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Introduction

Tacheometric survey (Tacheometry) is a branch of surveying in which horizontal and


vertical distances of points are obtained by optical measurements avoiding ordinary and slower
process of measurements tape. Tacheometric surveys are usually performed to produce contour
and details plans for further work, or to produce coordinates for area and volume calculations.
Observations are usually performed from known survey stations, often established by traversing.
Tacheometric surveying used for preparing contour plans, hydrographic surveys, locations
surveys of roads, railways and etc. Instruments used in tacheometric survey are tacheometer,
stadia rod, pegs, ranging rod, offset rods, etc.
This method of survey consists of using either a level, theodolite, total station, or
specially constructed tacheometer to make cross hair intercept readings on a leveling staff. As the
angle subtended by the crosshairs is known, the distance can be calculated.

Objective
Tacheometric survey is carried out to produce the topographic and detail plan of the proposed
area using surveying software.

Theory
There are two short cross hairs above and below the main cross hair.
The stadia diaphragm essentially consists of one stadia hair above and the other an equal distance
below the horizontal cross-hair, the stadia hairs being mounted in the ring and on the same
vertical plane as the horizontal and vertical cross-hairs.
It is very simply, the distance between the two point is multiplied by 100 to give the
distance from the point are to where the staff is.
In this example (and here we will use the millimetres) the lower cross hair is at 2.163 metres
and the upper is at 2.218 metres so difference is 0.055 metres. This is multiplied by 100 and
the final distance is 5.50 millimetres

It is important to understand the basic principles of survey and even more important if using
sophisticated Total Stations and Electronics Distance Measurer (EDMs) only by understanding
the underlying concept we will understand what to achieved with the digital version.

Equipments
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.

Total Station
2 Mini Prism
Measuring Tape
2 Pole
Tripod

Fieldwork Procedures
Tacheometry or detail survey is a continuation of traversing and leveling where in all the details
are observed from the traverse point with (x, y, h).
a) All the traverse point must have the reduced level from leveling.
b) Refer to leveling data of traverse point.
1. All the details including topography and man-made features were observed.
2. The instrument over the total station (i.e: stn 2) was set up. The pole was put with mini
prism at the backsight (stn1) and foresight (stn 3).
i. The temporary adjustment (leveling, centering) was performed over the point.
ii. The height of instrument (HI) was measured and recorded.
iii. The bearing for line 1-2 was set as a datum. The distance of of datum1-datum2 was
measured and recorded. (A final bearing from traverse sheet was used.)
iv. A pole was used as a target over the point. The pole height (HT) was measured and
the reading was recorded.
3. The horizontal bearing (HR), horizontal distance (HD) and vertical distance @height
difference (VD) was recorded for each observation.
4.

All the features surrounding the stn 2 were observed. The HT for each observation was
measured and recorded.

5.

The instrument was moved to the next station (i.e:stn3). A bearing for line 2-3 was set as
a datum. The process was repeated and all the features from stn 3 were observed, The IH
at each station setup was measured.

6.

Additional control point was setup when it found missing or disturbed; or obstruction of
the features from observed station.

Booking Procedures
1. All the readings were recorded in a form at attachment 1 or automatically recorded by
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

total Station devices.


The HI at all observation point was recorded.
The HT for every feature was recorded.
All the bearing must recorded to nearest minutes with face left only.
All the horizontal distances (HD) was recorded.
Some explanations were put for each feature at the column catatan.
Some sketch of the observed area was drawn. (As it may help in plan processing and
editing.)

Data analysis
Fro
m
Stn

To
Stn

RL
Stn

Ins.
Height

Bearing

Horizont
al
Distance

Targe
t
Heig

Vertica
l
Distan

RL
Poin
t

Remarks

2
1

2.25
6
2.12
6

ce

30.047

1.55

-0.052

3.642

1.55

0.089

3.720

1.55

0.085

4.247

1.55

0.073

4.142

1.55

0.078

3.641

1.55

0.033

4.220

1.55

0.019

3.598

1.55

0.122

3.816

1.55

0.131

4.400

1.55

0.144

4.218

1.55

0.139

3.405

1.55

-0.067

3.081

1.55

0.036

3.664

1.55

0.013

7.592

1.55

-0.061

7.435

1.55

-0.112

8.211

1.55

-0.089

10.380

1.55

0.056

8.484

1.55

0.115

10.867

1.55

0.474

7.298

1.55

0.424

7.440

1.55

0.319

1.414
1.414

L1

1.414

L2

1.414

L3

1.414

L4

1.414

BM

1.414

1.414

APH
1
APH
2
APH
3
APH
4

ht
(m)

