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ELECTRICAL POWER

CH 24

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TABLE OF CONTENTS
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - INTRODUCTION .......................................... 4
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM PANELS.......................................................... 6
ELECTRICAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION ................................................... 8
INTEGRATED DRIVE GENERATOR (IDG) ........................................ 10
IDG SERVICING.................................................................................. 12
IDG COOLING SYSTEM FOR GE ENGINE ....................................... 14
IDG AIR/OIL COOLING SYSTEM ....................................................... 16
IDG PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE INDICATION..........................18
APU GENERATOR EXTERNAL DETAILS.......................................... 20
AC POWER SYSTEM ......................................................................... 22
GENERATOR CONTROL UNIT (GCU)............................................... 24
MAIN POWER BREAKERS................................................................. 26
GCU FAULT PROTECTION................................................................ 28
CURRENT SENSING .......................................................................... 30
BITE DISPLAYS .................................................................................. 32
LOAD SHEDDING ............................................................................... 34
BUS POWER CONTROL UNIT (BPCU) ............................................. 36
EXTERNAL POWER COMPONENTS ............................................... 38
EXTERNAL POWER QUALITY........................................................... 40
EXTERNAL POWER PROTECTION................................................... 42
GROUND SERVICE BUS CONTROL ................................................. 44
GROUND HANDLING SYSTEM ......................................................... 46
DC POWER GENERATION ................................................................ 48
TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER SYSTEM ............................................. 50
BATTERIES, CHARGING, AND TRU LOCATIONS............................ 52
MAIN BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM .............................................. 54

STANDBY POWER SYSTEM.............................................................. 56


STATIC INVERTER ........................................................................ ..... 58
STANDBY POWER SYSTEM OPERATION..........................................60
HYDRAULIC MOTOR GENERATOR SYSTEM .................................. 62
HMG POWER DISTRIBUTION..............................................................64
HMG GENERATOR CONTROL UNIT................................................. 66
HYDRAULIC MOTOR GENERATOR CONTROL ............................... 68
HYDRAULIC MOTOR GENERATOR (HMG) OPERATION ................ 70
ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE PAGE...................................................72

STUDENT NOTES:

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ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - INTRODUCTION


AC Electrical Power
AC electrical power for airplane ground operations is supplied from an external
AC ground cart through the external power panel (P30) or from an Auxiliary
Power Unit (APU) driven generator. For in-flight operations power is supplied
from an Integrated Drive Generator (IDG) mounted on each engine or from the
APU driven generator. The power sources are non-paralleling. Components
associated with the AC system include:

3 Generator Control Units (GCU)


1 Bus Power Control Unit (BPCU)
Power Panels (various)
Equipment Racks

All these items are located in the main equipment center.


DC Electrical Power
Normal airplane DC power is produced by AC to DC conversion. Battery
systems provide alternate DC and standby power. Components associated with
the DC system include:

Main battery
Battery charger
Two Transformer Rectifier Units (TRU)
Static inverter
Power Panels (various)
Equipment Racks

All these items are located in the main equipment center.


The aft equipment center (E6) has components used with the APU DC system:
APU battery
Battery charger
Relay panel

Hydraulic Motor Generator (HMG)


A Hydraulic Motor Generator (HMG) system operates as a non-time limited
backup source in the event of loss of all main electrical power. The Generator
provides power for the standby system, Captains flight instruments, and
selected navigation, communication, lighting and anti-icing loads. The basic
system hardware consists of the Hydraulic Motor Generator (HMG) and
Generator Control Unit (GCU).
System Control and Indication
Manual or Automatic source selection is provided during ground and in-flight
operations from the Electrical System Control Panel (P5) and Auxiliary
Electrical System Control Panel (P61) located in the flight compartment.
Electrical system monitoring is provided on the EICAS display units also located
in the flight compartment. The electrical system incorporates automatic load
transfer, automatic fault protection, and isolation.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM - INTRODUCTION


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ELECTRICAL SYSTEM PANELS


General
Normal operation of the electrical power system is performed at the electrical
system control panel and the auxiliary electrical system control panel. Both
momentary and alternate action switchlights are used on the electrical panels.
For all of these switches the normal position is IN or LATCHED. Switch position
is indicated by the absence or presence of a mechanical legend in the switch
face of all alternate action switchlights. All indicator lights are powered via the
Master Dim and Test System.
Electrical system control panel (P5)
The momentary External Power Switch controls opening/closing of the External
Power Contactor (EPC). A white AVAIL light indicates power is of proper
quality. The white ON light indicates external power contactor position (closed).
Generator Control Switchlights provide a control signal which closes the
Generator Control Relay (GCR) and when proper power is available, and closes
the Generator Circuit Breaker (GCB). The flow bar and ON legend indicate
switch position. An amber OFF light illuminates whenever the associated GCB
is open.
The AC bus tie switchlights allow manual or automatic control of the Bus Tie
Breaker (BTB). In the unlatched position the associated BTB will be opened,
isolating the associated main AC bus from the AC tie bus. Operating the switch
to the latched position, AUTO illuminated and ISLN extinguished, normally will
enable automatic operation of the BTB.
The AC BUS OFF lights illuminate when the associated Main AC Bus is
deenergized. The Utility Bus Switchlights provide manual control of the power
relays connecting utility and galley buses to the left and right main AC buses.
The ON legend indicates switch position and is hidden when the switch is in the
unlatched position. The amber OFF light illuminates if the associated Utility Bus
Relay is open.
The guarded momentary Generator Drive Disconnect Switches cause a
mechanical disconnection between the IDG and the engine. The switch is
spring loaded OUT. The amber DRIVE light in the switchlight indicates low IDG
oil pressure or high IDG oil temperature.

The guarded Battery Switch controls connection of the battery bus to the left DC
Bus or Hot Battery Bus. The ON legend indicates switch position and is not
visible when the switch is unlatched. An amber OFF light illuminates when the
battery switch is in the unlatched position during normal flight and ground
operations and the Left DC Bus is powered. An amber DISCH light illuminates if
the battery is discharging greater than 4 amps. Standby Power mode of
operation is controlled by the Standby Power Selector Switch. The switch is
rotary and has three positions: OFF, AUTO and BAT. An amber standby power
bus OFF light will illuminate when the AC or DC Standby Bus is unpowered.
Auxiliary Electrical System Control Panel (P61)
The momentary Generator Field Manual Reset Switch will open or close the
Generator Field Control Relay (GCR) if the Generator Control Switch (P5) is
unlatched. A white FIELD OFF light illuminates when the Generator Control
Relay (GCR) field is open.

ELECTRICAL SYSTEM PANELS


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ELECTRICAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION


General
The electrical power load distribution system consists of both 115 and 28 volt
AC and DC distribution buses. All power distribution is shown except galley
buses. The sources of power for the distribution buses are the engine driven
IDG, APU Generator, and External Power.
Left And Right Main AC Buses
The Main AC Buses supply all of the essential AC loads in the airplane. Each
bus is divided into independent sections. An AC Tie Bus provides
interconnection between the Main Buses under certain conditions.
Left And Right Utility Buses
The Utility Buses supply non-essential loads. The loads can be deenergized
automatically for load shedding purposes.
Ground Service Bus

Center Buses
The Center Buses supply both AC and DC power to the center channel
equipment of the autoland system. During category III autoland operation, the
buses are supplied from sources isolated from the main buses.
Transfer Bus
The Left and Right Transfer Bus is considered part of the Main AC bus for most
operations. The items on the Transfer Buses were moved from the Main Bus to
allow the HMG (when operating) to power them independently.
Flight Instrument Transfer Bus
The flight instrument transfer buses supply power to selected captain and first
officer flight instruments and allows automatic transfer to an alternate power
source in case of primary source failure. Bus transfer between the primary and
alternate power sources is controlled by the Instrument Bus Voltage Sensing
Unit.
28 Volt AC Buses

The Ground Service Bus supplies both in-flight and ground loads that include
Interior Lights, Battery Chargers and Cooling Fans. The Ground Service
Extension Bus is sheddable in-flight to reduce electrical load during single
engine operation.

The airplane is provided with 28 volt AC buses which supply various lights,
instruments and other loads requiring 28 volt AC power. Each bus is supplied
through a separate Auto-Transformer.

Ground Handling Bus

28 Volt DC Buses

The Ground Handling Buses are powered only on the ground from APU or
External Power through the Ground Handling Relay. The Ground Handling Bus
supplies loads such as cargo handling equipment and refueling that are used
only during ground operations.

