put together, make

up; gather, assemble 2 to arrange, organize, regulate, adjust 3 to


to string pearls on a string

tbist n m. poetic summer


tb' tb' Arabic 1.1 subordinate; dependent 1.2 submissive,
obedient to be subordinate, submit to 1.3 agreeable,
in agreement with something; corresponding to something 2.1 m.

[plural: tbe'in m. plural: taba'] supporter, adherent;

pejlaj 1 made up; gathered 2 arranged, regulated 3 planted,


seated, strung; pulled through, threaded

pejnd m.
pejvaj m.

you laughed

plane); disembark

join; interlock 2 to be patched 3 to be grafted

pjr
pejkaj m.
pejl transitive [past: ]

join, adjoin 2 to mend, patch 3 agriculture to graft

beneath you, under you

plumb, measure the depth (e.g., of a river)

to thread a needle

I came to see you. 2 used as a

you said 3 used with


on you
a beyond you b about you Eastern to
you Eastern to you
in you by
you; from you Eastern for you Eastern with you
Eastern like you, similar to you Eastern
you killed him

constantly; continuously

plant, seat, string

prepositions, postpositions and adverbs

pajvast-abr having eyebrows which are joined


pajvastedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1
to join; adjoin to join someone, be on someone's

t oblique form of the pronoun 1 used as an object with

transitive verbs in the present and future tenses, and also in the
imperative mood

pajvast 1.1 joined; affiliated 1.2 close 2 always,

pevkaj m.
pajvl transitive [past: ]

subject with transitive verbs in the ergative "you", "by you"

friendship, closeness 3 merging, unification

te 1 the fourth letter of the Pashto alphabet 2 the number 400 in


the abjad system

pejna f.

follower 2.2 [plural: atb' plural: taba' plural:

tavb'] subject, national

tbe'd r [plural: ]1 subordinate; dependent 2

submissive, obedient 3 devoted

He obeys me

without question. He is devoted to me.

tb'dr f. 1 subordination; dependence 2 submissiveness

3 devotion

devotion
168

a to submit (to), obey b to show one's

Pashto-English Dictionary

tb'galv f.

tbe'v laj m.

tbe'jt m.

Arabic allegiance; citizenship


3 table, plate 4

tblt m. tablet, pill


tbt m. Arabic coffin
tbutgr m. coffin-maker, undertaker
1 tb imperfect of 1
2 tb oblique of the suffix under direction
tbakhn f.
tbj ready, made, done
1 tbn m.
2 tbn m. arrangement, adjustment to arrange, adjust
to be arranged, be adjusted
tbij f.
tp m. top (of a carriage)
t pase 1 3
1 tp f.
2 tp imperfect of
tt r m. Tatar
tt ra f. Tatar (female)
ttr adjective 1 Tatar the Tatar language 2 the

sentence

compound verb to plunder, pillage, ravage

tkhch f. shelf; niche (used as a bookshelf) idiom


to shelve, put off some matter
tkhm m.
tkhn m. 1 alarm, uneasiness 2 heartache
tkhr m. Arabic slowdown, delay, procrastination;
postponement to put off, delay; linger with something,
stall

td v m. tdj m. foundation (of a building)


a to lay a foundation (for a building) b
to found, create (a school, a direction in something)

1 td f. 1 hurry, haste 2 quickness, swiftness, promptness


a to hurry, rush b to be prompt
2 ta'add f. Arabic
tdb m. Arabic 1 punishment, means of exerting pressure
correction, rehabilitation a to punish b to correct,

to experience a strong desire; dream b to feel sympathy,

sympathize

impressionability 2 impression 3 grief, sorrow 4 regret, chagrin


tsr m. Arabic [plural: tsirna Arabic plural:

compound verb

impression on someone

t dzh-i cock's comb b Amaranthus, amaranth 3 bookshelf

tdzhbkhsh m. emperor, suzerian


tdzhposh f. coronation, accession to the throne
tdzhd r 1 crowned, enthroned m. 2 king, monarch
tdzhr 1 m. Arabic [plural: tdzhir n Arabic plural:
tudzhdzhr] merchant tradesman petty tradesman
2 attributive merchant, trade merchants (as a group)
tdzhk m. Tajik
tdzhikist n m. Tajikistan
tdzhka f. Tajik (female)

tdij f. m. Arabic [plural: tdij t] payment (of taxes,

solvency
to pay (taxes, dues) to pay (a check)

dues); payment (of a check)

to influence, affect someone; make an

to impress someone
to have an influence
to influence, affect 2 physics induction
tdzh m. 1 botany crown 2 comb, crest (of a bird)

rehabilitate

ta'assurt] 1

tsir t] 1 impression, effect; influence, action

2 law suspended

t dzni t tskha 1 3
tkh m.
tkht m. 1 gallop at a gallop to urge on,
whip up to a gallop to go at a gallop 2 attack
a to gallop, race b to attack, carry out a raid on someone
tkht-u-tr dzh m. wholesale pillage

Tatar language

ttrn m. hell, the underworld, the nether regions


ttml m. ttml m. strong desire, dream

the Tajik language 2 f.

tdzhik m.
tdzhikist n m.
tdzh ika f.
tdzhik
tdzhl m. Arabic 1 postponement, delay

list

the Tajik language

tbe'n m. Arabic plural from


tbl f. 1 picture; poster 2 view, panorama

t ta 1 3
tt f. decrepit old woman
ta'assr m. Arabic [plural:

tdzhik adjective 1 Tajik

compound verb to be paid (of taxes, dues); be paid (of a

check)

tr m. 1 thread 2 string 3 anatomy chord, ligament

vocal chords 4 warp (of a fabric) 5 yarn, thread 6 wire;

to
receive a telegram to send a telegram a to issue
a telegram, send a telegram b to call, phone idiom
a to be friendly with b to have a love affair with
2 tr m. plural
tr dzh m. theft, pillage; plundering; robbery, piracy
conductor 7 colloquial telegram

telegram

compound verb to rob; plunder; destroy

tr n m. botany knotweed
trbark f. Eastern colloquial telegraph
trpt r
trptravl denominative, transitive
169

Pashto-English Dictionary

trptredl denominative, intransitive


trpt r 1 separately, apart 2.1 scattered, thrown about

2.2 dispersed, strewn about 2.3 wind blown (of hair); fluffed up

(of feathers) 2.4 tossed, sprawled (of a sleeper, sick person)


denominative, transitive [past: ]

trikhv r on certain days


trikh Arabic historical
trz stringed instruments
trik 1 dark, somber 2 m. history

trka 1 feminine singular of 1 2 f. darkness, gloom


trik 1 f. darkness, gloom 2 m. history the Tariki (name

1 to

scatter, throw about 2 to disperse 3 to dishevel (hair); fluff up


(feathers)

for followers of the Roshani sect)

trptredl denominative, intransitive [past: ]


1 to be scattered, be thrown about 2 to be dispersed 3 to go

trn
t m. 1 gang, band of robbers Bandits fell upon
the village. 2 robbery to rob 3 boulder; large rock
t to plunder, rob
1 t k m. misfortune
2 t k m.
1 t
2 t unfortunate
3 t imperfect of
t f. plural hand-clapping, applause to
thunderous applause to clap, applaud
tz m. cicada
tzd exclamation really and truly
tzr m. bath towel
tzk m.
tzag f. 1 freshness 2 newness; novelty
tz indeclinable 1 fresh fresh bread 2 new, fresh
What news is there today?
This book is hot off the press. 3 glowing (of health)
fresh and flowering 4 succulent, unwithered a to

away, disperse, break up (e.g., from a meeting) 4 to be disheveled


(of hair); be fluffed up (of feathers) 5 to toss about (of a sleeper or
a sick person)

trped f. military torpedo


trt r
trkh m. Eastern plural of
trk Arabic 1 leaving, abandoning 2 m. deserter
trik-ud-dunj 1 having turned away from this world

m. hermit, anchorite, recluse

trkh m. spider
trkl m. plural tar tarred road
trkj f. small spider
trgr m. regional telegraph
trlma f. snares, traps
1 tr m. francolin (a kind of patridge) francolin idiom
saying the one who is bold is the
one who has eaten

2 tr m. Eastern collar beam (part of a harness)


trut r
1 trugj m. hawkmoth, sphinx
2 trugj feminine of 1
travl transitive [past: ] 1 to put in (e.g., to thread a
needle) 2
trun r thin, frail a to be thin, be gaunt b

freshen, renew b to change, replace c to wash up (hands and face


before prayer) d to promote good health

history

a to be

(before prayer) d to be health, be in the pink e to liven up, cheer

in recent days Be well! Good luck!


(God) bless you! newborn to inspire,
up

rouse, hearten

trv Eastern masculine plural of


tri attributive cotton cotton fabrics
trkh m. Arabic [plural: trikhna Arabic plural:
tavrkh] 1 date on the twentieth (day)
on the appointed day 2 chronology Christian
chronology Muslim chronology 3 history
history of Afghanistan historians
trikhph m. historian
trikhch f. concise history
trikhd n m. historian, history expert
trkh liknkaj m. trikhnig r m. 1
historian 2 chronicler, annalist

refreshed, be renewed b to be changed c to perform ablution

figurative to wither, be consumed (from grief, bitterness)

trikhnigar f.
trikhnavs m.

Tarik (name given to

Bajazid Ansari, founder of the Roshani sect, by his enemies)

tzadm fresh, new fresh troops, new units


tzadim gh Eastern satisfied Ahmed
remained satisfied.

tzag f. tzav laj m.


tz m. borzoi (dog) male borzoi
tzijn f. lash, whip to lash, whip
tg dialect
1 ts m. copper bowl; basin
2 ts m. Tass (Russian news agency)
tspni f. plural card game
tssf m. Arabic regret to regret,
deplore to express regrets in
connection with something

170

tslj m. basin, wash basin

Pashto-English Dictionary

t su t so Eastern

tsi Eastern tse proper name

second person plural 1.1 you (used as subject of an action in all


tenses and also in the imperative)

Where are you

going? 1.2 you (as object of an action in an ergative construction)

Who beat you? 2 oblique .1 you (as a direct

object with transitive verb in the present or future tense)

3 tk 1 odd (-numbered) 2 solitary 3 odd (not paired)


tk v m. cellar, basement
tktk m. tactics
tkdr f. wine growing, viticulture
tkar 1 at your house, at your home 2 to your house, to your
home

you b about you

tkist n m. vineyard
ta'kd m. tkd Arabic affirmation; confirmation; emphasis
to affirm, confirm; emphasize
ta'kdn Arabic categorically, persistently
ta'kid Arabic final, categorical, peremptory

Eastern When did you arrive?

1 tl m. 1 copper basin 2 salt pit


2 tl hand-clapping (in time to music) to clap hands
tl 1 f. robbery 2 robbed, pillage, destroyed
compound verb to subject to robbery compound verb

When will we see you? 2.2 you (as subject of an

action in an ergative construction)

What were you

doing? 2.3 with preposition, postpositions and adverbs

on you, at you a behind


to you to you
by you, from you
Eastern for you Eastern with you Eastern
like you, similar to you Eastern beneath you, under
you 3 you (used as a polite form in place of )

tss m. Arabic [plural: tsisna Arabic plural:


tsis t] 1 foundation, institution, creation, organization
compound verb compound
verb 2 organization; institution 3 gathering, meeting
tsis t m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 institutions;
facilities military sites
tsisavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
found, create, organize 2 to build, erect

tsisedl 1 denominative, intransitive [past: ] .1


founded, be created, be organized 1.2 to be built, be erected

Several large dams have been built. 2 m.

plural foundation, creation

tsh regional card game


tshpt sh scattered, sparse, thrown about
tshurgh n m. Tashkurghan (city, also called Kholm)
tshknd m. Tashkent (city)
tshla wide and shallow (of dishes)
th f. lisle thread
tgh r m. 1 clay trough, clay tub 2 kneading trough 3 bowl
for fruit 4 lime pit

tghrk m. person with dropsy


t ghga f.
t ghunde Eastern 1 3
t gha f. hackberry, hackberry tree
tft f. taffeta (material)
t unpaired, odd
tch f.
t banded (of a bird)
1 tk m. steep incline, precipice idiom to
deprive of shelter to be homeless; be without

peremptory decision

tl b m. 1 pool, reservoir 2 pond


tl-trgh f. plunder, pillage
tltb m. tltj f. robbery; plunder, pillage
tl r m. large hall
tl kavnkaj m. robber
tlgr m. robber
tl n m. robbery; burglary to rob
tln amassed by robbery
tl v m.
tlvl f. tlv laj m. tljna f.
t lara Eastern 1 3
tli n m. colloquial tlikh n m. plural Talikan (city)
tlgr m. composer
tllm m. Arabic suffering, torment; grief
tllin m. Tallin (city)
t lnda f. thunder peals of thunder
tl m. palate to have a sore palate idiom
He very much wanted to complete the journey.
1 tl f. 1 small stream, brook 2 narrow and shallow gully
2 tl f. meadow grass
3 t la Eastern 1 3
4 tl f. 1
5 f. Tala (populated place)
6 tl oblique singular of 1
tl-u-barfk m. Tala barfaq (Bazar-e Taleh, region)
1 tlj f. Eastern round dish (of copper, etc.)
2 tl
3 tl plural of 1
tlf m. Arabic [plural: tlifna Arabic plural:

shelter

to

be robbed

tlif t] 1 composition writing; compilation (of a textbook, etc.)

tk m. [plural: tkna Western plural: tk n]

171

compound
compound verb

2 work (of literature), composition

verb

grapevine

Pashto-English Dictionary

tlifavl denominative, transitive [past:


compose, write; compile (a textbook, etc.)

to

security detachment)

tlifedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


written, be composed; be compiled (of a textbook, etc.)

