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Chapter12_Solid Geometry II|Views: 200|Likes: 21

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CHAPTE R 12

12.1 Geometric Properties 12.2 Net Of Geometric Solids 12.3 Surface Area

03/19/10

Prepared By: Norisah bt Mustaffa

1

**12.1 Geometric Properties
**

Geometric solids are objects that have three dimensions.

Example:

Cub e

Prisms

cuboid

cone s

03/19/10

cylinder

sphere

2

12.1a Prisms

Lateral edge Base Vertex Base

•Prisms is a solid that has two parallel faces called bases. •The bases are congruent polygons whereas other faces are parallelograms. •Prisms do not have a fixed number of edges, vertices

03/19/10 and

faces.

3

**•A prisms is named by the shape of its bases.
**

Hexagonal prisms

Triangular prism

03/19/10 4

**•Cubes and cuboids are considered prisms because they have all the properties of a prism.
**

Two parallel bases are congruent

**Other faces are parallelograms
**

03/19/10 5

12.1b Pyramids

Square pyrami d heigh t vertex Later al edge base Triangula r pyramid

•A pyramid is a solid that has a base in the shape of a polygon. •The other faces are triangles that have a common vertex called apex. •A pyramid named by the shape of its base. •The perpendicular distance from the common vertex to the base is the height of the pyramid. •Pyramid do not have a fixed number of vertices, edges, and

03/19/10 6

12.1c Cylinders

base

•A cylinder is a solid that has two parallel bases which are congruent circles.

heigh t

•A cylinder has three faces, two flat faces and one curved face, two curved edges and no vertices. •For a right cylinder, the perpendicular distance between the two faces is the height of the cylinder. 7

base

03/19/10

12.1d Cones

•A cone is a solid that has circular base and a curved face which meets at a common vertex called apex. •The perpendicular distance from the vertex to the base is the height of the cone. •A cone has two faces, one edge and one 03/19/10 vertex.

height

verte x

base

8

12.1e Spheres

radius centre

•A sphere is a solid where all points on its surface are equidistant from a central point. •The distance from the central point to any point on the surface is call the radius of the sphere. 03/19/10 9

**12.2 Nets of Geometric Solids
**

12.2a Drawing Nets for Geometric Solids

•A net is a flat diagram obtained when a geometric solid is opened up and unfolded. •A net is also known as layout. •The following diagrams shows the nets of some geometric solids. 03/19/10

10

**12.2a Nets of Geometric Solids
**

Triangular prism

Net

**Number of shape: 2 triangles 3 rectangles
**

03/19/10 11

**12.2a Nets of Geometric Solids
**

Cube

Ne t

**Number of shape: 6 squares
**

03/19/10 12

**12.2a Nets of Geometric Solids
**

Cuboi d

Net

**Number of shape: 6 rectangles or 2 squares and 4 rectangles.
**

03/19/10 13

**12.2a Nets of Geometric Solids
**

Pyramid

Ne t

Number of shape: 1 square, 4 triangles

03/19/10

14

**12.2a Nets of Geometric Solids
**

Cylinder

Ne t

**Number of shape: 1 rectangle, 2 circles
**

03/19/10 15

**12.2a Nets of Geometric Solids
**

Cone

Net

or

Number of shape:

03/19/10

1 circle, 1 sector of

16

**12.2b Stating the Types of Solids Given Their Nets
**

From the net •We can determine the type shown below, state of the name of the solid represented by a net solid. by comparing the shapes in the net with the shapes in known Solution: solids. •We can also imagine folding up the net to form a hollow solid. •If you are still not be able 03/19/10 to

pyramid

17

**12.2c Constructing Models of Solids Given Their Nets
**

•To construct a solid model from a net, follow the steps below: •1) Cut out the net along its outer sides. •2) Fold its along the lines 03/19/10

18

12.3a Finding the Surface Area of Prisms, Pyramids, Cylinders of Cones •The surface areaanda solid is the total area of

all the outer surfaces of the solid. •The surface area of a solid can be found from its net. •To find the steps given.Find the number of each shape.