The Left and Right Main DC buses supply power to those loads requiring DC
power. Each main DC bus is divided into two independent sections. A tie bus
interconnects the Main Buses under certain conditions. The DC Standby Bus
supplies power to certain essential airplane loads and will transfer sources in
case of primary source load failure. The Battery Buses are powered from either
a Battery Charger or Nickel-Cadmium Battery.

AC Standby Bus
The AC Standby Bus supplies single phase power to essential flight loads and
will automatically transfer power sources in case of primary source loss.

ELECTRICAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION


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INTEGRATED DRIVE GENERATOR (IDG)


General
The Sundstrand IDG housing is a two-piece magnesium casting with single
bolted interface. The dry weight of the IDG is 117.7 lbs. Two electrical
connectors interface with airplane wiring for control, protection and monitoring
circuits. Connector A provides electrical connection for the Permanent Magnet
Generator (PMG), charge pressure switch, and oil temperature bulbs. The input
speed sensor, disconnect solenoid, internal Current Transformer (CT)
assembly, and exciter field are connected through connector B. All wiring
between the IDG components is located within the housing.
The Main Generator Stator 3 phase output and neutral output leads are
terminated at a 4 stud terminal block. The studs are 3/8" diameter stainless
steel. The neutral output is grounded to the upper strut structure.
A male spline on the IDG drive shaft provides the engine accessory gearbox
connection. The shear section is designed to break with an input torque of 9000
+/-400 inch lbs.
Disconnect Reset Ring
The ring allows ground only restoration of engine accessory gearbox and IDG
input spline mechanical connection by resetting a spring-loaded split-nut pawl.
Engine rotation must be completely stopped in order to reconnect the IDG.
Drain, Fill And Vent Ports
Oil is drained from the IDG case by removal of the case drain plug. The
pressure fill fitting connects to the pressure fill port for pressure filling of the IDG.
The overflow drain connects to an internal standpipe, and is used during
servicing. The case pressurization vent valve equalizes case and atmospheric
pressures. Under normal operating conditions the case pressure is in the range
of 5 to 10psi.
Case Thermal Relief Valve
The case thermal relief valve allows hot IDG oil to drain overboard through a
drain mast or into the cowl during extreme over temperature condition by
melting at 450F (232C).

Low Oil Level Indicator


Note:

The prismatic light glass type indicator is not normally used.

Scavenge Filter And Delta Pressure Indicator


A non-bypassing filter on the discharge side of the scavenge pumps, filters all
oil flow from the IDG. The filtration rating is Beta 10-65. The scavenge filter
contains a pop-up Delta Pressure Indicator (DPI). A red button pops out near
the filter housing when the pressure drops across the filter reaches 60 psid.
The DPI is locked out below 145F (63C) to prevent nuisance tripping.
Governor Adjustment
The governor adjustment allows adjustment of the IDG output frequency. One
turn changes the frequency 3 to 3.5hz, counterclockwise to increase and
clockwise to decrease. Only a one time adjustment after replacement is
allowed.

INTEGRATED DRIVE GENERATOR (IDG)


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IDG SERVICING
Oil Level Check
CAUTION: IF IDG WAS DISCONNECTED DURING LAST ENGINE RUN, OR
ENGINE HAS BEEN SHUTDOWN FOR OVER 90 MINUTES,
FALSE OIL LEVEL READING WILL OCCUR. INCORRECT OIL
QUANTITY IN IDG MAY DAMAGE IDG.
An oil level check should follow any maintenance action that results in loss of
oil. If the IDG to be checked has been disconnected or the engine has been
shut down longer than 90 minutes, then run the engine until IDG outlet oil
temperature reaches 80C or after 3 minute stabilization time. Check the oil
level by servicing the IDG.
IDG Oil Replenishment
CAUTION: DO NOT INTERCHANGE THE PRESSURE FILL ELBOW
COUPLING WITH THE OVERFLOW DRAIN COUPLING. THE
IDG WILL BE DAMAGED DUE TO OVER-FILLING IF OIL IS
PUMPED IN THROUGH THE OVERFLOW DRAIN.
For pressure fill servicing a cart capable of pumping oil at 5 to 15 psi with a
quick disconnect coupling on the fill hose and a drain hose is required.
Remove the protective cover from the pressure fill valve and connect the
pressure fill hose. Remove the protective cover from the overflow drain valve
and connect the drain hose.
CAUTION: WHEN REPLENISHING, DO NOT MIX TYPES OR BRANDS.
Note:

Be prepared to catch a small amount of residual oil from the IDG


standpipe.

Pump oil into the IDG under 5 to 15 psi pressure. Immediately remove the
pressure fill hose from fill valve when oil flows from overflow drain. When oil
from overflow slows to a pencil lead-thick stream (approaching a drip condition),
or oil has drained for 60 seconds, remove drain hose and install protective cover

on the overflow drain valve. Install protective cover on the pressure fill valve.
CAUTION: THE IDG OIL MUST BE DRAINED IF MAINTENANCE ACTION
RESULTED IN AN OIL LOSS EXCEEDING APPROXIMATELY 1/2
PINT, OR IF REPLENISHMENT CANNOT BE PERFORMED
WITHIN 3 HOURS OF ENGINE RUN TO 80OC MINIMUM IDG
OUTLET OIL TEMPERATURE.

IDG SERVICING
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IDG OIL COOLING FOR GE ENGINE


Purpose
The IDG Air/Oil Heat Exchanger cools the IDG oil when the Fuel/Oil Cooler has
insufficient fuel flow. This is usually when the Engine is operating at a low
power setting and Fuel Flow is low. Airflow through the heat exchanger is
controlled by the IDG Air/Oil Heat Exchanger Valve.

IDG OIL COOLING FOR GE ENGINE


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IDG COOLING SYSTEM


General
IDG oil is cooled by an external cooling system (one system for each IDG) with
engine fuel flow used as the primary cooling source. Supplemental cooling is by
air flow through the IDG air/oil heat exchanger. The cooling airflow is controlled
by the generator control unit.
Generator Control Unit
When the engine is at idle power, the IDG inlet oil temperature is less than 127C
(260F). The IDG cooling air shutoff valve solenoid is energized. The spring force
on the actuator holds the valve open and fan air is supplied to the IDG air/oil
heat exchanger.
When the engine operates at more than minimum cruise power, 11th stage
compressor bleed air forces the fan air shutoff valve closed. If the inlet oil
temperature is more than 127C (260F), a generator control unit internal relay is
energized. Power goes to K1031, L IDG air cooler valve and K468, L IDG valve
failure relays. When K1031 is energized, the IDG cooling air shutoff valve
solenoid is de-energized. This causes the valve to open. The generator control
unit internal solid-state switch opens after the inlet oil temperature goes to less
than 104C (220F).
If both temperature bulbs fail, the GCU opens the cooling valve.
If the IDG is not up to speed, the GCU keeps the valve closed, by the
underspeed input, when the engine is running.
The inlet oil temperature set point is selectable. An open input changes the inlet
oil temperature valves to 113C (valve opens) and 79C (valve closes).
Valve Position Indication
If the shutoff valve does not open, K468 stays energized. A ground signal goes
to EICAS. This makes the status and maintenance message, L IDG VALVE.
The message is stored in non-volatile memory.

IDG COOLING SYSTEM


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IDG PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE INDICATION


General
These indications alert the flight crew or maintenance personnel of a
mechanical failure of the IDG:
IDG DRIVE light
EICAS message GEN DRIVE.
Operation
These indicators go to the DRIVE light logic circuit in the GCU:
IDG oil temperature
Oil pressure
PMG frequency.

The GCU turns on the drive light and sends a signal to EICAS to show the C
level message GEN DRIVE when any of these conditions occur:
PMG frequency more than 440 HZ
Oil in and oil out sensors failed
Oil in and oil out temperature bulbs sense high oil temperature (oil in
>176.6C and oil out >185C)
GCB trip caused by a frequency fault, reset, and trips again for a frequency
fault within 2 seconds of the reset
Low oil pressure for longer than 1.8 seconds in any 10-second period.
The maintenance message L(R) IDG OIL LEVEL shows when there is low oil
pressure for longer than 0.15 seconds but less than 1.8 seconds in any 10second period.