tlm m.
tlemn happy, fortunate
tm tmm Arabic full; complete full independence
tm s m. proper name Tohmas
1 tmb f. copper red copper
2 f. tent
tmbe m. 1 large smooth rock 2 cliff
tmbej f. oar
tmml m. Arabic thought; consideration a to think;

ted r m. regional district police chief


1 tv 1 m. .1 bend, twist; distortion a to bend, twist b
to be dislocated 1.2 twisting, winding to rotate, spin,
whirl compound verb compound verb
to walk around, circle a to
bend, twist (something) b to wind, wrap c to spin, rotate, whirl
(something) 2.1 predicate bent; distorted 2.2 rotated, twisted

secure, provide (with); to guarantee

tminedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


secured, be provided (with); be guaranteed
1

tn m. piece, item (manufacture)

tn m. 1 melody, harmony 2 creation, arrangement 3

regional disposition, temperature

tmb f. 1
tnd 1.1 fresh, young 1.2 green, turning green, sprouted (of
grain) 1.3 fresh, cool fresh breeze 2 m. growth (of

tv n 1 m. .1 harm, injury; loss material damage


to inflict a loss on someone;
cause someone harm to suffer injury, incur losses 1.2
compensation, indemnity reparations to
receive compensation to indemnify, compensate 1.3
burdening compound verb 2 predicate
burdened (with something) idiom risk
tvndzhn
tv n rasavnkaj harmful; injurious; unprofitable
tvnavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
cause harm, inflict injury or loss 2 to burden 3 to spend, use up

refresh (literally and figuratively)

tndla f. botany goosefoot, orach


t nda f. 1.1 green shoot 1.2 cow which has calved (for the
first time) 2 feminine singular of 1
tnist f. 1 warp (of a fabric) 2 spider's web idiom
to take to going somewhere (e.g., going for a walk)
tnk m. 1 tank 2 cistern 3 gasoline pump
tnkd r adjective tank
tnk mtavnkaj military anti-tank
anti-tank gun

tnkt m. military light tank, tankette


tng m. saddle-girth, belly-band
tnganik f. Tanganyika
tns m. Arabic 1 grammar feminine gender

2 biology

female sex

tv na 1 oblique singular of

2 feminine singular of

tvn 1 unprofitable 2 maimed, mutilated


tvnedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

to be

unprofitable

tvt v crooked; twisting, winding


tvt f.
tvkhn f. heating device placed under the floor
tvd m. plural from a to get excited, become
impassioned b to take up some matter heatedly

tvd s m. plural tvdj m. onion soup


tvr m.
tvrt v crooked; winding a to twist, wind;
b to tack (a boat) to twist, wind idiom
That shout echoed through the canyons.
tvz m. proper noun Tavuz
ts m. peacock
tvavl Eastern tovl denominative, transitive [past:
]1 to bend, twist; distort 2 to wind, wrap (around) 3 to twirl,
turn, whirl 4 to roll (up), coil to roll down 5 to wrap (up) 6 to

t f. 1 outpost, security detachment (border, police) 2

regional police station idiom

tv m. 1 heat, temperature

fade, wither away

plants)

tndtj f. freshness, greenness (of plants)


tndlb n tndlbnd died young, died prematurely
to die young, die prematurely
tndba river-irrigated land
tndavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to freshen,

Zejid has a high


It's very hot, the
earth is blazing hot. 2 sunstroke affected by sunstroke
3 ardor, passion fervid imagination 4 anger 5
power, might idiom quickly, soon to
2

temperature.

think over, consider, weigh b to ponder, hesitate, linger

tmn ta'mn m. Arabic securing, providing (with); guarantee


tminavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

tad r m. regional chief (of a border outpost or a police

regional to stay

too long as someone's guest, wear out one's welcome

entwine 7 to wind (up) in quantity

172

tvn m.

tvunj m. plague; widespread death

Pashto-English Dictionary

tab r m. family, clan, trade


tabrz m. Arabic 1 clearing up; clearness, clarity

tv f. 1 small barrier (to keep moisture in a field) 2 small

parcel of land

2 tv 2
1 tvj m. 1 screwdriver 2 screw
2 tv
3 tv colloquial for
tvitk m. golden amulet, talisman
tvedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

tabshr m. chalk
tab h perished, destroyed
perished; be destroyed

1 to bend,

wounded, be wrapped 4 to rotate, wind, circle around 5 to be


rolled (up) 6 to be wrapped up 7 to be entwined, twine oneself
round 8 to be wound up (in quantity) 9 to hover (e.g., of smoke)

tved m. plural action noun from


tvz m.
1 tvl m. ta'vl Arabic plural [plural: tvilna
plural: tvil t] explanation, interpretation, commentary
false rumors to explain, interpret,
clarify That can be taken two ways.
2 tvl m.
tvild r m.
tvilavl intransitive
th f. 2
thr 1 m. plural Takha (Tahar) tribe 2 m. Takhar (person)
tb Arabic repenting, penitent, repentant
tjg f. taiga
tjv n m. Taiwan
tj f.
tad m. tjd m. Arabic 1 confirmation, corroboration 2
strengthening; support with his support
compound verb compound verb 3

erudition

anatomy pelvis

tabakhj f. raven
tabkhr m. Arabic 1 steaming, evaporating 2 smoking,

fumigating

tabaddl m. Arabic [plural: tabaddulna Arabic

plural: tabaddul t] change, alteration

tabdl m. Arabic 1 change, substitution 2 change,

transformation

to turn into something 3

move, transfer (in one's job)

tabdln Arabic on the basis of a transfer ( in one's job)


tabdilavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1

to

change, substitute, replace 2 to change, transform, alter 3 to

move, transfer

tid 1 confirming, corroborating 2 providing support,

supporting

tabdil f. 1 change, substitution, replacement 2 change,

transformation 3 move, transfer (in one's work)

tajdedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


confirmed, be corroborated 2 to be supported

tabdiledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be changed, be replaced 2 to be changed, be transformed 3 to be
moved, be transferred (in one's work)

3 grinding; massage 4 liquid

ointment

tabzr m. Arabic squandering, wastefulness

to

squander, spend senselessly

tb colloquial for
tabdulav economics exchange

exchange

value

on the basis of

an exchange of opinions an
trade barter
compound verb to exchange for something
to trade with someone
exchange

Tibetan 2.1 m. Tibetan, inhabitant of Tibet 2.2 f. the

tabx m.
tabakhk m. black-throated thrush
1 tbkhj m. tabakhj 1 iron sheet (for baking bread)

tidavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


confirm, corroborate 2 to support, lend support

exchange of books

1 Tibet; the Tibetan region 2 angora wool

tabdzhn someone sick with fever


tabahhr Arabic in-depth knowledge of something

thesis

tabdul f. Arabic exchange

to be

Tibetan language

antithesis

tibt m.
tibat 1

10 to turn toward someone

tiln m.
tab m. 1 antidote 2 poultices

to destroy

tabhh l annihilated; destroyed


tabhkn
tab h kavnkaj destructive, ruinous; pernicious
tabh f. destruction; ruin; death
tabjn m. Arabic 1 antagonism; contradiction 2 opposition;

twist; be distorted 2 to turn to the side (of a car, a road) 3 to be

appearance, origin, beginning

tbr m. tabr [plural: tbrna plural: tabarna


Western plural: teber n plural: tabar n] axe idiom
1

to incur expenses out of proportion with one's income


2 tbr pocket (in the top of a dress)
tabarr f. Arabic forgiveness, pardon
tabarzn m. history halberd; pole-axe
tabarr' f. Arabic m. [plural: tabarro' t] gift; giving
in the form of a gift

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Pashto-English Dictionary

tabargh n m. marmot
1 tabarrk m. Arabic religion asking a blessing
2 tbrk m. 1 2 pillar of the water-lifting wheel
tbrgj m. small axe, hatchet
1 turbj m. notch on an arrow
2 tabarr f. Arabic
tabrz m. Tabriz (city)
tabrk m. Arabic [plural: tabrikna Arabic plural:
tabrik t] greeting, congratulation
to greet someone with a holiday wish
to wish (someone) a "Happy New Year"
I congratulate you. to send greetings
tabrik Arabic of or related to a greeting
message of greeting, message of congratulation

tablighavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to


announce something, report something; to notify about something

conduct a propaganda campaign

tablighedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


announced, be reported

tabna f. 1 application of poultices 2 massage (with ointment)


1 tabaj m. flat fragment of rock
2 tubj f. board (for dough)
tabr m. brassiere
tabn m. compensation for being wounded or crippled

(provided according to the adat, traditional law of an Islamic area)

feverish movements

of the followers of Mohammed

taba' m. Arabic plural from 2


tab'd m. Arabic exile compound verb to exile
compound verb to be exiled
tab'idg h m. place of exile
tab'z m. Arabic discrimination racial

tbabrh m. inflammation of the lungs


1 tbj tubj m. 1 pouring hot oil (over food) 2 preparation of a
sauce a to pour hot oil (over food) b to prepare a sauce
2
3
2 tabj f. clay frying pan bread baked on
a clay frying pan idiom ! children's speech It's hot! (said
when an object being sought is nearby)

massage (with ointment)

to be
to fear, be

tabl m. 1 embarrassment, confusion; shame

embarrassed; be ashamed 2 fear, apprehension

afraid of

tablavl transitive [past: ] to embarrass; to shame


tablj f. tambourine
tablledl intransitive [past: ] to be embarrassed; be
ashamed

tablgh m. Arabic [plural: tablighna Arabic plural:


tabligh t] 1 propaganda 2 announcement, report;
notification a to propagandize b to announce, report
something; notify about something compound verb
compound verb
tablight
tablighch m. propagandist

tba f. fever I have a fever. I'm


sick with a fever. Yesterday I was feverish.

intermittent fever
malaria malaria-carrying
mosquito, anopheles shivering, chills
typhus idiom

tabassm m. Arabic smile to smile


tabsir f. Arabic note, comment; explanation, commentary
to make a note
explaining something; clarify, comment on something
judging by commentaries in the
foreign press to refrain from comment
tab' m. Arabic [plural: atb'] follower; supporter,
adherent He is his supporter. religion friends

tab m. tabak m. veterinary foot-and-mouth disease


tubakj f.
1 tabl transitive [past: ] 1 to make poultices 2 to

to propagandize,

address (written greeting)

discrimination

tabligh propagandistic

tap m. crowd, assemblage, mob

tp m. Western 1 birthmark

tap perished; destroyed

tap exclamation Go get him! (cry to dogs on a hunt when

birthmark 2 wart
2 1

closing in on a wild animal)


5

tap combining form with adjectives which indicate color

absolutely black, pitch black


darkness

outer darkness, pitch

6 tap
tp f. agitation, excitement; uneasiness, disturbance
tap s m. 1 searches, inquiries 2 trying a

to seek,

search for b to try

tap m. 3
tap k m. 1 zeal, fervor, diligence 2 mad, passionate love 3
greed, avidity His greed know no limits. 4
agitation, excitement; unrest, disturbance a
to be filled with zeal; try very hard b to love madly, love

passionately c to be greedy d to be agitated, upset

to

love someone b to respect someone idiom

to

race, run swiftly

to shake someone's

hand firmly

tap l m. clay (for plastering walls)


1 tap nd m. trowel (mason's, plasterer's tool)
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Pashto-English Dictionary

2 tap nd 1 blazing 2 excited, upset


1 tp nda f. 1
2 tap nda feminine singular of 2
taptp exclamation Go get him! (hunter's cry to his dog at the

2 blow to the back of

the head

tapl transitive [past: ] 1 to mold, form (from clay, etc.)


2 to coat (with) besmear 3 to glue (on), glue together 4 to
someone) against his will

on someone

inquiry; study (of some problem)

young women)

m. taps Eastern tapas Eastern question


to ask someone

someone

to ask after, inquire about

tpavl transitive [past: ] to upset, disturb


tapavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to destroy,

tapavl denominative, transitive [past:


drive (a dog into the lair of a wild animal)
1

tatimm f. Arabic supplement; enclosure, appendix


1 ttv laj m. 1 thickness; denseness (of sowing)

stockiness; rootiness

ttavl denominative, transitive [past:


compact, compact, thicken, make dense

tatva f. turtledove
1 tta feminine singular of 1, 2
2 tt 2 1
1 tti feminine plural of 1, 2
2 tatj f. 1 dewlap (of a camel) 2 front, belly (of reptiles)
idiom to grieve

ttedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


faint, be weak; grow dim My eyesight has

tt 1 thick, compact; dense (of crops)

figurative to be erased (from the memory)


compound verb compound verb
tasbitavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to

tasbitedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


confirmed This report has been confirmed. 2 to

thick clouds

be established

faint light 2 muffled (of a sound);

inaudible, poorly heard 3 dark (of a color) 4 pale (of the lips) 5
figurative faint (of a hope) idiom
existence

tasbt m. Arabic 1 confirmation 2 establishment

confirm 2 to establish 3 to make firm, make steady


1 to perish,

dense sowing of wheat 2 with strong roots; stocky

tt 1 faint, weak

dimmed. 2 to be muffled, be incomprehensible (of a sound) 3


3, 5

[past: ] 1 to be

compact, be thick, be dense; thicken 2 to be stocky; be strongrooted

tapedl intransitive [past: ]to beat, flutter (of the


heart)
1

to make

turn down (a sound; e.g., in a receiver)

to urge on,

die 2 to be destroyed

ttavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to make


faint, weak (of light); to lower, dim (a light) 2 to muffle, lower,

Karatapa

tpa feminine singular of


tapaz r m. mountainous, hilly locality
1 tapj m. 2
2 tapj f. pressed dung (used as fuel)
3 tap present tense of
1 tapedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

ttv laj m. 1 faintness, weakness (of light) 2

incomprehensibility, unclearness (of a sound)

tribe 3 region, province 4 used for designation of populated


2

maliciously to avenge someone

tp f. 1 mountain, hill, mound; high place 2 family, part of a

places

to engage in research;

incomprehensibly

3 tatj f. wooden measure for grain


1 ttedl denominative, intransitive

ruin, annihilate

tatr m. proper noun Tatar


tatrj m. tatarj porphyry (rock)
ttj ttaj tutj ttaj mumbling, speaking

to force an agreement

tpnd greedy
tapndj m. 1
tapna f. action noun from
tap f. tapan
tpo exclamation whoa (or similar to stop horses)
tapr m. 1 brassiere 2 embroidered sleeveless blouse (worn by

