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**Ohms law E = I R where: E = volts I = amperage in amps R = resistance in ohms P = power in watts R=
πΈ**

πΌ

,

R=
πΈ

π
πΈ

2 π

where: P = watts, R =
π

π
π

πΌ 2

I= Power π

πΈ

, I=

,I=

P = E I where:

P = power in watts E = volts I = amperage in amps

P = R x I2, P = volts E=RI,E=
π

πΌ
πΈ

2 π

, E = π π₯ π
π

1 π2 π 2

Electrostatic force

Fe = K

where Fe = in newtons = ππ

π₯ π π ππ 2

q1 = charge first object in coulombs q2 = charge of second object in coulombs r = distance between centers of objects in meters K = constant 8.99 x 10 9 Potential difference V =
π

π πππ’ππππ πβπππ‘πππ 2

where: V = volts W = work in joules q = charge in coulombs

Electric field strength E = πΉπ

π

where: E = field strength in newtons/coulomb Fe = electrostatic force in newtons q = charge in coulombs

Current I =

βπ π‘

where: I = amperes in amps βπ = change in charge in coulombs/ sec t = time in seconds

Resistance R = π

πΏ π΄

where: R = ohms π = resistivity in Ξ© * meters L = meters A = meter2 Resistivities at 200 C Material Aluminum Copper Gold Nichrome Tungsten Resistivity ( Ξ© * m ) 2.82 x 10-8 1.72 x 10-8 2.44 x 10-8 150 x 10-8 5.60 x 10-8

Conductance G =

1 π

where G = is in mhos R = resistance in ohms

Magnetic flux density B = π·

π΄

where: B = magnetic flux density in teslas Ξ¦ = magnetic flux in webers A = area in square meters

Permeability Β΅r =

Β΅ Β΅0

**where: Β΅r = the relative permeability in henries per meter or newton per ampere squared (
π**

πΌ 2

)

**Β΅ = the permeability of the material in newton per ampere squared Β΅0 = the permeability of a vacuum ( 4Ο x 10-7 Β΅=
π΅**

π» π πΌ 2

)

where: Β΅ = permeability in newtons per ampere squared B = magnetic flux density in teslas H = field intensity ampere turns per meter

Tesla T = π

π₯ π ππ π 2

where: T = tesla V = volts m = meters

Magnetomotive Force Fm = N I where Fm = Magnetomotive force in ampere turns N = number of turns I = amperes

Field Intensity

H= πΉπ

πΏ

= π

πΌ πΏ

where: H = field intensity in ampere turns/meter Fm = Magnetomotive force N I = ampere turns L = length between poles

Reluctance (1) R = πππ

π·

where: R = reluctance in Fm / Ξ¦ mmf = Fm or N I Ξ¦ = flux in webers

(2) R = πΏ

Β΅ π΄

**where: R = ampere turns / weber L = length of coil in meters Β΅ = permeability of the material in
π**

βπ π πΌ

A = cross sectional area of coil, m2

Flux ( 1) Ξ¦ = πΉπ

π

where: Ξ¦ = magnetic flux in webers (Wb) Fm = Magnetomotive force in ampere turns R = reluctance in ampere turns / weber

(2) Ξ¦ = π

πΌ
π

πΌ ππ

where N I = ampere turns Wb = webers

Induced voltage Vind = -N

Ξπ· Ξπ‘

**where: Vind = induced voltage in volts N = number of turns in the coil
**

Ξπ· Ξπ‘

**= rate at which the flux cuts across the conductor,
π€πππππ **

π ππ

Temperature coefficient of resistance (Ξ±)

Rt = Ro + Ro(Ξ± ΞT)

where: Ξ± = the temperature coefficient no units Rt = resistance at new temperature in ohms Ro = the resistance at 200 C in ohms

**Temperature Coefficient for various materials
**

Material Temperature coefficient in Ξ© per 0C Aluminum Carbon Constantan Copper Gold Iron Nichrome Nickel 0.004 -0.0003 0 0.004 0.004 0.006 0.0002 0.005

Series Circuits I = I1 = I2 = I3... V = V1+ V2 + V3 + ... REq = R1 + R2 + R3 + ... where: I = amperes V = voltage REq = resistance equivalent R = circuit resistance

Parallel Circuits I = I1+ I2 + I3 + ... V = V1 = V2 = V3 ...

1 π
πΈπ

=

1 π 1

+

1 π 2

+

1 π 3

...

Two resisters in parallel

RT = π

1 π 2 π 1 + π 2

where RT = total resistance in ohms R1 = first resistance in ohms R2 = second resistance in ohms

Counter electromotive force (CEMF) CEMF = -L

βπΌ βπ‘

where:

**CEMF = induced voltage in volts L = inductance in henries
**

βπΌ βπ‘ π π· πΌ

= time rate of change of current in amps/sec

Inductance

L=

where: L = inductance in heneries Ξ¦ = flux in webers I = current in amperes

Inductive reactance XL = 2Ο f L where: XL = inductive reactance in ohms f = frequency in hertz L = inductance in henries Inductors in series LEq = L1 + L2 + L3 +... where LEq = the equivalent inductance in henries L123 = inductors in henries Inductors in parallel

1 πΏπΈπ

=

1 πΏ1

+

1 πΏ2

+

1 πΏ3

+... where LEq = the equivalent inductance in henries L123 = inductors in henries