IDG PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE INDICATION


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APU GENERATOR EXTERNAL DETAILS


Purpose
The APU Generator provides 115 volt AC power either inflight as a back-up
source or during ground operation.
Location
The unit is mounted to the auxiliary power unit accessory gearbox.
Physical Description/Features
The electromagnetic components of the Auxiliary Generator are the same as
those used in the IDG and are interchangeable except that the APU Generator
is contained in its own magnesium cast housing and has a different input spline
and mounting flange. The generator weighs 61.9 pounds (27.63 kg) dry
weight.
Keyhole slots allow mounting of the generator to the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
accessory gearbox. An aluminum seal plate is installed between the generator
Mounting Flange and Gearbox Drive Pad. The Mounting Flange incorporates
three locating pins to position the generator on the APU flange. Elastomer
compound inserts are installed in the seal plate OIL-IN and OIL-OUT ports. The
Input Shaft incorporates a shear section that shears at 4700 +/- 300 in-lbs.
The APU generator is spray oil cooled and lubricated using APU engine oil.
Pressurization, scavenging, and filtering of the oil is provided by the Auxiliary
Power Unit. Generator case pressure, 5 psig above ambient, is introduced from
the APU gearbox through a rotating screw passageway in the input shaft. APU
Generator Oil is filtered by a 20/40 micron filter. The delta pressure (popout)
indicator activates at 20psid. A mechanical lockout prevents activation when oil
temperature is below 115F (46C). When the filter Delta Pressure (DP) reaches
35 psid and oil temperature above 46C (115F) an APU Auto Shutdown is
initiated by the Differential Pressure Switch.
A terminal block with four stainless steel studs provides the feeder connections.
A single electrical connector provides all other electrical connections.

APU GENERATOR EXTERNAL DETAILS


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AC POWER SYSTEM
Power Sources
There are two Integrated Drive Generators (IDG) mounted to and driven by the
Engine Accessory Gearboxes.
The Auxiliary Generator is mounted to and driven by the APU.
External power is supplied through the External Power Receptacle, P30,
located on the lower right side of the fuselage just aft of the Nose Gear.
All sources produce 90kva, 115/200 volt AC, 3 phase, 400hz power.
Generator Control Unit (GCU)
The three GCU's, Left IDG, Right IDG, and APU are mounted in the Main
Electrical Equipment Center on the E1 and 2 Racks. Each GCU provides
Generator Field excitation, voltage regulation and controls the associated
Generator Circuit Breaker (GCB) and Bus Tie Breaker (BTB). All protection
functions for the generating channel are contained in the GCU. A receiver and
transmitter sends system status information over the serial data link.
Bus Power Control Unit (BPCU)
One BPCU controls the External Power Contactor (EPC), the Ground Handling
and Ground Service Relays, provides external power monitoring, and protection
functions. The BPCU also controls electrical system load shedding of Utility
and Galley buses, BITE, and fault isolation controls for the electrical system.
The BPCU receives and transmits system status information over the serial data
link.

AC POWER SYSTEM
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GENERATOR CONTROL UNIT (GCU)


General

In addition, the GCU contains Built-In-Test-Equipment (BITE) circuitry to aid in


on-aircraft fault isolation.

The Generator Control Unit (GCU) used in the electrical system provides;

Communication between the GCU and the BPCU is initiated by the BPCU.

generator excitation
voltage regulation
manual and automatic control
indication
protective functions for each generating channel

The same control units are used for the IDGS and the APU generator. The
GCU maintains direct control of the GCR, GCB, and BTB closing and tripping in
response to Point Of Regulation (POR) power, quality, source availability,
automatic protective functions, and manual commands.
Physical Characteristics
Each unit is packaged in an ARINC 600 3 MCU case and weighs 7.5 lbs. The
GCU's are rack mounted in the main equipment center on ARINC 600 trays in
the E1 and E2 equipment racks, held in with an extractor front hold down
assembly. Forced air cooling is provided through the racks.
The power required to operate internal GCU circuits and external GCB and BTB
contactors is derived from the IDG Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) source
with back-up from the airplane 28 volt DC system. Two circuit breakers are
provided on the GCU to protect external circuits.
Input/output
All input signals are run through input conditioning circuits to provide;

signal shaping
peak holding
averaging
discrete signal levels for sensed inputs

Output conditioning circuits provide digital-to-analog conversion and discrete


signal levels.

GENERATOR CONTROL UNIT (GCU)


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MAIN POWER BREAKERS


General
The Generator Circuit Breakers (GCB), Bus Tie Breakers (BTB), and the
Auxiliary Power Breaker (APB), are all identical and interchangeable, each
weighing 3.75 lbs. Physical size of the units is 4.7" high x 6.1" long x 4.1" wide.
All units are mounted in the main equipment center. The left generator power
panel P31 contains the left channel GCB and BTB. The P32 right generator
power panel contains right channel GCB and BTB. The APB is mounted in the
P34 APU/External Power Panel.
Main Contacts
The main contacts allow an electrical power source to be connected to the Main
Load Bus or AC Tie Bus. The feeder circuit wiring to the main contacts is
completed using 3/8" diameter nut stud main terminals. The Main Contacts are
three pole, single throw, magnetic latching type, rated at 275 amperes, 115/200
volt AC, 400hz.
Auxiliary Contacts
A single electrical connector is provided for auxiliary contacts and control coil
power. Seven normally open, seven normally closed single pole, single throw
contacts are rated at 1 ampere at 240 volt AC and 7.5 amperes at 28 volt DC.
The breaker actuator is held open by a core spring. The self de-energizing
close coil supplies actuator closing force. A permanent magnet provides closed
contact holding force. The self de-energizing trip coil overcomes the permanent
magnet holding force.

MAIN POWER BREAKERS


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GCU FAULT PROTECTION


General
The Generator Control Unit (GCU) protective functions monitor system
parameters including current, voltage, and frequency. They protect the main
generating channel in the event of system faults and protect equipment
connected to the system from out-of-limits electrical power quality. The limits
and time delays of the various protective functions are such as to selectively
isolate any fault with a minimum reduction of generating capacity and a
minimum interruption of power to the airplane load buses.
A reset must be initiated if any fault produces a signal which trips both the GCR
and GCB. The reset is accomplished by unlatching and re-latching the
Generator Control Switch. The GCR is closed and GCB will be enabled for
automatic operation. A reset can also be generated by removing and applying
power to the corresponding Generator Control Unit.
Inputs
The GCU senses three phase power from the Permanent Magnet Generator for
frequency protection functions. The Point Of Regulation (POR) feedback
provides three phase AC input for under/over- voltage protection functions.
Generator internal current transformers provide current sensing for open phase
and shorted rotated diode protection.
Protective Functions
Over-voltage protection determines if the highest phase of the three-phase
voltages has exceeded limits at the Point Of Regulation. Under-voltage
protection senses the average of the three-phase peak sensed voltages at the
Point Of Regulation.
The shorted Permanent Magnet Generator protection prevents GCU damage in
the event of a short to ground on any PMG phase. For this type of fault, a large
AC component in the three-phase half-wave rectified PMG input to the voltage
regulator would be detected.
Over-frequency and under-frequency protection information is sensed from the
Permanent Magnet Generator frequency.

A shorted diode in the Generator Rotating Rectifier assembly is detected by


sensing the average exciter field current and the average three-phase main
generator current. Under most operating conditions, this method of detecting a
shorted diode will also sense two open diodes and provide a GCR trip. The
shorted diode protection is locked out by under-speed to prevent nuisance trips.
In addition, shorted rotating diode protection is locked out during single IDG
operation. After automatic load reduction a single Generator with one or two
open diodes will be capable of carrying the remaining load without causing a
protective trip.
A four pole Magnetic Pick-up Unit (MPU) located on the IDG input shaft senses
the IDG input speed and provides an output signal proportional to input speed to
the GCU under-speed protection.

GCU FAULT PROTECTION


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CURRENT SENSING
General
A single-type of Current Transformer Assembly (CTA) is used in various
locations of the electrical power system. They operate in conjunction with the
IDG's, auxiliary generator, GCU's, and BPCU to provide the required primary
current sensing.
Function
The CTA's provide load current sensing to the GCU's. They are used in open
phase, load monitoring, overload protection circuits, and in conjunction with
similar current transformers integral to the IDG and auxiliary generator. The
BPCU uses CTA current sensing for Tie Bus Differential Protection (DP),
external power overload, and external power load monitoring circuits.
Mechanical and electrical construction
The CT assembly comprises three (3) toroidal current transformer sections in a
single package. They are rated at 250 amperes primary current, and have a
primary to secondary current ratio of 1000:1. Each transformer consists of 1000
turns of number 28 wire wound on a toroidal core. The CT's are capable of
operating over a frequency range from 350 to 440hz.