1 to lose one's head; become confused or

tatabb' f. Arabic m. [plural: tatabbo' t] research;

accumulate, amass; collect, gather 5 to thrust (something on

to research, investigate, study (some problem)

tptpanj m. popgun (children's toy)


taprkaj m. scab, scabs
tap f. tapa burnisher (potter's tool)
tapk m. 1 beating of a drum, drumbeat

tt

embarrassed 1 to freeze, be rooted to the ground

lair of a wild animal)

tps

a cheerless life, a drab

tudzhdzh r m. Arabic masculine plural of


tudzhdzhr n m. second plural of
tadzhrb m. Arabic plural of
tidzhrt m. Arabic trade, commerce foreign
trade internal trade
ministry of foreign trade to trade
tidzhratpew trader, person occupied in trade
tidzhpatdzj m. store
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Pashto-English Dictionary

tidzhratkhn f. trading company, trading house


tidzhrat Arabic adjective trade, commercial
trade agreement, commercial contract trade

tadzhns m. Arabic uniformity, homogeneity


tadzhvz m. Arabic [plural: tadzhvuzna Arabic
plural: tadzhvuz t] 1 encroachment, infringement 2

tadzhrid 1 isolated; secluded 2 abstracted


tadzhridedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

operation, business deal

border violation, intrusion, aggression 3 excess, exceeding (e.g.,

abstracting

tadzhridavl denominative, transitive [past:


to isolate, separate 2 to abstract

to be isolated, be separated 2 to be abstracted

tadzhzij f. Arabic 1 analysis; breakdown (into component

a to encroach (upon) infringe


to encroach upon another's rights b to violate

chemical analysis 2 division (into parts)


compound verb a to analyze to break down (into
component parts) tadzhzij f. b to divide (into parts)

misdemeanor

(into component parts) b to be divided (into parts) c to fall apart,

exceeding one's authority)


commission

tadzhrd m. Arabic 1 isolation; seclusion 2 abstraction;

parts)

exceeding one's

borders; invade, commit aggression c to exceed d to commit a

tadzhvuz t m. Arabic plural 1 from

misdemeanors; violations

tadzhvuzkrn
tadzhavz kavnkaj m. aggressor
tadzhvuz 1 encroaching (upon something)

compound verb a to be subjected to analysis; be broken down


disintegrate

tadzhzijdzj m. tadzhzijakhn f. laboratory


tadzhasss m. Arabic 1 investigation; search; prospecting

2 violating

secret service, spying, espionage

borders; aggressive 3 exceeding (e.g., authority)

pretend not to know

newness

tadzhassm m. Arabic embodiment, personification


to be embodied, be personified
tadzhall f. Arabic 1 shine, brightness; radiance; sparkling 2
figurative glory

tadzhaddudpasand f. love for everything new


tadzhdd m. Arabic 1 renewal, resumption (e.g., of

tadzhid-i-nasr m. revision, review (e.g., of a court

decision)

called the Harirud River)

tadzhdidavl denominative, transitive [past:


to resume (e.g., negotiations) 2 to revive

tadzhdidedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1


to be resumed (e.g., negotiations) 2 to be revived, to revive

tadzhribav
tadzhrib f. Arabic [plural: tadzhrib Arabic m.
plural: tadzhrb] 1 experiment, test a to

perform an experiment, experiment b compound verb to check,

compound verb to be checked, be tested 2


experience, skill ... It has been shown in
practice that to have great experience
a to pass through a test b to gain experience,
test verify

tadzhribak r experienced

experienced

person

tadzhribakr f. experience
tadzhribag f. tadzhribag h

to introduce
a proposal 2 decision, decree; resolution zr-i regional
law one awaiting a decision to decide, decree
tadzhhz m. Arabic [plural: tadzhhizna Arabic
plural: tadzhhiz t] equipment; arms; ammunition
munition factory compound verb to
equip, arm

1
2

tadzhrib experimental

tich m. sheath (of a sword, dagger)


tch dialect

taht Arabic 1 m. bottom, lower part of something 2

preposition lower (than something); under (something)

tht-i below zero (of temperature) 3 forms part of Arabic words

a underwater b submarine
taht-ul-arz Arabic underground
depths (of the earth)

m. experimental

station, testing station


experiment

tadzhvz m. Arabic [plural: tadzhvizna Arabic

plural: tadzhvz] 1 proposal

acquire skill

tadzhamm' f. Arabic accumulation, gathering, collection;

concentration to amass, gather; concentrate; accumulate


tadzhamml m. Arabic luxury, elegance
tadzhn m. Tedzhen River (in Russia; in Afghanistan and Iran

negotiations) 2 rebirth, revival

a to investigate; look

c to track, follow, spy upon

to feign ignorance,

tadzhaddd m. Arabic 1 renewal, renovation 2 novelty,

for, search for; prospect for b military to conduct reconnaissance

tadzhvz m. Arabic plural from


tadzhhl m. Arabic bookish

military conducting reconnaissance 3 tracking, shadowing 4

as an

taht-ul-bahr Arabic 1 underwater 2 f. submarine


taht-ul-himjag f. protectorate
taht-ul-himj mandated, under protection, under
wardship

176

Pashto-English Dictionary

tahtn Arabic lower


tahdd m. Arabic 1 limitation (e.g., in one's rights)

(a secret) 3 defense, safeguard 4 caution; precaution

establishment, determination (of something) 3 demarcation (of

borders)

tahdidavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


limit (e.g., in rights) 2 to establish, determine something 3 to

demarcate (borders)
tahdidedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to
be limited (e.g., in rights) 2 to be established, be determined 3 to

be demarcated

tahrr m. Arabic [plural: tahrirna Arabic plural:


tahrir t] 1 writing, written account to write
down, jot down to be written (down) 2 language, style

a to give

uncommon 2.2 beautiful, excellent

someone, force someone; incite someone 4 stimulus

tahrikavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to


urge, motivate; incite to incite to murder

tahrm m. Arabic prohibition


tahassr m. Arabic grief, affliction
tahsn m. Arabic approval; praise to approve;
praise to praise someone
tahsinnm f. certificate of merit
tahshd m. Arabic military assembly (of troops)
tahsl m. Arabic 1 receipt, acquisition

despise; scorn; humiliate; insult

educational supplies;

to receive an education 4 regional section,

region (tax collection)

tahsild r m. 1 regional head of a region 2 tax collector


tahsildr f. 1 position as a tax collector 2 collection of
taxes

tahsilavl denominative, transitive [past:


levy (a tax); receive, recover (a debt)
tahsil adjective educational, school; training

school year

to

1.2 check, verification 1.3 study, research

a to

investigate, conduct an inquiry b to check out, verify c to study,


perform research 2 attributive true, correct; verified 3 .1 truly,
correctly 3.2 really

tahit

tahi 1 investigative 2 of or relating to

an inquiry 3 verified, checked

tahm m. [plural: tahkimha plural: tahkimha

Arabic plural: tahkim t] strengthening, reinforcing,

making firm

tahll m. Arabic [plural: tahlilna Arabic plural:


tahlil t] 1 analysis; parsing analysis of blood
parsing of a sentence 2 chemistry solution
compound verb compound verb
tahlilavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
make analysis (e.g., of blood) 2 to analyze, investigate, look into;
to parse 3 to dissolve (something)

tahliledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


have completed an analysis (e.g., of blood) 2 to be analyzed; be
parsed 3 to be dissolved


compound verb to be patient; endure to
endure difficulties to show endurance 2
tahamml m. Arabic 1 patience, endurance

submissive, obedience, humility

tahml m. 1 burdening 2 imposition (e.g., of an agreement)


tahmilavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
burden, load, make difficult 2 to impose to impose
by force 3 to lay on

tahmil imposed (e.g., of an agreement)

agreement imposed by force

an

tahavvl m. Arabic [plural: tahavvulna Arabic

plural: tahavvul t] 1 change, transformation, evolution

tahsiledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


be collected (of a tax); be recovered (of a debt)

tah Arabic 1 m. [plural: tahina Arabic

plural: tahi t] .1 investigation, legal inquiry; inquest

receipt of information 2 collection, levying (of a tax, etc.) 3

study, learning; education

taha m. Arabic confirmation of something, certification of

tahr m. Arabic contempt; scorn; degradation; humiliation


compound verb
tahiravl denominative, transitive [past: ] to

(of a writer)

tahrrn Arabic in writing, in written form


tahrir t m. plural Arabic 1 from 2 official papers;
correspondence; paperwork (in business) office
office chief, boss
tahrir written in written form, in writing
tahrs m. Arabic inducement; incentive; instigation,
incitement idiom grammar hortatory particles
tahrf m. Arabic distortion
tahrk m. Arabic [plural: tahrikna Arabic plural:
tahrik t] 1 putting into motion 2 movement (political,
religious, etc.) 3 urging; incitement to urge

something

tuhf Arabic 1 f. gift, present

someone a present or tribute b to treat someone 2.1 rare,

textbooks

tahaffz m. Arabic 1 maintaining ( a discipline) 2 keeping

to change something, transform something 2

turning point, transition

to turn into

something; be replaced by something

tahavvulavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


change, transform 2 to re-work, process (e.g., raw materials)

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Pashto-English Dictionary

tahvl m. tvl Arabic 1 transfer for safekeeping, handing

He was greatly
He was embarrased. to take without

tkharg m. arm-pit

over for safekeeping 2 what has been hand over for safekeeping;

shamed.

pawning, mortgaging 3 change, transfer (to another system of

permission; take with oneself

measurement, etc.)

tahvilkhn f. storage, storage room; warehouse


tahvild r m. 1 keeper, custodian 2 manager of a
warehouse or storage facility manager of a storage
warehouse or depot 3 military quartermaster 4 cashier;
paymaster

transfer (to another system of measurement, etc.)

tahvoledl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be transfered for storage be given over for storage 2 to be
changed, be transformed 3 to be changed, be transfered (to
another system of measurement, etc.)

Afghanistan in former times)

takhlf m. Arabic 1 difference, distinction 2 contradiction


takht m. throne to ascend to the throne
saying either the throne or the slab
tkht-i-rav n m. sedan chair
takhtk m. small board
takhtg h m.
takhtnishn m. king
takhtnishin f. accession to the throne; succesion to the
throne

to write on the board

1.2 sheet (of paper) 1.3 slab (e.g., of a marble) 1.4 technology

shield 1.5 piece (used in counting rugs, hides, sheets, etc.) 2.1
densely woven (of a fabric) 2.2 densely packed

compound verb 2.2 a to level, flatten b to weave densely c to


cram in, stuff

desktop

takhtj f. 1 small board 2 small tabular listing; small plate


with inscription
takhdz f.

high-explosive

biology products of decomposition 2

sabotage, wrecking 3 spoilage, breakage

takhrib adjective of a wrecker, of a saboteur

tkhz f.
takhasss m. Arabic 1 specialization 2 specialty
a to have a specialization b to be a specialist, have a specialty
takhassus special; specialized
takhss m. Arabic [plural: takhsisna Arabic
plural: takhsis t] 1 purpose, earmarking, setting apart
compound verb
compound verb

takhsisavl denominative, transitive [past: ]
appropriation, allocation

1 to intend, earmark, set aside (for something); to assign (under

something) 2 to appropriate, allocate

takhsisedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]


1 to be intended, be earmarked, be set apart (for something); to be
assigned (under something) 2 to be appropriated, be allocated

takhsisij f. Arabic appropriation, allocation


appropriation for education
takhatt f. Arabic 1 aggression 2 encroachment,
infringement 3 error, mistake a to commit aggression
b to encroach (upon something) c to err, be mistaken

takhtt m. Arabic 1 outline 2 sketch, draft


takhatt kavnkaj m. aggressor
takhff m. Arabic 1 relief, softening, weakening 2 discount;
lowering (of a price) 3 curtailment (e.g., of arms)
a to relieve, soften, weaken b to make a discount; to
lower (a price) c to curtail (e.g., arms)

takhtaband f. veneering with boards; lining, facing


takhtap k m. rag (for wiping the school blackboard)
takhtaph m. 1 wooden flooring, planking 2 platform
takhtasng m. 1 flagstone (shale) 2 stone stab
takhtanrd m. game of cards
tkhtaj kampjr m. computer science table PC,

bomb

(for something); assignment (under something) 2 assignation,

tahijt m. Arabic [plural: tahij t] greeting


to greet someone
tohk r m. takh r Takhar Province
tokhrist n m. Takharistan (region in northeastern

takht 1 f. .1 blackboard

tkhrgj m. gusset (in shirt)


takhrb m. Arabic 1 destruction

wrecking activity, sabotage

cashier

tahvilavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


transfer, submit for storage 2 to change, transform 3 to change,

takhalls m. Arabic 1 takhallus (a literary pseudonym) 2

nickname

takhallf m. Arabic violation, non-observance, non-

takhli m. Arabic 1 creation, making

fulfillment
created 2 upbringing, education

takhliavl

compound verb

denominative, transitive [past:

make, create 2 to bring up, educate

takhli creative
takhlij f. Arabic 1

to be

evacuation 2 unloading

1 to

compound verb a to evacuate b to unload 3 isolation, solitude 4

deviation; evasion
178

Pashto-English Dictionary

tukhm m. 1 seed (of fruit) 2 seed, grain

tkhavl transitive
tkhunj voracious, gluttonous
1 tkh f. curds, cottege cheese curdled milk
2 tkh f. tkhj m. tickling
tkhedl intransitive idiom
I'm ashamed to look at him.
takhajjl m. Arabic 1 imagination, fantasy power

a to sow b figurative to sow the seeds of dissension 3 breed (of

to die out to destroy,


! May your family grow and prosper!