Determine the shapes of all surfaces of surface area of a solid, follow solid. Calculate the area of each shape.

03/19/10

the

Add up all areas. The sum is the surface area of the solid.

19

The following table shows the ways of finding the surface area of some solids.

Solid 1. Cube

Net

Surface Area

Surface area

= 6 x area of a square = 6 x h2 h

03/19/10

h

= 6h2

20

Solid 2. Cuboid

h l h

Net

l

Surface Area

A B A B

h

Surface area

C

h

C

= 2 x area of A + 2 x area of B + 2 x area of C = 2(hl x

bl x

h

b

b

bh)

03/19/10

Area of rectangle A = hl Area of rectangle B = bl

21

Solid 3. Prism

Net

l b h b

Surface Area

b h

Surface area

= 2 x area triangle + 3 x area of rectangle

l

b Area of triangle =½

= 2 x ½ bh+ 3 x

bh

bl =bh + 3bl

Area of rectangle=

03/19/10

bl

22

Solid 4. Pyramid

Qs a h

Net

Q

Surface Area

Surface area

P = 6 x area of rectangle + 2 x area of rectangle P + 2 x area of

s

b Q h

Area of rectangle = b a

ab

Area of triangle P=

03/19/10

triangle Q = ab + 2 x ½ as as + 2 x ½ bh Area of triangle Q= ½ =ab + as + 23

½

Solid 5. Cylinder

r

Net

r

Surface Area

Surface area

= area of rectangle + 2 x area of circle = 2π rh + 2π r2

h

l

h

l =circumference of

the base circle = 2π r Area of rectangle P=

03/19/10

2π rh

24

Solid 6. Cone

Net

Surface Area

s s

Surface area

= area of sector + area of circle = π rs + π r2

r

r Area of sector = π rs Area of circle = π r2

03/19/10

25

12.3b Finding the Surface Area of Sphere

r

The surface area of a sphere can be calculated by using the following formula. Surface area of a sphere = 4π r2 r is the radius of the sphere.

03/19/10

26

12.3c Finding other Dimensions of a Solid Given the Surface Area and Other Relevant Information Other dimensions such as length of sides, height, radius or diameter of solids can be found if we know its surface area androther relevant information. Example: Find the length of each side of a cube if its surface area is 150cm2. Let p be the length of each side of the cube. The area of a surface is = p2 Each cube has 6 surfaces. So, 6p2 = 150 p2 = 150 ÷ 6

03/19/10

p

= 25 = √25 = 5cm

The length of each side is 5 cm. 27

**12.3d Solving Problems Involving Surface Area Find the surface area of the shape
**

as shown in the diagram. (Take π = 22) Solutio

**The diagram consists of 2 n: solids, a cone and a cylinder.
**

7

Surface area of the cone: = π rs The base o f = 22 x 3 x 7 cone is not 7 included 2 = 66 cm Surface area of the cylinder: = 2π rh The area o f = 2 x 22 x 3 x 6 two circles 7 are not 2 = 113.14 cm incl

03/19/10

7 cm

6 cm 6 cm Total surface area = 66 + 113.14 28 = 179.14 cm2.

uded

**12.3d Solving Problems Involving Surface Area If the surface area of the cuboid shown in the
**

diagram is 288 cm2, find the value of y?

Solutio 9 n: cm A cuboid has 6 surfaces.

y cm 6 cm

**2(y x 9) + 2(y x 6) + 2(6 x 9) = 288 cm2 2(9y + 6y + 54) = 288 15y + 54 = 144 15y = 144 - 54
**

03/19/10

The value of y is 6 cm.

y = 90 ÷ 15

29

03/19/10

30

At the Beginning of the Research

At the Beginning of the Research

3

Research Instrument

20048631 Soalan Ramalan Mathematics PMR 2009 Paper 2

500 tahun tidak reput

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