CURRENT SENSING
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BITE DISPLAYS
Maintenance BITE
General
BITE diagnoses failures in the GCU and BPCU circuitry and associated LRUs
which include:

This performs a limited end-to-end check of GCUs and BPCU. The BPCU
contains a 24-character alphanumeric light emitting diode (LED) display.
BIT switch

IDG's
APU Generator
GCUs
BPCU
GCBs
BTBs
APB
EPC

The GCU's and BPCU each contain BITE circuitry and nonvolatile memories for
the associated generating channel. GCUs communicate system faults and
status to the BPCU through the serial data link. BITE for both the GCU and
BPCU can be divided into two functional areas:
operational bite
maintenance bite
Operational BITE
Made up by event driven functions such as protection trips or commands to
operate breakers and status monitors which check the BPCU or GCU for known
regions of correct operation.
For protection trips operational BITE identifies what trip has occurred and
attempts to isolate what Line Replaceable Unit (LRU) causes the trip. If an LRU
can not be identified, a message which points to an area of the system will aid in
determining what caused the trip. For the breaker commands operational BITE
looks for a cause and effect relationship. The status monitors look at the circuits
within the GCUs and BPCU to insure operation within a known band, if the
operation falls outside the band an isolation procedure is started to identify the
problem.

The BIT switch retrieves the fault messages stored in NVM that are the result of
protection trips. The fault message identifies what protection trip occurred, it
then identifies the failed LRU or circuit. If there is no fault data stored for a flight,
the message OK will be displayed. BITE displays external power system faults
followed by LEFT, RIGHT and APU power system faults. BITE system will
pause momentarily between display of each fault.
Fault data for previous flight cycles can be retrieved by pushing the BIT switch
within a certain time period after the END OF DATA message. Previous flight
data can be retrieved for up to seven (7) flight cycles.
RESET Switch (guarded)
Inhibits interrogation of stored memory by erasing all BITE NVM.
PERIODIC TEST Switch (guarded)
The PERIODIC TEST switch initiates the MAINTENANCE BITE test of the
GCUs and the BPCU. The results are stored in NVM. Contents of the NVM are
displayed for that flight after test completion. The NVM contents are the
maintenance test results, fault isolation data, messages generated by breaker
commands, and messages that are the result of the operational status routines.
Note:

The PERIODIC TEST is intended for use at scheduled


maintenance checks.

BITE DISPLAYS
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LOAD SHEDDING
Purpose
The primary purpose of AC load shedding is to protect an electrical power
source (generator or external power) from an existing overload or from an
anticipated overload. An overload is anticipated, for example, when a source is
lost during operations that would normally use two sources. Another purpose of
load shedding is to maximize the pneumatic output of the APU for engine
starting when the APU is also being used to supply electrical power to the
airplane.
Load shedding is accomplished automatically using relays, power breaker and
switch position and load shed logic in the BPCU. Electrical power is selectively
removed from non-essential loads, such as those powered from the utility buses
and galleys.
Load Shedding Controlled by the Bus Power Control Unit (BPCU)
Certain load sheds are completely controlled by load shed logic in the BPCU. If
a generator is lost in the air mode, the BPCU automatically trips Utility Bus
Relays (UBR's) and Electrical Load Control Units (ELCU's) to remove
non-essential utility bus and galley loads. The purpose of this load shed is to
prevent an overload of the remaining generator. In the ground mode, loss of a
generator does not automatically cause a load shed. In this mode, one source
operation is normal.
Another example of load shedding controlled completely by the BPCU is a
generator overload not caused by the operation of electric hydraulic pumps.
The BPCU automatically removes power to non-essential loads powered by the
overloaded source by tripping the appropriate Utility Breakers (UBRs) and
Electrical Load Control Units (ELCUs).
Load Shedding Controlled by Relays
Some load shedding is automatically controlled by relays, using switch and
breaker positions (APB and GCBs). An example is the engine start load shed.
If the APU is being used for both electrical power and pneumatics, an engine
start automatically causes load shedding of any utility bus and galley loads
powered by the APU generator.

Another example of load shedding controlled by relays, and using switch and
breaker positions, is the fuel jettison load shed. If the fuel jettison switch is ON,
and only one source is available, then the closed position of both BTB's and
load shed relays are used to remove power to additional (other than utility bus
and galley loads) non-essential loads.
If an Engine is shut down in the air mode, and the Right Utility Bus Relay is
open, a Load Shed Relay is energized to remove power from the Ground
Service Extension Bus. This is another example of a load shed controlled by
relays and, in this case, engine speed cards.
Load Shedding Controlled by Relays and the Bus Power Control Unit (BPCU)
There is a load shed which is controlled by both the BPCU and relays. On the
ground with the APU or external power supplying electrical power to the
airplane, if any electric hydraulic pump (other than the right pump) is operating
and the source becomes overloaded, then galley loads are automatically shed.
This is accomplished using relays and pump switches to sense pump operation.
In addition, the BPCU, senses the overload condition.
Load Shed Reset
In most cases, a load shed is reset automatically when the condition causing
the load shed goes away. The exception is a load shed caused by a source
overload. This requires a manual reset and is usually accomplished by cycling
Utility Bus Switches corresponding to the shed utility bus and galley loads.
There are six different ways load shedding can occur.

LOAD SHEDDING
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BUS POWER CONTROL UNIT (BPCU)


Purpose
The Bus Power Control Unit (BPCU) controls electrical system external power
monitoring and protection, load shedding, tie bus differential protection,
autoland power transfer and BITE.
Location
The BPCU is located in the Main Equipment Center (MEC), rack mounted on
the E2-4 shelf.
Physical Description/Features
The BPCU is packaged in an ARINC 600 3MCU enclosure and weighs 7.7
pounds. The BPCU is held in the tray with an extractor front hold down
assembly. Forced air cooling is provided through the rack. The air enters
BPCU through a matrix of small openings in the base and is baffled by the
chassis before exiting through holes in cover. A BITE display panel and
controls are located on the box front panel.
Power
The power required to operate internal BPCU circuits, external contactors and
relays is derived from external power, Airplane Battery Bus and the Right Main
DC Bus. Front panel circuit breakers (CB1, CB2 and CB3) are used to isolate
power to external circuits.
Operation
The BPCU contains all of circuitry necessary for:

External Power Monitoring/Protection


Load Shedding of the Utility And Galley Buses
Tie Bus Differential Protection
Control of the External Power Contactor
Control of the Ground Handling Relay
Control of the Ground Service Relays

In addition, Built-in Test Equipment (BITE) circuitry is included to aid on-aircraft


fault isolation for external power.
The BPCU utilizes a microprocessor system for control, protection, and BITE
functions. The basic software timing cycle is 5 msec which gives sufficient time
to perform the longest operating path. The approximate division of time for flight
or ground operations is protection (1 msec), control (1 msec), and BITE (3
msec). The information required by the microprocessor comes from peak
sensing circuits that sense external power voltage, current, frequency, and
phase. Additional inputs are external power and Ground Service Switch inputs,
External Power Contactor Auxiliary Contacts, Generator Control Unit (GCU)
BITE information. The switch, auxiliary contact, and voltage/current peaks are
brought into the microprocessor system through input conditioning circuits. The
microprocessor system in turn supplies both digital and analog outputs through
output conditioning circuits.
A non-volatile memory in the BPCU is used to store external power system
passive BITE and fault data. The non-volatile memory is an Electrically
Alterable Read Only Memory (EAROM).
Digital data communication links between the BPCU and the three generator
control units are provided within the BPCU. System status, control, and BITE
information is exchanged on these serial data links.

BUS POWER CONTROL UNIT (BPCU)


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EXTERNAL POWER COMPONENTS


Ground Power Current Transformer (CT)
The Current Transformer Assembly (CT) senses external power current flow. It
is located in the P34 APU/ External Power Panel and weighs 1.2 lbs. Power
feeders pass through the primary windings with a single electrical connector for
secondary output. There is a primary to secondary current ratio of 1000:1.
External Power Contactor (EPC)
The External Power Contactor (EPC) is an electrically held 3 phase contactor
that controls use of external ground power. The unit is mounted in the P34
APU/External Power Panel and weighs 3.5 lbs. Nut stud feeder connections
are provided for 115 volt AC. A single electrical connector is provided for
auxiliary contact/coil circuits. The EPC is a solenoid operated, 3 pole, normally
open type contactor. A pull-in coil operates with 15 to 29.5 volts DC, while the
holding coil operating voltage is 10 to 29.5 volts DC.
Ground Power Transformer Rectifier Unit (TRU)
The Ground Power TRU is a solid state device that converts 115 volts AC to 28
volts DC power. The unit is mounted in the P34 APU/External Power Panel and
weighs 5 lbs. Input and output connections are made to a terminal strip. Input
power is 115 volts AC, 3 phase, 380 - 440hz and output power is 28 volts DC at
20 amperes.
Ground Handling Relay
The Ground Handling Relay is used to transfer the ground handling bus power
source. The relay is a 3 PDT center-off type. The coils are energized by 28
volts DC. The relay is mounted in the P34 APU/External Power Panel.
Ground Service Select Relay
The Ground Service Select Relay selects the ground service bus ground power
source. The relay is 3 PDT type. The coil is energized by a 28 volt DC signal
phase power. The relay is mounted in the P34 APU/External Power Panel.