cattle) idiom
exterminate

2 tkham m. 1
tukhmpk

spit 2 steam (e.g., from a pot)


f. cleaning of grain

cleaner, grader, screening machine

takhmkh

grain

1 interjection pah, phooey 2.1 shamed,

of imagination 2 supposition, assumption 3 idea

embarrased 2.2 scattered; disconnected, incoherent

tukhmd n m. botany ovary


tukhmrz sown sown land
tukhmrez f. 1 sowing, crops 2 spawning

dreamy

to sow b to spawn

tukhm shindnkaj
sowing machine, seed drill
tukhmguzr f. laying of eggs
tukhmv l flowering (type) flowering plant
1 tukhm f. 1 origin 2 breed 3 seed-bud sperm
to shoot up (of crops)
2 tukhm f. Arabic medicine indigestion, dyspepsia
tukhm 1 seminal, seed to go to seed 2
uninoculated; ungrafted 3 productive (of a hen)

takhmr m. Arabic fermentation; figurative ferment


tukhmz
takhmn m. Arabic 1 supposition, guess 2 estimate,

compound verb

tadbr m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 plans


tadrk m. Arabic [plural: tadrukna Arabic
plural: tadruk t] 1 preparation; stock-piling 2 supply
a to prepare; stock up b to supply, fit out
tadruk t m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 half-finished
products, billets, blanks 3 military rations, pay and allowances

tad' f. Arabic psychology association


tadf' f. defense
tadf' Arabic defense; defensive
compound verb to treat (with something)

resourcefulness

imaginary point 2

supposedly; approximately

tahkminedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1


to be proposed, be intended 2 to be determined approximately, be
calculated

takhanns m. Arabic delicacy; softness; effeminacy


tkhmavl transitive [past: ] to tickle idiom
to stimulate nerves
tkhnedl intransitive [past: ] to feel a tickling
sensation

tekhnk m. technique, technology, engineering


tekhnikd n m. technician, technically qualified person
tekhnik technology technical
machinery, technical equipment technicians,
tkhg m. strong desire, strong wish; attraction


a to take

to show resourcefulness 4 good sense

measures b to carry out some measure c to show resourcefulness


according to an approximate count, approximately

technologists, engineers

tadabbr m. Arabic judgment, good sense, reasonableness;

cautionary measures, precautions 2 means 3 inventiveness,

conjectural; hypothetical; approximate

tadbr m. Arabic [plural: tadbirna Arabic plural:


tadbir t plural: tadbr] 1 measure

to suppose 2 to estimate, make an approximation, calculate


takhmin 1 imaginary

tadv f. Arabic medicine treatment; therapy

foresight, prudence

compound verb
takhmnn Arabic approximately, about
takhminavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

defensibility,

defensive capability

approximation (of something), calculation; draft, preliminary


outline

takhajjul 1 imaginary; assumed 2 fantastic 3 romantic;

d to be sensible

tadkhn m. Arabic smoking


tadarrdzh m. Arabic gradual movement; gradual transfer
tadrzh m. Arabic 1 gradualness
gradually, by degrees 2 gradation

tadrdzhn Arabic gradually


tadridzh gradual gradually
tadrs m. Arabic [plural: tadrisna plural:
tadris t] teaching, study (of something)
Directorate of Institutions of Learning (in the Ministry of

compound verb
compound verb
tadrisavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to
Education of Afghanistan)

teach, give lessons

tadris Arabic adjective learning; teaching

textbooks, educational aids

director of studies

tadrisedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be


studied, be taught (in schools, etc.)

179

tadfn m. Arabic burial, funeral

Pashto-English Dictionary

tad m. Arabic [plural: tadina Arabic plural:


tadi t] 1 careful study, meticulous research 2 check,
verification a to study in

expressions with the verb

tadvr m. Arabic 1 starting, start up

cultivate, foster 1.3 out of, from (indicates direction of an action

tadvn m. Arabic 1 composition, compilation (e.g., of a

factory 2 work, functioning

collection of stories, of a textbook) 2 codification

entry, writing in

compound verb

starting a

Zalmaj went out of the house.

poured from my eyes. 1.4 with someone, with something (with


the postposition

more than two years have passed since 1.6 than (indicates
comparative and superlative degrees)
older than you.

tazkhr m. Arabic accumulation

accumulation of

passport;

personal identification; residence permit 2 certificate 3 note;

biographies of poets with

examples of their poetry; anthology

tazkr m. 1 grammar attributing masculine gender to a word

tazmm m. Arabic obligation

2 grammar masculine gender 3 biology male sex

tazll m. Arabic humiliation, degradation, abasement

to undertake an

obligation, pledge oneself, undertake

tr 1 preposition in Western dialect words of feminine gender

ending in "o" may not be inflected 1.1 independently or in


combination with : 1.1a to, up to (indicating a distance)

up to Kabul

from morning till evening Until what time?
How long? up to this day until death 1.1c
to, up to (indicating a quantitative limit) count
up to twenty 1.1d across (e.g., going across something)
to jump across a stream to
I'm going (as far as) to the city.

1.1b to, up to, till (indicating an interval of time)

cross a river 1.1e through; past (e.g., through or past something)

to go through town; go past a town; pass by a town 1.2

in combination with 1.2a under (e.g., lower than something,


from the lower part of something)

But in their studies Gulbashara overtook him. 2.2

worse

dismissal notice 4 short biographies (of

famous people, poets, etc.)

Today I came later than you.


It's not necessary, we'll get along without it. idiom
to the point that; as much as, to such a
degree first of all
2 tre Eastern 5
3 tar damp, wet
tr suffix showing comperative degree in borrowed words

inform, notify b to discuss

tazkir tazkar f. Arabic 1 passport

Ahmad is

without him, without her; without them; without it

tazk r m. Arabic reminder; remembrance; reference (to)


to make mention of someone; recall someone
tazakkr m. Arabic 1 reference (to); reminder (about);
information, notification 2 discussion a to remind;

2 adverb .1 from him, from her; from them

water reserves

more
than one kilometer; it exceeds one kilometer
no more than ten thousand meters ...

unwaveringly

with my father

to mix with one another 1.5 above, more than, over (indicates

tazabzb m. Arabic indecision, uncertainty, vacillation


uncertainty about something to
vacillate, be indecisive to carry out something

reminder

exceeding some number or quantity)

textbook) 2 to codify, classify, systematize


Tears

from somewhere, from within something)

tadvinavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


compose, compile (e.g., a collection of stories or articles, a

to be

to be covered by snow 1.2b in


to examine, take
under observation to educate, bring up;

legislative department (in ministries of Afghanistan) 3

struck by a car

detail; search thoroughly b to verify

put your arm under your head

under the table

under the earth; subterranean

tr

tr f.

tar suffix indicating comperative and superlative degrees

better, best greatest


tar b used with
tarb' m. Arabic plural of
tr pi present tense of
1 tr m. Eastern trot (gait); fast pace at a run
to ride at a trot
to drive a horse to run swiftly
2 tr m. 1 1 2 spur
tr a f. 1 zig-zag emboidery (on silk) 2 edging, piping 3

tr aj brittle, fragile
tradzhed f.
tarhm m. Arabic plural of
trkh onomatopoeia bang, boom
trkh dialect masculine plural of
tr a 1 stripe, streak to cut off a strip 2 ribbon,
tape

trr 1 upset; disturbed 2 perplexed; in confusion; in a panic


trr f. 1 agitation, anxiety 2 perplexity; confusion; panic
to confuse someone, upset someone
180

Pashto-English Dictionary

tr m. three-year-old camel
tr a 1 f. .1 pebbles, shingles

tr m. beginning
tr a f. anger; malice to fly into a rage; be angry
trvrs m. sleeper (railway car)
tr sa tr sa pri until now
trv f. woven bag, woven sack (for transporting dirt)
trv f. tarvh f. Arabic plural additional prayer or

1.2 rocky place 1.3 foot (of a

mountain) 2 attributive .1 pebbly 2.2 stony, rocky

cup on a set of
to outweigh (on scales) idiom
He has huge ears. He is lop-eared.
tarzuv n m. weigher
1 tarz f. 1 chunk, bit, piece to cut a
melon into pieces to cut in slices 2 shred, scrap;
string (e.g., of fabric) to tear into shreds, tear into strips
to be torn, be shredded
2 tr za f. large dam (for irrigation)
trzhed 1 f. tragedy 2 attributive tragic
trzhk tragic
tar sh m. 1 cutting 2 forming, shaping 3 chopping knife,
tarz m. scales; spring-balance

scales

service (performed during Ramadan)

tar h m. 2
tur f. loofah, luffa
trb turb [plural:

tarb raj m. clothes rack; cloak-room


1 turbt m. Arabic 1 grave; tomb, burial vault; mausoleum 2
used in geographical names turbt-i Turbat-i Haidari
(town)

tarbt 1.1 compressed, squeezed 1.2 stuffed a to


press, squeeze b to stuff, pack in a to be pressed b to

chopper 4 form, shape, aspect 5 shaving

trshl tarshl transitive [past: ] 1 to cut 2 to


wipe off, scrape off 3 to shave 4 to trim 5 to confine, limit 6 to

sculpt 7 to scrape (parquet) idiom

be stuffed, be packed in 2 m. .1 stuffiness, closeness 2.2

trubch f. radish
turbd m. turbd turbd

sculpture,

statue

tar gh m. 1 fold, wrinkle 2 bend, twist 3 circle, ring


trfk m. traffic (on the street, etc.) regulation
of street traffic Department of Traffic Regulation
(in Afghanistan)

trfik road, highway; transportation-related


road signs
trk m. 1 crack, split 2 cracking noise 3 cut, groove, notch
(e.g., on the barrel of a gun)

trktr m. [plural: trktorna plural:

trktor n] 1 tractor 2 truck tractor

tarkm m. Arabic 1 accumulation, concentration 2 pile,

heap

trm m.
trmbj f. stairway
trmvj m. streetcar, tram
trm f. 1 sheet metal for roofing 2 lampshade
tr ndza f. stickiness, adhesiveness
trnzt m. transit
trnzit adjective transit
trnsprt m. transportation, transport, conveyance
passenger conveyances, passenger conveying
tarn f. 1 song 2 hymn state hymn a to
sing b to sing a hymn

botany jalap (root, a laxative or

purgative)

1 to be

cut, be trimmed, be cut off 2 to cut one's hair, have a hair-cut 3


to be polished 4 to be carved (of stone)

maladjusted person, disturbed person

to compose, think

up to pretend to be a fakir
tarsh f. 1 shaving, filing 2 piece, bit of something
tarshj m. scraper
tarshedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

trb n plural: turb n] 1 radish 2

horseradish

trburna plural of
trbr oblique singular of
trabgan f. 1 relationship through grandparent (as cousins)
enmity, rivalry (usually between close relatives) to

show hostility, show rivalry 3 relationship, similarity

turbuts f. radish leaves, radish tops


tarbkhta f. something which smells bad, something which
gives off a foul odor bad smell, foul odor
trbkhti f. plural stale air, stuffiness
trbr m. [plural: trburna Western plural:
trburn] cousin (on the father's side) saying
A cousin is a snake in one's bosom.

trburgalv f. trbur f.
trbuzk m.
tarbza f. kind of silk embroidery
tarbijt m. Arabic 1 upbringing; teaching

the

upbringing of children, teaching of children 2 breeding (of


animals)

animal husbandry

compound

verb a to be raised, brought up, taught b to be bred (of animals)


idiom physical education
tarbijat 1 2 preparatory
tarb' m. Arabic [plural: tarb'] 1 phase (of the moon)
2 square 3 squaring, quadrature

tribjn m. tribune; platform, chair (at a university);

department (of a university)

181

tarbijav educational; pedagogic

Pashto-English Dictionary

development of mental
educational work teachers,

tarbij f. Arabic

ability

pedagogues

tarbijkhn f. farm
1 trap 1 onomatopoeia .1

clapping

trapj m.
trapedl

clop, clop-clop 1.2 bang, crack,

boom 2 .1 jump; leap, bound to jump; leap, bound


to leap up from one's place 2.2 flight, escape
to flee, run saying Either a blow from the
saber or flight tread, tramp, clatter (of hooves) idiom
to weaken, lose one's strength, wear oneself out
trp m. turp
trp f. 1 tramp, clatter (e.g., of camel's hooves) 2 convulsive
twitch, shaking, quivering (of a wounded animal or bird) 3

2 trp m. loafer, idler, lazy-bones


trpka f. [plural: trpki] 1 stamping, treading
a to stamp, tap one's foot b figurative to insist,
persist Do you continue to insist on your
own way? to come hopping 2 fluttering, quivering
1 trpl transitive trpi [present: past: ] 1 to oil,
grease, lubricate 2 to lay in, lay on, pack; stack in a pile

trapl transitive [present: past: trapll


transitive past: ] 1 to jump; to
2

literal I don't run from the saber. figurative I'm not afraid of
battle.

traplna f. 1 jumping; galloping 2 fast running 3 running


away, ducking out

trapl past tense stem of


trapld past tense stem of
1 trpla imperfective imperative of
2 trpla f. military movement at a run across some area, rush,
bound

trapandj m.

trapnkaj m. 1 rock thrown into

shallow water (for going across) 2 [plural: trapand

plural: trapnki] river crossing of stones or rocks

trapavl transitive [past: ] 1 to cause to jump,


cause to gallop 2 to cause to run swiftly 3 to put to fight 4 to
1

pull (by the tail feathers, of a bird)

one's foot 4 to tremble, shake, quake (e.g., from fright) 5 to


twitch convulsively, shake, flutter (of a wounded or dying animal
or bird) 6 figurative to bustle about, run around, fuss

tarped f.
1 trat m. whip; history knout
2 turt 1 instantly, momentarily, in a flash 2 quickly, hurriedly
tart b m. 1 regret; sorrow, sadness to regret;
grieve, be sad saying You can't get back
tartr male borzoi (dog)
tartaj m. 1 stammerer, stutterer

2 stammering, stuttering 3

kind of bird

trtlo m. trtla eternally, forever


tartb m. Arabic [plural: tartibna Arabic plural:
tartib t] 1 order, routine; arrangement a in
that order b in such a way order of the day
in order by years; in chronological order
regulated, put in (good) order 2 disposition, arrangement;
distribution 3 measure

tartib t m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 measures


to take measures
tartibv r in order, by turn
tartibavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
arrange, put into order 2 to organize, regulate 3 to compile (e.g.,
lists); write (a report) 4 to dispose, arrange, set out 5 to deploy 6
to form (units)

tartib ordinal
tartibedl denominative, intransitive

[past: ] 1 to be

put into order, fall into order 2 to be arranged, be organized; be

regulated 3 to be compiled (e.g., a list); be written (of a report) 4


to be disposed; be deployed 5 to be formed (of units)
Fall in!

