GRUNDFOS PUMP HANDBOOK

PUMP HANDBOOK

Copyright 2008 GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation. All rights reserved. Copyright law and international treaties protect this material. No part of this material may be reproduced in any form or by any means without prior written permission from GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation. Trademarks and tradenames mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners. Disclaimer All reasonable care has been taken to ensure the accuracy of the contents of this material; however, GRUNDFOS shall not be liable or responsible for any loss whether direct, indirect, incidental or consequential arising out of the use of or reliance upon any of the contents of this material.

Foreword
Today’s processes place heavy demand on pumps when it comes to optimum operation, high reliability and low energy consumption. Therefore, we have developed the Grundfos Pump Handbook which, in a simple manner, deals with various considerations when sizing pumps and pump systems. This handbook, developed for engineers and technicians who work with design and the installation of pumps and pump systems, includes answers to a wide range of technical questions. The handbook can either be read from cover-to-cover or in part on specific topics. The handbook is divided into five chapters which deal with different phases when designing pump systems. Chapter 1 includes a general presentation of different pump types and components. Also described are precautions to consider when dealing with viscous liquids. Further, the most used materials, as well as different types of corrosion, are presented. Terminologies in connection with reading pump performance are presented in Chapter 2. Chapter 3 deals with system hydraulics and some of the most important factors to consider for optimum operation of the pump system. Pump performance adjustment methods are discussed in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 describes life cycle costs, as energy consumption plays an important role in today’s pumps and pump systems. We sincerely hope that you will find this handbook useful in your daily work.

Grundfos Pumps Corporation

Table of Contents

Chapter 1 Design of pumps and motors ......................7

Section 1.1 Pump construction ............................................................ 8 1.1.1 The centrifugal pump .................................................................. 8 1.1.2 Pump curves................................................................................................9 1.1.3 Characteristics of the centrifugal pump.......................... 11 1.1.4 Most common end-suction and in-line pump types............................................................................... 12 1.1.5 Impeller types (axial forces)........................................................14 1.1.6 Casing types (radial forces).......................................................... 15 1.1.7 Single-stage pumps............................................................................ 15 1.1.8 Multistage pumps................................................................................16 1.1.9 Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps.........................16 Section 1.2 Types of pumps ...................................................................17 1.2.1 Standard pumps. ................................................................................... 17 1.2.2 Split-case pumps................................................................................... 17 1.2.3 Hermetically sealed pumps.........................................................18 1.2.4 Sanitary pumps.......................................................................................20 1.2.5 Wastewater pumps............................................................................ 21 1.2.6 Immersible pumps...............................................................................22 1.2.7 Groundwater pumps.........................................................................23 1.2.8 Positive displacement pumps. ..................................................24 Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals ..................................................27 1.3.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components and function............................................................29 1.3.2 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals................................30 1.3.3 Types of mechanical shaft seals..............................................31 1.3.4 Seal face material combinations............................................34 1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal performance. ..........................36 Section 1.4 Motors .................................................................................... 39 1.4.1 Standards.................................................................................................... 40 1.4.2 Motor start-up........................................................................................ 46 1.4.3 Voltage supply.........................................................................................47 1.4.4 Frequency converter. .........................................................................47 1.4.5 Motor protection.................................................................................. 49

Section 1.5 Liquids .......................................................................................53 1.5.1 Viscous liquids.........................................................................................54 1.5.2 Non-Newtonian liquids................................................................... 55 1.5.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the performance of a centrifugal pump.................................... 55 1.5.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid with antifreeze........................................................................................56 1.5.5 Calculation example..........................................................................58 1.5.6 Computer-aided pump selection for dense and viscous liquids..........................................................................................58 Section 1.6 Materials................................................................................ 59 1.6.1 What is corrosion?.............................................................................. 60 1.6.2 Types of corrosion................................................................................61 1.6.3 Metal and metal alloys....................................................................65 1.6.4 Ceramics........................................................................................................ 71 1.6.5 Plastics............................................................................................................ 71 1.6.6 Rubber............................................................................................................. 72 1.6.7 Coatings. ....................................................................................................... 73

Chapter 2 Installation and performance reading.............................................................................................................75
Section 2.1 Pump installation ............................................................ 76 2.1.1 New installation. ...................................................................................76 2.1.2 Existing installation-replacement.........................................76 2.1.3 Pipe flow for single-pump installation. ............................ 77 2.1.4 Limitation of noise and vibrations........................................78 2.1.5 Sound level ................................................................................................81 Section 2.2 Pump performance ........................................................ 83 2.2.1 Hydraulic terms......................................................................................83 2.2.2 Electrical terms. ..................................................................................... 90 2.2.3 Liquid properties....................................................................................93

Chapter 3 System hydraulics.................................................. 95
Section 3.1 System characteristics .................................................96 3.1.1 Single resistances. ................................................................................97 3.1.2 Closed and open systems............................................................. 98 Section 3.2 Pumps connected in parallel and series...................101 3.2.1 Pumps in parallel. ...............................................................................101 3.2.2 Pumps connected in series........................................................ 103

Chapter 5 Life cycle costs calculation

........................127

Chapter 4 Performance adjustment of pumps..................................................................................................... 105
Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance ..............................106 4.1.1 Throttle control. ...................................................................................107 4.1.2 Bypass control........................................................................................107 4.1.3 Modifying impeller diameter.................................................. 108 4.1.4 Speed control......................................................................................... 108 4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods...............................110 4.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system........................... 111 4.1.7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow is reduced by 20%........................................ 111 Section 4.2 Speed-controlled pump solutions .................... 114 4.2.1 Constant pressure control..........................................................114 4.2.2 Constant temperature control. .............................................. 115 4.2.3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system.............................................................................. 115 4.2.4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control...................................................................................116 Section 4.3 Advantages of speed control..................................117

Section 5.1 Life cycle costs equation ............................................ 128 5.1.1 Initial cost, purchase price (Cic).............................................. 129 5.1.2 Installation and commissioning costs (Cin)................. 129 5.1.3 Energy costs (Ce).................................................................................. 130 5.1.4 Operating costs including labor (Co)................................. 130 5.1.5 Environmental costs (Cenv).......................................................... 130 5.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs (Cm)..................................... 131 5.1.7 Downtime costs (loss of production) (Cs)...................... 131 5.1.8 Decommissioning or disposal costs (Cd). ....................... 131

Section 5.2 Life cycle costs calculation – an example ................................................................................................132 Appendix..........................................................................................................133 A) Notations and units..........................................................................134 B) Unit conversion tables...................................................................135 C) SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet............................................. 136 D) Vapor pressure and specific gravity of water at different temperatures. ................................................................137 E) Orifice ...........................................................................................................138 F) Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter.................................................................................. 139 G) Nozzles. ....................................................................................................... 140 H) Nomogram for head losses in bends, valves, etc....................................................................... 141-150 I) Periodic system..................................................................................... 151 J) Pump standards...................................................................................152 K) Viscosity for typical liquids as a function of liquid temperature. ............................................................153-157 Index ......................................................................................................... 158-162

Section 4.4 Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter............................................................................... 118 4.4.1 Performance curves of speed-controlled pumps. ..........................................................................................................119 4.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems.........119 Section 4.5 Frequency converter .................................................... 122 4.5.1 Basic function and characteristics.......................................122 4.5.2 Components of the frequency converter......................122 4.5.3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters.................................................................................................124

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.1: Pump construction
1.1.1 1.1.2 1.1.3 1.1.4 1.1.5 1.1.6 1.1.7 1.1.8 1.1.9 The centrifugal pump Pump curves Characteristics of the centrifugal pump Most common end-suction and in-line pump types Impeller types (axial forces) Casing types (radial forces) Single-stage pumps Multistage pumps Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps

Section 1.2: Types of pumps
1.2.1 1.2.2 1.2.3 1.2.4 1.2.5 1.2.6 1.2.7 1.2.8 Standard pumps Split-case pumps Hermetically sealed pumps Sanitary pumps Wastewater pumps Immersible pumps Groundwater pumps Positive displacement pumps

Section 1.1 Pump construction

1.1.1 The centrifugal pump
In 1689, the physicist Denis Papin invented the centrifugal pump. Today, this kind of pump is the most commonly used around the world. The centrifugal pump is built on a simple principle: Liquid is led to the impeller hub and is flung towards the periphery of the impeller by means of centrifugal force.
Fig. 1.1.1: The liquids flow through the pump

The construction is fairly inexpensive, robust and simple, and its high speed makes it possible to connect the pump directly to an asynchronous motor. The centrifugal pump provides a steady liquid flow, and it can easily be throttled without causing any damage to the pump. See figure 1.1.1 for liquid flow through the pump. The inlet of the pump leads the liquid to the center of the rotating impeller from where it is flung towards the periphery. This construction provides high efficiency and is suitable for handling pure liquids. Pumps which have to handle impure liquids, such as wastewater pumps, are fitted with an impeller that prevents objects from getting lodged inside the pump, see section 1.2.5. If a pressure difference occurs in the system while the centrifugal pump is not running, liquid can still pass through due to its open design. As you can tell from figure 1.1.2, the centrifugal pump can be categorized in different groups: Radial flow pumps, mixed flow pumps and axial flow pumps. Radial flow pumps and mixed flow pumps are the most common. These types of pumps are discussed on the following pages with a brief presentation of a positive displacement pump in section 1.2.8. The different demands on the centrifugal pump’s performance, especially with regard to head, flow, and installation, together with the demands for economical operation, are only a few of the reasons why so many types of pumps exist. Figure 1.1.3 shows the different pump types with regard to flow and head.

Radial flow pump

Mixed flow pump

Axial flow pump

Fig. 1.1.2: Different kinds of centrifugal pumps

H [ft]

H [m] 10000 6 4 2 1000 6 4 2 100 6 4 2 10 6 4 2 1 2 4 6 10 2 4 6 100 2
Mixed flow pumps Single-stage radial flow pumps Multistage radial flow pumps

10000

1000

100

10

Axial flow pumps

4 6 1000 2

4 6 10000 100000 3 Q [m /h] Q [GPM] 100000

10

100

1000

10000

Fig. 1.1.3: Flow and head for different types of centrifugal pumps

8

1.1.2 Pump curves
The performance of a centrifugal pump is shown by a set of performance curves. The performance curves for a centrifugal pump are shown in figure 1.1.4. Head, power consumption, efficiency and NPSH are shown as a function of the flow. Normally, pump curves in Grundfos product guides only cover the liquid end hydraulic performance. Therefore, the power consumption, the P2-value which is listed in the product guides as well, only covers the power going into the pump – see figure 1.1.4. The same applies for efficiency value, which only covers the liquid end (η = ηP). In some pump types with integrated motors and possibly integrated frequency converters, e.g. canned motor pumps (see section 1.2.3), the power consumption curve and the η-curve cover both the motor and the pump. In this case the P1-value has to be taken into account, see figure 1.1.5. In general, pump curves are designed according to Hydraulic Institute test standards or ISO 9906 Annex A, which specifies the tolerances of the curves.

[ft]

H

η [%]

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 70 60

Efficiency

50 40 30 20 10 Q [GPM] 0

P2 [hp]

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

0.6 0.4 0.2 0

Power consumption

NPSH (ft)

20 15 10

NPSH

5 0

Fig. 1.1.4: Typical performance curves for a centrifugal pump. Head, power consumption, efficiency and NPSH are shown as a function of the flow

Q P1 M 3~ P2 H

ηM

ηP

Fig. 1.1.5: The curves for power consumption and efficiency will normally only cover the pump part of the unit – i.e. P2 and ηP

Following is a brief presentation of the different pump performance curves.

Head, the QH-curve
The QH-curve shows the head, identifying where the pump is able to perform at a given flow, see figure 1.1.6. Head is measured in feet liquid column [ft]; normally the unit feet [ft] is applied. The advantage of using the unit [ft] as the unit of measurement for a pump’s head is that the QH-curve is not affected by the type of liquid the pump has to handle, see section 2.2 for more information.
[ft]

H

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0

Efficiency

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

40

Q [GPM]

Fig. 1.1.6: A typical QH-curve for a centrifugal pump; low flow results in high head and high flow results in low head

9

Section 1.1 Pump construction

Efficiency, the η-curve
The efficiency is the relationship between the supplied power and the utilized amount of power. In the world of pumps, the efficiency ηp is the relationship between the power which the pump delivers to the water (PH) and the power input to the shaft (P2 ):

side of the pump to avoid cavitation (see section 2.2.1). The NPSHr value is measured in [ft] and depends on the flow. When flow increases, the NPSHr value increases, see figure 1.1.9. For more information concerning cavitation and NPSH, go to section 2.2.1.

ηp =

QH . SG PH = 3960 x P2 P2

η [%]
80 70 60

where: SG is the specific gravity of the liquid. Q is the flow in GPM and H is the head in ft. ηp is the pump efficiency For water at 68oF and with Q measured in GPM and H in ft, the hydraulic power can be calculated as:

50 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 17 5 200 225 250 275 300 325 350 375

Q [GPM]

Fig. 1.1.7: The efficiency curve of a typical centrifugal pump

PH = lb of liquid per minute . H
33,000

The relationship between the power consumption of the pump and the flow is shown in figure 1.1.8. The P2-curve of most centrifugal pumps is similar to the one in figure 1.1.8 where the P2 value increases when the flow increases.

Power consumption, the P2-curve

P2 [hp]
14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 25 0 275 300 325

Q . H . SG P2 = 3960 x ηp
As it appears from the efficiency curve shown in figure 1.1.7, the efficiency depends on the duty point of the pump. It is important to select a pump that fits the flow requirements and ensures the pump is working in the most efficient flow area.

Q [GPM]

Fig. 1.1.8: The power consumption curve of a typical centrifugal pump

NPSH [ft]
20 15

NPSH - curve (Net Positive Suction Head Required)
The NPSHr value of a pump is the minimum absolute head pressure that has to be present at the suction

10 5 0 0 25 50 75

100

125

150

175

200

225

250

275

300 325

Q [GPM]

Fig. 1.1.9: The NPSH curve of a typical centrifugal pump

10

1.1.3 Characteristics of the centrifugal pump
The centrifugal pump has several characteristics and the most important ones are presented in this chapter. A more thorough description of the different pump types are given at the end of the chapter.

• The number of stages
Depending on the number of impellers in the pump, a centrifugal pump can be either a single-stage pump or a multistage pump.

• The position of the pump shaft
Single-stage and multistage pumps come with horizontal or vertical pump shafts and are normally designated as horizontal or vertical pumps. For more information, go to section 1.1.4.

• Single-suction or double-suction impellers
Depending on the construction of the impeller, a pump can be fitted with either a single-suction impeller or a double-suction impeller. For more information, go to section 1.1.5.

• Construction of the pump casing
Two types of pump casings are discussed: Volute casing and return channels. For more information, go to section 1.1.6.
Fig 1.1.10: Example of multiple stage pump

11

Section 1.1 Pump construction

1.1.4 Most common end-suction and in-line pump types

End-suction

Horizontal

Single-stage

Multistage

Long-coupled

Close-coupled

Close-coupled

End-suction pump In-line pump Split-case pump Horizontal pump Vertical pump Single-stage pump Multistage pump Long-coupled pump Close-coupled pump

= = = = = = = = =

Liquid runs directly into the impeller. Inlet and outlet have a 90° angle. See section 1.1.9 Liquid runs directly through the pump in-line. The suction pipe and the discharge pipe are placed opposite one another and can be mounted directly in the piping system Pump with an axially divided pump housing. See section 1.2.2 Pump with a horizontal pump shaft Pump with a vertical pump shaft Pump with a single impeller. See section 1.1.7 Pump with several series-coupled stages. See section 1.1.8 Pump connects to the motor by means of a flexible coupling. The motor and the pump have separate bearing constructions. See section 1.1.9 Pump connects to the motor by means of a rigid coupling. See section 1.1.9

12

In-line

Horizontal

Vertical

Split-case Single-stage Single-stage Long-coupled Long-coupled Close-coupled Close-coupled Multistage

13

Section 1.1 Pump construction

1.1.5 Impeller types
There are three common types of pump impellers: open, enclosed and semi-open, see figure 1.1.11. The open impeller has a series of vanes attached to the center hub and is commonly chosen for low horsepower applications of clean, non-abrasive fluids or fluids with large solids. The enclosed impeller has vanes sandwiched between two shrouds. While the shrouds result in a slightly lower mechanical efficiency, they decrease the amount of pump casing wear caused by dirty or abrasive liquids. This design usually includes replaceable wear rings so critical clearances can be renewed. The semi-open impeller has a single shroud on one side of the vanes and it leaves one side open. This design can handle abrasives or solids well and often allows for simple axial adjustment of critical impeller-to-casing clearances without pump disassembly.

Open Fig. 1.1.11: Impeller types

Semi-open

Enclosed

Axial forces

Fig. 1.1.12: Single-suction impeller Fig. 1.1.13: Standard pump with single-suction impeller

Axial Force Balancing
A centrifugal pump generates pressure, exerting forces on both stationary and rotating parts of the pump. Pump parts are made to withstand these forces. If axial and radial forces are not counterbalanced in the pump, the forces have to be taken into consideration when selecting the driving system for the pump, such as angular contact bearings in the motor. In pumps fitted with a single-suction impeller, large axial forces may occur, see figures 1.1.12 and 1.1.13. These forces are balanced or avoided as follows: • Mechanically via thrust bearings. • Via balancing holes on the impeller, see figure 1.1.14 • Via throttle regulation from a seal ring mounted on the back of the impellers, see figure 1.1.15 • Via blades on the back of the impeller, see figure 1.1.16 • Through the use of double-suction impellers, see figure 1.1.17

Fig. 1.1.14: Balancing the axial forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump with balancing holes only

Fig. 1.1.15: Balancing the axial forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump with seal ring gap at discharge side and balancing holes

Fig. 1.1.16: Balancing the axial forces in a single-stage centrifugal pump with blades on the back of the impellers

Fig. 1.1.17: Balancing the axial forces in a double-suction impeller arrangement

14

1.1.6 Casing types
Radial forces are a result of the static pressure in the casing. Therefore, axial deflections may occur and lead to interference between the impeller and the casing. The magnitude and the direction of the radial force depend on the flow rate and the head. When designing the casing for the pump, it is possible to control the hydraulic radial forces. Two casing types worth mentioning are the single-volute and the double-volute. As seen in figure 1.1.19, both casings are shaped as a volute. The double-volute has a guide vane. The single-volute pump is characterized by a symmetric pressure in the volute at the optimum efficiency point, which leads to zero radial load. At all other points, the pressure around the impeller is not symmetrically equal and consequently a radial force is present. As seen in figure 1.1.20, the double-volute casing develops a constant low radial reaction force at any capacity. Return channels (figure 1.1.21) are used in multistage pumps and have the same function as volute casings. Liquid is led from one impeller to the next. At the same time, water rotation is reduced and the dynamic pressure is transformed into static pressure. Because of the return channel casing’s circular design, no radial forces are present.

Fig. 1.1.18: Single-suction impeller

Radial forces

Fig. 1.1.19: Single-volute casing

Double-volute casing

Radial force

Single-volute casing

Double-volute casing 1.0 Q/Qopt

Fig. 1.1.20: Radial force for single and double-volute casing

Fig. 1.1.21: Vertical multistage in-line pump with return channel casing Return channel

1.1.7 Single-stage pumps
Generally, single-stage pumps are used in applications that do not require a total head of more than 450 ft. Normally, single-stage pumps operate in the range of 6-300 ft. Single-stage pumps are characterized by a low head relative to the flow, see figure 1.1.3. Single-stage pumps come in both a vertical and horizontal design, see figures 1.1.22 and 1.1.23.

Fig. 1.1.22: Horizontal single-stage Fig. 1.1.23: Vertical single-stage end-suction close-coupled pump in-line close-coupled pump

15

Section 1.1 Pump construction

1.1.8 Multistage pumps
Multistage pumps are used in installations where a high head is needed. Several stages are connected in series and the flow is guided from the outlet of one stage to the inlet of the next. The final head that a multistage pump delivers is equal to the sum of the pressure that each of the stages provide. Multistage pumps provide high head relative to the flow and have a steeper curve that is more advantageous for variable speed drive, also known as variable frequency drive (VFD) applications. Like the single-stage pump, the multistage pump is available in both vertical and horizontal versions, see figures 1.1.24 and 1.1.25.

Close-coupled pumps
These pumps can be constructed as follows: The pump’s impeller can be mounted directly on the extended motor shaft or the pump can have a standard motor and a rigid or a spacer coupling, see figures 1.1.28 and 1.1.29.

Horizontal, Multistage Pumps
This type of pump is somewhat unique. With the same benefits mentioned in 1.1.8, horizontal multistage pumps meet flow and head requirements of single-stage end-suction pumps but with significant reductions in required horsepower. In general, multistage pumps offer higher efficiencies when compared to single-stage end-suction pumps resulting in energy savings. Due to design, horizontal multistage pumps do not encounter the same vibration problems often associated with single-stage end-suction pumps.

Fig. 1.1.24: Vertical multistage in-line pump

Fig. 1.1.25: Horizontal multistage end-suction pump

Fig. 1.1.26: Long-coupled pump with basic coupling

Fig. 1.1.27: Long-coupled pump with spacer coupling

1.1.9 Long-coupled and close-coupled pumps
Long-coupled pumps
Long-coupled pumps have a flexible coupling (basic or spacer) that connects the pump and the motor. If the pump is connected to the motor by a basic coupling, the motor must be disconnected when the pump is serviced. The pump must therefore be aligned upon mounting, see figure 1.1.26. If the pump is fitted with a spacer coupling, the pump can be serviced without removing the motor and alignment is less of an issue, see figure 1.1.27.
Fig. 1.1.28: Close-coupled pump with rigid coupling

Fig. 1.1.29: Close-coupled pump with impeller directly mounted on motor shaft

16

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

1.2.1 Standard pumps
Few international standards deal with centrifugal pumps. In fact, many countries have their own standards, which more or less overlap one another. A standard pump is a pump that complies with official regulations pertaining to the pump’s duty point. A couple of examples of international standards for pumps follow: • ANSI B73.1 standard covers centrifugal pumps of horizontal end-suction single-stage, centerline design. This standard includes dimensional interchangeability requirements and certain design features to facilitate installation and maintenance.

Fig. 1.2.1: Long-coupled standard pump

• DIN 24255 applies to end-suction centrifugal pumps, also known as standard water pumps, with a rated pressure (PN) of 145 psi. The standards mentioned above cover the installation dimensions and the duty points of the different pump types. The hydraulic parts of these pump types vary according to the manufacturer – so, no international standards are set for these parts. Pumps designed according to standards provide end users with advantages in installation, service, spare parts and maintenance.