Ground Service Transfer Relay


The Ground Service Transfer Relay transfers Ground Service Bus power
sources. The relay is a 3 DPT type. The coil is energized by a 28 volt DC
signal. The relay is mounted in the P33 panel.

EXTERNAL POWER COMPONENTS


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EXTERNAL POWER QUALITY


External Power Available
The following is a summary of the conditions involved in producing an external
power available signal, AVAIL light on.
External ground cart 3 phase, 115/200 volt AC power is applied through pins A,
B, C, and N. In the Bus Power Control Unit (BPCU) the overvoltage cutout
detector will energize an overvoltage cutout relay if the highest phase voltage
exceeds 150 volts rms. Energizing the overvoltage cutout relay prevents
components on the internal 28 volt DC bus from being damaged by voltage in
excess of 43 volts DC. If no back-up DC is available the BPCU will remain
unpowered until the highest phase voltage drops below 150 volts rms.
Normal BPCU powering (AC or DC applied to the BPCU) will cause a power-up
reset signal. The power-up reset input is the start signal for the micro-processor
to begin executing instructions contained in the Read Only Memory (ROM).
The external power plug completes the external power interlock circuit through
pins E and F.
Before the external power contactor is allowed to close, external power quality
is sensed by the BPCU. The BPCU checks the external power for Over/Under
Voltage (OV, UV), Over/Under Frequency (OF, UF) and phase sequencing.
The highest phase voltage is sensed for OV and a 3 phase average is
determined for UV. Single phase frequency sensing is used for UF and OF.
Two phases are sensed to determine phase sequence.
Indications
Poor power quality inhibits external power contactor closure. For good quality
power the external power AVAIL (P5 panel), AC CONNECTED and NOT IN
USE (P30 panel) lights are illuminated.
Maintenance Tip
If the Interlock Fuses between pins E and F are blown, external power cannot
be applied to the airplane. Also, there will be no AVAIL light on in the Flight
Deck or External Power Panel. These fuses are located in the MEC on the P34
Panel.

EXTERNAL POWER QUALITY


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EXTERNAL POWER PROTECTION


General

OV protection determines if the highest phase of the three phase voltages at the
EPC terminals has exceeded limits. UV protection senses the average of the
three phase voltages at the EPC terminals.

The BPCU protection functions monitor external power parameters including


current, voltage, frequency, and tie bus differential current. These monitored
functions, along with lockout signals from the GCU's, work to prevent or limit
damage to the generating system, loads and the external power sources from
out-of-limits power quality or fault conditions.

External power OV cutout protection operates to open an internal BPCU relay


located between the external power input and BPCU power supplies when an
OV condition exists.

Inputs
The BPCU receives three phase AC power through circuit breaker C320 EXT
PWR BPCU to perform voltage, frequency, and phase sequence protective
functions. Current transformer assemblies T112 L BUS TIE DPCT, T113 R BUS
TIE DPCT, T115 APU TIE BUS DPCT, and T116 EXT PWR TIE BUS DPCT
monitor current flow information for tie bus differential fault protection sensing.
The T122 GND PWR CURRENT XFMR supplies current flow data for detecting
open phase, overcurrent, and overload faults.
Protective Functions
The phase sequence protection prevents EPC closure if the voltage phase
sequence at the receptacle side of the EPC is not A-B-C. Phase A and B
voltages are sensed.
Tie bus differential protection isolates any short circuit fault on the external
power feeder or tie bus with a minimum interruption of power. The tie bus
differential protection trip times are carefully coordinated with the differential
protection time delays in the generating channel.
Overfrequency (OF) and Underfrequency (UF) protection information is sensed
on phase A at the External Power (EP) receptacle side of EPC.
Overcurrent (OC) protection operates in conjunction with a current transformer
located on the EP receptacle side of the EPC.
The BPCU monitors external power overload current via the ground power
current transformer. In the event of an external power source overload the
appropriate Electrical Load Control Units (ELCU) and Utility Bus Relays (UBR)
are shed in sequence and after the time delays shown in load shedding section.

EXTERNAL POWER PROTECTION


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GROUND SERVICE SYSTEM


General
The Ground Service Bus (GSB) is used for both ground and flight operation.
There are three possible power sources for the GSB:
Right Main AC Bus
External power
APU
Components
The components associated with the GSB are the BPCU in the MEC, Ground
service switch on Main Deck Door Panel, and one Ground Service Transfer Relay
(GSTR). When energized the relay provides a path for APU or external power to
power the GSB. When de-energized the relay allows Right main AC bus to power
the GSB. One Ground Service Select Relay (GSSR) when de-energized external
power is selected or when energized APU power is selected.
Right Main AC Bus Power
With the Right Main AC bus powered, the GSTR is de-energized allowing the
Right Main AC bus to power the GSB.
External Power
For external power to power the ground service bus the BPCU checks for the
following conditions;
Ground Service Switch pressed if external power available with no faults
Right main bus is not powered. To determine this, the BPCU receives
discretes from auxiliary contacts in the GCB and BTBs
Transfer relay not energized
When the above conditions are met the BPCU sets a latch that energizes the
GSTR and turns on the light in the ground service switch. This latch is reset and
the GSTR relay de-energized when;
An external power fault occurs
Right main bus is powered

Cycling the GS switch on the ground


Loss of external power
Power up of the BPCU
APU Power
For APU to power the ground service bus the BPCU checks that the following
conditions are true:
Ground service switch pressed or
APU power available in air mode (no power on the Right Main Bus)
This logic allows the APU to power the ground service bus in flight if the right
main bus is locked out. When the above conditions are met the BPCU sets a
latch that energizes the GSTR and turns on the light in the ground service
switch. This latch is reset and the GSTR de-energized when:

Right Main Bus is powered


Cycling the GS switch on the ground
Loss of APU available
Power up of the BPCU

To apply APU power to the GSB the Ground Service Select Relay (GSSR) must
also be energized. To accomplish this the BPCU checks for external power not
being available.
APU Power
APU available comes to the BPCU over a digital bus from the APU GCU. It
indicates that the voltage is correct and APU speed is greater than 95%. When
these conditions are met the BPCU energizes the GSTR allowing the APU
generator to power the GSB. With the GSSR and GSTR energized (APU
powering the GSB) a new external power available signal is locked out and APU
power is maintained on the GSB.

GROUND SERVICE SYSTEM


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GROUND HANDLING SYSTEM


General
The Ground Handling Bus (GHB) is used for ground operations and can only be
powered on the ground. The bus is powered by either external power or the
APU generator. External power has priority if both are available. The BPCU
controls the application of power to the GHB.
External Ground Handling Power
The BPCU energizes the GHR to the external power position when any of the
following are true:
EXT PWR is available without faults
APU power avail, in air and Right Main Bus not powered
This insures that when the APU is powering the ground service bus in the air
that the ground handling bus can not be powered. The external power fault
protection latch is reset to zero on initial BPCU power up when no faults are
present.
With no faults and external power available the BPCU energizes the Ground
Handling Relay to select external power to power the Ground Handling Bus. If
the fault protection module detects any one of the following the fault latch is set
and external power is removed from the Ground Handling Bus:

Open Phase (sensed by CT)


Over current (sensed by CT)
Differential fault (sensed by CT)
Internal failure of BPCU
Over/Under frequency
Over/Under voltage

A reset can be accomplished by:


Cycling the GS switch on the ground
Resetting the External Power Plug
Power up of the BPCU

APU Ground Handling Power


APU generator available and on ground are received by the BPCU over a digital
data link from the APU GCU. The AVAIL signal indicates no faults, Generator
Control Relay (GCR) closed and APU speed greater than 95%. When external
power is not available, APU generator power is available and on the ground, the
BPCU energizes the Ground Handling Relay to select APU power.