1.414
1.414
1.414
1.414

GL1

1.414

GL2

1.414

GL3

1.414

GL4

1.414

GL5

1.414

GL6

1.414

P1

1.414

GL7

1.414

GL8

1.414

GL9

1.414

GL1
0

1.414

74 10'
00"
47 32'
00"
40 36'
40"
42 41'
10"
48 51'
50"
38 51'
40"
38 25'
20"
23 28'
10"
19 03'
20"
25 17'
00"
29 25'
20"
75 17'
00"
35 48'
40"
349 53'
30"
74 06'
50"
61 55'
10"
44 09'
30"
27 53'
20"
14 52'
20"
352 55'
10"
333 59'
40"
359 42'
50"

Stn 1
Corner
cover
Corner
cover
Corner
cover
Corner
cover

of drain
of drain
of drain
of drain

BM
Paip bomba
Api peti hos
Api peti hos
Api peti hos
Api peti hos
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Tree
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level

GL1
1

1.414

P2

1.414

GL1
2
GL1
3

Fro
m
Stn

1.414
1.414

D1

1.414

D2

1.414

D3

1.414

To
Stn

RL
Stn

Ins.
Height

D4

1.414

D5

1.414

D6

1.414

D7

1.414

D8

1.414

D9

1.414

P3

1.414

GL1
4
GL1
5
GL1
6
GL1
7

1.414
1.414
1.414
1.414

S1

1.414

S2

1.414

S3

1.414

S4

1.414

340 23'
10"
13 59'
40"
19 28'
20"
35 03'
30"
70 56'
20"
70 55'
50"
71 09'
40"
Bearing
21 46'
50"
23 27'
10"
24 12'
50"
353 21'
50"
359 03'
00"
359 43'
50"
5 49'
00"
341 40'
20"
347 53'
50"
0 35'
40"
358 02'
40"
344 19'
10"
343 56'
30"
353 46'
10"
352 55'
30"

9.914

1.55

0.490

15.968

1.55

0.153

13.906

1.55

-0.103

14.602

1.55

0.166

5.863

1.55

-0.289

6.098

1.55

-0.622

6.239

1.55

-0.430

Horizont
al
Distance

Targe
t
Heig
ht
(m)

Vertica
l
Distan
ce

9.458

1.55

-0.107

9.590

1.60

-0.444

9.773

1.55

-0.067

23.490

1.55

-0.216

23.538

1.55

-0.588

23.624

1.55

-0.215

21.254

1.55

0.048

19.497

1.55

0.475

15.906

1.55

0.458

16.909

1.55

0.061

21.036

1.55

-0.044

23.092

1.55

0.057

25.360

1.55

0.577

23.474

1.55

0.557

25.680

1.55

0.579

Ground level
Tree
Ground level
Ground level
Drain
Drain
Drain
RL
Poin
t

Remarks

Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Tree
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Shelter
Shelter
Shelter
Shelter

Fro
m
Stn

R1

1.414

R2

1.414

R3

1.414

R4

1.414

D10

1.414

D11

1.414

B1

1.414

R5

1.414

R6

1.414

R7

1.414

R8

1.414

J1

1.414

TL1

1.414

D12

1.414

D13

1.414

D14

1.414

D15

1.414

D16

1.414

D17

1.414

D18

1.414

To
Stn

RL
Stn

Ins.
Height

D19

1.414

D20

1.414

71 56'
50"
72 18'
40"
40 55'
30"
44 33'
20"
37 51'
20"
37 35'
20"
36 36'
40"
232 58'
10"
213 35'
40"
82 29'
30"
94 05'
10"
153 06'
10"
225 04'
10"
248 47'
20"
248 39'
50"
250 14'
20"
319 30'
30"
317 16'
40"
315 51'
30"
335 41'
30"
Bearing
334 53'
10"
334 13'
00"