Fig. 1.2.2: Bare shaft standard pump

1.2.2 Split-case pumps
A split-case pump is designed with the pump housing divided axially into two parts. Figure 1.2.4 shows a single-stage split-case pump with a double-suction impeller. The double-inlet construction eliminates the axial forces and ensures a longer life span of the bearings. Usually, split-case pumps have a rather high efficiency, are easy to service and have a wide performance range.
Fig. 1.2.3: Long-coupled split-case pump

Fig. 1.2.4: Split-case pump with double-suction impeller

17

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

1.2.3 Hermetically sealed pumps
The penetration point of the pump liquid by the shaft that allows it to connect to the impeller has to be sealed. Usually, this is addressed by a mechanical shaft seal, see figure 1.2.5. The disadvantage of the mechanical shaft seal is its poor handling of toxic and aggressive liquids, which consequently leads to leakage. This problem can often be solved by using a double mechanical shaft seal. Another solution is to use a hermetically sealed pump. There are two types of hermetically sealed pumps: Canned motor pumps and magnetic-driven pumps. In the following two sections, additional information about these pumps is provided. A disadvantage of hermetically sealed pumps is that they can handle very little, if any, solids in the pumped liquid.

Liquid Seal Atmosphere

Fig. 1.2.5: Example of a standard pump with mechanical shaft seal

Canned motor pumps
A canned motor pump is a hermetically sealed pump with the motor and pump integrated in one unit without a seal, see figures 1.2.6 and 1.2.7. The pumped liquid is allowed to enter the rotor chamber that is separated from the stator by a thin rotor can. The rotor can serves as a hermetically sealed barrier between the liquid and the motor. Chemical pumps are made of materials, such as plastics or stainless steel, that can withstand aggressive liquids. The most common canned motor pump type is the circulator pump. This type of pump is typically used in heating or cooling applications because the construction provides low noise and maintenancefree operation.

Motor can

Fig. 1.2.6: Chemical pump with canned motor

Motor can

Fig. 1.2.7: Circulator pump with canned motor

18

Magnetic-driven pumps
In recent years, magnetic-driven pumps have become increasingly popular for transferring aggressive and toxic liquids. As shown in figure 1.2.8, the magnetic-driven pump is made of two groups of magnets: An inner magnet and an outer magnet. A non-magnetic can separate these two magnets. The can serves as a hermetically sealed barrier between the liquid and the atmosphere. As it appears from figure 1.2.9, the outer magnet is connected to the pump drive and the inner magnet is connected to the pump shaft. The torque from the pump drive is transmitted to the pump shaft by means of attraction between the inner and outer magnets. The pumped liquid serves as lubricant for the bearings in the pump. Therefore, sufficient venting is crucial for the bearings.
Outer magnets Inner magnets

Can

Fig. 1.2.8: Construction of magnetic drive

Inner magnets Can Outer magnets

Fig. 1.2.9: Magnetic-driven multistage pump

19

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

1.2.4 Sanitary pumps
Sanitary pumps are mainly used in food, beverage, pharmaceutical and bio-technological industries where liquid is pumped gently and pumps are easy to clean using clean-in-place (CIP) techniques. In order to meet process requirements in these industries, the pumps have to have a surface roughness less than 32 µ-in (0.8 µ-m) or better. This can be best achieved by using forged or deep-drawn rolled stainless steel as the material of construction, see figure 1.2.12. These materials have a compact pore-free surface finish that can be easily worked up to meet the various surface finish requirements. The U.S. recommended interior surface finishes range from 32 µ-in for food and beverage applications down to 10 µ-in for bioprocessing applications. The main features of a sanitary pump are ease of cleaning and ease of maintenance. The leading U.S. manufacturers of sanitary pumps have designed their products to meet the material specifications of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the voluntary standards developed by 3-A Sanitary Standards Inc., as well as other well known globally-recognized standards such as: EHEDG – European Hygienic Engineering Design Group QHD – Qualified Hygienic Design
Sand casting

Fig. 1.2.10: Sanitary pump

Fig.1.2.11: Sanitary self-priming side-channel pump

Precision casting

Rolled steel Fig.1.2.12: Roughness of material surfaces

20

1.2.5 Wastewater pumps
Wastewater pumps can be classified as submersible and dry pit pumps. In submersible installations with sliderail systems, double rails are normally used. The auto-coupling system facilitates maintenance, repair and replacement of the pump. It is not necessary to enter the pit to perform service. In fact, it is possible to connect and disconnect the pump automatically from the outside of the pit. Wastewater pumps can also be installed dry, like conventional pumps, in vertical or horizontal installations. This type of installation provides easy maintenance and repair as well as uninterrupted operation of the pump in case of flooding of the dry pit, see figure 1.2.14. Normally, wastewater pumps must be able to handle large particles (i.e. 3-inch solids) and are fitted with special impellers to avoid blockage and clogging. Different types of impellers include: Single-channel impellers, double-channel impellers, three and fourchannel impellers and vortex impellers. Figure 1.2.15 shows the different designs of these impellers. Wastewater pumps with submersible motors shall carry the Underwriters Laboratories Inc label for class I, Divison I, Group D environment. Submersible wastewater pump motors are hermetically sealed and have a common extended shaft with a tandem mechanical shaft seal system in an intermediate oil chamber, see figure 1.2.13. Wastewater pumps are able to operate either intermittently or continuously, depending on the installation in question.

Fig. 1.2.13: Detail of a sewage pump for wet installations

Fig. 1.2.14: Wastewater pump for dry installations

Vortex impeller

Single-channel impeller

Double-channel impeller

Fig. 1.2.15: Impeller types for wastewater

21

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

1.2.6 Immersible pumps
An immersible pump is a pump type where the pump part is immersed in the pumped liquid and the motor is kept dry. Normally, immersible pumps are mounted on top of or in the wall of tanks or containers. Immersible pumps are used in the machine tool industry, in chip conveyor systems, grinding machines, machining centers, cooling units or in other industrial applications involving tanks or containers, such as industrial washing and filtering systems. Pumps for machine tools can be divided into two groups: Pumps for the clean side of the filter and pumps for the dirty side of the filter. Pumps with closed impellers are normally used for the clean side of the filter because they provide a high efficiency and a high pressure if necessary. Pumps with open or semi-open impellers are normally used for the dirty side of the filter because they can handle metal chips and particles. Refer to page 14 for more discussion on impeller types.

Fig. 1 .2.16: Immersible pump

22

1.2.7 Groundwater pumps
There are two primary types of pumps used for groundwater applications: The submersible turbine pump type, which features a pump directly attached to a submersible motor and are completely submerged in the groundwater, and the line shaft turbine pump type with a motor mounted at the top of the well which is connected to the submerged pump by a long shaft. Both pump types are used to pump groundwater from a well, typically for water supply and irrigation. Because these pump types must fit into deep, narrow wells, they have a reduced diameter compared to above-ground pumps making them long and thin compared to most other pump types. Submersible turbine pumps are specially designed to be fitted to a submersible motor, and the entire assembly is submerged in a liquid. The submersible motor is sealed to prevent water intrusion, and generally no regular maintenance is required on these pumps. Submersible pumps are preferred in deep installations and those requiring low to medium flow rates, generally up to 2,500 GPM. The liquid surrounding the submersible motor cools it, so submersible pumps are not suitable for hot water applications. Line shaft turbine pumps have been replaced in many applications by submersible turbine pumps but are preferred for certain applications such as shallow wells and those applications requiring higher flow rates. The long shaft is a drawback in deep settings making installation difficult and requiring frequent service. Because the line shaft turbine’s motor is aircooled, it is often used in industrial applications to pump hot water.

A

B

Fig. 1.2.17: Submersible turbine pump (A) and Line shaft turbine (B)

23

Section 1.2 Types of pumps

1.2.8 Positive displacement pumps
The positive displacement pump provides an approximate constant flow at fixed speed, despite changes in the back pressure. Two main types of positive displacement pumps include:

H

Fig. 1.2.19: Typical relation between flow and head for 3 different pump types: 1) Centrifugal pumps 2) Rotary pumps 3) Reciprocating pumps

1 H

• Rotary pumps • Reciprocating pumps The difference in performance between centrifugal, rotary and reciprocating pumps is illustrated in figure 1.2.19. Depending on the pump type, a small change in the pump’s back pressure results in differences in the flow. The flow of a centrifugal pump will change considerably with back pressure. Changing back pressure on rotary pumps will result in a minimal flow change. However, the flow of the reciprocating pump is almost constant with the back pressure change. The performance difference between reciprocating pumps and rotary pumps is due to the rotary pump’s larger seal surface area. Even though the two pumps are designed with the same tolerances, the loss due
3 2

2 3

1

Q

to the larger seal area of the rotary pump is greater. The pumps are typically designed with the finest tolerances possible to obtain the highest possible efficiency and suction capability. However, in some cases, it is necessary to increase the tolerances, for example, when the pumps must handle highly viscous liquids, liquids containing large particles or liquids of high temperature.

Fig. 1.2.18: Rotary Lobe pump

24

Metering pumps
The metering pump belongs to the positive displacement pump family and is typically of the diaphragm type. Diaphragm pumps are leak-free, because the diaphragm forms a seal between the liquid and the surroundings. The diaphragm pump is usually fitted with two or three non-return valves; one or two on the suction side and one on the discharge side of the pump. On smaller diaphragm pumps, the diaphragm is activated by the connecting rod, which is connected to a solenoid, permitting the coil to receive the exact amount of strokes needed, see figure 1.2.21. On larger diaphragm pumps, the diaphragm is typically mounted on the connecting rod, which is activated by a camshaft. The camshaft is turned by way of a standard asynchronous motor, see figure 1.2.22. The flow of a diaphragm pump is adjusted by changing the stroke length and/or the frequency of the strokes. If it is necessary to expand the operating area, frequency converters can be connected to the larger diaphragm pumps, see figure 1.2.22. Yet another kind of diaphragm pump exists. In this case, the diaphragm is activated by means of an eccentrically driven connecting rod powered by a stepper motor or a synchronous motor, figures 1.2.20 and 1.2.23. A stepper motor drive increases the pump’s dynamic range, thus improving its accuracy. This construction no longer requires stroke length adjustment because the connecting rod is mounted directly on the diaphragm. The result is optimized suction and operation due to full suction. Stepper motor drive design simplifies control of both the suction side and the discharge side of the pump. Compared to traditional electromagneticdriven diaphragm pumps which provide undesirable pulsations as well as fast wearing of mechanical and electrical parts caused by the solenoid operation, stepper motor-driven diaphragm pumps enable a more steady dose of additive.

Fig. 1.2.20: Dosing pump

Fig.1.2.21: Solenoid spring return

+
1.2.22: Cam-drive assembly spring return

+

1.2.23: Stepper motor drive

25

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.3: Mechanical shaft seals
1.3.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components and function 1.3.2 Types of mechanical shaft seals 1.3.3 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals 1.3.4 Seal face material combinations 1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal performance

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

From the middle of the 1950s, mechanical shaft seals gained ground in favor of the traditional sealing method - the stuffing box. Compared to stuffing boxes, mechanical shaft seals provide the following advantages:

• None or minimal leakage of the fluid being
pumped.

• No adjustment required • Seal faces provide a small amount of friction,
minimizing power loss

• The shaft does not slide against any of the seal’s
components and therefore reduces wear and associated repair costs. The mechanical shaft seal is the part of a pump that separates the liquid from the atmosphere. Figure 1.3.1 illustrates mechanical shaft seal mounting in different types of pumps. Before choosing shaft seal material and type, consider the following:

• Determine the type of liquid • Determine the pressure that the shaft seal is
exposed to

• Determine the speed that the shaft seal is
exposed to

• Determine the shaft-seal housing dimensions
The following pages present how a mechanical shaft seal works, the different types of seals, materials used in mechanical shaft seals, and the factors that affect the mechanical shaft seal’s performance.

Fig. 1.3.1: Pumps with mechanical shaft seals

28

1.3.1 The mechanical shaft seal’s components and function
The mechanical shaft seal is made of two main components: A rotating part and a stationary part. The parts of a shaft seal are listed in figure 1.3.2. Figure 1.3.3 shows where the different parts are placed in the seal.

• The hydrodynamic lubricating film is created by
pressure generated by the shaft’s rotation.

Mechanical shaft seal

Designation

Seal face (primary seal) Rotating component Secondary seal Spring Spring retainer (torque transmission) Stationary component Seat (seal faces, primary seal) Static seal (secondary seal)

• The stationary component of the seal is fixed in the
pump housing. The rotating component of the seal is fixed on the pump shaft and rotates when the pump operates.

Fig. 1.3.2: The mechanical shaft seal’s components

• The two primary seal faces are pushed against
each other by the spring (or other devices such as a metal bellows) and the liquid pressure. During operation, a liquid film is produced in the narrow gap between the two seal faces. This film evaporates before it enters the atmosphere making the mechanical shaft seal leak-free, see figure 1.3.4.
Spring Secondary seal Primary seal Stationary part Rotating part

Spring retainer

Shaft

• Secondary seals prevent leakage from occurring
between the assembly and the shaft.
Secondary seal

• The spring or metal bellows press the seal faces
together mechanically.

Fig. 1.3.3: Main components of the mechanical shaft seal

Primary seal

• The spring retainer transmits torque from the shaft
to the seal. In connection with mechanical bellows shaft seals, torque is transferred directly through the bellows.

Vapor

Evaporation begins

Lubrication film Liquid force Spring force

Seal gap
During operation, the liquid forms a lubricating film between the seal faces. This lubricating film consists of a hydrostatic and a hydrodynamic film.

Fig. 1.3.4: Mechanical shaft seal in operation

• The hydrostatic element is generated by the pumped
liquid which is forced into the gap between the seal faces.

29

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

Start of evaporation 1 atm Exit into atmosphere

1.3.2 Balanced and unbalanced shaft seals
To obtain an acceptable face pressure between the primary seal faces, two kinds of seal types exist: A balanced shaft seal and an unbalanced shaft seal.

Balanced shaft seal
Stationary seal face Rotating seal face Pump pressure Pressure Liquid Vapor Entrance in seal Atmosphere

Figure 1.3.6 shows a balanced shaft seal indicating where the forces impact on the seal.

Fig. 1.3.5: Optimum ratio between fine lubrication properties and limited leakage

Unbalanced shaft seal
Figure 1.3.7 shows an unbalanced shaft seal indicating where the forces impact the seal.

The thickness of the lubricating film depends on the pump speed, the liquid temperature, the viscosity of the liquid and the axial forces of the mechanical shaft seal. The liquid in the seal gap is continuously renewed due to:

Contact area of seal faces Contact area of seal faces Spring forces Hydraulic forces Hydraulic forces

• evaporation of the liquid to the atmosphere • Recirculation of the liquid
Figure 1.3.5 shows the optimum ratio between fine lubrication properties and limited leakage. The optimum ratio occurs when the lubricating film covers the entire seal gap, except for a very narrow evaporation zone close to the atmospheric side of the mechanical shaft seal. Deposits on the seal faces may cause leakage. When using coolant agents, deposits build up quickly from evaporation at the atmosphere side of the seal. When the liquid evaporates in the evaporation zone, microscopic solids in the liquid remain in the seal gap as deposits, causing wear. These deposits are seen with most types of liquid. When the pumped liquid crystallizes, it can become a problem. The best way to prevent wear is to select seal faces made of hard material such as WC (tungsten carbide) or SiC (silicon carbide). The narrow seal gap between these materials (approx. Ra 0.3 µin) minimizes the risk of solids entering the seal gap, resulting in less buildup of deposits.

A

B

A

B

Fig. 1.3.6: Impact of forces on the balanced shaft seal

Fig. 1.3.7: Impact of forces on the unbalanced shaft seal

Several different forces have an axial impact on the seal faces. The spring and the hydraulic forces from the pumped liquid press the seal together while the force from the lubricating film in the seal gap counteracts this. With high liquid pressure, the hydraulic forces can be so powerful that the lubricant in the seal gap cannot counteract the contact between the seal faces. Because the hydraulic force is proportionate to the area that the liquid pressure affects, the axial impact can only be reduced by obtaining a reduction of the pressure-loaded area. The balancing ratio (K) of a mechanical shaft seal is

30

defined as the ratio between the area A and the area B : K=A/B K = Balancing ratio A = Area exposed to hydraulic pressure B = Contact area of seal faces The balancing ratio for balanced shaft seals is around K=0.8 and for unbalanced shaft seals is around K=1.2.

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

140

Comparative wearC) Temperature (o rates valid for water

K = 1.15 K = 1.00 K = 0.85

68

104

140

176

212

230

Temperature (oF)

1.3.3 Types of mechanical shaft seals
The main types of mechanical shaft seals include: Oring, bellows, cartridge single-unit seal.

Fig. 1.3.8: Wear rate for different balancing ratios

O-ring seals
Sealing between the rotating shaft and the rotating seal face is affected by an O-ring’s movement (see figure 1.3.9). The O-ring must be able to slide freely in the axial direction to absorb axial displacements as a result of changes in temperature and wear. Incorrect positioning of the stationary seat may result in rubbing, which can cause wear on the O-ring and shaft. O-rings are made of different types of rubber material, such as NBR, EPDM, Buna -N and FKM, depending on operating conditions.

Advantages and disadvantages of O-ring seal Advantages: Suitable in hot liquid and high pressure applications Disadvantages: Deposits on the shaft, such as rust, may prevent the O-ring shaft seal from moving axially causing leakage and premature failure Fig. 1.3.9: O-ring seal

Bellows seals
Common to bellows seals is a rubber or metal bellows which functions as a dynamic sealing element between the rotating ring and the shaft.
Rubber bellows seal with folding bellows geometry

Rubber bellows seals
The bellows of a rubber bellows seal (see figure 1.3.10) can be made of different types of rubber, such as NBR, EPDM, Buna-N and FKM, depending on the operating conditions. Two designs are used for rubber bellows: • Folding bellows • Rolling bellows
Fig. 1.3.10: Rubber bellows seal

Advantages and disadvantages of rubber bellows seal Advantages: Not sensitive to deposits, such as rust, on the shaft Suitable for pumping solid-containing liquids Disadvantages: Not suitable in hot liquid and high pressure applications

31

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

Metal bellows seals
In an ordinary mechanical shaft seal, the spring produces the closing force required to close the seal faces. In a metal bellows seal, the spring is replaced by a metal bellows with a similar force (see figure 1.3.11). Metal bellows act both as a dynamic seal between the rotating ring and the shaft and as a spring. The bellows have a number of corrugations to provide the desired spring force.
Fig. 1.3.11: Cartridge metal bellows seal

Advantages and disadvantages of cartridge metal bellows seal Advantages: Not sensitive to deposits, such as rust and lime, on the shaft Suitable in hot liquid and high-pressure applications Low balancing ratio leads to low wear rate and consequently longer life Disadvantages: Fatigue failure of the mechanical shaft seal may occur when the pump is not aligned correctly Fatigue may occur as a result of excessive temperatures or pressures Advantages of the cartridge seal: • Easy and fast service • The design protects the seal faces • Preloaded spring

Cartridge seals
In a cartridge mechanical shaft seal, all parts form a compact unit on a shaft sleeve and are ready to be installed. A cartridge seal offers many benefits compared to conventional mechanical shaft seals, see figure 1.3.12.

Flushing
In certain applications it is possible to extend the performance of the mechanical shaft seal by installing a flushing device, see figure 1.3.13. Flushing can lower the temperature of the mechanical shaft seal and prevent deposits from occurring. A flushing device can be installed internally or externally. Internal flushing is done when a small flow from the pump’s discharge side is bypassed to the seal area. Internal flushing is primarily used to prevent further heat generation from the seal in heating applications. External flushing is done by a flushing liquid and is used to ensure trouble-free operation when handling liquids that are abrasive or contain clogging solids.
Fig. 1.3.12: Cartridge seal

• Safe handling

Fig 1.3.13: Flushing device of a single mechanical shaft seal

32

Double mechanical shaft seals
Double mechanical shaft seals are used when the life span of a single mechanical shaft seal is insufficient due to wear caused by solids, or too high/low pressure and temperature. Double mechanical shaft seals help protect the surroundings when aggressive and explosive liquids are pumped. Two types of double mechanical shaft seals include: The double seal in a tandem arrangement and the double seal in a back-to-back arrangement.

Quench liquid

Quench liquid Quench liquid

Pumped liquid

Double seal in tandem
This seal consists of two mechanical shaft seals mounted in tandem, one behind the other, and placed in a separate seal chamber, see figure 1.3.14. The tandem seal arrangement must be fitted with an external barrier liquid system which:

Pumped liquid

Fig. 1.3.14: Tandem seal arrangement with external barrier
Pumped liquid

liquid circulation

• Absorbs leakage • Monitors the leakage rate • Lubricates and cools the outboard seal to
prevent icing • Protects against dry-running • Stabilizes the lubricating film • Prevents air from entering the pump in case of vacuum Pressure of the external barrier liquid must always be lower than the pumped liquid pressure.

Quench liquid

Quench liquid Quench liquid

Pumped liquid

Pumped liquid

Pumped liquid

Fig. 1.3.15: Tandem seal arrangement with external barrier liquid dead end

Tandem - circulation
For external barrier liquid circulation via a pressureless tank, see figure 1.3.14. External barrier liquid from the elevated tank circulates by thermosiphon action and/or by the pumping action in the seal.

Tandem - dead end
For external barrier liquid from an elevated tank, see figure 1.3.15. No heat is dissipated from the system.

Pumped liquid

Pumped liquid Pumped liquid
• •

Tandem - drain
The external barrier liquid runs through the seal chamber to be collected for reuse or directed to drain, see figure 1.3.16.

Fig. 1.3.16: Tandem seal arrangement with external barrier liquid to drain

33

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

Barrier pressure liquid

Seal chamber with barrier pressure liquid

industrial applications: Tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide, silicon carbide/silicon carbide and carbon/tungsten carbide or carbon/silicon carbide.

Tungsten carbide/tungsten carbide
Pumped liquid

Cemented tungsten carbide covers the type of hard metals that are based on a hard tungsten carbide (WC) phase and usually a softer metallic binder phase. The correct technical term is cemented tungsten carbide; however, the abbreviated term tungsten carbide (WC) is used by Grundfos for convenience. Cobalt-bonded (Co) WC is only corrosion resistant in water if the pump incorporates base metal, such as cast iron. Chromium-nickel-molybdenum-bonded WC has a higher corrosion resistance. Sintered binderless WC has the highest corrosion resistance. However, its resistance to corrosion in liquids, such as hypochlorite, is not as high. The material pairing WC/WC has the following features:

Fig. 1.3.17: Back-to-back seal arrangement

Double seal in back-to-back
This type of seal is the optimum solution for handling abrasive, aggressive, explosive or sticky liquids which would wear out, damage or block a mechanical shaft seal. The back-to-back double seal consists of two shaft seals mounted back-to-back in a separate seal chamber, see figure 1.3.17. The back-to-back double seal protects the surrounding environment and the people working with the pump. The pressure in the seal chamber must be 14.5-29 psi higher than the pump pressure. The pressure can be generated by: • An existing, separate pressure source. Many applications incorporate pressurized systems. • A separate pump, e.g. a metering pump

• Extremely wear resistant • Very robust; resists rough handling • Poor dry-running properties. In case of dry-running, the
temperature increases to several hundred degrees Fahrenheit in just a few minutes and consequently damages the O-rings. If a certain pressure and temperature are exceeded, the seal may generate noise. Noise is an indication of poor seal operating conditions that, in the long term, may cause wear of the seal. The limits of use depend on seal face diameter and design. A WC/WC seal face pair might be noisy during the break in period. Usually the noise dissapears after a couple of days of operation. In some cases noise may last up to 3-4 weeks.