GROUND HANDLING SYSTEM


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DC POWER GENERATION
Purpose
The DC power system is provided on the 767 airplane to supply loads requiring
DC power.
System Description
The main DC system is a 2-wire system using the airframe structure as the
ground return circuit. Two main distribution buses, located in the P6 panel,
supply essential and non-essential loads. Transformer Rectifier Units (TRU),
energized by the main AC buses, separately power each Main DC bus.
The battery/battery charger systems consist of a 24 volt vented nickel-cadmium
battery and a separate dedicated battery charger to recharge and maintain the
battery at its full state of charge.
A standby power system is provided to supply 28 volt DC and single phase 115
volt AC power to essential instrument, communication, and navigation
equipment in the event of complete loss of primary AC power. The standby
system also serves as an independent source for the autoland system center
channel.
General Component Locations
The TRU's, Main Battery/Battery Charger system, and Static Inverter are
located in the Main Equipment Center, E 3 rack. A second separate Battery/
Battery Charger system is located in the aft equipment center, E6.
General Subsystem Features
The TRU's normally operate isolated to supply there respective load buses. In
addition, under normal system operation, the Battery Bus, DC Standby Bus, and
the Center DC Bus are supplied from the left 28 volt DC Bus.
A DC Tie Bus and automatic operating DC Tie Control Unit allows a single TRU
to supply both Main DC Buses.
Battery charging is constant current and temperature compensated to prevent
thermal runaway. A temperature sensing device and a thermal switch, both

integral to the battery, provide temperature sensing and overtemperature


protection signals for charger control and deactivation. The second Battery/
Battery Charger system is dedicated to supply DC power to start the Auxiliary
Power Unit (APU).
The static inverter converts DC power to single phase AC power for the AC
Standby Bus. Two switches located on the P5 panel control the standby
system. The Battery Switch controls Inverter DC input power and the
STANDBY POWER rotary switch controls Auto/Manual standby modes.
The DC system status information is displayed on EICAS and control panel
CAUTION lights.

DC POWER GENERATION
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TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER SYSTEM


Transformer Rectifier (TRU)
The TRUs are non-regulated AC to DC converters. They convert 115/200 ac,
three-phase, 400 Hz power to 28v DC power for main DC systems.
Each TRU requires a 115 volt AC input from either the left or right main AC bus.
The TRU circuitry employs a wye primary winding and two parallel wye-delta
secondary connections, with full-wave rectification of the output through a
silicon diode bridge network. The pulsating DC from the rectifier is smoothed by
the output LC filter to reduce ripple. The input LC filter provides EMI
suppression.
The three-phase input wiring to each TRU is protected by a 3 phase thermal
circuit breaker. The DC output feeder is adequately sized to carry DC fault
currents up to a level that causes the 3 phase input thermal circuit breaker to
trip. A calibrated shunt provides the EICAS computers with signals indicating
output current flow.
DC Tie Bus and DC Tie Control Unit
During normal operation, the two unregulated main TRUs are operated isolated,
and each supplies its associated main DC bus. The DC tie bus interconnects
the main DC buses through the DC Tie Contactor. This allows DC system
operation should either TRU fail.
The DC Tie Control Unit (DCTCU) senses the voltage of the left and right main
DC buses. When the output of either bus falls to 20 +/-1 volt DC, or lower, for
11.5 +/-1.5 seconds, the solid state switch in the DCTCU latches in the
conducting state. This provides a ground to the K108 DC Tie Relay. The
DCTCU unlatches when the control power, Battery Bus, to the DCTCU is
removed for 600 milliseconds or both voltage sense inputs fall to or below 20 +/
-1 volt dc for 11.5 +/-1.5 seconds. The closure of the DC Bus Tie Relay is
inhibited if either left or right Bus Tie Switch is not in AUTO. When K108 is
energized a status and maintenance message T-R UNIT is displayed on
EICAS. This normally indicates a TRU failure.

Autoland
If either the captain's or first officer's Flight Instrument Transfer Bus switches to
its alternate power source during autoland, then a ground signal is applied from
either instrument bus voltage sensing unit (M1217 or M1079) through K123
center bus isolation relay to energize K108.
Note:

Normally auto DC power back-up is isolated during an autoland


situation.

TRANSFORMER RECTIFIER SYSTEM


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BATTERIES, CHARGING AND TRU LOCATIONS


Battery and Charger Locations
The Main Battery is located left of the E3 rack and the Main Battery Charger is
located on the E3-3 shelf in the main equipment center. The APU battery and
charger are located in the E6 rack in the aft equipment center.

Location
A Main Battery Shunt is connected on the ground side of the Main Battery. An
APU battery shunt is connected on the ground side of the APU Battery Charger.
The Main Battery Current Monitor is mounted in the Main Equipment Center.

Battery

Physical Description/Features

The Main Battery is a 40 amp-hour, 20 cell, nickel-cadmium battery rated at a


nominal 24 volts DC. The electrolyte is a solution of potassium hydroxide and
water. The Cells are assembled in an uncoated stainless steel container with a
cover. An Internal Thermal Switch provides overtemperature protection. A
Thermistor, thermal sensor, provides the battery charger with battery internal
temperature information. The battery is cooled by natural convection. The
Main and APU batteries are identical, interchangeable and each weighs 96 lbs.

The Shunts are calibrated resistance elements rated at 150 amp/50 MV. The
Main Battery Current flow is sensed by routing the ground side of the Battery
Feeder through a hole in the Battery Current Monitor.

Battery Charger
The Battery Charger uses nominal 115 volt AC, 3 phase, 400hz power as an
input. The Battery Charger has three distinct modes of operation. The charge
mode (constant current region) will supply 38 +/-2amps at 20 to 36 volts DC.
The Charge Mode, constant voltage region, will supply 0 to 38 +/-2amps at
27.75 volts DC and the TR mode, main charger only, will supply 0 to 64 +/1amps at 27.75 volts DC.
The Battery Charger is packaged in a 6 MCU case and weighs 21 lbs. A 12 pin
male connector is used for AC input power, control, and sensing. The DC
power output connection is a 5/16" negative terminal and a 3/8" positive
terminal. The case has convection orifices and both sides are externally finned
heat sinks. Both forced air and convection cooling is available. The APU and
Main Battery chargers are identical and interchangeable, even though their
operation differs.
BATTERY SHUNTS AND CURRENT MONITOR
The DC Current Shunts input a voltage to EICAS proportional to sensed current
flow.
The Battery Current Monitor senses current flow into and out of the Battery.

Operation
The Battery Current Monitor is energized by the Battery Bus during normal flight
operation. During autoland operation the Battery Current Monitor is
de-energized. When the Main Battery is discharging greater than 6 amperes a
ground signal is provided to illuminate the discharge DISCH light. The signal
also activates the MAIN BAT DISCH advisory level EICAS message.
Dispatch Deviation
APU Battery or Charger may be INOP or removed providing the APU is not
needed.
Transformer Rectifier (TRU)
The Left and Right Transformer Rectifier Units are on the E3 rack. They weigh
23 pounds.

BATTERIES, CHARGING AND TRU LOCATIONS


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MAIN BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM


AC Input
The Battery Charger operates with 105 to 122 volts AC, 400hz, 3 phase input
voltage. The Ground Service Bus powers the Battery Charger via K115, the
Main Battery Charger Relay. The AC input to the charger is removed when
k115 is energized. K115 will be energized if either the STBY PWR Switch is
positioned to BAT or when the Battery Thermal Switch closes.
Battery Charger Charge Mode
When the Battery Switch is unlatched, the Main Battery Relay, K104, will be
deenergized. This will disconnect the Battery Bus from the Hot Battery Bus. It
will also signal the Battery Charger to initiate a constant current battery charge
cycle. The constant current charge is limited to 38 amps. The battery charger
output voltage rises to about 31 volts DC, the battery temperature compensated
voltage limit, continues rising until proportionate overcharge is completed, then
drops to 27.75 volts DC. The battery charger then enters the constant voltage
portion of the charger mode (still current limited).
Battery Charger Transformer-Rectifier (T-R) Mode
When the Battery Switch is latched in, relay K104 will be energized. This will
connect the Battery Bus to the Hot Battery Bus. The battery charger will be
signaled to initiate a charging cycle in the T-R mode. In this mode the output is
27.75 volts DC, constant voltage, at up to 64 amps. This mode of charging
maintains battery charge without unnecessary electrolyte loss and is applicable
to the main charger installation only.
Battery Current Monitor
The Battery Current Monitor consists of two Current Sensors which sense the
battery discharge and battery charge currents from the Main Battery Cable.
With battery discharge greater than 6 +/-1amp, the unit will provide an
unlatched ground signal to the EICAS computers and an advisory message
MAIN BAT DISCH will be displayed. The DISCH light on the P5 panel will also
illuminate.