Capacitance C = π

π

where: C = capacitance in farads (F) (coulombs / volt) Q = amount of charge in coulombs V = the voltage in joules / coulomb

Capacitance of two plates

C=K π΄

π

(8.85 x 10-12) where: C = capacitance in farads K = dielectric constant from tables, no units A = area of the plates in square meters

**d = distance between the plates in meters 8.85 x 10-12 = constant of proportionality in F meters Capacitive reactance Xc =
**

1 2ππ πΆ

where: Xc = capacitive reactance in ohms f = frequency in hertz C = capacitance in farads

Ο = 3.1416

Work stored in a capacitor Wstored =
πΆ

π 2 2

where: Wstored = energy stored in joules C = capacitance in farads V = voltage in volts

Capacitors in series

1 πΆπΈπ

=

1 πΆ1

+

1 πΆ2

+

1 πΆ3

+... where: CEq = the equivalent capacitance in farads C123 = component capacitance in farads

Capacitors in parallel Capacitive time constant

CEq = C1 + C2 + C3 +... Tc = R C where: Tc = capacitive time constant in seconds R = resistance in ohms C = capacitance in farads

Internal resistance (Battery) VL = VB - IL RI where: VL = loaded voltage in volts VB = Unloaded battery volts in volts IL RI = internal voltage drop in volts

Generated voltage in a dc generator VG = K Ξ¦ N where: VG = generated voltage in volts K = fixed constant for the generator no units Ξ¦ = magnetic flux strength in webers N = speed in revolutions per minute

**Resonance frequency (undamped) of a LC circuit (1) f =
**

1 2π πΏ πΆ

where: f = frequency in hertz L = inductance in henries C = capacitance in farads

(2) πo =

1 πΏ πΆ

**where: πo = freq in radians / second L = inductance in henries C = capacitance in farads Power factor Pf =
π**

πΊ

where: Pf = power factor expressed in decimals P = real power in watts S = apparent power in volt amp reactive ( VAR

Efficiency motor

Meff = πππ

πππ’π‘

where: Meff = efficiency in percentage Pin = power in in watts or horse power Pout = power out in watts or horse power

AC / DC power /current formulas for motors V volts, I = amps, PF = power factor, Eff = efficiency HP = horse power W = watts DC amps =
π»π

π₯ 746 π π πΈππ

,

**AC amps(120 240) =
π»π**

π₯ 746
π»π

π₯ 746 π π₯ πΈππ π₯ ππΉ

,

AC amps 3phase =

1.73 π₯ π π₯ πΈππ π₯ ππΉ

**AC / DC motor cont. DC amps =
ππ€**

π₯ 1000 π

, AC amps(120, 240) = ππ€

π₯ 1000 π π₯ ππΉ

,

AC amps 3phase = πΎπ

π₯ 1000 1.73 π₯ π π₯ ππΉ

AC amps(120,240) = πππ΄

π₯ 1000 π

, AC amps3phase = πππ΄

π₯ 1000 1.73 π₯ π

DC kw = πΌ

π₯ π 1000

, AC kw(120, 240) =
πΌ

π₯ π 1000
πΌ

π₯ π π₯ ππΉ 1000

, AC kw 3 phase = πΌ

π₯ π π₯ 1.73 π₯ ππΉ 1000

**AC kv-amps (120,240) = DC hp =
πΌ**

π₯ π π₯ πΈππ 746

, AC kv-amps 3 phase =

746
πΌ

π₯ π π₯ 1.73 1000

, AC hp(120,240) = πΌ

π₯ π π πΈππ π₯ ππΉ

,

AC hp 3 phase = πΌ

π₯ π π₯ πΈππ π₯ 1.73 π₯ ππΉ 746 ππ π₯ πΌπ πΌπ

Transformer voltage and current Vp =

where:Vp = primary voltage in volts Vs = secondary voltage in volts Is = secondary current in amps Ip = primary current in amps

Transformer voltage and turns in coil Vp = ππ

π₯ πΌπ ππ

where: Vp = voltage in primary coil in volts Vs = voltage in secondary coil in volts Ip = current in primary coil in amps Ts = turns in secondary coil

Vs = ππ

π₯ ππ ππ πΌπ π₯ ππ ππ πΌπ π₯ ππ ππ

Transformer amperes and turns in coil Ip = Is =

Resistor color codes by just looking at a resistor in a circuit you can tell certain things about it if it follows the standard code. The fourth is the tolerence The fifth is the max % the resistance will change over 1000 hours of operation

Indicates the Second number The first color gives the first value of the resistor Color code table Black Brown Red Orange Yellow Green Blue Violet Grey white Numeral 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 multiplier 1 10 1000 (1k) 100 10000(10k) 100000 (100k) 106 107 108 109

5th band, brown Β± 1%, red band, .1 %, no band, > Β± 1 % 4th band ,tolerance ,silver Β± 10%, gold Β± 5%, no band, 20%

The third is the multiplier

In our example, red, violet, green, we have 27 x 100k or 270 kΞ© , Β± 10 % tolerance, Β± 1 % change. The way I remembered this code was with a mind trick. "Bad boys rape our young girls but violet gives willingly. It seems, when you say this once, you will never forget the code.

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