1.3.4 Seal face material combinations
What follows is a description of the most important material combinations used in mechanical shaft seals for

34

Silicon carbide/silicon carbide
Silicon carbide/silicon carbide (SiC/SiC) is an alternative to WC/WC and is used where higher corrosion resistance is required. The SiC/SiC material pair has the following features:

In warm water, the Q 1P / Q 1P face material pair generates less noise than the WC/WC pair; however, noise from porous SiC seals must be expected during the running-in wear period of 3-4 days. Q 1G self-lubricating, sintered SiC Several variants of SiC materials containing dry lubricants are available on the market. The designation Q1G applies to a SiC material which is suitable for use in distilled or demineralized water, as opposed to the above materials. Pressure and temperature limits of Q 1G / Q 1G are similar to those of Q 1P / Q 1P. The dry lubricants, such as graphite, reduce the friction in case of dry-running and are critical to the durability of a seal during dry-running.

• Very brittle material requiring careful handling • Extremely wear resistant • High resistance to corrosion. SiC (Q 1s, Q 1P and Q 1G ) hardly
corrodes, independent of the pumped liquid type with the exception of water with very poor conductivity, such as demineralized water, which attacks the SiC variants Q 1s and Q 1P. Q 1G is also corrosion - resistant in demineralized water

• In general, these material pairs have poor dry-running
properties. However, the Q 1G / Q 1G material withstands a limited period of dry-running due to the graphite content of the material For different purposes, SiC/SiC variants include: Q 1s, dense-sintered, fine-grained SiC A dense-sintered, fine-grained SiC with a small amount of tiny pores. For a number of years, this SiC variant was used as a standard mechanical shaft seal material. Pressure and temperature limits are slightly below those of WC/WC. Q 1 , porous, sintered, fine-grained SiC This porous-sintered SiC variant has large circular closed pores. The degree of porosity is 5-15% and the size of the pores is Ra 10-50 µin. The pressure and temperature limits exceed those of WC/WC.
P

Carbon/tungsten carbide or carbon/ silicon carbide features
Seals with one carbon seal face have the following features:

• Brittle material requiring careful handling • Are worn by liquids containing solid particles • Good corrosion resistance • Good dry-running properties (temporary dry-running) • Self-lubricating properties (of carbon) make the seal
suitable for use even with poor lubricating conditions (high temperature) without generating noise. However, such conditions will cause wear of the carbon seal face leading to reduced seal life. The wear depends on pressure, temperature, liquid diameter and seal design. Low speeds reduce the lubrication between the seal faces resulting in possible increased wear However, since the distance that the seal faces have to move is reduced, a shorter seal life may not be experienced

35

Section 1.3 Mechanical shaft seals

• Metal-impregnated carbon (A) offers limited corrosion resistance, but improved mechanical strength and heat conductivity, thus reducing wear

• The centrifugal pumping action of the seal’s rotating parts increases power consumption dramatically with the speed of rotation (to the third power) • The seal face friction Friction between the two seal faces consists of – friction in the thin liquid film and – friction due to points of contact between the seal faces The amount of power consumed depends on seal design, lubricating conditions and seal face materials.

• With reduced mechanical strength, but higher
corrosion resistance, synthetic resin-impregnated carbon (B) covers a wide application field. Synthetic resin-impregnated carbon is suitable for drinking water

• The use of carbon/SiC for hot water applications may
cause heavy wear of the SiC, depending on the quality of the carbon and water. This type of wear primarily applies to Q1 S/carbon. The use of Q1 P, Q 1G or a carbon/WC pair causes far less wear. Thus, carbon/WC, carbon/Q1P or carbon/Q1G are recommended for hot water systems

0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05

Power loss (hp)

3600

1.3.5 Factors affecting the seal performance
As mentioned previously, no seal is completely tight. On the next pages, factors which have an impact on the seal performance, such as energy consumption, noise and leakage, will be presented. While these factors will be presented individually, it is important to stress that they are closely interrelated and should be considered as a whole.

0
0 2000 4000 6000 8000 10000

Speed (rpm)

12000

Fig. 1.3.18: Power consumption of a 1/2 inch mechanical shaft seal

Pumping action Friction

Figure 1.3.18 is a typical example of the power consumption of a mechanical shaft seal. The figure shows that up to 3600 rpm friction is the major reason for the mechanical shaft seal’s energy consumption.

Energy consumption
The following factors contribute to the power consumption of a mechanical shaft seal:

36

Energy consumption is, especially in connection with packed stuffing box, an important issue. Replacing a stuffing box with a mechanical shaft seal leads to considerable energy savings, see figure 1.3.19.

Standard pump 50 ft WCH; 2 inch shaft Energy consumption Stuffing box 2.0 kwh Mechanical shaft seal 0.3 kwh Leakage Stuffing box .02 GPD (when mounted correctly) Mechanical shaft seal .005 GPD
Fig. 1.3.19: Stuffing box versus mechanical shaft seal

Noise
The choice of seal face materials is critical for the function and the life of the mechanical shaft seal. Noise is generated as a result of the poor lubricating conditions in seals handling low viscosity liquids. The viscosity of water decreases with increasing temperature. This means that the lubricating conditions decrease as the temperature rises. If the pumped liquid reaches or exceeds boiling temperature, the liquid on part of the seal face evaporates resulting in decreased lubricating conditions. A speed reduction has the same effect, see figure 1.3.20.

psi

350 300 250 200 150 100 50

Duty range

Noise

Speed at 3600 rpm Speed at 3000 rpm Speed at 1800 rpm Speed at 1200 rpm
0 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 °F

Leakage
The pumped liquid lubricates the seal face of a mechanical shaft seal, providing improved lubrication resulting in less friction and increased leakage. Conversely, less leakage means poor lubricating conditions and increased friction. In practice, the amount of leakage and power loss occurring in mechanical shaft seals can vary because leakage depends on factors which are impossible to quantify theoretically due to seal face type, liquid type, and spring load. Figure 1.3.21 shows how the lubricating film of fluid is evaporated into the atmosphere.

0

Fig. 1.3.20: Relationship between duty range and speed

1 atm

Exit into atmosphere

Start of evaporation

Stationary seal face

Rotating seal face Pressure liquid vapor

Entrance in seal Atmospheric

Pump pressure

Fig. 1.3.21: Sealing gap

37

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.4: Motors
1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.4.5 Standards Motor start-up Voltage supply Frequency converter Motor protection

Section 1.4 Motors

Motors are used in many applications all over the world. The purpose of the electric motor is to create rotation, that is to convert electric energy into mechanical energy. Pumps are operated by means of mechanical energy which is provided by electric motors.

Fig. 1.4.1: Electric motor

1.4.1 Standards

Fig. 1.4.2: NEMA and IEC standards

NEMA
The National Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) sets standards for a wide range of electric products, including motors. NEMA is primarily associated with motors used in North America. The standards represent general industry practices and are supported by the manufacturers of electric equipment. The standards can be found in NEMA Standard Publication No. MG1. Some large motors may not fall under NEMA standards.

IEC
The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) sets standards for motors used in many countries around the world. The IEC 60034 standard contains recommended electrical practices that have been developed by the participating IEC countries.

40

Introduction to potentially explosive atmospheres
Potentially explosive atmospheres exist where there is a risk of explosion due to mixtures of gas/air, vapor/ air, dust/air or other flammable combinations. In such areas there is a need to eliminate ignition sources such as sparks, hot surfaces or static electricity which may ignite these mixtures. When electrical equipment is used where there is risk of explosion, the area must be so designed and constructed to avoid sources of ignition capable of igniting these mixtures. Before electrical equipment can be used in a potentially explosive atmosphere, a represenative sample must be fully tested and certified by an independent authority such as UL in the U.S.A. This information is intended as a guide only, and further expert guidance should be sought before placing the equipment into service or before maintaining or repairing any item of equipment in a potentially explosive atmosphere. Where showing comparisons, i.e., North American and European practices, these may be approximations and individual standards/codes of practice should be observed for precise details.
European & IEC Classification Zone 0 (ga ses) Zone 2 0 (dusts) Zone 1 (ga ses) Zone 2 1 (dusts) Zone 2 (ga ses) Zone 2 2 (dusts)

Area Classification
Process plants are divided into Divisions (North American method) or Zones (European and IEC method) according to the likelihood of a potentially explosive atmosphere being present. Note: North American legislation now allows Zones to classify areas, and when used, the IEC Zone method is followed. See figure 1.4.3.

Gas Groups (plus dusts and fibers)
There are two main gas groups: Group I - Mining only and Group II - Surface Industries. These categories are used in European and I.E.C. groupings. Group I gases relate to underground mining where methane and coal dust are present. Group II gases relate to surface industries and are sub-grouped according to their volatility. This enables electrical equipment to be designed with less onerous tolerances if it is to be used with the least volatile gases. See figure 1.4.4.

Definition of zone or division A n a rea in which a n explosive mixture is continuously present or present for long periods A n a rea in which a n explosive mixture is likely to occur in norma l opera tion A n a rea in which a n explosive mixture is not likely to occur in norma l opera tion a nd if it occurs it will exist only for a short time

North American Classification C la ss I Division 1 (ga ses) C la ss II Division 1 (dusts) C la ss I Division 1 (ga ses) C la ss II Division 1 (dusts) C la ss I Division 2 (ga ses) C la ss II Division 2 (dusts) Class III Division 1 (fibers) Class III Division 2 (fibers)

Fig. 1.4.3: Area Classification

Typica l ga s/ ma teria l Metha ne A cetylene Hydrogen Ethylene Propa ne Meta l dust C oa l dust G ra in dust
Fig. 1.4.4: Gas Groups

N or th A merica n G as Group A B C D E F G

Europea n/ I.E.C . G as G roup I IIC IIC IIB IIA -

41

Section 1.4 Motors

Types of electrical equipment suitable for use in potentially explosive atmospheres
Different techniques are used to prevent electrical equipment from igniting explosive atmospheres. See fig 1.4.5 for restrictions as to where these different types of equipment can be used.
Flameproof Enclosure – An enclosure used to house electrical equipment which, when subjected to an internal explosion, will not ignite a surrounding explosive a tmosphere. Intrinsic Safety– A technique whereby electrical energy is limited such that any sparks or heat generated by electrical equipment is sufficiently low a s to not ignite a n explosive a tmosphere. Increased Safety – This equipment is so designed as to eliminate spa rks a nd hot surfa ces ca pa ble of igniting a n explosive a tmosphere. Purged and Pressurized – Electrical equipment is housed in an enclosure which is initially purged to remove any explosive mixture then pressurizedto prevent ingress of the surrounding atmosphere prior to energiza tion. Encapsulation – A method of exclusion of the explosive atmosphere by fully encapsulating the electrical components in an approved ma teria l. Oil Immersion – The electrical components are immersed in oil, thus excluding the explosive atmosphere from any sparks or hot surfa ces. Powder Filling – Equipment is surrounded with a fine powder, such as quartz, which does not allow the surrounding atmosphere to come into conta ct with a ny spa rks or hot surfa ces. Non-sparking – Sparking contacts are sealed against ingress of the surrounding a tmosphere; hot surfa ces a re elimina ted. , Special Protection– Equipment is certified for use in a Potentially Explosive Atmosphere but does not conform to a type of protection listed above.
Fig 1.4.5: Standards and methods of protection

USA Area of use Designation Standard Class I Divisions 1 & 2 – UL1203 Class I Divisions 1 & 2 – UL1203 – – – Class l Divisions 1 & 2 – NFPA 496 – – – Class l Division 2 – UL698 – – – – – – – –

IEC Area of use Designation Standard Zones 1 & 2 Exd IEC60079-1 Zones 1 & 2 Exi IEC60079-11 Zones 1 &2 Exi IEC 6007 9-7 Zones 1 & 2 Exp IEC 6007 9-2 Zone 1 & 2 Exm EC 6007 9-1 8 Zones 1 & 2 Exo EC 6007 9-6 Zones 1 & 2 Exq IEC 6007 9-5 Zone 2 Exn EC 6007 9-1 5 Zones 0, 1 & 2 Exs

European Area of use Designation Standard Zones 1 & 2 EExd EN50018 Zones 0, 1 & 2 EExi EN50020 Zones 1 & 2 EExe EN 5 001 9 Zones 1 & 2 EExp EN 5 001 6 Zones 1 & 2 EExm EN 5 002 8 Zone 1 & 2 EExo EN50015 Zones 1 & 2 EExq EN 5 001 7 Zone 2 EExN EN50021 Zones 0, 1 & 2 * Exs

North American practice
Sample equipment and supporting documentation are submitted to the appropriate authority, e.g U.L., F.M., C.S.A. Equipment is tested in accordance with relevant standards for explosion protection and also

for general electrical requirements, e.g. light fittings. After successful testing, a listing is issued allowing the manufacturer to place the product on the market. The product is marked with the certification details such as the gas groups A,B,C,D and the area of use, e.g. Class 1 Division 1.

42

Temperature
Hot surfaces can ignite explosive atmospheres. To prevent this from happening, all electrical equipment intended for use in a potentially explosive atmosphere is classified according to the maximum surface temperature it will reach while in service. This maximum temperature is normally based on a surrounding ambient temperature of 104° F (40° C). This temperature can then be compared to the ignition temperature of the gas(es) which may come into contact with the equipment and a judgement can be reached as to the suitabillity of the equipment to be used in that area, see figure 1.4.6.

Temperature Classification European/IEC North America T1 T1 T2 T2 T2 A T2 B T2 C T2 D T3 T3 T3 A T3 B T3 C T4 T4 T4A T5 T5 T6 T6

Maximum Surface Temperature 842 ° F 5 7 2° F 5 3 6° F 5 00° F 4 4 6° F 41 9° F 3 92 ° F 3 5 6° F 3 2 9° F 3 2 0° F 27 5 ° F 2 4 8° F 21 2° F 185° F

Fig 1.4.6: Temperature classification :

NEMA Motor Enclosures
The following describes NEMA Motor Enclosures:

and the second digit stands for protection against ingress of water, see figure 1.4.7. Drain holes enable the escape of water entering the starter housing, i.e., through condensation. When the motor is installed in a damp environment, the bottom drain hole should be opened. Opening the drain hole changes the motor’s enclosure class from IP55 to IP44.
First digit Protection against contact and ingress of solid objects
0 No special protection 1 The motor is protected against solid objects bigger than 55 mm, e.g. a hand 2 The motor is protected against objects bigger than 12 mm, e.g. a finger 3 The motor is protected against solid objects bigger than 25 mm, i.e. wires, tools, etc. 4 The motor is protected against solid objects bigger than 1 mm, e.g. wires 5 The motor is protected against ingress of dust 6 The motor is completely dust-proof

• Open Drip Proof (ODP)
Internal fan pulls air in, blows it across windings inside motor and exits opposite drive end. Motor is protected from drops of liquid or particles falling at any angle from 0-15 degrees.

Second digit Protection against ingress of water
0 No special protection 1 The motor is protected against vertically falling drops of water, such as condensed water 2 The motor is protected against vertically falling drops of water, even if the motor is tilted at an angle of 15 degrees 3 The motor is protected against water spray falling at an angle of 60 degrees from vertical 4 The motor is protected against water splashing from any direction 5 The motor is protected against water being projected from a nozzle from any direction 6 The motor is protected against heavy seas or high-pressure water jets from any direction 7 The motor is protected when submerged from 15 cm to 1 m in water for a period specified by the manufacturer 8 The motor is protected against continuous submersion in water under conditions specified by the manufacturer

• TEFC-Totally Enclosed
External fan pulls air in through fan cover and blows it over the exterior (only) surface of the motor. More resistant to the liquid and particles. • Washdown - Totally Enclosed Spray Proof Corrosion-resistant. There can be a HP limit for rolled steel frame motors. Cast Iron finned motors do not meet FDA requirements. • Explosion Proof (xp) Enclosed motor designed to withstand an explosion of a specified dust, gas or vapor according to explosive environment standards.

IEC Motor Enclosures
The IP rating states the degrees of protection of the motor against ingress of solid objects and water. The rating is stated by the letters “IP” followed by two digits, for example IP55. The first digit stands for protection against contact and ingress of solid objects,

Fig 1.4.7: Two-digit IP enclosure class identification (IEC)

43

Section 1.4 Motors

Frame size
Figure 1.4.8 gives an overview of the relationship between frame size, shaft end, and motor power. The figure shows where the different values that make up the frame size are measured on the motor. Flanges and shaft end comply with NEMA standards or EN 50347 and IEC 60072-1 for IEC. Some pumps have a coupling which requires a smooth motor shaft end or a special shaft extension which is not defined in the standards.

D

2F Fig 1.4.8: Frame size Distance between holes

Insulation class
Hot-spot overtemperature

The insulation class is defined in the NEMA standard and tells something about how robust the insulation system is relative to motor operating temperatures. The life of an insulation material is highly dependent on the temperature to which it is exposed. The various insulation materials and systems are classified into insulation classes depending on their ability to resist high temperatures, see figure 1.4.9.

[°f] 356 311 266 248

15 10 10

Maximum temperature increase

176

221

257

104

Maximum ambient temperature

104 104 104
B F H

Class

Maximum ambient temperature (°F)

Maximum temperature increase (°F)

Hot-spot overtemperature (°F)

Maximum winding temperature (Tmax) (°F)

B F H

104 104 104

144 189 225

18 18 27

266 311 356

Fig 1.4.9: Different insulation classes and temperature increases at nominal voltage and load

44

1 2 Frame Size Shaft end (C-face motors) diameter [in] 42C 0.375 48C 0.5 56C 0.625 66C 0.75 143TC 0.875 145TC 0.875 182TC 1.125 184TC 1.125 213TC 1.375 215TC 1.375 254TC 1.625 256TC 1.625 284TC 1.875 286TC 1.875 284TSC 1.625 286TSC 1.625 324TC 2.125 326TC 2.125 324TSC 1.875 326TSC 1.875 364TC 2.375 365TC 2.375 364TSC 1.875 365TSC 1.875 404TC 2.875 405TC 2.875 404TSC 2.125 405TSC 2.125 444TC 3.375 445TC 3.375 444TSC 2.375 445TSC 2.375

3 Rated power (TEFC Motors) 2-pole 4-pole 6-pole 8-pole [HP] [HP] [HP] [HP] In these fractional size motors, specific frame assignments have not been made by horsepower and speed. It is possible for more than one HP and speed combination to be found in a given frame size. 1.5 1 2 1.5, 2.0 1 3 3 1.5 1 5 5 2 1.5 7.5 7.5 3 2 10 10 5 3 15 15 7.5 5 20 20 10 7.5 25 15 10 30 20 15 25 30 40 25 20 50 30 25 40 50 60 40 30 75 50 40 60 75 60 50 100 75 60 100 125 150 125 150 100 125 75 100

Fig 1.4.10: The relationship between frame size and power input

45

Section 1.4 Motors

1.4.2 Motor start-up
Methods of starting referred to in this section include: Direct-on-line starting, star/delta starting, autotransformer starting, soft starter and frequency converter starting, see figure 1.4.11.
Starting method
Direct-on-line starting (DOL) Star/delta starting (SD) (Y/∆) Autotransformer starting

Pros
Simple and cost-efficient. Safe starting. Reduction of starting current by a factor of 3.

Cons
High locked-rotor current. Current pulses when switching over from star to delta. Not suitable if the load has a low inertia. Reduced locked-rotor torque. Current pulses when switching from reduced to full voltage. Reduced locked-rotor torque. Reduced locked-rotor torque.

Reduction of locked-rotor current and torque.

Soft starter

"Soft" starting. No current pulses. Less water hammer when starting a pump. Reduction of locked-rotor current as required, typically 2-3 times. No current pulses. Less water hammer when starting a pump. Reduction of locked-rotor current as required, typically 2 to 3 times. Can be used for continuous feeding of the motor.

Frequency converter starting

Reduced locked-rotor torque. Expensive

Fig 1.4.11: Starting method

Direct-on-line starting
As the name suggests, direct-on-line starting (DOL) means that the motor is started by connecting it directly to the supply at rated voltage. Direct-online starting is suitable for stable supplies as well as mechanically stiff and well-dimensioned shaft systems, i.e. pumps. Whenever applying the directon-line starting method, it is important to consult local authorities.

Autotransformer starting
As the name states, autotransformer starting makes use of an autotransformer. The autotransformer is placed in series with the motor during start and varies the voltage up to nominal voltage in two to four steps.

Soft starter
A soft starter is a device which ensures a soft start of a motor. This is done by raising the voltage within a preset voltage rise time.

Star/delta starting
The objective of this starting method, which is used with three-phase induction motors, is to reduce the starting current. Current supply to the starter windings is connected in star (Y) configuration for starting. Current supply is reconnected to the windings in delta (∆) configuration once the motor has gained speed.

Frequency converter starting
Frequency converters are designed for continuous feeding of motors, but they can also be used for soft starting.

46

1.4.3 Voltage supply
The motor’s rated voltage lies within a certain voltage range. Figure 1.4.12 shows typical voltage range examples for 60 Hz motors. According to the NEMA standard, the motor has to be able to operate with a main voltage tolerance of ± 10% from the lowest and highest voltage in the range.

Typical North America voltage examples 60 Hz 60 Hz motors come with the following voltages: • 1 x 115 – 230 ∆ / 346 – 400 Y • 1 x 115/208-230 • 1 x 208-230 • 1 x 230 • 3 x 208-230/460 • 3 x 230/460 • 3 x 575
Fig 1.4.12: Typical voltages

1.4.4 Frequency converter
Frequency converters are often used for speed controlled pumps, see chapter 4. The frequency converter converts the main voltage into a different voltage and frequency, causing the motor to run at a different speed. This way of regulating the frequency might result in some problems:

• Acoustic noise from the motor which is sometimes
transmitted to the system as noise

• High voltage peaks on the output from the
frequency converter to the motor

47

Section 1.4 Motors

Insulation for motors with frequency converters
The discussion below highlights different kinds of motors with frequency converters and how different kinds of insulation affect the motor.

Phase insulation also referred to as phase paper

Motors without phase insulation
For motors constructed without phase insulation, continuous voltages known as Root Mean Square voltages (RMS) above 460 V can increase the risk of disruptive discharges in the windings and destroy the motor. This applies to all motors constructed according to these principles. Continuous operation with voltage peaks above 650 V can cause damage to the motor.

Fig 1.4.13: Stator with phase insulation

Motors with phase insulation
Phase insulation is normally used in three-phase motors. Specific precautions are not necessary if the voltage supply is less than 500 V.

Motors with reinforced insulation
With supply voltages between 500 V and 690 V, the motor has to have reinforced insulation or be protected with delta U /delta T filters. For supply voltages of 690 V and higher, the motor has to be fitted with both reinforced insulation and delta U /delta T filters.

Motors with insulated bearings
In order to avoid harmful current flows through the bearings, the motor bearings have to be electrically insulated. This generally applies to motors - 40 hp run > with variable frequency drives. Motor manufacturers will use special ceramic coatings to insulate one or both bearings.

48

Motor efficiency
In general, electric motors are quite efficient. Some have electricity-to-shaft power efficiencies of 8093% depending on the motor size and sometimes even higher for bigger motors. There are two types of energy losses in electric motors: Load-dependent and load-independent losses. Load-dependent losses vary with the square of the current and cover:

Motors can fail due to overload for long periods of time so are often intentionally oversized and operate at 75% to 80% of their full load capacity. At this level of loading, motor efficiency and power remain relatively high, but when motor load is less than 25%, efficiency and power decrease. Motor efficiency drops quickly below a certain percentage of rated load. Therefore, it is important to size the motor so that losses associated with running the motor too far below its rated capacity are minimized. It is common to choose a motor that meets the power requirements of the pump.