The Main Battery Shunt provides DC current inputs to the EICAS computers for
ELEC/HYD maintenance page displays. It is a calibrated magnate alloy
resistance element rated at 150 amp/50 mv.
Charge Cycle Initiation Conditions
The battery charger will initiate a new charge cycle when one of the following
occurs:
AC input power is applied or interrupted and then reapplied
Sensed battery voltage drops below 23 volts DC
The charger is switched from the T-R mode to the charge mode
Charger Shut-Down Conditions
The battery charger will shut-down under the following conditions:
Input voltage is under 94 volts AC or over 134 volts AC
The battery sense and control cable is not connected (battery interlock)
The battery power connector is disconnected when the charger is
energized
Or the battery temperature exceeds 155F (68C), or an internally caused
overcurrent condition occurs
When a battery interlock or battery overtemperature shut-down occurs an open
signal is provided to the EICAS computers and a status and maintenance
message MAIN BAT CHGR will be displayed.

MAIN BATTERY CHARGING SYSTEM


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STANDBY POWER SYSTEM


General
The standby power system operates when the normal electrical power sources
do not supply power to the left and right transfer buses. Standby power goes to
these buses:

DC standby bus
Battery bus
Hot battery bus
AC standby bus.

Standby power comes from the hydraulic motor generator or the main battery.
Standby power comes from the main battery and the APU battery.
Main Battery
The main battery supplies 28v dc power to the standby system if the left AC bus
does not.
To supply power to the standby system, the main battery supplies power to the
hot battery bus. The hot battery bus supplies power to the battery bus.
The battery bus supplies power to the static inverter, so that the AC standby bus
has power.
Operation
The standby power switch on the P61 overhead maintenance panel has three
positions:
OFF
AUTO
BAT

The standby power switch lets you do these functions only on the ground:
De-energize the AC standby bus (OFF position)
Arm the standby system for automatic operation (AUTO position)
Energize the standby buses when AC power is not available (BAT
position, when the battery switch is in the ON position)
Start a self-check of the DC/standby system (BAT position, when AC power is
available).

STANDBY POWER SYSTEM


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STATIC INVERTER
General
The Static Inverter converts nominal 28 volt DC power to nominal 115 volt,
400hz, single phase AC power. The Inverter supplies selected equipment
during normal ground operations, and powers flight critical AC loads during a
loss of all other AC power.
Physical Characteristics
The Static Inverter is located in the Main Equipment Center on E3-2 shelf. The
inverter is packaged in a 6 MCU enclosure and weighs 22.5 lbs. Normally the
inverter is forced air cooled. During automatic standby operation the unit is
cooled by natural convection.
All electrical connections are made on the front of the unit. The DC input power
connections consist of stud terminals on a terminal block and the AC output
power connections are through a 4-pin connector.
Electrical characteristics
The static inverter is rated at 1000 va (1 kva) for an input voltage range of 18 to
29.5 volts DC. The output is 115 +/-5 volts AC at 400 +/-0.1hz for the entire load
range. The inverter will supply 100% of the rated load for 30 minutes and 150%
of the rated load for 5 minutes when forced air cooled. The Inverter is capable
of supplying full rated load for 30 minutes with natural convection cooling only.

STATIC INVERTER
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STANDBY POWER SYSTEM OPERATION


Functional Description
Normal operation occurs when the STBY POWER Switch on the P5 Overhead
panel is in the AUTO position. Standby Bus Power comes from the Main AC
and DC buses. The Main Battery Transfer Relay is energized. The Standby
Power Relays are de-energized switching power to the Standby Buses. The
Bus Off Relays energize, breaking the ground connection to the Standby Bus
OFF light and EICAS computers. The Static Inverter receives input power, but
supplies no load. If the Left Main AC Bus loses power or an autoland signal is
received, the Main Battery Transfer Relay de-energizes. The Main Battery
Relay energizes, connecting the Hot Battery Bus to the Standby Bus, through
the Standby Power Relay. The AC Standby Transfer Relay is de-energized,
connecting the Static Inverter to the AC Standby Bus.
If only the Left Main DC Bus loses power, the Main Battery Transfer Relay deenergizes. The Main Battery Relay closes supplying the DC Standby Bus from
the Hot Battery Bus. The AC Standby Bus is powered as normal. Turning the
STBY POWER Switch to BAT position causes the system to operate as would
occur if the Left Main AC Bus lost power. Turning the STBY POWER Switch to
OFF position removes power from the Standby Bus. The amber OFF light on
P5 overhead comes on. The EICAS computers display a STANDBY BUS OFF
message.
The Standby Buses will be off if the BAT Switch on the P5 overhead is OFF and
the Main Buses lose power. The Standby Buses will also be off if the BAT
switch is OFF and an autoland signal is received. The Standby Bus OFF light
and STANDBY BUS OFF message will be on under two conditions:
Either standby bus is unpowered
Either the Main Battery Transfer Relay or AC Standby Transfer Relay fails
to switch when the STBY POWER switch is in BAT position
Standby Power
When all Main AC and DC Buses are powered, and the STBY PWR Switch is in
AUTO, and the BAT switch is ON, K105 and K113 UNDER VOLTAGE SENSE

relays are energized. The AC Standby Bus is powered from the L 115 volt AC
Bus. K106 MAIN BAT XFR Relay energizes and the K104 MAIN BAT Relay is
de-energized. The Static Inverter is powered from the L 28 volt DC Bus, but has
no load. With loss of power to the L 115 volt AC bus and to the L AC Transfer
Bus, HMG not operating, the AC Standby Power Relay, K105 relaxes and the
Static Inverter supplies the 115 volt AC Standby Bus. With no power on the L 28
volt DC Bus the Undervoltage Sense Relay, K113 and the Main Battery Transfer
Relay, K106, are de-energized. The Main Battery Relay, K104 is energized and
the Battery supplies the Static Inverter and the DC Standby Bus. The DISCH
light illuminates and MAIN BAT DISCH EICAS advisory message is displayed.
BAT Switch OFF
When the BAT switch is OFF, released to out position, and the Left Main DC
Bus is energized, powering the MASTER DIM & TEST system, the amber OFF
light in the Battery Switch is illuminated and the BATTERY OFF EICAS advisory
message is displayed.
CAT III Autoland Power
During autoland the AC and DC Center Bus power sources are transferred
when K123 CTR BUS ISOL Relay is energized. The energizing of K123 causes
K105 and K106 to relax. The Static Inverter supplies the 115 volt AC Standby
Bus while the DC Standby Bus is powered from the Hot Battery Bus.
Static Inverter Failure
If the Static Inverter output voltage is less than 106 volt AC or greater than
124VAC with the Battery Switch latched ON, then EICAS displays the latched
status and maintenance message STBY INVERTER.

STANDBY POWER SYSTEM OPERATION


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HYDRAULIC MOTOR GENERATOR SYSTEM


General

Release of the switch shuts down the HMG system. Loads are transferred back
to normal sources and EICAS messages HYD GEN ON and HYD GEN VAL are
removed from display.

The Hydraulic Motor Generator System provides a non-time limited backup


source after loss of all generator electrical power.

Hydraulic Motor Generator

System Description

The following loads can get power from the Hydraulic Motor Generator:

The Hydraulic Motor Generator (HMG) is located in the left wheel well. The
Generator is driven by a Hydraulic Motor supplied from the Center Hydraulic
System. An Air-Driven Hydraulic Pump (ADP), supplied by left or right engine
bleed air, can pressurize the Center Hydraulic System. A Motor Driven
Hydraulic Shutoff Valve provides ON/OFF control for the HMG. Automatic
activation of the HMG System occurs with loss of power to both Main AC Buses.
A Flow Limiter regulates hydraulic flow to the Trailing Edge Flaps and Leading
Edge Slats during HMG operation. Control and protection functions are
performed by the Generator Control Unit located in the P65 panel. A
momentary test switch on the P61 panel, is provided for system checkout. The
HMG System operational status and electrical parameters are monitored by
EICAS.