taratezk m. singular & plural watercress, Lepidium sativum


tra m. 1
tar p m.
tral transitive [past: ] 1 to swear, curse; scold,
reprimand, tell off 2 to banish, drive off

trana f. 1 scolding, reprimand 2 banishment, exile


tra f. woven corn-bin (shaped like a barrel)
tardzhum n m. Arabic 1 translator, dragoman 2 one who

expressed others' wishes, opinions, feelings, etc. 3 representative,

trpavl transitive [past: ] 1 to oil carelessly,


lubricate carelessly 2 to beat, strike, thrash, drub

intransitive [past: past: ] 1 to beat,

what's been lost.

garbage, waste 3 defective goods, rejects

gallop 2 to run swiftly 3 to run off, disappear

1 gait, step, walk 2 sound (of steps); tramp (of feet)

tremble, pound, shake 2 to jump; hop, skip 3 to stamp, tramp; tap

slaughter (of an animal, bird)

tarp l m. tarpln m. canvas top (of a vehicle), awning


trp m. botany plantain
trpuch f. turpuch
traparj-traparj children's speech clippety-clop
to stamp one's feet
1 trap m. [plural: trap] 1 rags, old clothes; rubbish 2

traph r m. 1 stamping, trampling 2 beating (e.g., of wings),

envoy, messenger

trap f. 1 jump; gallop 2 dance, dancing


182

Pashto-English Dictionary

trkha torj f.
1 trkh 1 feminine plural of 2 f. plural figurative
bitterness, a bitter feeling
In life he saw much grief and joy.
2 trkhj f. chamomile
3 tarkh f. frosts, cold spells
trkhedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to become

tardzhumn f. Arabic 1 work of a translator, work of a

dragoman 2 expression of someone's wishes, opinions, feelings,


etc.

tardzhum Arabic translation (from one language into


compound verb to translate
to translate into Pashto translated book
tardzhh f. tardzh Arabic preference right of
preferential acquisition to
prefer someone, prefer something to surpass
another)

word-for-word translation

bitter, have a bitter taste, turn rancid; be over-peppered

transfer to the reserve

someone, surpass something; be preferred to someone, be preferred


to something

tardzhhn Arabic preferably


tardzh f. Arabic 1 return 2 repeating, repetition
tardzhi'bnd m. ballad (with a refrain of two rhymed halfverses)

trch 1 m. sneezing 2 interjection ah-choo


trchl intransitive [past: ] to sneeze
trcha f. trchah r m. sneezing
1 trdz m. trts m. interval of time
in one's own speech

along

in the

course of life

trats m. Eastern 1 edge; side

a obliquely, slantwise b

sideways 2 edging, border, hem 3 crude word, sharp word idiom

to look askance at someone, look suspiciously at


someone to speak secretly
trtskn attractive
tr ts tr ts pori tr ts chi until
tarahhm m. Arabic pity, sympathy to be sorry (for),
feel pity, have sympathy to be sorry for

hesitating 2 running regular trips

repose of the soul (of the dead)

funeral gathering

person freed from payment of tribute or

tardd m. Arabic 1 declining, refusal; denial, refutation


incontestably, undeniably 2 indecision, hesitation, doubt
undoubtedly
tardidavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to
tardid declining, rejecting; denying, refuting
tardidedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]

to be

refused, be denied; be refuted

tardf m. Arabic 1 movement, proceeding 2 to string, thread


tr ra
1 tr m. plural small clouds
2 tre f. plural Eastern combining form with
tarz m.
tarzub n talkative
trznaj m. cattle which have just been purchased and brought
home

taragmj
1 tars m.

f. Western

1 fear, fright 2 sympathy, pity

2 trs m. 1 2 2 inclined, sloping


tars m. non-Moslem; pagan; Christian
tarsn timid, skittish
tarassb m. Arabic settlement (of alluvia)
geology alluvium

trast m. trust (industrial or business)


trastishp m. 1 guardianship, trusteeship

taxes

2 tarkh n m.
trkhdz f. wedge, gusset (in a shirt)
trkhavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

2 patronage,

sponsorship

to make

bitter; over-pepper

tarkhn m. botany tarragon


1 trkha f. botany wormwood
2 trkh 1 masculine plural of 2 m. plural pepper
black pepper red pepper
3 trkh feminine singular of
4 trkha f. crack, split; slit, crevice to crack,
split

a to be indecisive,

felt sorry for him.

tarhm m. Arabic [plural: tarhm] prayer for the

1 trakh m.
2 trakh m.
1 tarkh n m. history

hesitate b to run (between), make regular trips

someone; take pity on someone

taraddd m. Arabic 1 indecision, vacillation, doubt without

decline, reject, turn down; deny, refute

with this, at the same time as this; by the way, incidentally

tarkhs m. Arabic 1 dismissal, disbandment 2 military

tr sra
1 tarsrj m. bridle; headband
2 trsri m. tarsri plural freckles
to be covered with freckles

trsri-mkhaj freckled
traskn somewhat salty
traskunavl denominative, transitive
make salty, salt slightly

183

traskn

[past:

to

Pashto-English Dictionary

someone (responsibility); obligate someone; thrust upon someone,

trsnd keeping away, avoiding something; indifferent,


apathetic, unconcerned

foist upon someone

trsndv laj m. avoidance (of something); indifference,

apathy

obligated

trsndavl denominative, transitive [past:


remove, free

targh k m. 1 storm 2 waste (plot of) land, waste ground


trghalnaj m. medicine mastitis
1 trghne 1 f. darkness, dusk 2 attributive
when it got dark, when twilight fell
2 trghnaj ancient, old; antique
trgh 1 sparse, scattered, thrown about 2 diffused, dispersed,
driven away a to scatter, throw about b to disperse,
drive away a to be scattered b to be driven off, be

to

trsndedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


keep away (from something); be indifferent, be unconcerned

tarsb m. Arabic geology sediment (of a rock layer),

sedimentation

tarsib geology sedimentary


trsijari geology tertiary, ternary
tarsm m. Arabic image, representation, description;

dispersed

exposition, account

tarsimavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


represent, describe; expound 2 math to describe to
describe a circle

tursh 1 sour (to the taste) 2 figurative unsatisfied, dissatisfied;

irritable 3 figurative gloomy, morose

trsh 1 postpositive behind, after; in a back of


He followed slowly after him. 2.1 behind to
lag behind to lag behind others 2.2 back
to put off, postpone ! About face! (as command)
to repel, fight off (e.g., an attack) to retreat, fall
back to throw back (an opponent)
trshp te backward (of a country)
trshtg m. [plural: trshked] m. withdrawal,

targhb m. Arabic encouragement, incentive


to encourage someone, inspire someone
targhj - targhj
taraff' f. Arabic haughtiness; arrogance
tarf' f. Arabic [plural: tarfi'gni m. Arabic plural:
tarfi' t] promotion (at work) edict on
promotion (in one's position, profession) promotion in
rank to receive a promotion (at work)
tarf'n Arabic by way of a promotion (at work)
tara f. Arabic [plural: taraj m. Arabic plural:
taraij t] 1 forward movement 2 progress, development;
success attainment to strive for progress
to further the progress, further the development of
something, develop something 3 growth, increase (of taxes, etc.)

retreat, departure

to be assigned to someone (responsibility); to be

tarashashh f. Arabic m. [plural: tarashshoht] 1

physiology secretion 2 leakage (of rumors)

out, exude b to leak (of rumors)

a to ooze

turshrj

turshru f. dissatisfied expression, dour expression;

taraikhh progressive; striving for

taredl intransitive [past: ] dialect to double up


(from pain)

turshr dissatisfied, having a sour

expression; sullen, gloomy

tarm m. Arabic numeration, numbering


taraijft progressive, advanced; developed
1 trak m. germination, sprouting; growth

sullenness, moroseness

turshmaz sour (to the taste)


turshv laj m. sour taste
tursh f. 1 salted food(s) 2 chemistry acid
trkhdz f. trhza f. trhza 1

taraiparvr

progress

a to progress, develop; be successful b to

grow, increase (of taxes, etc.)

to

germinate, sprout, grow

gusset (in a shirt)

trhka f. path, small road


tarassd m. Arabic [plural: tarassudna Arabic
plural: tarassud t] 1 observation aerial

upon someone, entrusted to someone (literally: around the neck)


to assign

trak m. reservoir (of a churn or press)

trak m. decorative edging of a rug (made of woolen threads)

turk m. 1 Turki (member of ethnic group with Turkic a

trak m. 1 knock, thump; blow 2 tread, tramp

a to

language) 2 Turk 3 history soldier 4 poetic handsome youth

observation 2 waiting; temporizing 3 shadowing

knock; to strike b to tramp, tread

adze 2 wedge,

tarassudg h m. observation point


targh combining form with
trgh a 1 serving as a debt, serving as an obligation; laid

tark m. Arabic 1 leaving, abandoning 2 refusal of

something

a to leave, abandon b to refuse something

tark m. 1 crack, split; cleft, fissure 2 crack, crackling

(sound) 3 hoof disease (in horses, mules, etc.)

trk f.
tarkr f. verdure; vegetable, vegetables

184

Pashto-English Dictionary

tarkrivl m. greengrocer
tark m. carpenter to be a carpenter; do carpentry

tarkk m. woodpecker
1 tark f. carpentry; carpentry work
2 1 tark m. plural Tarkini (also called Tarkanis,

6 trakj f.
tarkb m.

work

turkist n m. history Turkestan


tarkh m. history quiver
1 tarkal m. plural Tarkalani (tribe)

4 philosophy synthesis

trakedl intransitive [past: ] 1 to strike (against),


knock oneself (against), bump (against) 2 to grow, sprout

2 tarkalnj m.

tr kla pori until what time, until when,

turkm n m. [plural: turkmn n Arabic plural:


f. Turkmen (female)
1 Turkmen

Turkmen (language)

turkmn m.
turkmanist n m. Turkmenistan
turkmna f.
turkman
tr kma tr kma pori

Turkmen (language) 2 f.

trki-vrki scattered, thrown about, dispersed


turkij f. Turkey
targ m. perforation of the bladder (in cattle)
trgmj f. Eastern
pitch dark.

trl slndi subordinated, subordinate, subject to


trlslndiv laj m. subordination
tr l ndi 1 adverb underneath to put under
something, shove under slip your hand under
to crawl under something, stand under 2 under

until what time, till when,

tarlghnaj
1 trl f. trl

to

tr kma tr kma pori


tarknaj Eastern diseased (of a plant)
1 tarik f. tark Arabic inheritance, inherited property
2 turka f. 1 Turkish female 2 f. poetic beloved, sweetheart,
girlfriend

turki 1.1 Turkic 1.2 Turkish

Turkish (language)

1.3 gizzar (breed of sheep) 2 f. the Turkish language

tell the mother from the daughter.


idiom

trkj dark-complexioned

trakj f. soured milk

a to become angry

to be reconciled
Why did you get

angry? b to overdo it, try too hard (e.g., when treating someone)

turm m. trumpet, horn; bugle

turm m. [plural: turumna plural: turum n] 1

stallion 2 stud-horse, male (of species)

3 trm m.
tarmz oblique of
trmj m. grapes of the last harvest
tramb z m. ox closest to the center of the threshing floor

turumtj m. hawk or falcon used for hunting


turumch m. trumpeter, horn-player, bugler
proverb The trumpeter's business is only to blow.

tr mkh tr mkha 1 postpositive in front of


something, by something in front of the house, by the

to speak Turkish

proverb However dark the night, you can still

(during the threshing of grain)

m. 1 tramping, clatter (of

hoof beats) 2 crack, cracking (sound)


1

2 to whip, lash

trla Western with one another; from one another to


make peace with each other; to reconcile

trkopra 1 often, frequently 2 a lot, much


trakdaj m. plant
1 trakavl transitive [past: ] 1 to strike, hit, knock
trakavl denominative, transitive [past:
abandon, leave (behind)

[plural: trl plural: trleg ni]

children's speech to consider as a cousin; to call cousin

trk m. tradesman (one who has come to a village from the


city)

m. veterinary foot-and-mouth disease

cousin (female), daughter of an uncle on the father's side

how long

It was

something

3 tark f. twig, shoot (of a tree)


trkh r m. trkh raj

tarkib Arabic 1 composite, complex, complicated 2

tarkim] Turkmen

turkm na
turkmn

tarkibbnd m. literature verse form with a refrain at the

synthetic

Tarkalani (tribesman)

Arabic 1 compilation 2 chemistry compound,

end of each stanza consisting of two rhymed half-verses

1 tarakz m. plural the Tarakzi (a subdivision of the

tr kla
how long

(young) goldfinch

composition 3 linguistics sentence, phrase, combination of words

Mohmands) 2 tarakzj m. Tarakzi (tribesman)

tarakj f. cluster of rocks (apart from a mountain ridge)


1 trki m. plural Taraki (tribe) 2 trkaj m. Taraki

(tribesman)
traktr m.