• Stator winding losses (copper losses) • Rotor losses (slip losses) • Stray losses (in different parts of the motor)
Load-independent losses in the motor refer to:

1.4.5 Motor protection
Motors are usually protected against high temperatures that can damage the insulation system. Depending on motor construction and application, thermal protection can also prevent damaging temperatures in the frequency converter if it is mounted on the motor. Thermal protection varies with motor type. Motor construction and its power consumption must be considered when choosing thermal protection. Generally, motors must be protected against the following:

• Iron losses (core losses) • Mechanical losses (friction)
Motors are categorized according to efficiency. The most important classifications are Environmental Protection Act in the US (EPact) and CEMEP in the European Union (EFF1, EFF2 and EFF3).
1 0.8 0.6 Percent Cos j 0.4 0.2 100 80 60 40 20

Efficiency Power factor 0 25

Fig 1.4.14: Efficiency vs. load and power vs. load (schematic drawing)
150

50 75 100 125 Per cent of rated load

100 90 80 70

100 hp 10 hp 1 hp

Efficiency %

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175

Errors causing slow temperature increase in the windings: • Slow overload • Long start-up periods • Reduced cooling / lack of cooling • Increased ambient temperature • Frequent starts and stops • Frequency fluctuation • Voltage fluctuation Errors causing fast temperature increase in the windings: • Blocked rotor • Phase failure

Fig 1.4.15: The relationship between efficiency and rated load of different sized motors (schematic drawing)
Percent of rated load

49

Thermal protection
A motor’s thermal protection (TP) is provided by a temperature-sensing device that is built in to the motor. When motor temperature becomes excessively hot due to failure-to-start or overloading, the sensor device shuts off the motor. This is especially important for motors that start automatically, are unattended, or for motors that are located remotely or operated off-sight. The basic types of temperature sensing devices include: • Automatic Reset - The thermal protector automatically restores power after the motor cools. Note: This should not be used where unexpected restarting would be hazardous.

Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC thermistors) can be fitted into the windings of a motor during production or afterwards. Usually three PTCs are fitted in series; one in each phase of the winding.They can be purchased with trip temperatures ranging from 194°F to 356°F. PTCs have to be connected to a thermistor relay which detects the rapid increase in resistance of the thermistor when it reaches its trip temperature.

Thermal switch and thermostats
Thermal switches are small bi-metallic switches that change state due to the temperature. They are available with a wide range of trip temperatures; normally open and closed types, with closed being the most common. One or two, in series, are usually fitted in the windings like thermistors and can be connected directly to the circuit of the main contactor coil, requiring no relay. This type of protection is less expensive than thermistors; however, it is less sensitive and is not able to detect a locked rotor failure. Thermal switches are also referred to as Klixon thermal switches and Protection thermal overload (PTO). Thermal switches always carry a TP111 designation.

• Manual Reset - Power to the motor is
restored by pushing an external button. This type is preferred where unexpected restarts would be hazardous.

• Impedance Protected - The motor is designed to
protect itself under locked rotor (stalled) conditions, in accordance with UL standards. According to the IEC 60034-11 standard, the thermal protection (TP) of the motor has to be indicated on the nameplate with a TP designation. Figure 1.4.16 shows an overview of the TP designations.

Single-phase motors
Single-phase motors normally come with thermal protection. Thermal protection usually has an automatic reclosing. This implies that the motor has to be connected to the main voltage supply in a way to ensure that accidents caused by the automatic reclosing are avoided.

Symbol TP 111 TP 112 TP 121 TP 122 TP 211 TP 212 TP 221 TP 222 TP 311 TP 312

Technical overload with variation (1 digit) Only slow (i.e. constant overload) Slow and fast (i.e. constant overload and blocked condition )

Number of levels and function area (2 digits) 1 level at cutoff 2 levels at emergency signal and cutoff 1 level at cutoff 2 levels at emergency signal and cutoff 1 level at cutoff

Category 1 (3 digits) 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

Three-phase motors
Three-phase motors have to be protected according to local regulations. This kind of motor usually has contacts for resetting in the external control circuit.

Only fast PTC thermistorscondition) (i.e. blocked

Indication of the permissible temperature level when the motor is exposed to thermal overload. Category 2 allows higher temperatures than category 1 does.

Fig 1.4.16: TP designations

50

Space Heater
A heating element ensures the standby heating of the motor and is used with applications that struggle with humidity and condensation. By using the space heater, the motor is warmer than the surroundings, and thereby, the relative air humidity inside the motor is always lower than 100%.

The fixed bearing in the drive end can be a deep-groove ball bearing or an angular contact bearing. Bearing clearances and tolerances are stated according to ISO 15 and ISO 492. Because bearing manufacturers must fulfill these standards, bearings are internationally interchangeable. In order to rotate freely, a ball bearing must have a certain internal clearance between the raceway and the balls. Without this internal clearance, the bearings can be difficult to rotate or they may seize up and be unable to rotate. Conversely, too much internal clearance will result in an unstable bearing that may generate excessive noise or allow the shaft to wobble. Depending on the pump type to which the motor is fitted, the deep-groove ball bearing in the drive end must have C3 or C4 clearance. Bearings with C4 clearance are less heat sensitive and have increased axial load-carrying capacity. The bearing carrying the axial forces of the pump can have C3 clearance if:

Fig 1.4.17: Space heater

Maintenance
The motor should be checked at regular intervals. It is important to keep the motor clean to ensure adequate ventilation. If the pump is installed in a dusty environment, the pump must be cleaned and checked regularly.

• The pump has complete or partial hydraulic relief • The pump has many brief periods of operation • The pump has long idle periods C4 bearings are used for pumps with fluctuating high axial forces. Angular contact bearings are used if the pump exerts strong one-way axial forces.

Non-drive end

Drive end

Bearings
There are several types of bearing designs. Normally, motors have a locked bearing in the drive end and a bearing with axial play in the non-drive end. Axial play is required due to production tolerances, thermal expansion during operation, and other factors. The motor bearings are held in place by wave spring washers in the non-drive end, see figure 1.4.18.

Spring washer

Non-drive end bearing

Drive end bearing

Fig 1.4.18: Cross-sectional drawing of motor

51

Section 1.4 Motors

Axial forces

Bearing types and recommended clearance Drive end Non-drive end
Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Moderate to strong forces. Primarily outward pull on the shaft end Strong outward pull on the shaft end Moderate forces. Primarily outward pull on the shaft end (partly hydraulically relieved in the pump) Small forces (flexible coupling) Strong inward pressure

Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C4)

Fixed angular contact bearing

Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Deep-groove ball bearing (C3)

Fixed deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Deep-groove ball bearing (C4)

Deep-groove ball bearing (C3) Fixed angular contact bearing

Fig:1.4.19: Typical types of bearings in pump motors

Motors with permanently lubricated bearings
For closed permanently lubricated bearings, one of the following high temperature resistant types of grease are normally used: • Lithium-based grease • Polyurea-based grease

The grease zerks are visible and are easily accessible. The motor is designed so that: • there is a flow of grease around the bearing • new grease enters the bearing • old grease is removed from the bearing Motors with lubricating systems are normally labeled on the fan cover and are supplied with a lubricating instruction. Apart from that, instructions are given in the installation and operating instructions. The lubricant is often a lithium-based, high temperature grease. The basic oil viscosity must be: • Higher than 50 cSt at 104°F • 8 cSt at 212°F

Motors with lubrication system
Many integral size motors have lubricating nipples for the bearings both in the drive end and the nondrive end. This may vary by manufacturer.

52

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.5: Liquids
1.5.1 Viscous liquids 1.5.2 Non-Newtonian liquids 1.5.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the performance of a centrifugal pump 1.5.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid with antifreeze 1.5.5 Calculation example 1.5.6 Computer-aided pump selection for dense and viscous liquids

53

Section 1.5 Liquids

1.5.1 Viscous liquids
While water is the most common liquid that pumps handle, in a number of applications, pumps have to handle other types of liquids, e.g. oil, propylene glycol, gasoline. Compared to water, these types of liquids have different densities and viscosities. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a substance to flow. The higher the viscosity, the more difficult the liquid will flow on its own. Propylene glycol and motor oil are examples of thick or high viscous liquids. Gasoline and water are examples of thin, low viscous liquids. Two kinds of viscosities exist: • The dynamic viscosity (μ), which is normally measured in Poise (1 Poise) • The kinematic viscosity (ν), which is normally measured in centiStokes (cSt) The relationship between the dynamic viscosity (μ) and the kinematic viscosity (ν) is shown in the formula at right. On the following pages, we will focus on kinematic viscosity (ν). The viscosity of a liquid changes considerably with the change in temperature; hot oil is thinner than cold oil. As you can tell from figure 1.5.1, a 50% propylene glycol liquid increases its viscosity 10 times when the temperature changes from +68 to –4oF. For more information concerning liquid viscosity, go to Appendix K.
Liquid Density temperature ρ [lb/ft3] t [°f] 68 68 68 68 -4 62.4 45.75 56.18 65.11 66.23

μ ν = ρ ρ = density of liquid

Liquid

Kinematic viscosity ν [cSt] 1.004 0.75 93 6.4 68.7

Water Gasoline Olive oil 50% Propylene glycol 50% Propylene glycol

Fig. 1.5.1: Comparison of viscosity values for water and a few other liquids. Density values and temperatures are also shown

54

1.5.2 Non-Newtonian liquids
The liquids discussed so far are referred to as Newtonian fluids. The viscosity of Newtonian liquids is not affected by the magnitude and the motion that they are exposed to. Mineral oil and water are typical examples of this type of liquid. On the other hand, the viscosity of non-Newtonian liquids does change when agitated. A few examples of non-Newtonion liquids include: • Dilatant liquids, like cream, exhibit a viscosity increase when agitated • Plastic fluids, like ketchup, have a yield value which must be exceeded before the flow starts. From that point on, the viscosity decreases with an increase in agitation • Thixotropic liquids, like non-drip paint, exhibit a decrease in viscosity with an increase in agitation The non-Newtonian liquids are not covered by the viscosity formula described earlier in this section.

freezing. When glycol or a similar antifreeze agent is added to the pumped liquid, the liquid obtains properties different from those of water. The liquid will have a:

• Lower freezing point, tf [°F] • Lower specific heat, cp [btu/lbm °F] • Lower thermal conductivity, λ [btu ft/h ft2 °F] • Higher boiling point, tb [°F] • Higher coefficient of expansion, β [ft/°F] • Higher density, ρ [lb/ft3] • Higher kinematic viscosity, ν [cSt] These properties must be considered when designing a system and selecting pumps. As mentioned, the higher density requires increased motor power and the higher viscosity reduces pump head, flow rate and efficiency resulting in a need for increased motor power, see figure 1.5.2.

H, P, η

P

H

1.5.3 The impact of viscous liquids on the performance of a centrifugal pump
Liquid with higher viscosity and/or higher density than water affects the performance of centrifugal pumps in different ways: • Power consumption increases, i.e. a larger motor may be required to perform the same task • Head, flow rate and pump efficiency are reduced For example, when a pump is used for pumping a liquid in a cooling system with a liquid temperature below 32oF, an antifreeze agent like propylene glycol is added to the water to prevent the liquid from

η

Q

Fig. 1.5.2: Changed head, efficiency and power input for liquid with higher viscosity

55

Section 1.5 Liquids

1.5.4 Selecting the right pump for a liquid with antifreeze
Pump characteristics are usually based on water temperature at around 68°F, i.e. a kinematic viscosity of approximately 1 cSt and is 1.0 specific gravity. When pumps are used for liquids containing antifreeze below 32°F, it is necessary to determine, most importantly, that the pump can meet the required performance or if a larger motor is required. The following section presents a simplified method used to determine pump curve corrections for pumps in systems that must handle liquids with a viscosity between 5 cSt - 100 cSt and (specific gravity of 1.0). Please notice that this method is not as precise as the computer-aided method described later in this section.

Pump curve corrections for pumps handling high viscous liquid
Based on knowledge about required duty point, flow (QS,), head (HS,) and kinematic viscosity of the pumped liquid, the correction factors of H and P2 can be found, see figure 1.5.3. To get the correction factor for multistage pumps, the head of one stage has to be used.

Fig. 1.5.3: It is possible to determine the correction factor for head and power consumption at different flow, head and viscosity values

56

Figure 1.5.3 is read in the following way: When kH and kP2 are found in the figure, the equivalent head for clean water HW and the corrected actual shaft power P2S can be calculated by the following formula

H

Hw = kH . HS

Hw Hs

2 1

Water

HW = kH . HS P2S = kP2 . P2w .

Mixture

.(..)
P
ρ P2S = KP2 . P2w . ρ s w

ρs ρw

Qs 3

Q

where HW : is the equivalent head of the pump if the pumped liquid is “clean” water P2W : is the shaft power at the duty point (QS,HW) when the pumped liquid is water HS : is the desired head of the pumped liquid with agents P2S : is the shaft power at the duty point (Qs,Hs) for the viscous pumped liquid water (with agents) ρs : is the specific gravity of the pumped liquid ρw : is the specific gravity of water = 1.0

P2s

( )
P2w

5 4

Mixture

Water

Q
Fig. 1.5.4: Pump curve correction when choosing the right pump for the system

The pump and motor selection procedure contains the following steps: • Calculate the corrected head Hw (based on Hs and kH ), see figure 1.5.4 lines 1 and 2 • Choose a pump capable of providing performance according to the corrected duty point (Qs, Hw) • Read the power input P2w at the duty point (Qs,Hw), see figure 1.5.4 lines 3 and 4 • Based on P2w, kp2, ρw, and ρs calculate the corrected required shaft power P2s, see figure 1.5.4, lines 4 and 5 • Check if P2s is less than P2 max of the motor. If that is the case, the motor can be used. Otherwise select a more powerful motor • Ensure NPSHr < NPSHa

The pump selection is based on the normal data sheets/curves applying to water. The pump should cover the duty point flow and head, and the motor should be powerful enough to handle the power input on the shaft. Figure 1.5.4 shows how to proceed when selecting a pump and testing whether the motor is within the power range allowed.

57

Section 1.5 Liquids

1.5.5 Calculation example
A circulator pump in a refrigeration system is to pump a 40% (weight) propylene glycol liquid at 14°F. The desired flow is QS = 260 GPM, and the desired head is HS = 40 ft. If the required duty point is known, it is possible to find the QH-characteristic for water and choose a pump to cover the duty point. Once the pump type and size is determined, the pump is fitted with a motor which can handle the specific pump load. The liquid has a kinematic viscosity of 20 cSt and a specific gravity of 65.48 lb/ft3. With QS = 260 GPM, HS = 40 ft and ν = 20 cSt, the correction factors can be found in figure 1.5.3.

1.5.6 Computer-aided pump selection for dense and viscous liquids
Some computer-aided pump selection tools include a feature that compensates for the pump performance curves based on input of the liquid density and viscosity. Figure 1.5.5 shows the pump performance curves from the example at left. The figure shows both the performance curves for the pump when it handles viscous liquid (the full lines) and the performance curves when it handles water (the broken lines). As indicated, head, flow and efficiency are reduced resulting in an increase in power consumption. The value of P2 is 4.5 hp which corresponds to the result as shown in the calculation example in section 1.5.4.

kH = 1.03 kP2 = 1.15 HW = kH · HS = 1.03 · 12 = 40 ft QS = 260 GPM
[ft]

H

η [%]

60 50

The pump selection has to cover a duty point equivalent to Q,H = 260 GPM, 40 ft. Once the necessary pump size is selected, the P2 value for the duty point is determined, which in this case is P2W = 3.8 hp. It is now possible to calculate the required motor power for the propylene glycol mixture:

40 30 20 10 0 0 P2 [hp] 6 4 2 0 Q [GPM] 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 Q [GPM] 0
NPSH (ft)

P2S = kP2 . P2w .

ρS ρw

Fig. 1.5.5: Pump performance curves

1049 P2S = 1.15 . 3.8 . 998

= 4.6 hp

The calculation shows that the pump has to be fitted with a 5 hp motor, which is the smallest motor size able to cover the calculated P2S = 4.6 hp.

58

Chapter 1. Design of pumps and motors

Section 1.6: Materials
1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.6.6 1.6.7 What is corrosion? Types of corrosion Metal and metal alloys Ceramics Plastics Rubber Coatings

Section 1.6 Materials

This section discusses the different materials used for pump construction, including the features that every single metal and metal alloy have to offer. Corrosion will be defined, and the different types will be identified, as well as what can be done to prevent corrosion from occurring.

1.6.1 What is corrosion?
Corrosion is usually referred to as the degradation of the metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment, see figure 1.6.1. Considered broadly, corrosion may be looked upon as the tendency of the metal to revert to its natural state similar to the oxide from which it was originally melted. Only precious metals, such as gold and platinum, are found in nature in their metallic state. Some metals produce a tight protective oxide layer on the surface which hinders further corrosion. If the surface layer is broken, it is self-healing. These metals are passivated. Under atmospheric conditions, the corrosion products of zinc and aluminum form a fairly tight oxide layer and further corrosion is prevented. Likewise, on the surface of stainless steel, a tight layer of iron and chromium oxide is formed, and on the surface of titanium, a layer of titanium oxide is formed. The protective layers of these metals demonstrate their good corrosion resistance. Rust, on the other hand, is a non-protective corrosion product on steel. Rust is porous, not firmly adherent and does not prevent continued corrosion, see figure 1.6.2.

Environmental variables that affect the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys
pH (acidity) Oxidizing agents (such as oxygen) Temperature Concentration of solution constituents (such as chlorides) Biological activity Operating conditions (such as velocity, cleaning procedures and shutdowns)

Fig. 1.6.1: Environmental variables that affect the corrosion resistance of metals and alloys

Rust on steel

Non-protective corrosion product
Oxide layer on stainless steel

Protective corrosion product
Fig. 1.6.2: Examples of corrosion products

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1.6.2 Types of corrosion
Generally, metallic corrosion involves the loss of metal at a spot on an exposed surface. Corrosion occurs in various forms ranging from uniform attacks over the entire surface to severe local attacks. The environment’s chemical and physical conditions determine both the type and the rate of corrosion attacks. The conditions also determine the type of corrosion products that are formed and the control measures that must be taken. In many cases, it is impossible or rather expensive to completely stop the corrosion process; however, it is usually possible to control the severity to acceptable levels. On the following pages, different forms of corrosion and their characteristics will be discussed.

Uniform corrosion
Uniform or general corrosion is characterized by corrosive attacks spreading evenly over the entire surface or on a large part of the total area. General thinning continues until the metal is broken down. Uniform corrosion results in waste of most of the metal. Examples of metals subject to uniform corrosion include: • Steel in aerated water • Stainless steel in reducing acids [such as AISI 304 (EN 1.4301) in sulfuric acid]

Fig. 1.6.3: Uniform corrosion

Pitting corrosion
Pitting corrosion is a localized form of a corrosive attack. Pitting corrosion forms holes or pits on the metal surface. It perforates the metal while the total corrosion, measured by weight loss, might be rather minimal. The rate of penetration may be 10 to 100 times that of general corrosion depending on the aggressiveness of the medium. Pitting occurs more often in a stagnant environment. An example of metal subject to pitting corrosion: • Stainless steel in seawater

Fig. 1.6.4: Pitting corrosion

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Crevice corrosion
Crevice corrosion, like pitting corrosion, is a localized form of corrosion attack. However, crevice corrosion is more aggressive. Crevice corrosion occurs at narrow openings or spaces between two metal surfaces or between metals and non-metal surfaces and is usually associated with a stagnant condition in the crevice. Crevices, such as those found at flange joints or at threaded connections, are often the most critical spots for corrosion. An example of metal subject to crevice corrosion: • Stainless steel in seawater

Fig. 1.6.5: Crevice corrosion

Intergranular corrosion
Intergranular corrosion occurs at grain boundaries. Intergranular corrosion, also called intercrystalline corrosion, typically occurs when chromium carbide precipitates at the grain boundaries during the welding process or in connection with insufficient heat treatment. A narrow region around the grain boundary may become deplete in chromium and become less resistant to corrosion than the rest of the material. This is unfortunate because chromium plays an important role in corrosion resistance. Examples of metals subject to intergranular corrosion include: • Insufficiently welded or heat-treated stainless steel • Stainless steel AISI 316 (EN 1.4401) in nitric acid

Fig. 1.6.6: Intergranular corrosion

Selective corrosion
Selective corrosion attacks one single element of an alloy and dissolves the element in the alloy structure. Consequently, the alloy’s structure is weakened. Examples of selective corrosion: • The dezincification of unstabilized brass producing a weakened, porous copper structure • Graphitization of gray cast iron leaving a brittle graphite skeleton due to the dissolution of iron.
Zinc corrosion products Copper

Brass

Fig. 1.6.7: Selective corrosion

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Erosion corrosion
Erosion corrosion is a process whereby the rate of corrosion attack is accelerated by the relative motion of a corrosive liquid and a metal surface. The attack is localized in areas with high velocity or turbulent flow. Erosion corrosion attacks are characterized by grooves with a directional pattern. Examples of metals subject to erosion corrosion: • Bronze in seawater • Copper in water

Flow

Fig. 1.6.8: Erosion corrosion

Cavitation corrosion
Cavitation corrosion occurs when a pumped liquid with high velocity reduces the pressure, and it drops below the liquid vapor pressure forming vapor bubbles. In the areas where the vapor bubbles form, the liquid boils. When the pressure rises again, the vapor bubbles collapse and produce intensive shockwaves. Consequently, the collapse of the vapor bubbles remove metal or oxide from the surface. Examples of metals that are subject to cavitation: • Cast iron in water at high temperature • Bronze in seawater
Fig. 1.6.9: Cavitation corrosion

Stress corrosion cracking
Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) refers to the combined influence of tensile stress (applied or internal) and corrosive environment. The material can crack without any significant deformation or obvious deterioration of the material. Often, pitting corrosion is associated with SCC. Examples of metals that are subject to SCC: • Stainless steel AISI 316 (EN 1.4401) in chlorides • Brass in ammonia
Fig. 1.6.10: Stress corrosion cracking

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Corrosion fatigue

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Pure mechanical fatigue occurs when a material subjected to a cyclic load far below the ultimate tensile strength fails. If the metal is simultaneously exposed to a corrosive environment, the failure can take place at an even lower stress and after a shorter period of time. Contrary to a pure mechanical fatigue, there is no fatigue limit in corrosion-assisted fatigue. An example of a metal subject to corrosion fatigue: • Aluminium structures in a corrosive atmosphere

Fig. 1.6.11: Corrosion fatigue

Galvanic corrosion
Galvanic corrosion occurs when a corrosive electrolyte and two metallic materials are in contact (galvanic cell) and corrosion increases on the least noble material (the anode) and decreases on the noblest material (the cathode). The tendency of a metal or an alloy to corrode in a galvanic cell is determined by its position in the galvanic series. The galvanic series indicates the relative nobility of different metals and alloys in a given environment (e.g. seawater, see figure 1.6.13).The farther apart the metals are in the galvanic series, the greater the galvanic corrosion effect will be. Metals or alloys at the upper end are more noble than those at the lower end. Examples of metals that are subject to galvanic corrosion include: • Steel in contact with AISI 316 (EN 1.4401) • Aluminum in contact with copper The principles of galvanic corrosion are used in cathodic protection. Cathodic protection is the reduction or prevention of the corrosion of a metal surface through the use of sacrificial anodes (zinc or aluminum) or impressed currents.
Fig. 1.6.13: Galvanic series for metals and alloys in seawater

Aluminium - less noble Fig. 1.6.12: Galvanic corrosion

Copper - most noble

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1.6.3 Metal and metal alloys
On the following pages, the features of different metals and metal alloys used for construction of pumps are discussed.