14.753

1.55

0.124

16.591

1.55

0.122

17.112

1.55

0.133

19.120

1.55

0.129

15.839

1.55

0.172

16.322

1.55

0.201

17.979

1.55

0.287

4.310

1.55

0.325

5.135

1.55

0.216

8.147

1.55

0.282

8.720

1.55

0.272

4.302

1.55

0.239

2.160

1.55

0.109

2.772

1.55

-0.205

3.046

1.55

-0.627

3.334

1.55

0.328

7.048

1.55

0.104

7.112

1.55

-0.237

7.256

1.55

0.225

23.020

1.55

0.425

Horizont
al
Distance

Targe
t
Heig
ht
(m)

Vertica
l
Distan
ce

23.006

1.55

0.064

23.035

1.55

0.669

Pedestrian road
Pedestrian road
Pedestrian road
Pedestrian road
Drain
Drain
Corner of
Building
Pedestrian road
Pedestrian road
Pedestrian road
Pedestrian road
Tar road
Light pole
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
RL
Poin
t

Remarks

Drain
Drain

J2

1.414

J3

1.414

312 07'
20"
275 40'
20"

6.726

1.55

0.336

6.349

1.55

0.260

30.072

1.55

-0.186

7.797

1.55

0.386

4.423

1.55

0.421

6.561

1.55

0.389

3.842

1.55

0.127

3.846

1.55

0.064

3.956

1.55

0.025

5.668

1.55

0.083

9.632

1.55

0.110

16.013

1.55

-0.154

17.186

1.55

-0.373

12.624

1.55

-0.390

9.914

1.55

-0.334

17.080

1.55

-0.534

17.057

1.55

-0.697

17.230

1.55

-0.575

7.477

1.55

-0.544

7.827

1.55

-0.711

8.151

1.55

-0.552

8.586

1.55

-0.559

8.632

1.55

-0.702

8.670

1.55

-0.624

Tar road
Tar road

1.456
4

2.34
1

1.456

B2

1.456

B3

1.456

B4

1.456

GL1
8
GL1
9
GL2
0
GL2
1
GL2
2

1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456
1.456

P4

1.456

P5

1.456

P6

1.456

P7

1.456

D21

1.456

D22

1.456

D23

1.456

D24

1.456

D25

1.456

D26

1.456

D27

1.456

D28

1.456

D29

1.456

77 59'
30"
196 29'
55"
24641 '
50"
300 52'
00"
341 08'
40"
31 32'
50"
101 42'
05"
133 04'
00"
153 46'
30"
138 43'
50"
128 53'
35"
116 06'
15"
88 42'
25"
136 50'
50"
136 26'
10"
135 56'
30"
72 13'
30"
73 00'
40"
72 28'
15"
96 18'
25"
96 58'
25"
97 34'
45"

Stn 4
Corner of
Building
Corner of
Building
Corner of
Building
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Tree
Tree
Tree
Tree
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain

Fro
m
Stn

D30

1.456

D31

1.456

D32

1.456

B5

1.456

D33

1.456

D34

1.456

To
Stn

RL
Stn

Ins.
Height

D35

1.456

B6

1.456

GL2
3
GL2
4
GL2
5

1.456
1.456
1.456

D36

1.456

D37

1.456

D38

1.456

D39

1.456

D40

1.456

D41

1.456

D42

1.456

D43

1.456

D44

1.456

88 45'
35"
88 04'
05"
88 13'
10"
91 02'
20"
82 52'
55"
81 51'
35"
Bearing
81 18'
10"
75 51'
30"
69 51'
35"
103 25'
45"
121 18'
35"
74 10'
35"
74 05'
45"
73 52'
50"
164 27'
15"
165 36'
00"
167 26'
00"
330 24'
25"
323 35'
05"
318 08'
00"

14.187

1.55

-0.121

14.585

1.55

-0.166

14.474

1.55

-0.397

16.104

1.55

-0.086

13.764

1.55

-0.120

13.937

1.55

-0.401

Horizont
al
Distance

Targe
t
Heig
ht
(m)