Fire Warning
RAT Control
Equipment Cooling
Hyd. Pump Control
Master Warning
ADIRU
Standby Power Control Spoilers
Capt./FO Instruments Flight/Cabin Interphone
VOR
C/L MMR
Standby Engine Ind.
Engine Start & Ignition
EFIS Symbol Gen.
Captains/FO
FMCS
Captains VSI
Auto Pressurization
L Radio Altimeter
Man. Pressurization
Fuel Crossfeed
Outflow Valve
Fuel Shutoff
Capt. & Aux Pitot Heat Capt. Panel Flood Lights
AOA Probe Heat
Wing Anti-ice
Eng Tt2 Probe Heat
Bleed Valves
Cargo Heat Control
Rudder Trim
HF Communications
Probe Heat Indication
Flap Position Ind.
Eng EEC Discretes
Capt. Altimeter
Aisle Stand Flood Light
Ovhd Pnl/Aisle Stand Lights

Operational Checkout
A momentary toggle switch (EQUIP COOL/HYD GEN) on the P61 right side
panel initiates system checkout. A complete checkout is accomplished with
main buses energized, EICAS operating, pneumatic power available to operate
Air Driven Pump and the C1 and C2 AC Electrically Driven Hydraulic Pumps
(ACMP) activated. When toggled to the HYD GEN position, the test switch
opens the sensing leads to the L and R AC bus off sensing relays to simulate
bus loss, and provides a signal to start-up the HMG system. The test switch
also deactivates the main battery charger during the test.
After the HMG is started and the Captain's Instrument Transfer Bus Relay
transfers, a HYD GEN ON (C,S) is displayed on EICAS. If the hydraulic shutoff
valve is not fully closed, a HYD GEN VAL (C,S) message appears after a 5
second time delay. The EICAS ELEC/HYD maintenance page displays the AC
and DC output voltage and the AC frequency during the checkout test.

Stall Warning
Standby Instruments
Clocks
YSM
RDMI
Defueling Valves
APU Start
EADICapt/FO EHSI
L DME
Atl Gear Extend
Gear Indication
Antiskid
Thrust Reverser
VHF Communications
Packs Control

HYDRAULIC MOTOR GENERATOR SYSTEM


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HMG POWER DISTRIBUTION


General Operation
AC bus transfer relays connect the left and right AC transfer buses and the
captain flight instrument transfer bus to the hydraulic motor generator AC
output. Two 115/28v ac single-phase auto transformers supply 28v ac loads
from he left and right AC transfer buses. A DC contactor connects the hydraulic
motor generator DC output to the hot battery bus.

HMG POWER DISTRIBUTION


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HMG GENERATOR CONTROL UNIT


Purpose
The Generator Control Unit (GCU) provides both main generator voltage
regulation and control sensing for system operation.
Location
The GCU is located inside the P65 Hydraulic Generator Power panel. This
panel is installed forward of the EICAS E8 rack on the left lower sidewall of the
MEC.
Physical Description/Features
The GCU is a convection-cooled, solid-state unit attached to back of the P65
panel. A single electrical connector allows interface with the Hydraulic Motor
Generator. The test connector is used for shop checkout.
Power
GCU operational power is derived from the HMG Permanent Magnet Generator.
Operation
The primary operational functions of the unit are:

Voltage Regulation
Control Field Excitation
Undervoltage
Underfrequency Protection
Application, removal and lockout of the power ready signal to External
Bus Transfer Relays
An electrical speed control signal to the Electrohydraulic Servo Valve in
response to deviations in generator output frequency

HMG GENERATOR CONTROL UNIT


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HYDRAULIC MOTOR GENERATOR CONTROL


Control/Operation Sequence
With the Left and Right 115 volt AC Buses powered, K858 and K859, L or R AC
Bus Off Relays energized, and after a 0.5 second time delay, the K860 HYD
GEN Control Relay close coil is energized. The loss of voltage to both Main AC
Buses inflight for at least 0.5 seconds energizes the open coil of K860. A
Permanent Magnet holds the relay in open position, until the close coil is
energized, to prevent power loss on touchdown. Energizing the Open Coil of
K860 completes the power ready circuit to external bus transfer relays. K873
Generator Reset Relay sends a reset signal to the Generator Control Unit, K865
HYD GEN ADP CMD Relay applies ground to K684 ADP On Demand Relay to
turn on the Air Driven Pump. The V147 HYD MTR GEN Shutoff Valve opens,
supplying hydraulic pressure to the HMG. When the shutoff valve is not fully
closed, EICAS displays HYD GEN VAL (S,M) message (after 5 second time
delay).
The constant speed variable displacement motor is controlled electronically by
the remotely located GCU, utilizing the generator frequency signal for feedback.
When first energized hydraulically the motor is at maximum displacement due to
a stroking piston spring. The Electrohydraulic Servo Valve is slightly biased in
the maximum displacement direction to prevent destroking before the GCU is
energized. As the motor accelerates, the Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG)
provides GCU operational power. The PMG frequency is also used as a
feedback signal to the GCU speed control module. The frequency feedback
signal is compared to a reference frequency and any error is transmitted to the
electrohydraulic servo valve to modulate displacement. Electrohydraulic Servo
Valve primary components are:

Torque Motor
Jet Pipe
Slide Valve
Feedback Spring (not shown)

A change in generator load causes a speed change. The speed control module
supplies servo power and completes the circuit to either increase or decrease
speed coil. Motor displacement increases or decreases causing an increase of
decrease in motor speed. When the slide valve feedback spring torque equals
the Torque Motor torque, the jet pipe returns to center position stopping flow to
the Slide Valve.

The Electrohydraulic Servo Valve maintains Main Generator output frequency at


400 2hz under steady-state conditions. In the event of feedback signal or
Electrohydraulic Servo Valve failure, a Mechanical Overspeed Governor
maintains the frequency at 430 10hz.

HYDRAULIC MOTOR GENERATOR CONTROL


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HYDRAULIC MOTOR GENERATOR OPERATION


General Bus Operation With HMG
Operation
The Permanent Magnet Generator (PMG) power enters the GCU and is three
phase full-wave rectified to produce 28 volt DC power. The power is used by
the GCU voltage regulator and sensing circuits. The average of the point of
regulation AC voltage is monitored by the voltage regulator for supplying exciter
generator field excitation.
When Hydraulic Motor Generator (HMG) output voltage and frequency reach
the power ready limits of 100 volts AC and 380hz, and K873 Gen. Reset Relay
is relaxed, enabling signals are applied to gate 1. The Generator Power Ready
Relay closes and DC power is applied to K861and K862. Ground signal
removal from the sensing level shift circuit enables the undervoltage and
underfrequency trip levels at 104.5 1.5 volts AC, (three phase average), and
385 5hz. The fault signal path from gate 2 to gate 3 is inhibited.
When energized the K861 HYD GEN Power Relay connects the DC Generator
output to the Hot Battery Bus and disables K873 GEN RESET relay, energizing
the K862. Also, both EICAS Computers receive a DC voltage input, K862
energized, that activates the HYD GEN ON (S,M) message (NVM in air).
An undervoltage or underfrequency fault condition that lasts longer than 9 1
seconds trips the Generator Power Ready Relay, de-energizing the bus transfer
relays. The Generator still receives excitation current. A ground applied to the
sensing level shift circuit enables power ready sensing.
K873 applies a reset signal automatically for 1.5 seconds after the trip occurs.
If the fault condition has not cleared, the generator power ready relay is
inhibited from closing by a fault signal from gate 2 through relay contacts to gate
3.
If the fault condition has cleared, the 1.5 second reset signal removes lockout
and after K873 relaxes the Voltage Regulator is enabled. The Generator Power
Ready Relay closes after power ready limits are reached. Bus Transfer Relays
close automatically to re-energize loads.
If power to both Main AC Buses is recovered, the HMG shuts down and deenergizes the Bus Transfer Relays.

AC Bus Transfer Relays connect the Left and Right AC Transfer buses and the
Captain's Flight Instrument Transfer Bus to the HMG AC output.
Two 115/28 volt AC single phase Auto Transformers supply 28 volt AC loads
from the Left and Right AC Transfer Buses. A DC contactor connects the HMG
DC output to the Hot Battery Bus.

HYDRAULIC MOTOR GENERATOR OPERATION


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ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE PAGE


EICAS DC Displays
The DC current shunts send a voltage to EICAS proportional to sensed current
flow. The DC bus voltage inputs to EICAS are from the appropriate DC bus.
The left EICAS computer monitors the APU battery bus. The right EICAS
computer monitors the hydraulic motor generator DC output. When the standby
power switch is selected to the battery position, EICAS shows main and APU
battery voltages in DC-V positions. The current and voltage indications show on
the EICAS ELEC/HYD maintenance page in digital readouts. The DC voltage
range is from 0 to 40 volts. The DC current range is 0 to +/- 150 amperes.

ELECTRICAL MAINTENANCE PAGE


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