Cavitation corrosion of bronze impeller

Ferrous alloys
Ferrous alloys are alloys where iron is the prime constituent. Ferrous alloys are the most common of all materials because of their availability, low cost, and versatility.

Steel
Erosion corrosion of cast iron impeller

Pitting corrosion of AISI 316 (EN 1.4401)

Steel is a widely used material primarily composed of iron alloyed with carbon. The amount of carbon in steel varies in the range from 0.003% to 1.5% by weight. The content of carbon has an important impact on the material’s strength, weldability, machinability, ductility, and hardness. Generally, an increase in carbon content will lead to an increase in strength and hardness but to a decrease in ductility and weldability. The most common type of steel is carbon steel. Carbon steel is grouped into four categories, see figure 1.6.14. Steel is available in wrought and cast grades. Cast steel is closely comparable to wrought; both are relatively inexpensive to make, form, and process but have low corrosion resistance compared to alternative materials such as stainless steel.
0.0394 inch

Type of steel
Low carbon or mild steel Medium carbon steel High carbon steel Very high carbon steel

Content of carbon
0.003% to 0.30% of carbon 0.30% to 0.45% of carbon 0.45% to 0.75% of carbon 0.75% to 1.50% of carbon

Intergranular corrosion of stainless steel

Crevice corrosion of SAF 2205 (EN 1.4462)

Fig 1.6.14: Four types of carbon steel

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Cast iron
Cast iron is an alloy of iron, silicon and carbon. Typically, the concentration of carbon is between 3-4% by weight, most of which is present in insoluble form (e.g. graphite flakes or nodules). The two main types are grey cast iron and nodular (ductile) cast iron. The corrosion resistance of cast iron is comparable to that of steel; and sometimes even better. Cast iron can be alloyed with 13-16% (by weight) silicon or 15-35% (by weight) nickel (Ni-resist) to improve corrosion resistance. Various types of cast irons are widely used in industry, especially for valves, pumps, pipes and automotive parts. Cast iron has good corrosion resistance to neutral and alkaline liquids (high pH) but has poor resistance to acids (low pH).

Nodular (ductile) iron
Nodular iron contains around 0.03-0.05% (by weight) of magnesium. Magnesium causes the flakes to become globular, so the graphite is dispersed throughout a ferrite or pearlite matrix in the form of spheres or nodules. The round shape of nodular graphite reduces the stress concentration and consequently, the material is much more ductile than grey iron. Figure 1.6.16 shows that the tensile strength is higher for nodular iron than for grey iron. Nodular iron is normally used for pump parts with high strength requirements (high pressure or high temperature applications).

Stainless steel
Stainless steel is composed of chromium containing steel alloys. The minimum chromium content in standardized stainless steel is 10.5%. Chromium improves the corrosion resistance of stainless steel. This is due to a chromium oxide film that is formed on the metal surface. This extremely thin layer is self-repairing under the right conditions. Molybdenum, nickel and nitrogen are other examples of typical alloying elements. Alloying with these elements brings out different crystal structures which enable different properties in connection with machining, forming, welding and corrosion resistance. In general, stainless steel has a higher resistance to chemicals (i.e. acids) than steel and cast iron.

Grey iron
In grey iron, the graphite is dispersed throughout a ferrite or pearlite matrix in the form of flakes. Fracture surfaces take on a grey appearance (hence the name). The graphite flakes act as stress concentrators under tensile loads making the material weak and brittle in tension, but strong and ductile in compression. Grey iron is used for the construction of motor blocks because of its high vibration damping ability. Grey iron is an inexpensive material and is relatively easy to cast with a minimal risk of shrinkage. That is why grey iron is often used for pump parts with moderate strength requirements.

ASTM

0

ASTM

150 172 200 207 241 250

EN-GJL-150 EN-GJL-200 EN-GJL-250

GG-15 GG-20 GG-25

50 200 250

A 48 Gr 25A A 48 Gr 30A A 48 Gr 35A -

400 400 430 450 460 500 575

EN-GJS-400-18 EN-GJS-400-15 EN-GJS-450-10 EN-GJS-500-7 -

GGG-40 GGG-40.3 GGG-50 -

400-18 400-15 450-10 500-7 -

A 536 Gr 60-40-18 A 536 Gr 65-45-12 A 536 Gr 80-55-06

Fig 1.6.15: Comparison and designations of grey iron

Fig 1.6.16: Comparison and designations of nodular iron

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In environments containing chlorides, stainless steel can be attacked by localized corrosion, such as pitting corrosion and crevice corrosion. The resistance of stainless steel to these types of corrosion is highly dependent on its chemical composition. It is common to use the so-called Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE) values as a measure of pitting resistance for stainless steel. PRE values are calculated by formulas where the relative influence of a few alloying elements (chromium, molybdenum and nitrogen) on the pitting

resistance is taken into consideration. The higher the PRE, the higher the resistance to localized corrosion. Be aware that the PRE value is a rough estimate of the pitting resistance of a stainless steel and should only be used for comparison/classification of different types of stainless steel. To follow, the four major types of stainless steel: ferritic, martensitic, austenitic and duplex are presented.

Fig 1.6.17: Chemical composition of stainless steel

Chemical composition of stainless steel [w%]
Microstructure Ferritic Martensitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Ferritic/ austenitic Ferritic/ austenitic Microstructure Austenitic 1) Austenitic Austenitic Austenitic Ferritic/ austenitic Ferritic/ austenitic
1) 5)

Designation EN/AISI/UNS 1.4016/430/ S43000 1.4057/431/ S43100 1.4305/303/ S30300 1.4301/304/ S30400 1.4306/304L/ S30403 1.4401/316/ S31600 1.4404/316L/ S31603 1.4571/316Ti/ S31635 1.4539/904L/ N08904 1.4547/none / S 31254 3) 1.4462/ none/ S32205 2) 1.4410/none/ S 32750 4) Designation EN/ASTM/UNS 1.4308/CF8/ J92600 1.4408/CF8M/ J92900 1.4409/CF3M/ J92800 1.4584/none/ none 1.4470/CD3MN/ J92205 1.4517/CD4MCuN/ J93372

% Carbon max. 0.08 0.12-0.22 0.1 0.07 0.03 0.07 0.03 0.08 0.02 0.02 0.03 0.03 % Carbon max. 0.07 0.07 0.03 0.025 0.03 0.03

% Chromium 16-18 15-17 17-19 17-19.5 18-20 16.5-18.5 16.5-18.5 16.5-18.5 19-21 20 21-23 25 % Chromium 18-20 18-20 18-20 19-21 21-23 24.5-26.5
4)

% Nickel

% Molybdenum

% Other

PRE 5) 17

1.5-2.5 8-10 8-10.5 10-12 10-13 10-13 10.5-13.5 24-26 18 4.5-6.5 7 % Nickel 8-11 9-12 9-12 24-26 4.5-6.5 2.5-3.5 2-2.5 2-2.5 4-5 2.5-3.5 2.5-3.5 N max. 0.2 N max. 0.2 Cu 1-3 N 0.12-0.2 N 0.12-0.22 Cu 2.75-3.5 2-2.5 2-2.5 2-2.5 4-5 6.1 2.5-3.5 4 % Molybdenum Ti > 5 x carbon Ti < 0.70 Cu 1.2-2 N 0.18-0.22 Cu 0.5-1 N 0.10-0.22 N 0.24-0.32 % Other S 0.15-0.35

16 18 18 18 24 24 24 34 43 34 43 PRE 19 26 26 35 35 38

1) 1)

Contains some ferrite 2) Also known as SAF 2205, 3) Also known as 254 SMO, Pitting Resistance Equivalent (PRE): Cr% + 3.3xMo% + 16xN%.

Also known as SAF 2507

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Ferritic (magnetic)
Ferritic stainless steel is characterized by good corrosion properties, resistance to stress corrosion cracking, and moderate toughness. Low alloyed ferritic stainless steel is used in mild environments (teaspoons, kitchen sinks, washing machine drums, etc.) where maintenance-free and non-rusting is required. If low carbon grades of stainless steel are used, the risk of sensitization is reduced. Stainless steel with a low content of carbon is referred to as AISI 316L (EN 1.4306), or AISI 304L (EN 1.4404). Both grades contain 0.03% of carbon compared to 0.07% in the regular type of stainless steel, AISI 304 (EN 1.4301) and AISI 316 (EN 1.4401), see illustration 1.6.17. The stabilized grade AISI 316Ti (EN 1.4571) contains a small amount of titanium. Because titanium has a higher affinity for carbon than chromium, the formation of chromium carbides is minimized. The content of carbon is generally low in modern stainless steel, and with the easy availability of ‘L’ grades, the use of stabilized grades has declined significantly.

Martensitic (magnetic)
Martensitic stainless steel is characterized by high strength and limited corrosion resistance. Martensitic steels are used for springs, shafts, surgical instruments and for sharp-edged tools, such as knives and scissors.

Austenitic (non-magnetic)
Austenitic stainless steel is the most common type of stainless steel and is characterized by a high corrosion resistance, good formability, toughness and weldability. Austenitic stainless steel, especially the AISI 304 and AISI 316, are used for almost any type of pump components. This kind of stainless steel can be either wrought or cast. AISI 303 is one of the most popular stainless steel types of all the free machining stainless steel types. Due to its high sulphur content (0.15-0.35 w%), the machinability improves considerably but corrosion resistance and weldability decrease. Over the years, free machining grades with a low sulphur content and a higher corrosion resistance have been developed. If stainless steel is heated up to 932°F - 1472°F for a relatively long period of time during welding, the chromium may form chromium carbides with the carbon in the steel. This reduces chromium’s capability to maintain the passive film and may lead to intergranular corrosion, also referred to as sensitization (see section 1.6.2).

Ferritic-austenitic or duplex (magnetic)
Ferritic-austenitic (duplex) stainless steel is characterized by strength, toughness, high corrosion resistance and excellent resistance to stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue. Ferritic-austenitic stainless steel is typically used in applications that require high strength, high corrosion resistance and low susceptibility to stress corrosion cracking or a combination of these properties. Stainless steel SAF 2205 is widely used for making pump shafts and pump housings.

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Nickel alloys
Nickel based alloys are defined as alloys in which nickel is present in greater proportion than any other alloying element. The most important alloying constituents are iron, chromium, copper, and molybdenum. The alloying constituents make it possible to form a wide range of alloy classes. Nickel and nickel alloys have the ability to withstand a wide variety of severe operating conditions, including corrosive environments, high temperatures, high stresses or a combination of these factors. HastelloyTM alloys are commercial alloys containing nickel, molybdenum, chromium, and iron. Nickel based alloys - such as InconelTM Alloy 625, HastelloyTM C-276 and C-22 - are corrosion resistant, not subject to pitting or crevice corrosion in low velocity seawater and do not suffer from erosion at high velocity. The price of nickel based alloy limits its use in certain applications. Nickel alloys are available in both wrought and cast grades. However, nickel alloys are more difficult to cast than the common carbon steels and stainless steel alloys. Nickel alloys are often used for pump parts in the chemical process industry.

Copper alloys
Pure copper has excellent thermal and electrical properties but is a very soft and ductile material. Alloying additions result in different cast and wrought materials suitable for use in the production of pumps, pipelines, fittings, pressure vessels and for many marine, electrical and general engineering applications.

1) Lead can be added as an alloying element to improve machinability. 2) Bronze can be alloyed with aluminium to increase strength. Fig 1.6.18: Common types of copper alloys

Brasses are the most widely used of the copper alloys because of their low cost and easy or inexpensive fabrication and machining. However, they are inferior in strength to bronzes and must not be used in environments that cause dezincification. Red brass, bronze and copper nickels, compared to cast iron, have a high resistance to chlorides in aggressive liquids, such as seawater. In such environments, brass is unsuitable because of its tendency to desincificate. All copper alloys have poor resistance to alkaline liquids (high pH), ammonia, and sulfides and are sensitive to erosion. Brass, red brass and bronze are widely used for making bearings, impellers and pump housings.

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Aluminum
Pure aluminum is a light and soft metal with a density of about a third of that of steel. Pure aluminum has a high electrical and thermal conductivity. The most common alloying elements are silicon (silumin), magnesium, iron and copper. Silicon increases the material’s castability, copper increases its machinability, and magnesium increases its corrosion resistance and strength. An advantage of aluminum is its ability to generate a protective oxide film that is highly corrosion resistant if it is exposed to the atmosphere. Treatment, such as anodizing, can further improve this property. Aluminum alloys are widely used in structures where a high strength to weight ratio is important, such as in the transportation industry. The use of aluminum in vehicles and aircrafts reduces weight and energy consumption. A disadvantage of aluminum is its instability at low or high pH or in chloride-containing environments. This property makes aluminum unsuitable for exposure to aqueous solutions, especially under conditions with high flow. This is further emphasized by the fact that aluminum is a reactive metal, i.e. has a low position in the galvanic series and may easily suffer from galvanic corrosion if coupled to nobler metals and alloys (see section on galvanic corrosion pg. 64).
Designation
1000-series 2000-series 3000-series 4000-series 5000-series 6000-series 7000-series 8000-series

Titanium
Pure titanium has a low density, is quite ductile and has a relatively low strength. When a limited amount of oxygen is added, it will strengthen titanium and produce commercial-pure grades. Additions of various alloying elements, such as aluminum and vanadium, increase its strength significantly but at the expense of ductility. The aluminum and vanadium-alloyed titanium (Ti-6Al-4V) is the “workhorse” alloy of the titanium industry. It is used in many aerospace engine and airframe components. Because titanium is a high-price material, it is seldom used for making pump components. Titanium is a reactive material. Like stainless steel, titanium’s corrosion resistance depends on the formation of an oxide film. Titanium’s oxide film is more protective than stainless steel’s. Therefore, titanium performs much better than stainless steel in aggressive liquids, such as seawater, wet chlorine or organic chlorides, where pitting and crevice corrosion can occur.

Major alloying element
CP: commercial pure (titanium content above 99.5%)

Unalloyed (pure) >99% Al Copper is the principal alloying element, though other elements (magnesium) may be specified Manganese is the principal alloying element Silicon is the principal alloying element Magnesium is the principal alloying element Magnesium and silicon are principal alloying elements Zinc is the principal alloying element, but other elements, such as copper, magnesium, chromium, and zirconium may be specified Other elements (including tin and some lithium compositions)

Fig 1.6.20: Titanium grades and alloy characteristics

Fig 1.6.19: Major alloying elements of aluminum

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1.6.4 Ceramics
Ceramic materials are composed of metallic and non-metallic elements and are typically crystalline in nature. Common technical ceramics are aluminum oxide (alumina - Al2O3), silicon carbide (SiC), tungsten carbide (WC), and silicon nitride (Si3N4). Ceramics are suitable for applications requiring high thermal stability, strength, wear resistance, and corrosion resistance. Disadvantages of ceramics include low ductility and high tendency for brittle fractures. Ceramics are mainly used for making bearings and seal faces for shaft seals.

Thermoplastics
Thermoplastic polymers consist of long polymer molecules that are not cross-linked to each other. They are often supplied as granules and heated to permit fabrication by methods such as molding or extrusion. A wide range is available from low-cost commodity plastics (e.g. PE, PP, PVC) to high cost engineering thermoplastics (e.g. PEEK) and chemical resistant fluoropolymers (e.g. PTFE, PVDF). PTFE is one of the few thermoplastics that is not meltprocessable. Thermoplastics are widely used for making pump housings or for lining of pipes and pump housings.

1.6.5 Plastics
Some plastics are derived from natural substances like plants but most types are synthetic. Most synthetic plastics come from crude oil, but coal and natural gas are also used. There are two main types of plastics: Thermoplastics and thermosets (thermosetting plastics), with thermoplastics being the most common used worldwide. Plastics often contain additives which transfer additional properties to the material. Furthermore, plastics can be reinforced with fiberglass or other fibers. These plastics, together with additives and fibers, are also referred to as composites. Examples of additives found in plastics: • Inorganic fillers for mechanical reinforcement • Chemical stabilizers, e.g. antioxidants • Plasticizers • Flame retardants
Abbreviation
PP PE PVC PEEK PVDF PTFE* *Trade name: Teflon®

Thermosets
Thermosets harden permanently when heated, as cross-linking hinders bending and rotations. Cross-linking is achieved during fabrication using chemicals, heat, or radiation; a process called curing or vulcanization. Thermosets are harder, more dimensionally stable and brittle than thermoplastics and cannot be remelted. Some thermosets include epoxies, polyesters, and polyurethanes. Thermosets are, among other things, used for surface coatings.

Linear polymer chains

Thermoplastics

Branched polymer chains

Polymer name
Polypropylene Polyethylene Polyvinylchloride Polyetheretherketone Polyvinylidene fluoride Polytetrafluoroethylene
Weakly cross-linked polymer chains

Elastomers

Thermosets
Strongly cross-linked polymer chains

Fig 1.6.21: Overview of polymer names

Fig 1.6.22: Different types of polymers

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1.6.6 Rubber
The term rubber includes both natural rubber and synthetic rubber. Rubbers, also known as elastomers, are flexible long-chain polymers that can be stretched easily to several times their length. Rubbers are cross-linked (vulcanized) but have a low cross-link density, see figure 1.6.22. The crosslink is the key to the elastic or rubbery properties of these materials. The elasticity provides resilience in sealing applications. Different components in a pump are made of rubber, such as gaskets and Orings (see section 1.3 on shaft seals). In this section, the different kinds of rubber qualities and their main properties, in regards to temperature and resistance to different kinds of liquid groups, will be presented.

Ethylene-propylelediene rubber
Ethylene propylelediene (EPDM) has excellent water resistance which is maintained to approximately 248-284°F. This rubber type has good resistance to acids, strong alkalis and polar fluids such as methanol and acetone. It has very poor resistance to mineral oil and fuel.

Fluoroelastomers
Fluoroelastomers (FKM) cover a whole family of rubbers designed to withstand oil, fuel and a wide range of chemicals including non-polar solvents. FKM offers excellent resistance to high temperatures (up to 392°F depending on the grade) in air and different types of oil. FKM rubbers have limited resistance to steam, hot water, methanol, and other polar fluids. This type of rubber also has poor resistance to amines, strong alkalis and many freons. There are standard and special grades - the latter have improved low-temperature properties or chemical resistance.

Nitrile rubber
At temperatures up to about 212°F, nitrile rubber (NBR) is an inexpensive material that has a high resistance to oil and fuel. Different grades of nitrile rubber exist - the higher the acetonitrile (ACN) content, the higher the oil resistance but the poorer the low-temperature flexibility. Nitrile rubbers have high resilience and high-wear resistance but only moderate strength. Further, this rubber has limited weathering resistance and poor solvent resistance. It can generally be used at about -22°F, but certain grades can operate at lower temperatures.

Silicone rubber
Silicone rubbers (Q) have outstanding properties, such as low compression set in a wide range of temperatures (from -76°F to 392°F in air), excellent electrical insulation and non-toxic. Silicone rubbers are resistant to water, some acids and oxidizing chemicals. Concentrated acids, alkalines and solvents should not be used with silicone rubbers. In general, these rubber types have poor oil and fuel resistance. However, the FMQ silicone rubber resistance to oil and fuel is better than that of types MQ, VMQ, and PMQ.

AbbreviationCommon types of copper alloys Examples of Common name trade name NBR EPDM, EPM FKM MQ, VMQ, PMQ, FMQ FFKM Nitrile rubber Ethylene-propylelediene Fluoroelastomers Silicone rubber Perfluoroelastomers Buna-N Nordel® Viton® Siloprene
®

Perfluoroelastomers
Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) have very high chemical resistance, almost comparable to that of PTFE (polytetrafluorethylene, e.g. Teflon®). They can be used in high temperatures, but their disadvantages are difficult processing, very high cost and limited use at low temperatures.

Chemraz® Kalrez®

Fig 1.6.23: Rubber types

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1.6.7 Coatings
Protective coatings such as metallic, non-metallic (inorganic) or organic coatings, are a common method of corrosion control. The main function of coatings, aside from galvanic coatings such as zinc, is to provide a barrier between the metal substrate and its environment. They allow for the use of normal steel or aluminum instead of more expensive materials. In the following section, the possibilities of preventing corrosion by means of different coatings will be examined.

To protect the base steel, zinc coating sacrifices itself slowly by galvanic action.

Steel coated with a more noble metal, such as nickel, corrodes more rapidly if the coating is damaged.

Fig 1.6.24: Galvanic vs. barrier corrosion protection

Metallic coatings
There are two types of metallic coatings. One is where the coating is less noble than the substrate, and the other, electroplating, is where a more noble metal is applied to the substrate as a barrier layer.

Metallic coatings less noble than the substrate
Zinc coatings are commonly used for the protection of steel structures against atmospheric corrosion. Zinc has two functions. It acts as a barrier coating, and it provides galvanic protection. Should an exposed area of steel occur, the zinc surface preferentially corrodes at a slow rate and protects the steel. The preferential protection is referred to as cathodic protection. When damage is minimal, the protective corrosion products of zinc will fill the exposed area and stop the attack.

Metallic coatings nobler than the substrate
Electroplating of nickel and chromium coatings on steel are nobler than the substrate. Unlike galvanic coatings where the coating corrodes near areas where the base metal is exposed, any void or damage in a barrier coating can lead to an immediate base metal attack.

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Non-metallic coatings (conversion coatings)
Conversion coatings are included in non-metallic coatings, also known as inorganic coatings. Conversion coatings are formed by a controlled corrosion reaction of the substrate in an oxidized solution. Examples of conversion coatings are anodizing or chromating of aluminum and phosphate treatment of steel. Anodizing is mainly used for surface protection of aluminum, while chromating and phosphating are usually used for pre-treatment to improve paint adhesion and to help prevent the spreading of rust under layers of paint.

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Paints
As mentioned, paints are an important class of organic coating. Figure 1.6.25 shows several types of organic coatings. A typical paint formulation contains polymeric binders, solvents, pigments and additives. For environmental reasons, organic solvents are often replaced by water or simply eliminated, as in powder coating. Painted metal structures usually involve two or more layers of coating applied on a primary coating, which is in direct contact with the metal.

Organic coatings
Organic coatings contain organic compounds and are available in a wide range of different types. Organic coatings are applied to the metal by methods of spraying, dipping, brushing, lining or electro-coating (paint applied by means of electric current). They may or may not require heat-curing. Both thermoplastic coatings (i.e. polyamide, polypropylene, polyethylene, PVDF and PTFE) and elastomer coatings are applied to metal substrates to combine the mechanical properties of metal with the chemical resistance of plastics, but paints are by far the most widely used organic coating.