Vertica
l
Distan
ce

14.036

1.55

-0.114

15.160

1.55

-0.028

10.184

1.55

-0.420

11.963

1.55

-0.435

15.536

1.55

-0.407

13.551

1.55

-0.194

13.748

1.55

-0.478

13.959

1.55

-0.172

15.460

1.55

0.197

15.477

1.55

-0.267

15.331

1.55

0.280

2.566

1.55

0.161

2.666

1.55

-0.195

2.672

1.55

0.328

30.072

1.55

0.306

13.188

1.55

0.100

Drain
Drain
Drain
Corner of
Building
Drain
Drain
RL
Poin
t

Remarks

Drain
Corner of
Building
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain

1.500
3
D45

2.53
0

1.500
1.500

257 59'
30"
256 04'

Stn 3
Drain

D46

1.500

D47

1.500

D48

1.500

D49

1.500

D50

1.500

GL2
6
GL2
7

Fro
m
Stn

1.500
1.500

S5

1.500

S6

1.500

S7

1.500

S8

1.500

B7

1.500

B8

1.500

B9

1.500

D51

1.500

D52

1.500

D53

1.500

D54

1.500

To
Stn

RL
Stn

Ins.
Height

D55

1.500

D56

1.500

B10

1.500

D57

1.500

50"
255 10'
45"
254 33'
30"
249 51'
35"
249 36'
30"
248 52'
55"
251 25'
20"
251 59'
50"
258 56'
40"
244 49'
55"
242 22'
45"
260 56'
00"
266 12'
10"
238 39'
50"
198 56'
55"
227 46'
45"
231 32'
30"
236 01'
20"
263 11'
55"
Bearing
266 15'
25"
269 24'
35"
237 34'
40"
171 49'

13.157

1.55

-0.158

13.132

1.55

0.094

14.488

1.55

0.048

14.490

1.55

-0.342

14.496

1.55

0.047

10.100

1.55

0.014

14.261

1.55

0.013

7.349

1.55

0.120

7.360

1.55

0.003

5.715

1.55

-0.010

5.678

1.55

0.126

9.941

1.55

0.212

10.066

1.55

0.105

2.864

1.55

0.083

2.632

1.55

-0.058

2.627

1.55

-0.321

2.548

1.55

-0.074

2.681

1.55

0.085

Horizont
al
Distance

Targe
t
Heig
ht
(m)

Vertica
l
Distan
ce

2.695

1.55

-0.117

2.755

1.55

0.080

2.248

1.55

0.101

2.967

1.55

-0.035

Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Ground level
Ground level
Shelter
Shelter
Shelter
Shelter
Corner of
Building
Corner of
Building
Corner of
Building
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
RL
Poin
t

Remarks

Drain
Drain
Corner of
Building
Drain

D58

1.500

D59

1.500

D60

1.500

D61

1.500

D62

1.500

S9

1.500

S10

1.500

S11

1.500

S12

1.500

D63

1.500

D64

1.500

D65

1.500

D66

1.500

D67

1.500

D68

1.500

D69

1.500

GL2
7

1.500

TL2

1.500

1.500

45"
168 03'
35"
164 48'
50"
152 08'
55"
149 06'
20"
145 28'
20"
162 04'
40"
162 28'
50"
122 19'
30"
136 47'
45"
166 03'
45"
164 44'
05"
163 27'
35"
161 49'
35"
164 28'
15"
163 59'
20"
163 02'
35"
141 05'
25"
150 37'
45"
140 29'
25"

2.982

1.55

-0.374

2.974

1.55

-0.076

3.216

1.55

0.159

3.186

1.55

-0.040

3.232

1.55

0.141

4.002

1.55

0.180

7.103

1.55

0.204

5.216

1.55

0.089

7.857

1.55

0.123

7.476

1.55

-0.022

7.503

1.55

-0.326

7.548

1.55

-0.043

7.345

1.55

-0.183

12.721

1.55

-0.080

12.702

1.55

-0.298

12.694

1.55

-0.008

12.664

1.55

-0.056

9.488

1.55

-0.034

3.449

1.55

-0.063

30.047

1.55

0.159

3.143

1.55

0.052

6.667

1.55

0.127

11.223

1.55

0.161

3.604

1.55

0.317

Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Shelter
Shelter
Shelter
Shelter
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Drain
Ground level
Light pole
Wall