(tribesman)

Tarkalani, Tarkalanis, name of a tribe) 2 tarkj m. Tarkini

house 2 earlier, already

185

trmla f. rice water, water in which rice was washed

Pashto-English Dictionary

tr mndz tr mndza
trmna f. 1 moist arable soil 2 swamp; swampy hollow, pool

2 trandzj f. stream of water


trandzedl denominative, intransitive

tarmz m. thermos, thermos flask


trma f. 1 sediment 2 clay; dirt 3 4 crack, cracking
tarm exclamation cry shouted by shepherds when driving

trnd
trand ra f. aunt (on the father's side)
trndtb m. trndtj f.
trndi plural of 1
tranj f. 1 attack, assault 2 influx of guests 3 cry, shout
tranz
tranzka f. snapping the fingers
tranzkj
tranzavl transitive
1 tranzj m. 1
2 tranzj f. 2
tranzedl intransitive
1 tarnk m. 1 rage, anger, wrath 2 figurative the appetite of

(in a bog)

sheep

tr mj ndz
tarm-tarm

tarm-tarm Eastern 1 scattered,

dispersed 2 fragmented, broken up, disrupted

scatter b to break up
broken up

a to

a to be scattered b to be

tarmiz trmiz history of Termez (city)


tarmir f. watercress, Nasturtium officinale
` tarmm m. Arabic [plural: tarmimna Arabic
plural: tarmim t] 1 repair auto

thin, wither away

repair shops 2 recuperation; strengthening, fortification (of the

compound verb

organism); correction (in a law, etc.)

compound verb
tarmimkr f. repair works
tarmimavl denominative, transitive

[past:

a wolf

1 to

repair, fix 2 to revive (health); fortify (the organism) 3 to

tarmimedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be repaired, be fixed 2 to be revived (of health); be fortified (of
the organism) 3 to be corrected, be modified, be amended (of a
law, etc.)

tr mjndza postpositive 1 between 2


in a day
tarminal airport terminal
tarn v m. 1 chute, gutter (for drainage of water) 2 aqueduct
tr mjndz

across

channel, groove, trough 4 technology water cooling tower 5 pass


between mountains

1 tarndzh m. singular & plural camel's thorn


2 turndzh m. botany citron, citrus medica
3 turndzh 1 wrinkled, creased; folded 2 tough, coarse
tarandzhubn m. singular & plural manna, sugary juice on
the camel's thorn

trandzhukj f. skein of silk, skein of yarn


trandzh f. sharp stone (used by shepherds instead of a knife

2 tarnk m. Tarnak (River)


tranktsa f.
trnk angry, raging
1 trng m. 1 strumming, playing (on the rabab)

trndza 1 feminine singular of

(during an eclipse)

trang with a hanging (drooping) spike (of grains ready for

harvest) to ripen
4 trang m. area for games
trng f.
turungch m.
trang m. string bag for carrying hay or straw
tringlaj m. 1
trang m.
trng m.
trangtsa f. sling (as a weapon)
trngavl transitive [past: ] 1 to play (on the
rabab) 2 to knock; produce a crackling sound

trang f. smooth and level board


trngah r m. trngj m. 1

strumming, sounding, the

sound (of a rabab) 2 tapping; crackling

trangedl intransitive [past: ] to jingle, sound (of a

rabab)

to

torture, exhaust, dry up

trang m. 1 diminutive (little) hour 2 striking (a gong);

striking (of a clock)

when slaughtering sheep)

trandzhj f.
trandz 1 thin, gaunt 2 stunted, poor (of crops)
trandzkj skinny, thin
trandzavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

trandzj m. emaciated person

2 f. darkness, gloom

2 knock,

knocking; crack, cracking (noise)

introduce a correction, introduce an amendment (into a law, etc.)

[past: ] to grow

trna dialect 5
trnik m. great-great-grandfather
tarj m. regional customs (duty)
tro 1 hence, therefore 2 then, thereupon
turv laj m. sourness, acidity; acid
trobj m. vinegar
trup combining form with 1
186

Pashto-English Dictionary

tarutzag f. 1 freshness, newness 2 figurative liveliness,

trohavl transitive [past: ] 1 to spend


economically, spend frugally; be stingy 2 to steal, appropriate

gaiety

tarutz 1 very fresh 2 figurative lively, cheerful

a to freshen b to come to life, revive, become cheerful

Shadi revived, Shadi grew cheerful


tro m. loss, injury to incur a loss
to be detrimental for someone

tromn detrimental, unprofitable


tro 1 f. loss, injury I incur a loss on
this to incur a loss 2 attributive unprofitable
unprofitable commodity compound verb to prove
unprofitable

trchi dialect
1 tror f. [plural: trndi plural: trnde plural:
trorni] 1 aunt (on father's side) children's
speech 1 children's speech to be considered an
aunt, be called an aunt beh proverb there is
no friend like your mother 2 aunt, auntie (direct address)

trr 1 confused; distracted, dismayed, perplexed 2 out-of-

sorts, upset, disordered

3 terrr m. terror
trurtb m. trurtj f.
trordzj m. Eastern 1
trordzj f. Eastern 2
1 trorzj m. cousin (son of an aunt on father's side)
2 trorzj f. cousin (daugther of an aunt on father's side)
trorke f. auntie
trorme m. uncle (husband of aunt on father's side)
trurv laj m. 1 confusion; dismay, perplexity 2 upset,
discomposure

troravl denominative, transitive [past: ]


children's speech to consider as one's aunt; to call aunt

truravl denominative, transitive [past:


confuse 2 to upset, distress

1 to

trorj m. fox; vixen

truredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


become confused, become flustered; get lost 2 to become upset,
become distressed
1

trohedl intransitive [past: ]1 to be spent


economically, be spent frugally 2 to be appropriated

trvka f. turvkaj m. trvkaj m. botany sorrel


kind of sorrel with tubers
trogj m. botany spurge, euphorbia
travl transitive
1 trm m. 1
2 trm m. 2
trmaj m. sip of water
1 turungz m. plural Turungzi (tribe) 2 turungzj m.
Turungzi (tribesman)

trna plural of 1
1 trv turv 1 masculine plural of

tro f. storm (when the whole sky is covered with dark rain

clouds)

2 tra f. golden thread (for women's shoes, slippers)


taroj f. fox
trogm
j f. trogm
j dark and moonless night; darkness
idiom the power of darkness
trska and here
trush word paired with
turshi dialect salty water

2 m. plural .1

something sour to the taste, sour (-tasting) stuff 2.2 ferment;


leaven to leaven dough
2 trv turv 1 feminine singular of 2 f. vinegar
1 tarvj m. 1 botany spurge, euphorbia 2 jalap (root)
2 trv f. turv 1 feminine plural of 2 f. plural

tarvt m. astrology
1 tarvetj m. astrologist
2 tarvetj f. fortune-teller
tarvdzh m. Arabic 1 spreading, dissemination; inculcation,
indoctrination; implanting 2 development
development of industry
tarvidzhavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
spread, disseminate, make available; inculcate, introduce, implant

2 to develop

trorj f. tror f. [plural: trorj plural:


trorj ni] auntie

another's possession

to develop industry

trvedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


salty 2 to be sour; turn sour; turn (sour)

tarvr m. 1 deception, fraud 2 depression, sadness


1 tr m. [plural: trna] uncle (on father's side)
children's speech to consider as an uncle; be called uncle

tra f. 1 repulsion 2 fear

a to have an

aversion for something b to fear, be afraid of something idiom

He can't sleep

tr f. mill-race
4 tar f. musk melon
5 tr f. body (of a person, animal)
6 tra suffix
tarh f. trah 1 fright, fear 2 fearfulness, timorousness
to be afraid, take fright
tirh v m. Eastern one-third, a third
trap f. rag; waste
taratezk m.
3

187

Pashto-English Dictionary

stern 4 figurative heavy, difficult, bitter

tarakhl 1 m. plural Tarakheli (tribe) 2 m. Tarakheli

(tribesman)

Life is hard for him. 5 figurative bitter, unpleasant (of words) 6

tarhar f.
tarha f. dangerous moment
tr hagh tr hagh pori tr hagh tso
tr hagh tr hagh pore
tarki m. plural Taraki (a subdivision of the Gilzaj)
trhagrj zd counter terrorism
trhnd 1 fearful, timorous 2 restive (of animals, esp. horses)
trhndtb m. trhndtj f. trhndv laj

hot-headed, temperamental
idiom

trhr
trhurtj

f.

figurative tiff, disagreement

trikhavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


make bitter 2 figurative to spoil (a mood); poison (one's pleasure,

trhur f. 1 uneasiness, unrest;

one's life) idiom

uneasiness, anxiety, alarm

a to

be afraid b to be uneasy, be alarmed

trhedl trahedl intransitive [past: ]1 to be afraid,


take fright 2 to be uneasy, be alarmed

trhed m. trahed plural 1 fear, fright 2 uneasiness,


anxiety, alarm
1

tar m. plural Eastern granulated sugar

tar f. 1 water (as contrasted to the dry land) 2 waterway 3

moisture

3 traj m. 4
4 traj m. water from the mountains for irrigation
5 tre Eastern 1 adverb from him, from her, from them
Take your book from him. He
went away from them. 2 out of it, out of them 3 across it, across
them; through it, through them
7

tarj f. stilling pit of a mill


trj f. tarj 1 gorge, ravine 2 road along a precipice 3

stream between mountains

8 tarj secretly, on the sly to speak in secret


tarj k m. plural 1 opium preparation (used against snakebite)
2 opium

tarjki m. opium smoker


tripol f. Tripoli (city)
trt m. soaked oil-cakes (feed for cattle)
tarj-tam disappeared, vanished, lost
to vanish, disappear, be lost ! Get lost! The devil
take you!

to feel malice

to inspire terror in an enemy


to

be decent, be honorable
trikhedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to
become bitter; have a bitter taste 2 figurative to be spoiled (of a

mood); be poisoned (one's pleasure, one's life)

tredl intransitive
1 tria f. 1 scorching of earth from intense heat 2 1
2 tra f. history transport and equipment of an army
triz m. botany chicory
triga f. flat cake fried in oil
tarl f. regional tray
tre l nde Eastern
trelr m. trailer
trelj m. pool, reservoir
1 tarn 1 m. plural Tarini (tribe) branches
of the Tarini 2 m. Tarin (tribesman)

2 tren m. train electric train


tarjn k wild, unbridled
trend ra f.
tring m. music triangle (the instrument)
1 tringlaj m. 1 moody person, morose person 2
dissatisfied person Don't stand in front of
me with a sour look on your face.

2 tringlj f. finger snap to the forehead


trna dialect 5 He couldn't stand it.
His patience wore thin.

trv f. turv f. m. [plural: trv plural: turv


Eastern plural: trv f. plural: trv plural: turv] 1

trikh trkh m. [plural: trkh f. plural:


trkh] 1 bitter (to the taste) 2 salty, brackish (of water)
sea

to try still harder

trkhaj m. 1 bile, gall 2 malice

toward someone, be inclined against someone 2 idiom

trha f. 1 fear, fright 2 fearfulness, timorousness 3

1 bitter taste, bitterness 2

4 figurative bitterness (of words) 5 figurative distress, grief 6

trhavl trahavl transitive [past: ] to frighten;


scare away

2 somewhat salty

brackishness, saltiness (of water) 3 figurative strictness, sterness

That distressed us terribly.

commotion, confusion 2 fright, alarm

to speak the bitter truth

difficulties of the time

trikhbkhn 1 somewhat bitter


trikhtb m.
trikh torj f. kind of vine
trikhtj f. trikhv laj m.

animal)

to suffer a little; to master something

m. 1 timidity, timorousness; fearfulness 2 restiveness (of an


1

triv

sour (to the taste) 2 salty, brackish (of water, soup)


salt water b sea water 2

a sea water b the sea 3 figurative strict,

to look at someone with a dissatisfied expression


188

Pashto-English Dictionary

tarjv laj m. secrecy


trivbkhn trivbakhvnd

tapavl transitive [past: ] 1 to wave, cause to


flutter 2 to strike 3 to force to jump, force to gallop 4 to throw

1 somewhat sour; acidic

upward 5 figurative to disturb

2 somewhat salty, brackish (of water)

triv tandj m. 1 dissatisfied expression, sour expression 2

gloomy expression, sullen expression

a with a dissatisfied expression, with a sour expression b sullenly

a to be dissatisfied b to be sullen
trivtb m. trivtj f.
trivkhvgaj m. sweet-and-sour drink, syrup (made from

5 figurative to be anxious, show impatience

water, honey, vinegar and lemon)

trivkhvndaj
trevj m. cucumber
trivkj m. marinade; pickles
trivmkhaj sullen, morose; dissatisfied
trivn k 1 slightly sour 2 slightly salty
trivnglaj m. trivnglaj
trivv laj m. 1 sourness, acidity; acid
This lemon is unbelievably sour. 2 chemistry acidity
trivvzma
trivavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to make
sour; 2 pickle, ferment idiom to take on a dissatisfied
expression; to become angry; gaze angrily

trivedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to become


sour; sour, turn sour figurative to become apathetic

trj cry used when driving sheep


1 ta m. 1 conclusion (of a treaty, of an alliance)

2 agreement,

treaty, alliance 3 condition 4 knot (in thread, rope, etc.) 5 dam

6 refuge, sanctuary 7
2 ta m. large rock
taz f. 1
tk 2
tj f. Eastern band or bandage on the thigh

taturj
tatk m. impatience
tazhbaj stammering, stuttering
tas onomatopoeia crack
1 ta m. 1 2
2 ta m. regional heat, heat of day
1 tak 1 onomatopoeia bang 2 m. .1 knock; crack 2.2 clap,
bang a banging, slapping, clapping b cracking
(sound); crackling a to knock b to clap 3 blow
to strike 4 clicking (with the tongue)
2 tak m.
tak f. tak r m. taktk m. 1 2
1 tka f. 1 lightning 2
2 tuk f. heated oil
takh r m.
tal transitive [past: ] 1 to connect, tie, bind 2 to
fasten, secure; reinforce Tie the horse to the
tree. 3 to harness to harness a horse to a cart
4 to combine, unite; knock over, knock down to
knock down boards 5 to put on (a veil) 6 to fill in, close up (a
hole, etc.) 7 to build (a bridge, a dam) 8 to close, shut 9 to
obstruct (a roadway); to close off (movement, traffic) 10 to close
down (a plant, institution, etc.) 11 to conclude (a treaty, contract,
agreement)

to tie

to make a bet

etc.) 13 to call, convene

to call a session 14 to ascribe

to ascribe another's services to oneself


15 to dedicate to dedicate to someone
to join someone, associate (oneself) with someone

ta k m. 1 row, column; string (e.g., of horses), series 2

side

2 tk onomatopoeia bang (sound of firearms)


tagj f.
t nga f. 1 strip (of fabric, leather, etc.) 2 piece, small piece;
slice 3 patch of land 4
t nga-t nga tngi-tngi 1 torn into