Physical states of common organic coatings
Resin type Acrylic Alkyd Epoxy Polyester Polyurethane Vinyl Solvent- Water- Powder based based coating X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X Two comp. liquid

Fig 1.6.25: Physical states of common organic coatings

74

Chapter 2. Installation and performance reading

Section 2.1: Pump installation
2.1.1 2.1.2 2.1.3 2.1.4 2.1.5 New installation Existing installation-replacement Pipe flow for single-pump installation Limitation of noise and vibrations Sound level

Section 2.2: Pump performance
2.2.1 Hydraulic terms 2.2.2 Electrical terms 2.2.3 Liquid properties

Section 2.1 Pump installation

Accuracy of suited pump type for an installation has significant impact on optimum operation. The larger the pumps, the greater the costs with respect to investment, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance – basically the life cycle costs (LCC). An extensive product portfolio combined with competent advice and after-sales service is the foundation of a proper selection. The following analysis, recommendations and pump tips are general for any installation but, to a greater extent, relevant for medium to large sized installations. Recommendations for new and existing installations follow.

2.1.2 Existing installation–replacement
Tips for optimum pump selection for existing installation follows.

Pre-investigation of the installation should include: • Basic pipe flow – pipes in and out of the building, e.g.
from the ground, along the floor or from the ceiling

• Specific pipework at the point of installation, e.g.
in-line or end-suction, dimensions, manifolds Space availability – width, depth and height Accessibility for maintenance, i.e., doorways Availability/accessibility of lift equipment Floor type, e.g. solid or suspended floor with basement • Existing foundation • Existing electrical installation

• • • •

2.1.1 New installation
• If the pipework has not been planned, the selection
of a pump type can be based on other primary criteria, such as efficiency, investment costs or lifecycle costs (LCC). This will be covered in a later section.

Previous pump installation • Pump make, type, specifications including old duty
point, shaft seal, materials, gaskets, controlling

• History, e.g. lifetime, maintenance Future requirements • Desired improvements and benefits • New selection criteria including duty points and
operating times, temperature, pressure, liquid specs • Supplier criteria, e.g. availability of spare parts

• If the pipework has been planned, pump selection
is equivalent to pump replacement in an existing installation.

Advisory • Major changes might be beneficial in long or short
term and should be documented, e.g. installation savings, life cycle costs (LCC), reduced environmental impact (noise, vibration accessibility for maintenance)

Selection • Should be based on priorities agreed to by customer
For the selection of correct pump type and installation advice, two main areas are important: Pipe flow and limitation of noise and vibrations. This will be dealt with on the following pages.

76

2.1.3 Pipe flow for single-pump installation
Figure 2.1.1 is based on single-pump installation. In parallel installations, accessibility plays a major role for suitability of a pump choice. Simple pipework with few bends as possible is the criteria for pump choice in a single-pump installation.

Scores: Best choice Good choice Acceptable choice Not applicable

Pump type

Pipework
To the pump: From the pump: Along floor Along floor To ground To ceiling Along floor From ground To ground To ceiling Along floor From ceiling To ground To ceiling Wallmounted Wallmounted

A. In-line close-coupled (horizontal or vertical mounting)

B. End-suction close- coupled (horizontal or vertical mounting)

C. End-suction long-coupled (only horizontal mounting)

Best choice Best choice Good choice Good choice Good choice Good choice Best choice Best choice Good choice Best choice

Good choice Good choice Best choice Best choice Best choice Best choice Acceptable choice Good choice Best choice Good choice

Good choice Good choice Best choice Acceptable choice Acceptable choice Best choice Acceptable choice Good choice Best choice Not applicable

Fig. 2.1.1 Pipework and pump type

77

Section 2.1 Pump installation

Accessibility plays a major role in how well a specific pump choice is suited to an installation of several pumps in parallel. In-line pumps installed in parallel do not always provide the best accessibility because of the pipwork, see figure 2.1.2. End-suction pumps installed in parallel provide better accessibility, see figure 2.1.3.
Fig. 2.1.2: Three in-line pumps in parallel; limited maintenance access because of pipework

2.1.4 Limitation of noise and vibrations
To achieve optimum operation and minimize noise and vibration, vibration dampening of the pump may be necessary. Generally, this should be considered for pumps with motors above 7.5 hp. Smaller motor sizes, however, may also cause noise and vibration due to rotation in the motor and pump and by the flow in pipes and fittings. The effect on the environment depends on correct installation and the condition of the entire system. Three ways to limit noise and vibration in a pump installation are: Foundation considerations, dampeners and expansion joints.

Fig. 2.1.3: Three end-suction pumps in parallel; easier maintenance access because of pipework Floor Solid ground

Foundation
Floor constructions can be solid or suspended.
Fig. 2.1.4: Solid floor construction

Solid – minimum risk of noise due to low transmission of vibrations, see figure 2.1.4. Suspended – risk of floor amplifying the noise. Basement can act as a resonance box, see figure 2.1.5. The pump should be installed on a plane on a rigid surface. There are four basic installations for the two types of floor constructions: Floor, foundation, floating foundation and foundation suspended on vibration dampeners.
Fig. 2.1.5: Suspended floor construction Wall

Floor
Ground floor

Basement

Floor Solid ground

78

Floor Direct mounting on floor, hence direct vibration transmission, see figure 2.1.6.

Fig. 2.1.6: Floor

Floor

Base plate Pump unit

Foundation Poured directly on concrete floor, see figure 2.1.7.

Fig. 2.1.7: Foundation

Floor

Foundation Base plate Pump unit

Floating foundation Resting on a dead material, e.g. sand, hence reduced risk of transmitting vibration, see figure 2.1.8.

Fig. 2.1.8: Floating foundation

Floor Sand

Foundation Base plate Pump unit

Foundation suspended on vibration dampeners Optimum solution with controlled vibration transmission, see figure 2.1.9. The weight of a concrete foundation should be 1.5 x the pump weight. This weight is needed to get the dampeners to work efficiently at low pump speed.

Fig. 2.1.9: Foundation suspended on vibration dampeners

Floor Vibration dampeners Foundation Base plate Pump unit

Pump unit

Fig. 2.1.10: The same foundation rules apply to vertical in-line pumps

Foundation Vibration dampeners Floor

79

Section 2.1 Pump installation

Dampeners
Vibration dampener selection requires the following data:

pressure loss on the pressure side. At high water velocities (16.4 ft/s or greater), it is best to install larger expansion joints, corresponding to the pipework.

• Forces acting on the dampener • Motor speed with consideration of speed control • Required dampening in % (suggested value is 70%)
Dampener selection varies from installation to installation. An incorrect selection may increase the vibration level. The supplier should, therefore, size vibration dampeners. Pumps installed with vibration dampeners should always have expansion joints fitted at both the suction and the discharge side to prevent the pump from being supported by the flanges.
Expansion joint Foundation Pump unit

Base plate Vibration dampeners Floor

Expansion joints
Expansion joints are installed to:

Fig. 2.1.11: Installation with expansion joints, vibration dampeners and fixed pipework

• Absorb expansions/contractions in the pipework
caused by liquid temperature changes

• Reduce mechanical strain in connection with
pressure waves in the pipework

• Isolate mechanical noise in the pipework (not for
metal bellows expansion joints) Expansion joints should not be installed to compensate for inaccuracies in the pipework, such as center displacement or misalignment of flanges. Expansion joints are fitted at a minimum distance of 1 to 1.5 times the pipe diameter from the pump on the suction side as well as on the discharge side. This prevents the development of turbulence in the expansion joints, resulting in better suction conditions and a minimum

80

Figures 2.1.12-2.1.14 show examples of rubber bellows expansion joints with or without tie bars. Expansion joints with tie bars can be used to minimize the forces caused by the expansion joints and are recommended for sizes larger than four inches. An expansion joint without tie bars will exert force on the pump flanges, which in turn affects the pump and the pipework. The pipes must be fixed so that they do not stress the expansion joints and the pump, see figure 2.1.11. The fixed points should always be placed as close to the expansion joints as possible. Follow the expansion joint supplier’s instructions. At temperatures above 212°F combined with a high pressure, metal bellows expansion joints are often preferred, due to the risk of rupture.
Lp (dB) 120 Pain threshold Threshold of hearing Music Speech 40 20 0

Fig. 2.1.12: Rubber bellows expansion joints with tie bars

Fig. 2.1.13: Rubber bellows expansion joints without tie bars

Fig. 2.1.14: Metal bellows expansion joints with tie bars

2.1.5 Sound level
The sound level (L) in a system is measured in decibel (dB). Noise is unwanted sound. The level of noise can be measured in the following three ways: 1. Pressure – Lp : The pressure of the air waves 2. Power – Lw : The power of the sound 3. Intensity - Ll: The power per m2 (will not be covered in this book) It is not possible to compare the three values directly, but it is possible to calculate between them based on standards. A rule-of-thumb is:

100 80 60

20

50 100 200 500Hz 1

2

5

Fig. 2.1.15: Threshold of hearing vs. frequency

10 20kHz Frequency kHz

Smaller pumps, e.g. 2 hp: Lw = LP + 11 dB Larger pumps, e.g. 150 hp: Lw = LP + 16 dB

81

Section 2.1 Pump installation

Sound levels are indicated as pressure when they are below 85 dB(A) and as power when exceeding 85 dB(A). Noise is subjective and depends on a person´s ability to hear. Therefore, the above mentioned measurements get weight according to the sensitivity of a standard ear, see figure 2.1.15. The weighting is known as A-weighting [dB(A)], expressed as: LpA, and the measurements are adjusted depending on frequency. In some cases the weighting increases and in other cases it decreases, see figure 2.1.16. Other weightings are known as B and C but they are used for other purposes not covered in this book. In the case of two or more pumps in operation, the sound level can be calculated. If the pumps have the same sound level, the total sound level can be calculated by adding the value, see figure 2.1.17. For example, two pumps is Lp + 3 dB, three pumps is Lp + 5 dB. If the pumps have different sound levels, values from figure 2.1.18 can be added. Indications of sound level should normally be stated as free field conditions over reflecting surface, meaning the sound level on a hard floor with no walls. Guaranteeing values in a specific room in a specific pipe system is difficult because these values are beyond the reach of the manufacturer. Certain conditions could have a negative impact (increased sound level) or a positive impact on the sound level. Recommendations to installation and foundation can be given to eliminate or reduce the negative impact of sound level.

dB (A)

10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 -70 -80 10 100 1000 10000 Hz

Fig. 2.1.16 A-weighting curve

15

10

5

4

8

12

16

20

24

Fig. 2.1.17 Increase of the total sound pressure level with equal sources

3 2.5 2 1.5

Experience values:
1

Rise of + 3 dB + 5 dB +10 dB

Perceived as: Slightly noticeable Clearly noticeable Twice as loud

0.5

2

4

6

8

10

Fig. 2.1.18 Increase of the total sound pressure level with different sources

82

Section 2.2 Pump performance

When examining a pump, several things should be evaluated. For example, if the pump is rusty or makes abnormal noise, a number of values must be identified in order to determine if the pump is performing properly. On the next pages, three values are presented for examining a pump’s performance: Hydraulic terms, electrical terms, mechanical terms and liquid properties.

2.2.1 Hydraulic terms
Flow, pressure and head are the most important hydraulic terms pertinent to pump performance.

Flow
Flow is the amount of liquid that passes through a pump within a certain period of time. Volume flow and mass flow are the two flow parameters considered for a performance reading.

Q Qm = ρ . Q ; Q = m ρ
Examples Volume flow Q Density Mass flow Qm Unit GPM lb/ft3 lb/h lb/s 62.30 22000 6.1 Water at 68°F at 248°F 44.02 58.86 20730 5.7

Volume flow
Volume flow (Q) is read from a pump curve - or, put in another way, a pump can move a given volume per unit of time, measured in gallons per minute, no matter the density of the liquid. For water supply, for example, volume flow is the most important parameter because a certain volume of water is needed for drinking or irrigation. Throughout this book the term flow refers to volume flow.

Fig. 2.2.1: Calculation examples

Mass flow
Mass flow (Qm) is the mass which a pump moves per unit of time and is measured in pounds per second. The liquid temperature has an influence on how big a mass flow can move per unit of time since the liquid density changes with the temperature. In heating, cooling and air-conditioning systems, the mass flow is essential to identify because the mass is the carrier of energy (see section on Heat Capacity).

83

Section 2.2 Pump performance

Pressure
Pressure (p) is a measure of force per unit area. Total pressure is the sum of the static pressure and the dynamic pressure:

Later in this chapter, dynamic pressure in connection with determining the head of a pump will be discussed.

psta psta

ptot psta ptot

pdyn

Static pressure
Static pressure psta is the pressure measured with a 1 pressure gauge placed perpendicular to the flow or 2 in a non-moving liquid, see figure 2.2.2.

Q

ptot

Fig. 2.2.2: How to determine the static pressure Psta, the dynamic pressure Pdyn and the total pressure Ptot

Dynamic pressure 1 2 Dynamic pressure p is caused by liquid velocity and is
dyn

calculated by the following formula:

1 2
where: ρ is the density of the 1 liquid in [lb/ft3] v is the velocity of the2 liquid in [ft/s] Dynamic pressure can be converted into static pressure by reducing the liquid velocity and vice versa. Figure 2.2.3 shows a part of a system where the pipe diameter increases from D1 to D2 resulting in a decrease in liquid speed from v1 to v2. Assuming that there is no friction 1 loss in the system, the sum of the static pressure and 2 the dynamic pressure is constant throughout the horizontal pipe.
D1 v1

p1

p2

v2

D2

A P

B
ptot psta

pdyn

Fig. 2.2.3: The static pressure increases if the liquid velocity is reduced. The figure applies for a system with insignificant friction loss

1 2
So, an increase in pipe diameter, as the one shown in figure 2.2.2 results in an increase in the static head which is measured with the pressure gauge p2. In most pumping systems, the dynamic pressure pdyn has a minor impact on the total pressure. For example, if the velocity of a water flow is 14.7 ft/s, the dynamic pressure is around 1.45 psi, which is considered insignificant in many pumping systems.

84

H(m) 12 10 8 6 4 2

Duty point for diesel at 20°C Duty point for water at 95°C Duty point for water at 20°C Duty point for brine at 20°C

Measuring pressure
Pressure is measured in psi (Ib/in²), or bar (105 Pa). When dealing with pressure, it is important to know the point of reference for the pressure measurement. Two types of pressure are essential with pressure measurement: Absolute pressure and gauge pressure.
designation 1 psi 1 kPa 1 feet of H2O 1 m of H2O 1 m H 2O 1 0.145 0.4335 1.422 14.696 psi kPa 6.895 1 2.969 9.806 ft of H2O m of H2O 2.307 0.335 1 3.281 33.5 0.703 0.102 0.305 1 10.333 10.197

Q

Conversion table for pressure units
atm 0.068 0.0097 0.0295 0.097 1 0.987 bar 0.069 0.01 0.03 0.098 1.013 1

101.325 33.9 100

Absolute pressure
Absolute pressure (Pabs) is defined as the pressure above absolute vacuum, 0 atmospheres, that is the absolute zero for pressure. Usually, “absolute pressure” is used in cavitation calculations.

1 bar 14.504 * Physical atmosphere

Fig. 2.2.4: Conversion table for pressure units

Gauge pressure
Gauge pressure (Pg), often referred to as overpressure, is higher than normal atmospheric pressure (1 atm). Normally, pressure p is stated as gauge pressure because most sensor and pressure gauge measurements account for the pressure difference between the system and the atmosphere. Throughout this book the term pressure refers to gauge pressure.
26.1 ft 34.1ft 35.4 ft 42.5 ft

Brine at 68°F SG = 1.3 14.7 psi = 26.1 ft
14.7 psi

Water at 68°F SG = 0.997 14.7 psi = 34.1ft
14.7 psi

Water at 203°F SG = 0.96 14.7 psi = 35.4 ft
14.7 psi

Diesel oil at 68°F SG = 0.80 14.7 psi = 42.5 ft
14.7 psi

Head

1 The head (H) of a pump 2 an expression of how high is
the pump can raise a liquid. Head is measured in feet (ft) and is independent of the liquid density. The 1 following formula shows the relationship between 2 pressure (p) and head (H):

Fig. 2.2.5: Pumping four different liquids at 14.7 psi at the Duty point for diesel at 20°C 12 discharge side of the pump results in four different heads Duty point for water at 95°C 10 (ft), hence four different duty points Duty point for water at 20°C
8 6 4 2

H(m)

Duty point for brine at 20°C

Q

2.307 SG
where : H is the head in [ft] p is the pressure in psi2.31 SG is the specific gravity ofSG liquid the Pressure p is measured in [psi].

Conversion table for pressure units
designation 1 psi 1 kPa 1 feet of H2O 1 m of H2O 1 m H2O 1 0.145 0.4335 1.422 14.696 psi kPa 6.895 1 2.969 9.806 ft of H2O m of H2O 2.307 0.335 1 3.281 33.5 0.703 0.102 0.305 1 10.333 10.197 atm 0.068 0.0097 0.0295 0.097 1 0.987 bar 0.069 0.01 0.03 0.098 1.013 1

101.325 33.9 100

1 bar 14.504 * Physical atmosphere

Other pressure units are used as well, see figure 2.2.4. The relationship between pressure and head is shown in figure 2.2.5, where a pump handles four different liquids.

0.4085

2.31 SG

0.4085 Q

85

Section 2.2 Pump performance

How to determine the head
The pump head is determined by reading the pressure 1 on the flanges of the pump p2, p1 and then converting 2 the values into head, see figure 2.2.6. However, if a static difference in head is present between the two measuring points, as it is in the case in figure 2.2.6, it is necessary to 1 compensate 2 the difference. And if the port dimensions for of the two measuring points differ from one another, the actual head has to be corrected for this as well. The correction due to the difference in port diameter is caused by the difference in the dynamic pressure. Instead of calculating the correction from the formula, the contribution can be read in a nomogram, see appendix F.
v2 D2 p2 v1 h2 h1

1 The actual pump head H is calculated by the following 2 formula: 2.31 SG 1 2
where : H is the actual pump head in [ft] 2.307 0.4085 p is the pressure at the flanges in [ft] SG SG is the specific gravity of the liquid g is the acceleration of gravity in [ft/s2] h is the static height2.31 in [ft] v is the liquid velocity in [ft/s] SG

2.307 SG

D1 p1

Fig. 2.2.6: Standard end-suction pump with dimension difference on suction and discharge ports

v2 = 5.43 m/s2 D2= 125 mm p2 = 1.1 bar

h2 - h1 = 355 mm D1 = 150 mm v1 = 3.77 m/s2 p1 = 0.5 bar

2.31 1 0.4085 Q 2 SG The liquid velocity v is calculated by the following
formula:
1 2

0.4085

where: v is the2.307 2.31 [ft/s] velocity in SG SG Q is the volume flow in [GPM] D is the port diameter in [in] 2.31 A is the area SG 2.31
SG

0.4085 Q 0.4085 Q

1 H, depends on Combining these two formulas, head,0.4085 1057 the 1.0 4.9 5.9 following factors: The pressure measurements p1 and p2, the difference in0.4085 height between the measuring static 2.31 0.4085 points h2-h1, the flow through the pump Q, and the Q SG and D . diameter of the two ports D1 2
2.31 SG

2.31 (15.9 - 7.25)

2.31 (15.9 - 7.25) 1.0

0.4085 Q

1

0.4085 1057

4.9

5.9

2.31 SG
86

0.4085 Q

1 2 1 2
2 2.307 A pump of the same type as the one shown in figure 2.2.7 SG is installed in a system with the following data: 1 2 Q = 1057 GPM 2.31 SG p1 = 7.25 psi 2.307 p2 = 15.9 psi SG Liquid: Water at 680F 0.4085 Suction port diameter D1 = 6 in 2.31 Discharge SG diameter D2 = 5 in port The difference in height between the two ports where the pressure gauges are installed is h2-h1 = 1 ft 2.31 0.4085 Q 0.4085 SGable to calculate the head of the pump: We are now 1 Calculation example

v2 = 17.8 ft/s2 D2= 4.9 in p2 = 15.9 psi

h2 - h1 = 1 ft D1 = 5.9 in v1 = 12.3 ft/s2 p1 = 7.25 psi

Fig. 2.2.7: Standard end-suction pump with different dimensions of suction and discharge ports (Example)

2.31

SG

0.4085 Q 0.4085 Q

2.31 (15.9 - 7.25) 2.31 1.0 SG

1

0.4085 1057 0.4085 Q

4.9

5.9

2.31 (15.9 - 7.25) 19.98 1.0

1 1 5.82 26.80 ft 0.4085 1057

4.9

5.9

As it appears from the calculation, the pressure difference measured by pressure gauges is about 1 ft lower than what the pump is actually performing. The deviation is caused by the difference in height between the pressure gauges (1 ft) and by the difference in port dimensions, which in this case is 1 inch.

87

Section 2.2 Pump performance

If the pressure gauges are placed at the same static height or if a differential pressure gauge is used for the measurement, it is not necessary to compensate for the difference in height (h2-h1). With in-line pumps, where inlet and outlet are placed at the same level, the two ports often have the same diameter. For these types of pumps a simplified formula is used to determine the head:

p1

p2

h1

h2

2.31 ( SG

H = head in ft P = psi SG = specific gravity

Differential pressure
The differential pressure (∆p) is the pressure difference between the pressures measured at two points, that is, the pressure drops across valves in a system. Differential pressure is measured in the same units as pressure.

System pressure
The system pressure is the static pressure, which refers to when the pumps are not running. System pressure is important to consider when dealing with a closed system. The system pressure, measured in feet in the lowest point, must always be higher than the height of the system to ensure that the system is filled with liquid and can be vented properly.

88

(

Fig.2.2.7.a: Inline pump with same static height on inlet and outlet. h2 = h1

Dry cooler

h
Chiller Hsyst Hsyst > h

Fig.2.2.8: The system pressure Hsta in a closed system has to be higher than the physical height of the installation

Cavitation
Cavitation in a pump occurs when the suction pressure is lower than the vapor pressure of the liquid pumped, see figures 2.2.9 and 2.2.10. When the pressure on the suction side of the pump drops below the vapor pressure of the pumped liquid (figure 2.2.10 yellow dot), vapor bubbles form. As the pressure in the pump rises, the bubbles collapse releasing shock waves (figure 2.2.10 red dot) which can damage impellers. The rate of damage depends on the properties of the impeller material. Stainless steel is more resistent to cavitation than bronze, and bronze is more resistant than cast iron, see section 1.6.3. Additional damage to bearings, shaft seals and welds may occur due to increased noise and vibration caused by cavitation. This damage is often only detected when the pump is disassembled. Pump performance is harmed by cavitation due to decreases in both flow (Q) and head (H), see figure 2.2.11.

hmax = Maximum suction head Hb = Atmospheric pressure at the pump site; this is the theoretical maximum suction lift, see figure 2.2.13 Hf = Friction loss in the suction pipe NPSHr = Net Positive Suction Head read at the NPSH curve at the highest operational flow, see figure 2.2.12.

a = Front of impeller vanes b = Back of impeller vanes

a b
Imploding vapor bubbles Fig.: 2.2.9: Implosion of cavitation bubbles on the back of impeller vanes
p

Pressure [Pa]

Net Positive Suction Head

H

H

a

b

a = Front of impeller vanes b = Back of impeller vanes

To calculate the risk of cavitation, the Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHr) for the pump is compared with the Net Positive Suction Head Available (NPSHa) of the system. NPSHr, which is the amount of suction head required to ensure the pump performs at full capacity, is determined by the manufacturer and typically included on the performance curve. NPSHa is a function of the system in which the pump will be applied and is calculated as follows:

p1
Vapor pressure

p

NPSH
Impeller inlet Impeller outlet

Q Fig.: Q 2.2.10: Development of pressure through a centrifugal

pump

H

Hb = Barometric Pressure, in feet absolute Hs = Suction Head, in feet absolute (positive or negative) Hf = Friction loss in suction piping, in feet absolute Vp = Vapor pressure at the maximum operating temperature, in feet absolute
H

NPSHa = Hb + Hs — Hf — Vp

Curve when pump cavitates

Q

Fig.: 2.2.11: Pump curve when pump cavitates

H

NPSHa must be greater than the NPSHr to avoid cavitation.