1.520
2
GL2
8
GL2
9
GL3
0
R9

2.25
6

1.520
1.520
1.520
1.520
1.520

254 10'
00"
34 46'
50"
3 35'
00"
354 27'
55"
81 04'

Stn 2
Ground level
Ground level
Ground level
Pedestrian road

Fro
m
Stn

R10

1.520

GL3
1

1.520

U1

1.520

U2

1.520

U3

1.520

U4

1.520

To
Stn

RL
Stn

Ins.
Height

TL3

1.520

P8

1.520

P9

1.520

D70

1.520

D71

1.520

D72

1.520

B11

1.520

J5

1.520

J4

1.520

R11

1.520

R12

1.520

R13

1.520

15"
109 04'
25"
292 04'
25"
262 32'
10"
268 47'
40"
266 06'
00"
260 43'
35"
Bearing
251 19'
00"
283 29'
40"
288 34'
40"
336 36'
10"
335 41'
25"
335 07'
40"
329 49'
15"
185 31'
35"
233 53'
55"
246 07'
55"
288 48'
38"
317 10'
50"

4.071

1.55

0.352

3.582

1.55

0.083

7.289

1.55

0.267

7.484

1.55

0.249

9.020

1.55

0.252

8.617

1.55

0.291

Horizont
al
Distance

Targe
t
Heig
ht
(m)

Vertica
l
Distan
ce

9.323

1.55

0.312

7.011

1.55

0.056

13.840

1.55

0.127

9.964

1.80

0.445

10.200

1.80

0.227

10.303

1.80

0.441

11.709

1.80

0.591

3.507

1.55

0.250

9.994

1.55

0.235

4.669

1.55

0.082

5.680

1.55

0.090

10.872

1.55

0.168

Pedestrian road
Ground level
UTHM signboard
UTHM signboard
UTHM signboard
UTHM signboard
RL
Poin
t

Remarks

Light pole
Tree
Tree
Drain
Drain
Drain
Corner of
building
Tar road
Tar road
Pedestrian road
Pedestrian road
Pedestrian road

Discussion
1. Tacheometry is a system of rapid surveying by which the position, both horizontal and
vertical, of point on the earth surface relatively to one another are determine without

using a chain or tape or separate leveling instrument. There are 2 common methods that
usually used in engineering works.

(i) Stadia System: The theodolite is directed at the level staff and the distance is
measured by reading the top and bottom stadia hairs on the telescope view. For
further information about this process is provided in Theodolite Tacheometry.

(ii) Electronic Tacheometry: Uses a total station which contains an EDM, able to
read distance by reflecting off a prism.

2. In this survey camp, we carry out electronic tacheometry method by using total station
and reflected of mini prism. This method is generally conducted for contouring and
plotting the details of area on conducted ground. It is conducted by measuring the reduce
level of every features in the area such as building, drain, tree, lamp post, fence, road and
field level with reference to the traverse station in this survey control, our main area is at
EDANI.
3. The reduced level taken is apply on plotting the tacheometry data. A map is defined as the
final product of a tacheometry survey while detailing is the process of typing the
topographic details to the control stations fixed by previous traversing that we done.
4. The reduced level is then applying to obtain the map layout and contour. A map should
consist of north direction, legends and title map. A contour is an imaginary line
connecting all points of the same elevation above or below a datum. Contour of different
elevation cannot cross each other except in the case of overhanging cliff or a cave.
5. Apart from all the error had discussed in previous lab, sources of error that need to be
mentioned in tacheometric observation is:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)

Staff reading
Horizontal and vertical angle
Tilt of the pole or staff
Error in equipments

Conclusion
We had achieved the objective of this survey camp that is to produce the topographic and
detail plan of the proposed area using surveying software. Tacheometry is used for:

Preparation of topographic map where both horizontal and vertical distances are
required to be measured.
Survey work in difficult terrain where direct methods of measurements are
inconvenient.
Reconnaissance survey for highways and railways.
Establishment of secondary control points.

References
Barry F. Kavanagh, 2012001. Surveying with construction application, New Jersey.
Prentice Hall.

http://www.scribd.com/doc/20745951/Tacheometric-Surveying
http://www.scribd.com/doc/37901523/Stadia-Tacheometry