He made a bet with me and lost. 12 to fix, set, appoint (a time,

the thighs with a band or bandage


1

taph r m. 1 hoof beats (of an animal) 2 knocking, noise

tapedl intransitive [past: ]1 to sway, flutter, flap 2


to strike (against), hit 3 to jump, gallop 4 to be thrown, be tossed

triv tand sullenly

passive a to be harnessed b to be closed, be shut c to be


concluded

talaj 1 past particle from 2.1 closed the


door was closed 2.2 dependent, depending (on someone,

strips or pieces (fabric, leather, etc.) 2 cut into pieces or slices

something)

a to tear into strips or pieces b to cut into pieces;


slice, cut up a to be torn into strips or pieces b

depends upons his arrival. 3 obligated, obliged 4 of one piece,

to be cut into pieces; be sliced, cut up

t v m. 1 string for measuring land 2 relationship, connection


tabkha f. tabukhj m. stuffiness, stale air; heat
Today it's stifling.
tap 1 onomatopoeia bang, boom 2 m. .1 muffled blow,
muffled knocking 2.2 haste; impatience

My departure

integral, solid

talk m. agreement, contract


1 tam tm 1 warm warm weather

2 hot, burning (of

tears)

2 tam first person present of


tumb f. 2
tamtb m. tamtj f.
189

tamv laj m. tepidness

Pashto-English Dictionary

tamavl denominative, transitive [past:


to make warm, warm

to heat up;

tamedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to warm


up, be heated 2 to be warm

3 harnessing 4

agreement) 8 convocation (of something) idiom

agreement; reach an agreement 3 convening (of a legislature, etc.)

tazavvdzh m. Arabic marriage

tazvdzh m. Arabic marriage, matrimony; giving (someone) in

matrimony, get married

to nourish affection toward someone


taubj m. pump
tup onomatopoetic bang, smack
tuk word paired with 1 2
tumb f. plural warm buttermilk
1 tan m. 1 conclusion, ratification (of a treat, contract,
agreement) written formulation of a contract
2 contract, agreement to conclude a contract or

6 knot (thread, string) 7 string 8 dedication (book)

2 tan m. computer science protocol


tanaj m. 1 band; bandage 2 strips of bast
1 ta f. path; way, road ! Go home! Get out of
here! Go away! idiom a to walk about looking
important b to make a show of bravery

ta f. 1 promise; obligation

to make conditional

(upon); cause, bring about 2 intention


3

to add, supplement; increase; multiply

multiply b to develop, be developed

tazr m. Arabic medicine injection; infusion

compound verb to make an injection; make an infusion

tazjn m. Arabic ornament, decoration

verb to decorate
oneself

compound

compound verb to be decorated; adorn

tazjin Arabic decorative decorative plants idiom


decorations
tagl m. dialect outfitting, equipment, supplies
tgm
m. smell, foul odor

tagmdzh
n smelly, foul-smelling

tgaj 1 tormented by thirst I'm thirsty.


He wanted both to eat and to drink. to cause thirst 2
thirsting (for something) striving (toward something) a
to thirst, be thirsty, be tormented by thirst b to thirst for, desire

He very

(something), strive (toward something)


much wants to learn. idiom

through); difficulties

tazvr m. Arabic 1 deceit, forgery 2 dissembling, pretense,

tazvir feigned, hypocritical, false, insincere literal


to be camouflaged, be disguised
tzaj m. 1 centerpost of a tent 2 inflorescence of corn
tazjd m. [plural: tazjidna Arabic plural:
tazjid t] addition, supplement; increase, multiplication

hillock

tism r m. intense heat, sultriness


tka f. 1 uneasiness, anxiety 2 pain
tzr m. czar, tsar
tzr adjective czar, tsar
tazjd m. Arabic 1 growth, increase, increment,
augmentation 2 development a to grow, increase,

to enter into

hypocrisy, falseness

ta f. 1 rock, cliff 2 rocky place 3 watershed 4 steep

ta imperfective imperative of
1 taj m. stammerer, slutterer
2 ta present tense of
3 taj present tense, second person plural of
tski f. plural experiences (esp. those endured, suffered

marriage

to connect your life with someone 5 measure (action to be taken)

tazalzl m. Arabic oscillation, wavering (literally and

grieve

6 closing (of some institution) 7 conclusion (of a contract or

to

figuratively); instability to shake the will


tuzn
tuznedl intransitive [past: ]to be upset, be distressed,

joint, connection, compound 5 filling in, covering up (a hole, etc.)

4 connection, interconnection; relationship

clean, cleanse, purify

1 tang m. unassailable cliff


2 tng 1
tang f. tangah r m.
tana f. 1 binding, linking 2 reinforcement

tazkij f. Arabic purification, cleansing, cleaning;

to deceive, dupe, swindle; twist around one's finger


tgajv
laj m. thirst

1
ts 1 1 2 thrown, tossed, strewn to throw, toss
to be thrown, be tossed
2 ts m. exclamation cry used for getting a camel to rise up
tasmh m. Arabic condescension, indulgence, leniency;
softness

tasnd m. Arabic solidarity


tasv f. Arabic equality, equal amount (e.g., an equal
number of votes)

tasbk sticking out, sticking up


tasb f.
tasb f. tasbh [plural: tasbh]

Arabic 1 religion

praise of God 2 rosary, prayer beads, tasbih

tasp f. rosary bead; prayer beads

a prayer going through a rosary (prayer beads)

190

to recite

Pashto-English Dictionary

taskhr m. Arabic conquest; subjugation; mastery


conquest of space compound verb to conquer;
subdue; master compound verb to be conquered; be
subjugated

taskhn m. 1 warming, heating 2 heating

central heating a to warm, heat (up) b to heat


tusr m. tussah silk
tasr f. Arabic acceleration, speeding up
tast f. tasth Arabic smoothing out, leveling
tas'r m. Arabic 1 economics conversion
conversion of a loan 2 evaluation 3 finance course, rate of
exchange

taskar f. sedan (chair); litter; stretcher


taskarach m. hospital attendant, medical orderly
tskra f. 1 curved shovel, crooked shovel

taslimed m. plural 1 surrender, capitulation 2 handing


over, passing along 3 reception, receipt (of goods)

tasm f. 1 leather strip 2 belt


tasmaghvr m. wax for boots
tasmij f. Arabic name, designation
verb to name, call

tasns tas-u-ns to eat (food)


tasvd m. Arabic sketch; draft (of an executive decision, etc.)
compound verb
tasvidavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to
make a sketch; compile the draft (of an executive decision, etc.)

repayment (of a debt)


to calm, reassure
to become calm, calm down

compound verb

to act reassuringly 2 linguistics marking a "sokun"


tasalsl m. Arabic 1 sequence; consecutiveness
a chain of events to interrupt
someone's speech The conversation was
deteriorating. to continue speaking 2 series 3
numbering of pages, pagination

tasallt m. Arabic 1 dominion, sway 2 force (e.g., of a law)


natural change
tasall f. taslijt m. Arabic consolation, reassurance
to console, calm, reassure someone
But that did not reassure me.
tasallibkhsh 1 consoling, reassuring 2 satisfactory
taslh m. Arabic arms; arming to arm, equip with
weapons

tasliht relating to arms, armament


taslkh m. Arabic slaughter (of cattle)

compound

verb to slaughter (cattle)

taslm m. Arabic 1 surrender, capitulation

taslim t] greeting 6 recognition, acknowledgment

taslimavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


hand (over), transmit, pass (along) ! Give up! 2 to
deliver, turn over (an item)

taslim f. 1 handing over, passing (along) 2 receiving,

reception

receipt for delivery of a letter

taslimedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


surrender, capitulate 2 to be transmitted, be handed over 3 to be
supplied, be delivered (of goods)

compound verb a to level,

resolve (a question) c to pay back (a debt)

tashl m. Arabic 1 facilitation, advantage 2 [plural:

tashil t] advantageous, favorable conditions

a to

facilitate, grant advantages b to create favorable conditions

1 tsh 1.1 empty; hollow empty jug or pitcher


saying an idle hand you're my enemy 1.2
unloaded proverb an unloaded
weapon is twice feared (both by the owner and by his enemy) 1.3
blank (of a cartridge) 1.4 deprived (of something), free (from

an unselfish friend 1.5


empty, pointless empty words, pointless words
to speak empty or pointless words; jabber nonsense
to deceive with empty promises 2 only; just,
hardly 3 military Unload! (a command) idiom Saturday
a false, self-styled so-called; fictitious; nominal
2 tash m.
tashkl m. Arabic similarity, resemblance
tshb aj m. unarmed person
tashabbs m. Arabic [plural: tashabbusna Arabic
plural: tashabbus t] 1 initiative, beginning 2 trying,
endeavor, zeal, diligence 3 attempt 4 address (to someone)
a to begin b to try, show zeal c to make an attempt d to
something)

unconditional surrender 2 submissiveness, obedience 3 handing


over, passing 4 delivery (of some goods) 5 [plural:

equalize; smooth over; tamp down, flatten b to regulate, arrange;

to

taskn m. Arabic 1 calming, reassuring

compound verb

tasvij f. Arabic 1 leveling; smoothing out; tamping down,

flattening 2 regulating, arranging; resolution (of a question) 3

dig 2 dialect wedge axe, wood cleaver

compound

adress (someone)

tashbh m. Arabic [plural: tashbihna Arabic

plural: tashbih t] 1 comparison


liken

to compare; to

to be similar 2 allegory; metaphor

tshp aj m.
tasht m. basin; wash-tub (for laundering)
tashtp k m. toady, lickspittle
tashattt m. Arabic 1 complication; mix-up
to mix up someone, confuse someone 2 complication,
confusion (of an exposition) 3 absentmindedness

tshtor 1 absolutely empty 2 devastated, laid waste


to devastate, ruin, lay waste 3 with empty hand,
191

Pashto-English Dictionary

empty-handed

someone for something; express one's gratitude

to come back with nothing, come

to express one's gratitude to someone


tashakkurnm f. letter of gratitude
tashakkl m. Arabic
tashkl m. Arabic organization, foundation, creation,
formation, arrangement chief of the administrative
department land-tenure regulations
administrative division to be
formed, consist of something to compile,

back empty-handed

tshtj f. emptiness; void


tashtin f. meat on the jawbone of a sheep or other animal
tashdzh' f. & m. Arabic incentive; encouragement
to encourage someone, cheer up someone
tashkhn f. primer, igniter, detonator
tashakhkhs m. Arabic 1 importance 2 distinction,
peculiarity, characteristic 3 determination, establishment

make, constitute something

tashkhs m. Arabic 1 recognition; identification 2

establishment, determination 3 diagnosis


diagnostics

tashkilavl denominative, transitive [past: ] to


organize, found, create; form to form a cabinet

tashkhisavl denominative, transitive [past: ]


1 to recognize; identify; get to know 2 to determine, establish 3

tashkiledl 1 [past: ] .1 to be organized, be


founded, be created, be formed; form to be created,

be organized anew, be reorganized 1.2 to consist of something, be

to make a diagnosis

tashkhis 1 diagnostic 2 distinctive

made up of something 2 m. plural

distinctive features

tashkhisedl denominative, intransitive [past: ]


to be established, be determined

doubling a consonant by using the tashdid

tashr f. tashrh m. Arabic [plural: tashrih t] 1

description; explanation, commentary

to give an

explanation, provide clarification; describe in detail 2 analysis 3

anatomy idiom
conventional sign, symbol
tashrihavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1
dissection; post-mortem 4 anatomy

tshmghza hollow
tashml m. Arabic enclosing, enveloping, taking in; scope,
range

tashn b m. tashn v m. washroom; wash basin


tashanndzh m. Arabic spasm; convulsion
tashng m. medicine dropsy
tshv laj m. 1 emptiness, void 2 anatomy cavity
tashavvsh m. Arabic 1 confusion; commotion 2 disorder,
upset medicine functional disorders
nervous disorder, nervous shock

tshavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to empty


(out), free 2 to unload 3 to discharge (a firearm) 4 to pump out

(e.g., air) 5 to deprive of something, leave without something

to describe; explain, clarify, comment upon 2 to analyze, figure


out 3 to dissect

tashrih 1 anatomical 2 analytical

linguistics 3 explanatory

analytical

tashrihedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1


to be described; to be explained; be commented upon 2 to

undergo analysis 3 to be dissected

tashr' f. Arabic legislation; issuance of laws


tashri' Arabic legislative legislative authority
tashrf m. Arabic 1 to do an honor 2 polite visit; arrival
to pay a visit, deign to come
to deign to attend, be present; honor by one's presence 3 polite
departure, leavetaking to deign to leave, depart
tashrif t m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 ceremonial,
ceremony; formalities 3 protocol section
protocol department
tushkrl transitive
tashakkr m. Arabic gratitude, expression of gratitude
with deep gratitude to thank

tshl saj 1 poor, indigent, penniless 2 with empty hands,

empty-handed, with nothing

tashaddd m. Arabic 1 strengthening; aggravation


the illness was aggravated 2 cruel treatment; force
to resort to force
tashdd m. Arabic 1 strengthening; aggravation 2 grammar

idiom a to become angry b to lay bare one's heart


teshavna f. action noun from
tashvsh m. Arabic unrest, agitation, alarm
That causes no alarm.
tashv m. Arabic encouragement, incentive; assistance, help
to encourage, urge (on); render assistance to
someone

tashviavl denominative, transitive [past:


encourage, urge on

to

tsha f. 1 air, atmosphere 2 physics vacuum, void


tashhr m. Arabic 1 publication, promulgation, proclamation
2 history form of punishment where the criminal was put on

display at a pillory or astride a donkey

a to publish,

promulgate, proclaim b history to put into a pillory or seat on a


donkey (as a punishment for crime)

to be put into a

pillory or seated on a donkey

tshaj m. 1 side; iliac region 2 groin 3 empty place, free


place 4 physics vacuum, void

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Pashto-English Dictionary

tshedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be


emptied, be freed, become empty regional

proofs, correct proofs

unloaded (of firearms) 4 to be pumped out (e.g., of air) 5 to be

reform; be corrected

tasdr m. Arabic export


tasdk m. Arabic 1 confirmation; affirmation 2 ratification
3 attestation, certificate compound verb a to confirm;
affirm; to certify b to ratify compound verb a to be
confirmed; be affirmed; be certified b to be ratified

unsociable person, introverted person; lone wolf, loner

compound verb to improve,


idiom to level a road,

straighten a road

all his teeth fell out 6 to be worthless, be useless


tshedna f. action noun from
tht present tense stem of
thtn m.
thtnd unsociable, introverted, withdrawn
1

compound verb to correct, put right; make corrections, read

The train emptied out. 2 to be unloaded (of cargo) 3 to be


deprived of something, be left without something

tash f. tashh Arabic correction; correcting

thtavl transitive [past: ] 1 to drive off, steal


to steal a horse 2 Eastern to steal, abduct,

tasdkn Arabic

document)

(cattle)

to witness, certify (a

tasdinm f. 1 testimonial or certificate given upon

hijack 3 to put to flight 4 to abduct, kidnap, carry off (a girl,

completion of studies at an institute or school

another man's wife) 5 to be engaged in smuggling, be engaged in

certificate 2 ratification document 3 witness, testimonial;

the movement of contraband

document; certificate

thtavna f. action noun from


(goods)

contraband

something

meet with b to be found by chance c to coincide

to

to seize, take

a to turn out to be under

someone's authority b to be seized by someone

tasarrufavl transitive [past: ] 1 to possess,


own; use something 2 to seize, take possession of

tasr f. tasrh Arabic explanation; clear, precise instruction;

clarification, amplification

compound verb to be

explained, be cleared up; be clarified, be made precise (of a


deadline, etc.)

tasrf m. Arabic grammar 1 inflection 2 declension 3

conjugation

tasdf m. Arabic 1 meeting 2 incident, chance

tasdfn Arabic by chance, unexpectedly, accidentally


tasduf Arabic chance, unexpected, accidental,
unintentional by chance, unexpectedly,
accidentally idiom encounter battle
tasdm m. [plural: tasdumna Arabic plural:
tasdum t] 1 clash collision, accident 2
skirmish, encounter aerial encounter a to

compound verb

possession of

take possession of, master; acquire as your own property

compound verb a to meet


compound verb 2 a to

under someone's authority; at

seize something, possess something; get hold of something

thtedlaj 1 past participle from 2 m. deserter


thted m. plural action noun from
thl intransitive
thavl transitive
tashb m. Arabic possession, ownership; mastery, seizure;
taking possession (of property, etc.) compound verb to

to find, discover by chance

someone's disposal 2 seizure

grew pale.