Calculation of the risk of cavitation
To avoid cavitation, the following formula is used to calculate the maximum suction head:

NPSH

hmax = Hb — Hf — NPSHr — Hv — Hs

Q Fig.: 2.2.12: NPSH - curve H

Q

89

Section 2.2 Pump performance

The NPSH value indicates to what extent the pump is unable to create absolute vacuum, that is to raise a full water column 33.89 ft above sea level, see figure 2.2.13. NPSH can either be considered in terms of NPSHr (required) or NPSHa (available). NPSHrequired The required suction head for the pump NPSHavailable The available suction head in the system The NPSH value of a pump is determined by Hydraulic Institute testing standards and is made as follows. The suction head is reduced while the flow is kept at a constant level. When the differential pressure has decreased by 3%, the pressure at the pump’s suction side is read and the NPSH value of the pump is defined. The testing is repeated at different flows, forming the basis of the NPSH curve. Hv – Vapor pressure of the liquid. For more information concerning vapor pressure of water, go to Appendix D. Hs – Safety factor. Hs depends on the situation and normally varies between 1.5 ft and 3 ft. For typical curve for liquid containing gas see figure 2.2.15.

Height above sea level (ft) 0 1640.4 3280.8 6561.6

Barometric pressure p (psi)
b

Water column H (ft)
b

Boiling point of water (°f) 212 210.2 204.8 199.4

14.692 13.567 13.039 11.531

33.89 31.92 30.05 26.57

Fig.: 2.2.13: Barometric pressure above sea level

tm (˚C ) 150

tm (°F Hv ) (m) 370
40 360 35 45 30

Hv (ft ) 413 328 259 148 131 115 98 82 66 49 39 33 26 20 16 13 10 6.6 4.9 3.3 2.6 2.0 1.3 0.9 0.7 0.3

140 130

32025 300
15

120 110

20

Hf

100

12 280 10

90 80 70 60

2706,0 2504,0
3,0 5,0

8,0

2302,0 2121,0 1940,6 1760,3
0,4 0,2 0,8 1,5

h

NPSH Hb

50

40 30 20 10

1580,1
0

Hv

140 122

Fig.: 2.2.14: System with indication of the different values that are important in connection with suction calculations

104 86 68 50 32

2.2.2 Electrical terms
To examine a pump’s performance, a range of values must be considered. In this section the most important electrical values are presented: Power consumption, voltage, current and power factor.
H [ft] NPSH
Liquid with air

Vented liquid

Q [GPM]

Fig.: 2.2.15: Typical NPSH curve for liquid containing gas

90

Power consumption
Pumps are made of several components, see figure 2.2.16. The power consumption (P) of the different components is designated as follows: P1

P1
The power input from the mains, or the amount of power the consumer must purchase. The power input to the pump, or the power output from the motor, often referred to as shaft power or brake horsepower (Bhp). Hydraulic power; the power that the pump transfers to the liquid in the form of flow and head, also known as water hp (Whp).

P2

P2

PH

For the most common pump types, the term power consumption normally refers to P2. Power is measured in horsepower (hp).

Efficiency
Efficiency (η) normally only covers the efficiency of the pump part, ηP. A pump’s efficiency is determined by several factors, including the shape of the pump housing, the impeller and diffuser design and the surface roughness. For typical pump units consisting of both pump and electric motor, the total efficiency ηT also includes the efficiency of the motor:

PH

Fig. 2.2.16: Pump unit with indication of different power consumption levels

If a frequency converter is also included, the efficiency of the entire unit must include the efficiency of the frequency converter (ηfc ):

91

Section 2.2 Pump performance

Voltage
Like pressure drives flow through a hydraulic system, voltage (v) drives a current (I) through an electrical circuit. Voltage is measured in volts (V) and can be direct current (DC), e.g. 1.5 V battery – or alternating current (AC), e.g. electricity supply for houses, etc. Normally, pumps are supplied with AC voltage supply. The layout of an AC main supply differs from one country to another. The most common layout is four wires with three phases (L1, L2, L3) and a neutral (N). A ground connection is added to the system as well, see figure 2.2.17. For a 3x480 V/230 V main supply, the voltage between any two of the phases (L1, L2, L3) is 480 V. The voltage between one of the phases and neutral (N) is 230 V. The ratio between the phase-phase voltage and the phase-neutral voltage is determined by the formula at right. The ratio between the phase-phase voltage and the phase-neutral voltage is:

L1 L2 L3 N
Ground

} }

480V Three-phase supply 230V Single-phase supply

Fig. 2.2.17: Mains supply, e.g. 3 x 480 V

Current
Current (I) is the flow of electricity and is measured in ampere (A). The amount of current in an electrical circuit depends on the supplied voltage and the resistance/ impedance in the electrical circuit.

Power and power factor
Power (P) consumption is of high importance when it comes to pumps. For pumps with standard AC motors, the power input is found by measuring the input voltage and input current and by reading the value cosj on the pump motor nameplate. The term cosj is the phase angle between voltage and current and is referred to as power factor (PF). The power consumption P1 can be calculated by the formulas shown at right for a single-phase or a three-phase motor.

AC single-phase motor, e.g. 1 x 230 V

AC three-phase motor, e.g. 3 x 480 V

92

2.2.3 Liquid properties
When making system calculations, the following liquid properties should be considered: Liquid temperature, specific gravity, heat capacity, and viscosity.

Viscosity
Kinematic viscosity is measured in centiStokes [cSt] (1 cSt = 10-6 m2/s). The unit [SSU] Saybolt Universal is also used in connection with kinematic viscosity. For kinematic viscosity above 60 cSt, the Saybolt Universal viscosity is calculated by the following formula: [SSU] = 4.62 . [cSt]
Btu/lbm °F 0% pure water 16.74 15.07 13.39 11.72 20% 34% 44% 52%

Liquid temperature
The liquid temperature (t,T) is measured in °F (Fahrenheit), °C (Celcius), or K (Kelvin). Temperature units of °C and K are actually the same, but 0°C is the freezing point of water and 0°K is the absolute zero; that is -273.15°C, the lowest possible temperature. The calculation between Fahrenheit and Celcius is °F = °C . 1.8 + 32. Hence, the freezing point of water is 0°C and 32°F, and the boiling point is 100°C and 212°F.

18.42

Specific Gravity
The Specific Gravity (SG) is a dimensionless unit defined as the ratio of density of the material to the density of water at a specified temperature of 68°F. See appendix K.

10.04 8.37 -40 -4 32 68 104 140 176 212 248°F
Fig. 2.2.18: Heat capacity vs. temperature for ethylene glycol

Liquid heat capacity
The heat capacity (Cp) shows how much additional energy a liquid can contain per mass when it is heated. Liquid heat capacity depends on temperature, see figure 2.2.18. Heat capacity is considered in systems for transporting energy, such as heating, air-conditioning and cooling. Mixed liquids, such as glycol and water for air-conditioning, have a lower heat capacity than pure water, so higher flow is required to transport the same amount of energy.

93

Chapter 3. System hydraulics

Section 3.1: System characteristics
3.1.1 Single resistances 3.1.2 Closed and open systems

Section 3.2: Pumps connected in parallel and series
3.2.1 Pumps in parallel 3.2.2 Pumps connected in series

Section 3.1 System characteristics

Previously, in section 1.1.2, the basic characteristics of pump performance curves were discussed. In this chapter the pump performance curve at different operating conditions as well as a typical system characteristic will be examined. Finally, the interaction between a pump and a system will be discussed. System characteristic describes the relation between flow (Q) and head (H). The system characteristic depends on the type of system in question, closed or open.

Fig. 3.1.1: The point of intersection between the pump curve and the system characteristic is the duty point of the pump

• Closed systems
A closed system is a circulating system like heating or air-conditioning systems, where the pump has to overcome the friction losses in the pipes, fittings, valves, etc. in the system.

• Open systems
An open system is a liquid transport system like a water supply system where the pump must address the static head as well as overcome the friction losses in the pipes and components. When the system characteristic is drawn in the same system of co-ordinates as the pump curve, the duty point of the pump can be determined as the point of intersection of the two curves, see figure 3.1.1. Open and closed systems consist of resistances (valves, pipes, heat exchanger, etc.) connected in series or parallel, which altogether affect the system characteristic. Following is a discussion on how these resistances affect the system characteristic.

96

3.1.1 Single resistances
Every component in a system constitutes a resistance against the liquid flow which leads to a head loss. The following formula is used to calculate the head loss:

∆H = k . Q2
k is a constant, which depends on the component in question, and Q is the flow through the component. As it appears from the formula, the head loss is proportional to the flow to the second power. So, if it is possible to lower the flow in a system, a substantial reduction in the pressure loss occurs.

Resistances connected in series
The total head loss in a system consisting of several components connected in series is the sum of head losses that each component represents. Figure 3.1.2 shows a system consisting of a valve and a heat exchanger. If we do not consider the head loss in the piping between the two components, the total head loss, ∆Htot, is calculated by adding the two head losses:

Fig. 3.1.2: The head loss for two components connected in series is the sum of the two individual head losses

∆Htot = ∆H1 + ∆H2
Figure 3.1.2 shows how the resulting curve will look and what the duty point will be if the system is a closed system with only these two components. As it appears from the figure, the resulting characteristic is found by adding the individual head losses, ∆H, at a given flow Q. The figure shows that the more resistance in the system, the steeper the resulting system curve will be.

97

Section 3.1 System characteristics

Resistances connected in parallel
Contrary to connecting components in series, connecting components in parallel results in a more flat system characteristic. This is because the components installed in parallel reduce the total resistance in the system, and thereby the head loss. The differential pressure across the components connected in parallel is always the same. The resulting system characteristic is defined by adding all the components’ individual flow rates for a specific ∆H. Figure 3.1.3 shows a system with a valve and a heat exchanger connected in parallel. The resulting flow can be calculated by the following formula for a head loss equivalent to ∆H

Q tot = Q 1 + Q2

Fig. 3.1.3: Components connected in parallel reduce the resistance in the system and result in a more flat system characteristic

3.1.2 Closed and open systems
As mentioned previously, pump systems are split into two types: Closed and open systems. This section will examine the basic characteristics of these systems.

Closed systems
Typically, closed systems are systems which transport heat energy in heating systems, air-conditioning systems and process cooling systems. A common feature of these closed systems is that the liquid is circulated and is the carrier of heat energy. Heat energy is what the system must transport. Closed systems are characterized as systems with pumps that overcome the sum of friction losses which are generated by all the components. Figure 3.1.4 shows a schematic drawing of a closed system where a pump circulates water from a heater through a control valve to a heat exchanger.

Fig. 3.1.4: Schematic drawing of a closed system

98

All these components, along with the pipes and fittings, result in a system characteristic as shown in figure 3.1.5. The required pressure in a closed system (which the system curve illustrates) is a parabola starting at the point (Q,H) = (0,0) and is calculated by the following formula:

H = k . Q2
As the formula and curve indicate, the pressure loss is approaching zero when the flow drops.

Fig. 3.1.5: The system characteristic for a closed system is a parabola starting at point (0,0)

Open systems
Open systems use the pump to transport liquid from one point to another, e.g. water supply irrigation and industrial process systems. In these systems, the pump deals with the static head of the liquid and must overcome the friction losses in the pipes and the system components. There are two types of open systems: • Open systems where the total required static head is positive. • Open systems where the total required static head is negative.

Fig. 3.1.6: Open system with positive static head

Open system with positive static head
Figure 3.1.6 shows a typical open system with positive static head. A pump transports water from a break tank at ground level up to a roof tank on the top of a building. The pump must provide a head higher than the static head of the water (h), as well as the necessary head to overcome the total friction loss between the two tanks in piping, fittings, valves, etc. (Hf). The pressure loss depends on the rate of flow, see figure 3.1.7.

Q1

Q

Q1

Q

Fig. 3.1.7: System characteristic together with the pump performance curve for the open system in figure 3.1.6

99

Section 3.1 System characteristics

Figure 3.1.7 shows that, in an open system, no water flows if the maximum head (Hmax) of the pump is lower than the static head (h). Only when H > h will water start to flow from the break tank to the roof tank. The system curve also shows that the lower the flow rate, the lower the friction loss (Hf) and, consequently, the lower the power consumption of the pump. So, the flow (Q1) and the pump size have to match the need for the specific system. This is a general rule for liquid transport systems: A larger flow leads to a higher pressure loss, whereas a smaller flow leads to a smaller pressure loss and, consequently, a lower energy consumption.

Open system with negative static head
A typical example of an open system with negative required head is a pressure booster system, as in a water supply system. The static head (h) from the water tank brings water to the consumer. The water flows, although the pump is not running. The difference in height between the liquid level in the tank and the altitude of the water outlet (h) results in a flow equivalent to Qo. However, the head is insufficient to ensure the required flow (Q1) to the consumer, so the pump has to boost the head to the level (H1) in order to compensate for the friction loss (Hf) in the system. The system is shown in figure 3.1.8, and the system characteristic and the pump performance curve are shown in figure 3.1.9. The resulting system characteristic is a parabolic curve starting at the H-axes in the point (0,-h). The flow in the system depends on the liquid level in the tank. If the water level in the tank is reduced, the height (h) is reduced. This results in a modified system characteristic and a reduced flow in the system, see figure 3.1.9.

Fig. 3.1.8: Schematic drawing of a open system

Fig. 3.1.9: System characteristic and the pump performance curve for the open system shown in figure 3.1.8

100

Section 3.2 Pumps connected in parallel and series

To increase total pump performance in a system, pumps are often connected in parallel or series. This section will focus on these two ways of connecting pumps.

3.2.1 Pumps in parallel
Pumps connected in parallel are often used when: • The required flow is higher than one single pump can supply • The system has variable flow requirements which are met by switching parallel-connected pumps on and off Normally, pumps connected in parallel are of similar type and size. However, the pumps can be of different size, or one or several can be speed-controlled, and thereby have different performance curves. To avoid bypass circulation in pumps that are not running, a check valve is connected in series with each pump. The resulting performance curve for a system consisting of several pumps in parallel is determined by adding the flow, which the pumps deliver at a specific head. Figure 3.2.1 shows a system with two identical pumps connected in parallel. The system’s total performance curve is determined by adding Q1 and Q2 for every value of head which is the same for both pumps, H1=H2 . Because the pumps are identical, the resulting pump curve has the same maximum head, Hmax, but the maximum flow, Qmax, is double. For each value of head, the flow is the double as for a single pump in operation:
Fig. 3.2.1: Two pumps connected in parallel with similar performance curves

,

Q = Q1 + Q2 = 2 Q1 = 2 Q2

101

Section 3.2 Pumps connected in parallel and series

Figure 3.2.2 shows two different sized pumps connected in parallel. When adding Q1 and Q2 for a given head H1=H2, the resulting performance curve is defined. The hatched area in figure 3.2.2 shows that P1 is the only pump to supply in that specific area because it has a higher maximum head than P2.

Speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel
For varying flow demand, speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel offer efficient pump performance. This method is common to water supply and pressure boosting systems. Later in chapter 4, speed-controlled pumps will be discussed in detail. A pumping system with two speed-controlled pumps with the same performance curve covers a wide performance range, see figure 3.2.3. A single pump covers the required pump performance up to Q1. Above Q1 both pumps must operate to meet the performance needed. If both pumps are running at the same speed, the resulting pump curves look like the orange curves shown in figure 3.2.3. Note that the duty point at Q1 is reached with one pump running at full speed. The duty point can also be achieved when two pumps are running at reduced speed, see figure 3.2.4 (orange curves). The figure also compares efficiency. The duty point for one pump running at full speed results in low pump efficiency because the duty point is located far out on the pump curve. The total efficiency is much higher when two pumps run at reduced speeds, although the maximum efficiency of the pumps decreases slightly at reduced speeds. Even though one single pump is able to maintain the required flow and head, it is sometimes necessary due to efficiency and, thus, energy consumption to use both pumps at the same time. Whether to run one or two pumps depends on the actual system characteristic and pump type.
Fig. 3.2.3: Two speed-controlled pumps connected in parallel (same size). The orange curve shows the performance at reduced speed Fig 3.2.2: Two pumps connected in parallel with unequal performance curves

Fig. 3.2.4: One pump at full speed compared to two pumps at reduced speed. In this case the two pumps have the highest total efficiency

102

3.2.2. Pumps connected in series
Normally, pumps connected in series are used in systems where high pressure is required. This is also the case for multistage pumps that are based on the series principle; that is, one stage equals one pump. Figure 3.2.5 shows the performance curve of two identical pumps connected in series. The resulting performance curve is made by marking the double head for each flow value in the system of co-ordinates. This results in a curve with the double maximum head (2⋅Hmax) and the same maximum flow (Qmax) as each of the single pumps. Figure 3.2.6 shows two different sized pumps connected in series. The resulting performance curve is determined by adding H1 and H2 at a given common flow Q1=Q2. The hatched area in figure 3.2.6 shows that P2 is the only pump to supply in that area because it has a higher maximum flow than P1. As discussed in section 3.2.1, unequal pumps can be a combination of different sized pumps or of one or several speed-controlled pumps. The combination of a fixed-speed pump and a speed-controlled pump connected in series is often used in systems where a high and constant pressure is required. The fixed-speed pump supplies the liquid to the speedcontrolled pump whose output is controlled by a pressure transmitter, (PT), see figure 3.2.7.

Fig. 3.2.5: Two equal sized pumps connected in series

Q

Fig. 3.2.6: Two different sized pumps connected in series
Q

Fig. 3.2.7: Equal sized fixed-speed pump and speed-controlled pump connected in series. A pressure transmitter PT together with a speed controller is making sure that the pressure is constant at the outlet of P2.

103

Chapter 4. Performance adjustment of pumps

Section 4.1: Adjusting pump performance
4.1.1 Throttle control 4.1.2 Bypass control 4.1.3 Modifying impeller diameter 4.1.4 Speed control 4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods 4.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system 4.1.7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow is reduced by 20%

Section 4.2: Speed-controlled pump solutions
4.2.1 Constant pressure control 4.2.2 Constant temperature control 4.2.3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system 4.2.4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control

Section 4.3: Advantages of speed control

Section 4.4: Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter
4.4.1 Performance curves of speed-controlled pumps 4.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems

Section 4.5: Frequency converter
4.5.1 Basic function and characteristics 4.5.2 Components of the frequency converter 4.5.3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters

Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance

When selecting a pump for a given application, it is important to choose one where the duty point is in the high-efficiency area of the pump. Otherwise, the power consumption of the pump is unnecessarily high, see figure 4.1.1. However, sometimes it is not possible to select a pump that fits the optimum duty point because the requirements of the system change or the system curve changes over time. Therefore, it may be necessary to adjust the pump performance so that it meets the changed requirements. The most common methods of changing pump performance are: • Throttle control • Bypass control • Modifying impeller diameter • Speed control Choosing a method of pump performance adjustment is based on an evaluation of the initial investment along with the operating costs of the pump. All methods can be carried out continuously during operation apart from the modifying impeller diameter–method. Often, oversized pumps are selected for the system. It is then necessary to limit the performance – primarily the flow rate, and in some applications, the maximum head. The four adjusting methods are discussed on the following pages.

[ft]

H

η [%]

60 50 40 30 20 10 0 0 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Q [GPM] 0

Fig.: 4.1.1: When selecting a pump it is important to choose one where the duty point is within the high efficiency area.

106

4.1.1 Throttle control
A throttle valve may be placed in series with the pump, permitting the duty point to be adjusted. Throttling results in a flow reduction, see figure 4.1.2. The throttle valve adds resistance to the system, raising the system curve. Without the throttle valve, the flow is Q2. With the throttle valve connected in series with the pump, the flow is reduced to Q1. Throttle valves can be used to limit the maximum flow. In the example, the flow will never be higher than Q3 even if the original system curve is completely flat, meaning there is no resistance in the system. When the pump performance is adjusted with this method, the pump will deliver a higher head than necessary for that particular system.
Hp Throttle valve

Hv

Hs

System

H
Pump Resulting characteristic Smaller pump

Hv Hs

System Throttle valve

Q1

Q2

Q3

Q

Fig.: 4.1.2: The throttle valve increases the resistance in the system, consequently reducing the flow.

If the pump and the throttle valve are replaced by a smaller pump, the pump will be able to meet the desired flow Q1 at a lower pump head, resulting in less power consumption, see figure 4.1.2.
Bypass valve

4.1.2 Bypass control
Compared to the throttle valve, installing a bypass valve will result in a certain minimum flow, QBP, in the pump independent of the system characteristics, see figure 4.1.3. The flow, QP, is the sum of the flow in the system, QS, and the flow in the bypass valve, QBP..
QP

QBP QS HP
System

H
Bypass valve

Hmax
Smaller pump System

The bypass valve will introduce a maximum limit of head to the system, Hmax , see figure 4.1.3. Even when the required flow in the system is zero, the pump will never run against a closed valve. Like the throttling valve method, the required flow, QS, can be met by a smaller pump and no bypass valve, resulting in a lower flow and less energy consumption.

Qs

QBP Resulting characteristic
Pump

HP

QBP

QS

QP

Q

Fig.: 4.1.3: The bypass valve diverts part of the flow from the pump, reducing the flow in the system

107

Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance

4.1.3 Modifying impeller diameter
Another way to adjust the performance of a centrifugal pump is to modify the impeller diameter, reducing the diameter which, consequently, reduces pump performance. Compared to the throttling and bypass methods, which can be carried out during operation, the impeller trimming has to be done in advance before the pump is installed or in connection with service; it cannot be done while the pump is in operation. The following formula shows the relationship between the impeller diameter and the pump performance:

D

Note that the formulas are an expression of an ideal pump. In practice, the pump efficiency decreases when the impeller diameter is reduced. For minor changes of the impeller diameter, Dx > 0.8 . Dn, the efficiency is only reduced by a few percentage points. The degree of efficiency reduction depends on pump type and duty point. As it appears from the formulas, the flow and the head change with the same ratio: that is, the ratio change of the impeller diameter to the second power. The duty points following the formulas are placed on a straight line starting in (0,0). The change in power consumption is following the diameter change to the fourth power.