(happening), coincidence

insurance policy

plural: tasarruf t] 1 ownership, possession; use of

tht present tense of


thtedl intransitive [present: past: ]1 to run;
to run away, make off to save oneself by flight
run for all you're worth 2 to desert 3 to shirk (work,
studies); to avoid idiom Let's sit
by the fire to warm ourselves. His lips

tasarrf m. Arabic [plural: tasarrufna Arabic

tasrif Arabic grammar morphological; relating to inflection


morphological distinctions
tasghr m. Arabic diminution, lessening, decrement
sm-i grammar diminutive
tasfij f. Arabic 1 clarification 2 solution, resolution (of a
problem, question) 3 liquidation, removal (e.g., of disagreement)

abolition commission 4 cleaning, cleansing;

purification; filtration; refining

petroleum distillation

5 payment (e.g., of a share) 6 politics purge

compound verb a to clarify b to resolve (a question, problem) c


to liquidate; remove (e.g., disagreement) d to pay (e.g., a share) e

collide, run against, run into b to take place (of an encounter,

to clean, filter, refine f to concentrate (ore) g politics to carry out

skirmish)

a purge

m. Arabic math progression

tasnf m. Arabic plural from


tasvb m. Arabic plural from

compound verb a to be clarified b to be

resolved (a question, problem) c to be liquidated, be removed

geometric

progression

(e.g., disagreement) d to be paid (e.g., a share) e to be cleaned,

be filtered, be refined f to be enriched, be concentrated (e.g., of


ore) g politics to pass through a purge
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Pashto-English Dictionary

tasfijakhn f. petroleum refining plant


tasmm m. Arabic [plural: tasmimna Arabic
plural: tasmim t] decision to

tazminavl denominative, transitive [past:


guarantee; vouch for; ensure

feelings
plural:

tazminedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


be guaranteed; be assured

tazj m. Arabic 1 squeezing; pressing (upon) 2 physics

tatbk m. Arabic correspondence, similarity, likeness;

pressure 3 oppression 4 limitation

plural: tasavvur t] 1 imagination; representation;

to

tasavvur Arabic 1 imagined, imaginary 2 philosophy

tasavvuredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to


be proposed, be intended; be represented ... it is
proposed that

tasavvf m. Arabic religion 1 Sufism 2 mysticism


tasvb m. Arabic [plural: tasvibna Arabic plural:
tasvib t plural: tasvb] 1 approval, acceptance,
sanction 2 decree, resolution compound verb a to
approve, accept, sanction b to decree, make a resolution
compound verb a to be approved, be accepted, be sanctioned
b to be decreed

tatbiavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


observe something 2 to apply, use 3 to realize, fulfill 4 to

coordinate, be brought into correspondence 6 to be collated, be


compared

to

1 to

taz d m. Arabic 1 opposition; contrast 2 contradiction,

antagonism 3 literary antithesis, contrast 4 philosophy

tazmuniv laj
tazarr' f. Arabic 1
humility, meekness

m.

entreating; humble supplication 2

to change, undergo a change

to

about one's knowledge

tazmn m. Arabic 1 reciprocity 2 collective responsibility;

collective guarantee; solidarity

tatavvr m. Arabic [plural: tatavvurna Arabic

tatvl m. Arabic 1 lengthening, elongation 2 tightening


delay, procrastination
tazhr Arabic [plural: tazhurna Arabic plural:
tazhur t] 1 manifestation, disclosure to be
revealed, be disclosed 2 showing, demonstration for
show, ostentatious to be puffed up

antithesis

tatm' f. Arabic inducement, prompting; encouragement,

incentive

change, alter (something) 2 improvement, change (for the better)

describe, represent 2 to draw

tatarrf m. Arabic 1 excess 2 extreme

tasvirvl m. artist; portrait painter


tasviravl denominative, transitive [past: ]

to adapt oneself 6 to coordinate,

practiced; practice, have practice (in) 4 to be observed 5 to be

tasvr m. Arabic 1 description, representation 2 picture,


compound verb

tatbik Arabic 1 applied; practical 2 comparative


denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to be applied,
be used 2 to be realized, be carried out, be fulfilled
to be realized; be applied in actuality 3 to be

government proposal); decision (of legislative body)

2 applied studies;

plural: tatavvur t] 1 change, transformation, conversion

tasvibnm f. decision (regarding confirmation of a

paint landscapes

bring into correspondence

portrait

tatbi t m. Arabic plural 1 from

practice 5 to adapt

idealism

a applicable b realizable,

practical training 3 military exercise

subjective
tasavvurijt m. regional imagination

fulfillable 4 practice 5 adaptation 6 collation, comparison

imagine; suppose, presuppose

1 observation of something 2 application, use 3

realization, fulfillment

compound verb
compound verb
tassavvuravl denominative, transitive [past: ]
supposition 2 idea

to adapt to one's environment


m. Arabic [plural: tatbina Arabic plural:

tatbk
tatbi t]

tasavvr m. Arabic [plural: tasavurna Arabic

to

coincidence

distribution 4 biology classification

composition, writing (of books) 2 composition, work 3

to guarantee something 2 use of a quote from the work of one

insincere

tasnf m. Arabic [plural: tasnifna Arabic


tasnf plural: tasnif t] 1 compliation,

poet to another when writing verse

make a decision

tasmimnm f. resolution; decree


tasann' f. Arabic pretense; affectation, artificiality
tasanno' feigned; affected, artificial

tazmn m. Arabic 1 guaranteeing; guarantee

ta'dl m. Arabic 1 equilibrium

to preserve an

equilibrium 2 balance, proportion; conformity 3 balance (sheet)

balance of trade 4 figurative moderation, restraint


ta'rz m. Arabic contradiction; counteraction, opposition
to contradict, act counter to something
ta'rf m. Arabic 1 treat, regalement to treat

someone, regale someone 2 exchange of courtesies 3 custom 4

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Pashto-English Dictionary

acquaintance by correspondence
Are you acquainted with him?
to acquaint with someone to present someone, acquaint,

out (a line, road, etc.) 3 regulation; adjustment

acquaintance

introduce someone

ta' t f. Arabic exchange

ta'b m. Arabic 1 following one another 2 succession,

opinions

compound verb
ta'dilnm f. amendment (to a law, etc.)
ta'dilavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

exchange of

regulate; adjust

mutual assistance

ta'l f. Arabic 1 eminence, elevation, raising 2 high

praise, extolment

2 ta'l Arabic religion Most High (epithet for God)


ta'ml m. Arabic 1 interaction 2 chemistry reaction
chemical reaction 3 reaction to react 4
custom customary law, adat law
ta'vn m. Arabic 1 mutual assistance 2 interconnection,
interdependence 3 cooperation

ta'vun Arabic cooperative to cooperate


ta'abbd m. Arabic 1 slavery, imprisonment 2 religion
asceticism

ta'br m. Arabic [plural: ta'burna Arabic plural:


ta'bir t] 1 expression, turn of speech incorrect
expression 2 explanation, interpretation 3 description,

expressiveness compound verb


compound verb 4 term
ta'biravl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to
representation

ta'azb m. Arabic 1 torture, suffering 2 punishment


ta'azibavl denominative, transitive [past: ]

tactical

maneuvers

ta'bij f. Arabic military tactics


ta'bijad n military tactician
ta'adzhdzhb m. Arabic astonishment, amazement
to be astonished, be amazed ... Here's
what's amazing to be astonished, be amazed
to amaze, astonish
ta'adzhdzhbvr ta'adzhdzhubn k amazing,

ta'dzhz m. Arabic causing unrest

ta'd d m. Arabic number, quantity

harrassment

military

to attack someone, move against someone


on the attack, cross over to the offensive

ta'add f. Arabic 1 encroachment, infringement 2 violence;

oppression

a to infringe, encroach (upon) b to commit

an act of violence; oppress


to go

ta'arruz Arabic 1 adjective offensive, attack

offensive battle 2 aggressive (of a pact, etc.)

f. Arabic 1 tariff 2 time-table, schedule 3 list


ta'rf m. Arabic [plural: ta'rifna Arabic plural:
ta'rif t] 1 description; definition; characteristics 2
eulogy; praise; honorable mention to praise
someone compound verb
compound verb
ta'rifnm f. military instructions, manual
ta'rifavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to

ta'rifedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


be desecribed; to be defined; to be characterized 2 to be praised

ta'z m. ta'zz Taizz (city, south Yemen)


ta'zijt m. Arabic 1 sympathy, condolence

ta'dl Arabic [plural: ta'dilna Arabic plural:

letter

with an expression of sympathy 2 mourning

ta'zijatnm f. letter with an expression of sympathy


ta'zr m. Arabic 1 punishment (not provided by the sharia, but
determined by the judge) 2 punishment (of a criminal)

ta'ziravl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


impose a punishment (not provided in the sharia, but determined
by the judge himself) 2 to punish (a criminal)

ta'zir not provided for by the sharia but determined by the

judge himself (of a punishment)

punishment

(determined by the judge himself)

ta'ziredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to


undergo punishment (not provided by the sharia, but determined by
the judge) 2 to be punished (of a criminal)

circulation of a

publication

ta'arrz m. [plural: ta'arruzna plural Arabic

plural: ta'arruz t] attack; offensive

astonishing

ta'azibedl denominative, intransitive [past: ] to be

tortured, suffer

describe; determine; characterize 2 to praise, eulogize

to be named, be designated, be called

ta'bijav Arabic military tactical

to

torture

explain, interpret 2 to describe, represent 3 to formulate

ta'bir phraseological phraseology


ta'abiredl denominative, intransitive [past: ] 1 to
be explained 2 to be described, be represented

1 to

correct; improve 2 to straighten (a line, a road, etc.) 3 to

sequence 3 replacement, alternation, interchange

ta'zij f. Arabic 1 2 tazia (a Shiite mystery play)


ta'assb m. Arabic 1 fanaticism 2 impatience 3 passion
(for something) 4 prejudice, bias

ta'tl Arabic 1 m. .1 time of rest

non-working

day, holiday 1.2 cessation, suspension (of work, etc.); break

ta'dil t] 1 correction; improvement 2 straightening, straightening

195

official removal from a job for three years (as

Pashto-English Dictionary

a punishment) 1.3 closing (of an enterprise)


verb

ta'lil causal reason, justification


ta'lm m. Arabic 1 teaching; learning to study,
learn to teach 2 military drill training
ta'lim t m. Arabic plural 1 from 2 preparation;
training, schooling general preparation

compound

2 predicate adjective .1 stopped, suspended (of

work, etc.) 2.2 closed (of an enterprise)

no institutions were working, all institutions were closed

ta'tilavl denominative, transitive [past: ] 1 to


cease, suspend (work, etc.); have a break, have a recess 2 to close

higher education

ta'limtnm f. instructions; manual; regulation


ta'limt
ta'limkhn f. educational facility; study room, auditorium;

(an enterprise)

ta'zm m. Arabic greetings; rendering homage, doing honors


military saluting They greeted
him respectfully. They paid him great honors.

riding school

ta'affn m. Arabic decay, rot, putrefaction


ta'al m. Arabic 1 reason 2 understanding, awareness
ta'aul reasonable, judicious, intelligent
ta'b m. Arabic 1 following after someone
one after another to follow after someone, not to

to share someone's fate

confirm in writing

carry out, fulfill (a policy, a course, etc.) 2 to pursue someone,


follow (after) someone 3 to keep track of something

to keep track of world events


ta'ibedl denominative, intransitive

[past: ] 1 to

be carried out, be put into effect (of a policy, course, etc.) 2 to be

pursued 3 to be realized (of hopes, aspirations)


ta'd m. Arabic 1 entanglement, complexity, vagueness,

obscurity 2 tying of a knot

ta'm m. Arabic sterilization


ta'all m. Arabic [plural: ta'alluna Arabic plural:
ta'allu t] 1 relation, connection diplomatic
relations to bear a
relationship to something to support relations with
someone 2 acquaintance 3 history taluk, taluka (administrative
region in India)

ta'allu t m. Arabic plural 1 from

relating to a matter

2 questions

ta'allm m. Arabic philosophy cognition


ta'l