H

Hn Hx Dx Dn

Qx

Qn

Q

Fig. 4.1.4: Change in pump performance when the impeller diameter is reduced

4.1.4 Speed control
The last method of controlling the pump performance to be covered in this section is the variable speed control method. Speed control by means of a frequency converter is the most efficient way of adjusting pump performance exposed to variable flow requirements.

108

The following equation applies with close approximation to how the change in speed of a centrifugal pump influences the performance of the pump:

The affinity laws apply when the system characteristic remains unchanged for nn and nx and forms a parabola through (0,0) – see section 3.1.2 (p 99). The power equation implies that the pump efficiency is unchanged at the two speeds. The formulas in figure 4.1.5 show that the pump flow (Q) is proportional to the pump speed (n). The head (H) is proportional to the second power of the speed (n) whereas the power (P) is proportional to the third power of the speed. In practice, a reduction of the speed will result in a slight fall in efficiency. The efficiency at reduced speed (nx) can be estimated by the following formula, which is valid for speed reduction down to 50% of the maximum speed:

If the need for precise power saved is desired, frequency converter and motor efficiencies must be taken into account.

Fig. 4.1.5: Pump parameters for different affinity equations

109

Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance

4.1.5 Comparison of adjustment methods
When the pump and its performance-changing device is considered as one unit, the resulting QHcharacteristic of this device can be compared to The resulting performance different systems. Overall efficiency Relative power

consumption by 20% curve will have of the pump system efficiency reduction in flow Relative power The resulting performance Overall Throttle control Overallpump The resulting performance consumption by curve will have of the efficiency Relative power 20% The throttling Reduced have Considerably curve will Q performance method implies a valve connected in 94% of the pump reduction in by system efficiency consumptionflow Relative power 20% The resulting Overall reduced reduction in flow20% system series with a pump, see figure 4.1.6a. This connection consumption by curve will have of the pump Reduced Q acts as a new pump at unchanged maximum head Considerably 94% reduction in flow system Reduced Q Considerably 94% reduced but reduced flow performance. For an illustration of reduced Reduced Q Considerably 94% the pump curve, Hn, the valve curve, and the curve for reduced Hn

a
Throttle valve Throttle valve Throttle valve Throttle valve

b

Slightly reduced Reduced Q and H original curve characteristics (Hn). Reduced Q and H

quadratic, see figure 4.1.7b. Hx Valve Hn Hx Hn Modifying impeller diameter 67% Slightly reduced Reduced Q and H Valve Hx Hn This method does not imply extra components. Valve Hx Figure 4.1.8 shows Slightly reduced curve (Hx)67% the the reduced QH and Reduced Q and H Valve
67% Slightly reduced 67%

110% Considerably Reduced H and changed reduced curve head and a QH curve with a changed characteristic, reduced curve 110% Considerably Reduced H and changed 4.1.7a. The curve will be more linear than see figure Hn reduced curve

the complete system, - Hx, see figure 4.1.6b. Hx Valve Hn Hx Hn Bypass control Considerably 110% Reduced H and changed Valve Hx Hn reduced When connecting a valve across the pump, the curve Valve Hx 110% Reduced H and changed acts as Considerably at reduced maximum connection a new pump Valve

Hn Hn Hn

Hx Hx Hx Hx

Valve Valve Valve Valve

Fig. 4.1.6: Throttle valve connected in series with a pump
Bypass valve

a

b
Bypass valve Bypass valve Bypass valve

Hn

Hn Hn Hn D D D D Speed controller Hn Hn Hn

Hx Hx Hx

Valve Valve Valve Valve

Hn Fig. 4.1.7: Bypass valve connected across the pump Hx

Speed control
The speed control method results in a new QH curve at reduced head and flow, see figure 1.4.9. The characteristics Hn 65% of Reduced Q and Hthe curves remain the same. However, when speed is Slightly reduced Hx Hn Hx reduced the curves become more flat as the head is Hn 65% Reduced Q and H Hx reduced to a higher Slightlythan the flow. degree reduced 65%
Slightly reduced Reduced Q and H Hn
Hx Hy Hn Hx Hn H Hxy Hn Hy Hx Hy Hn Hx

Hn

Hx Hx Hx Hx

Reduced Q and H

Fig. 4.1.8: Impeller diameter adjustment
Speed controller Speed controller Speed controller

In comparison, the speed control method also makes it possible to extend the performance range of the pump above the nominal QH curve by increasing the speed above nominal speed level of the pump; see the Hy curve in figure 4.1.9. If this over-synchronous operation is used, the size of the motor has to be taken into account.

Slightly reduced

65%

Hn Hn Hn Hn

Hx Hx Hx Hx

Hy Hy Hy Hy

Fig. 4.1.9: Speed controller connected to a pump

110

4.1.6 Overall efficiency of the pump system
Both the throttling and the bypass method introduce some hydraulic power losses in the valves (Ploss = k Q H), therefore reducing efficiency of the pumping system. Reducing the impeller size in the range of Dx/Dn>0.8 does not have a significant impact on pump efficiency and does not have a negative influence on the overall efficiency of the system. The efficiency of speed-controlled pumps is only affected to a limited extent if the speed reduction does not drop below 50% of the nominal speed. The efficiency is only reduced by a few percentage-points, and it does not have an impact on the overall running economy of speed-controlled solutions, see figure 1.4.16 in section 1.4.5.

4.1.7 Example: Relative power consumption when the flow is reduced by 20 %
In a given installation the flow has to be reduced from Q = 260 GPM to 220 GPM. In the original starting point (Q = 260 GPM and H = 230 ft) the power input to the pump is set relatively to 100%. Depending on the method of performance adjustment, the power consumption reduction will vary. This is further discussed on the following pages.

111

Section 4.1 Adjusting pump performance

Throttle control
The power consumption is reduced to about 94% when the flow drops from 264 to 220 GPM. The throttling results in an increased head, see figure 4.1.10. The maximum power consumption for some pumps is at a lower flow than the maximum flow. If this is the case, the power consumption increases because of the throttle.

H [ft] H [ft] H [ft] 249 249 249 229 229 229 180 180 180

= Modified duty point = Original duty point

P2 P2 P2 100% 100% 100% 94% 94% 94%

Q Q Q

Bypass control
To reduce the flow in the system, the valve has to reduce the head of the pump to 180 ft. This can only be done by increasing the flow in the pump. As it appears from figure 4.1.11, the flow is consequently increased to 356 GPM, which results in an increased power consumption of up to 10% above original consumption. The degree of increase depends on the pump type and the duty point. Therefore, in some cases, the increase in P2 is equal to zero and in rare cases, P2 might decrease slightly.

220 264 Fig. 4.1.10: Relative power consumption - throttle control H [ft] H [ft] H [ft]

220 220

264 264

Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Q [GPM]

= Modified duty point = Original duty point

229 229 229 180 180 180

P2 P2 P2 110% 110% 100% 110% 100% 100%

Q Q Q

Fig. 4.1.11: Relative power consumption - bypass control
H [ft] H [ft] H [ft]

220 220 220

264 264 264

356 356 356

Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Q [GPM]

Modifying impeller diameter
When the impeller diameter is reduced, both the flow and the head of the pump drop. By a flow reduction of 20%, the power consumption is reduced to around 67% of its original consumption, see figure 4.1.12.

229 229 229 180 180 180

= Modified duty point = Original duty point

Speed control
When the speed of the pump is controlled, both the flow and the head are reduced, see figure 4.1.13. Consequently, the power consumption has reduced to around 65% of the original consumption. To obtain the best possible efficiency, the impeller diameter adjustment method or the speed-controlled method of the pump are the best options for reducing the flow in the installation. When the pump has to operate in a fixed, modified duty point, the impeller diameter adjustment method is the best solution. However, in installations where the flow demand varies, the speed-controlled pump is the best solution.

P2 P2 P2 100% 100% 100% 67% 67% 67%

Q Q Q

220 220 220

264 264 264

Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Q [GPM]

Fig. 4.1.12: Relative power consumption - modifying impeller diameter
H [ft] H [ft] H [ft]

= Modified duty point = Original duty point
70 70 70 55 55 55 Q Q Q

P2 P2 P2 100% 100% 100% 65% 65% 65% 50 50 50 60 60 60

Q Q Q

Fig. 4.1.13: Relative power consumption - speed control

Q [GPM] Q [GPM] Q [GPM]

112

Summary
Figure 4.1.14 gives an overview of the different adjustment methods that are presented in the previous section. Each method has its pros and cons which should be considered when choosing an adjustment method for a system.

Method

Continuous adjustment possible?

The resulting performance curve will have Reduced Q

Overall efficiency of the pump system Considerably reduced

Relative power consumption by 20% reduction in flow 94%

Throttle control

Yes

Throttl Throttle valve Hn Hx Valve

Bypass control
Bypass valve

Yes

Reduced H and changed curve

Considerably reduced

110%

Bypass va

Hn Hx Valve

Modifying impeller diameter

No

Reduced Q and H

Slightly reduced

67%

D Hn Hx

Speed control
Speed controller

Yes

Reduced Q and H

Slightly reduced

65%

Speed con

Hn Hx Hy

Fig. 4.1.14: Characteristics of adjustment methods.

113

Section 4.2 Speed-controlled pump solutions

As discussed in the previous section, speed control of pumps is an efficient way of adjusting pump performance to the system. In this section the possibilities of combining speed-controlled pumps with PI-controllers and sensors measuring system parameters, such as pressure, differential pressure and temperature, are discussed. The different options will be presented by examples.

Setpoint pset

PIcontroller

Actual value p1 Pressure transmitter

H nn nx

Break tank

Speed controller

h Q1 H1

PT p1
Taps

pset

h

Q1

Setpoint pset

4.2.1 Constant pressure control
Break water from tank

PIcontroller

Actual value p1 Pressure transmitter

H nn nx pset
Taps

A pump has to supply tap a to different taps in a building. The demand for tapPT h water is varying, so the system characteristic varies p Q1 according to the required flow. Due to comfort 1 H1 and energy savings, a constant supply pressure is recommended. As it appears from figure 4.2.1, the solution is a speed-controlled pump with a PI-controller. The PI-controller compares the needed pressure, pset, with the actual supply pressure, p1, measured by a pressure transmitter, PT. If the actual pressure is higher than the setpoint, the PI-controller reduces the speed and, consequently, the performance of the pump until p1 is equal to pset. Figure 4.2.1 shows what happens when the flow is reduced from Qmax to Q1 . The controller reduces the speed of the pump from nn to nx to ensure that the required discharge pressure is p1 = pset. The pump installation ensures that the supply pressure is constant in the flow range of 0 to Qmax. The supply pressure is independent of the level, (h), in the break tank. If h changes, the PIcontroller adjusts the speed of the pump so that p1 always corresponds to the setpoint.

Speed break tank controller

h

Q1

Qmax

Q

Fig. 4.2.1: Water supply system with speed-controlled pump delivering constant pressure to the system

114

4.2.2 Constant temperature control
Performance adjustment through speed control is suitable for a number of industrial applications. Figure 4.2.2 shows a system with a water-cooled injection molding machine for high quality production. The machine is cooled with water at 59oF from a cooling plant. To ensure that the molding machine runs properly and is cooled sufficiently, the return pipe temperature has to be kept at a constant level; tr = 68oF. The solution is a speed-controlled pump controlled by a PI-controller. The PI-controller compares the needed temperature, tset, with the actual return pipe temperature, tr, which is measured by a temperature transmitter, TT. This system has a fixed system characteristic, and, therefore, the duty point of the pump is located on the curve between Qmin and Qmax. The higher the heat loss in the machine, the higher the flow of cooling water is needed to ensure that the return pipe temperature is kept at a constant level of 68 oF.

Fig. 4.2.2: System with injection molding machine and temperature- controlled circulator pump ensuring a constant return pipe temperature

4.2.3 Constant differential pressure in a circulating system
Circulating systems, typically closed systems, are well suited for speed-controlled pumps, see Chapter 3. A differential pressure controlled circulator pump is recommended for circulating systems with variable system characteristic, see figure 4.2.3. This figure shows a heating system with a heat exchanger where the circulated water is heated up and delivered to three consumers, such as radiators, by a speed-controlled pump. A control valve is connected in series at each consumer to control the flow according to the heat requirement. The pump is controlled according to a constant differential pressure measured across the pump. As depicted by the horizontal line in figure 4.2.3, the pump system offers constant differential pressure in the Q-range of 0 to Qmax.

Fig. 4.2.3: Heating system with speed-controlled circulator pump delivering constant differential pressure to the system

115

Section 4.2 Speed-controlled pump solutions

4.2.4 Flow-compensated differential pressure control
The main function of the pumping system in figure 4.2.4 is to maintain a constant differential pressure across the control valves at the consumers, such as radiators. In order to do so, the pump must overcome friction losses in pipes, heat exchangers, fittings, etc. As discussed in Chapter 3, system is proportional to the flow in second power. The best way to control a circulator pump in a system Speed like the one shown in the figure at right is to allow controller the pump to deliver a pressure that increases when the flow increases. Q1
Setpoint Hset Actual value H1 PIthe pressure loss in a controller

Setpoint Hset

PIcontroller

Actual value H1

Speed controller Q1

H

Hset
DPT1 DPT2

Hf

H1

H nn nx Hset Hf
DPT2

When the demand of flow is low, the pressure losses DPT1 in the pipes, heat exchangers, fittings, etc. are low as well, and the pump supplies only a pressure equivalent to what the control valve requires, HsetHf. When flow demand increases, pressure losses increase to the second power, and the pump has to increase the delivered pressure, depicted as the blue curve in figure 4.2.4. Such a pumping system can be designed as follows:

H1

Q1

Qmax

Q

Fig. 4.2.4: Heating system with speed-controlled circulator pump peed-controlled delivering flow-compensated differential pressure to the system

• The differential pressure transmitter is placed
across the pump and the system is running with flow-compensated differential pressure control – DPT1, see figure 4.2.4.

pump curve data has to be stored in the controller. This data is used to calculate the flow as well as how much the setpoint Hset must be reduced at a given flow to ensure that the pump performance meets the required blue curve in figure 4.2.4. The second solution requires more installation costs because the transmitter has to be installed at the installation site, and the necessary cabling has to be added. Both systems are equal in performance. The transmitter measures the differential pressure at the consumer and compensates automatically for the increase in required pressure in order to overcome the increase in pressure losses in the supply pipes, etc.

• The differential pressure transmitter is placed close
to the consumers and the system is running with differential pressure control – DPT2, see fig. 4.2.4. The first solution places the pump, PI-controller, speed control and the transmitter close to one another providing easy installation and making it possible to get the entire system as one single unit, see section 4.4. To get the system up and running,

116

Section 4.3 Advantages of speed control

A large number of pump applications do not require full pump performance 24 hours a day. Therefore, it is an advantage to be able to adjust the pump’s performance in the system automatically. As seen in section 4.1, the best possible way of adapting the performance of a centrifugal pump is by means of speed control of the pump. Speed control of pumps is normally made by a frequency converter unit. On the following pages, speed-controlled pumps in closed and open systems will be examined. The advantages that speed control provides and the benefits that speed-controlled pumps with frequency converters offer are presented first.

Reduced energy consumption
Speed-controlled pumps use only the amount of energy needed to address a specific pump installation. Compared to other control methods, frequencycontrolled speed control offers the highest efficiency and the most efficient utilization of the energy, see section 4.1.

Low life cycle costs
As we will see in Chapter 5, the energy consumption of a pump is a very important factor when calculating a pump’s life cycle costs. Therefore, it is important to keep the operating costs of a pumping system at the lowest possible level. Efficient operation leads to lower energy consumption and results in lower operating costs. Compared to fixed-speed pumps, it is possible to reduce the energy consumption by up to 50% with a speed-controlled pump.

Environment protection
Energy-efficient pumps cause less pollution and harm to the environment.

Increased comfort
Speed control in different pumping systems provides increased comfort in water supply systems, automatic pressure control, and where the soft-start of pumps reduce water hammer and noise generated by too high pressure in the system. In circulating systems, speed-controlled pumps ensure that the differential pressure is kept at a level so that noise in the system is minimized.

Reduced system costs
Speed-controlled pumps can reduce the need for commissioning and control valves in the system, thus reducing the total system costs.

117

Section 4.4 Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter

In many applications, pumps with integrated frequency converters are the optimum solution. These pumps combine the benefits of a speed-controlled pump solution with the benefits gained from combining a pump, a frequency converter, a PI-controller and sometimes a sensor/pressure transmitter in one single unit, see figure 4.4.1. A pump with an integrated frequency converter is not just a pump, it is a system that can solve application problems or save energy in a variety of pump installations. Pumps with integrated frequency converters are ideal because they can be used instead of fixed-speed pumps in replacement installations at no extra installation cost. The only requirement is a power supply connection and a fitting of the pump with an integrated frequency converter in the pipe system, and then the pump is ready for operation. After adjusting the required setpoint pressure, the system is operational. What follows is a brief description of the advantages that pumps with integrated frequency converter have to offer.

Setpoint

PIcontroller Frequency converter

M

PT

Easy to install
Pumps with integrated frequency converters are just as easy to install as fixed-speed pumps. The motor is connected to the electrical power supply, and the pump is in operation. The manufacturer has made all internal connections and adjustments.
Fig. 4.4.1: Pump unit with integrated frequency converter and pressure transmitter

Optimal energy savings
Because the pump, the motor and the frequency converter are designed for compatibility, operation of the pump system reduces power consumption.

One supplier
One supplier can provide the pump, frequency converter and sensor which naturally facilitate the sizing, selection, and ordering procedures, as well as maintenance and service procedures.

118

Wide performance range
Pumps with integrated frequency converters have a broad performance range which enables efficient performance under widely varied conditions and meets a wide range of requirements. Fewer pumps can replace many fixed speed pump types with narrow performance capabilities.

performance curve and the system characteristic of a closed and an open system.

H [ft] 100%
320 280 90% 240 80% 70% 60% 50%

4.4.1. Performance curves of speedcontrolled pumps
The following is a discussion of how a speed-controlled pump’s performance curve is read. Figure 4.4.2 provides an example of the performance curves of a speed-controlled pump. The first curve shows the flow-head (QH) curve, and the second curve shows the corresponding power consumption curve. The performance curves are plotted for every 10% decrease in speed from 100% down to 50%. Likewise, the minimum curve represented by 25% of the maximum speed is also shown. As indicated in the diagram, you can select a specific duty point, QH, and find out at which speed the duty point can be reached and what the power consumption, P1, is.

200 160 120 80 40 0 0

25% 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Q [GPM]

P [hp]
1

10 8 6 4 2 0

Q [GPM]

Fig 4.4.2: Performance curve for a speed-controlled pump

H

H

Pump curve

H

H

Pump curve

4.4.2 Speed-controlled pumps in different systems
Speed-controlled pumps are used in a wide range of systems. The change in pump performance and, consequently, the potential energy savings depend on the system in question. As discussed in Chapter 3, the characteristic of a system is an indication of the required head a pump has to deliver to transport a certain quantity of liquid through the system. Figure 4.4.3 shows the

System characteristic HO

HO

System characteristic
Q Q

Closed system

Q

Q

Open system

Fig 4.4.3: System characteristic point of a closed and an open system

119

Section 4.4 Advantages of pumps with integrated frequency converter

Speed-controlled pumps in closed systems
In closed systems, like heating and air-conditioning, the pump has to overcome the friction losses in the pipes, valves, heat exchangers, etc. In this section, an example of a speed-controlled pump in a closed system will be presented. The total friction loss by a full flow of 66 GPM is 39.3 ft, see figure 4.4.4. The system characteristic starts in the point (0,0), shown by the red line in figure 4.4.5. Control valves in the system always need a certain operating pressure, so the pump cannot work according to the system characteristic. That is why some speedcontrolled pumps offer the proportional pressure control function, which ensures that the pump will operate according to the orange line shown in the figure. As you can tell from figure 4.4.5, the minimum performance is around 57% of the full speed. In a circulating system, operating at the minimum curve (25% of the full speed) can be relevant in some situations, such as night-time duty in heating systems.
H

Q = 66 GPM

Boiler or like

Consumers Fig. 4.4.4: Closed system

H [ft] 100%
320 280 240 200 160 120 80 40 0 0 70% 60% 50% 99% 90% 80%

25% 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Q [GPM]

P [hp]
1

10 8 6 4 2 0

Q [GPM]

Fig. 4.4.5: A speed-controlled pump in a closed system

120

Speed-controlled pumps in open systems
The system characteristic as well as the operating range of the pump depend on the type of system in question. Figure 4.4.6 shows a pump in a pressure boosting / water supply system. The pump has to supply Q = 29 GPM to the tap which is placed h = 65 ft above the pump. The inlet pressure to the pump, ps, is 14.5 psi, the pressure at the tap, pt, has to be 29 psi and the total friction loss in the system by full flow, pf, is 18.8 psi. Figure 4.4.7 shows the QH curve of a pump which meets the requirements described. The required head can be calculated by using the equation at right. For maximum head at a flow, Q, of 29 GPM, the equation to use follows:
Fig. 4.4.6: Pump in a water supply system

pt = 29 psi

he = 65.6 ft SG pf = 18.8 psi ps = 14.5 psi Q = 29 GPM H pt - Pressure at tapping point ps - Suction pressure pf - Friction loss Q - Flow rate h - Static lift

H = He +

2.31 (pt)

SG

2.31 (ps)

SG

+

2.31 (pf)

SG

H = 65.6 + 2.31 (pt — ps + pf)

pt - ps (2-1) . 105 H+ ρ. = 20 + = 99.08 ft g 998 . 9.81
H [ft] 100%
200 175 150 125 99% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50%

SG

H = 65.6 + 2.31 (29 — 14.5 + 18.8) 1.0 H = 65.6 ft + 76.9 ft H = 142.5 ft
To address this application from zero to maximum flow Q = 29 GPM, the pump operates in a relatively narrow speed band, from about 65%-99% of the full speed. In systems with less friction loss, the variation in speed will be even smaller. If there is no friction loss, the minimum speed in the above case is about 79% speed. As seen in the previous two examples, the possible variation in speed and power consumption is highest in closed systems. Therefore, the closed system accounts for the highest energy saving potential.

HO
75 50 25 0 0

25% 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Q [GPM]

P [hp]
1

2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0

Q [GPM]

Fig. 4.4.7: A speed-controlled pump in an open system

121

Section 4.5 Frequency converter

As mentioned, speed control of pumps involves a frequency converter. This section will provide a closer look at frequency converters, how they operate, and related precautions associated with using them.

4.5.2. Components of the frequency converter
In principle, all frequency converters consist of the same functional blocks. The basic function, as mentioned, is to convert the main electric supply into a new AC voltage with another frequency and amplitude. The frequency converter rectifies the incoming main electric supply and stores the energy in an intermediate circuit consisting of a capacitor. The DC voltage is then converted into a new AC voltage with another frequency and amplitude. The rectifier can handle 50 Hz or 60 Hz frequencies. Additionally, the incoming frequency will not influence the output frequency, as this is defined by the voltage/frequency pattern which is defined in the inverter. Using a frequency converter in connection with asynchronous motors provides the following benefits: • The system can be used in both 50 and 60 cycleareas without modifications • The output frequency of the frequency converter is independent of the incoming frequency • The frequency converter can supply output frequencies higher than mains supply frequency – making over synchronous operation possible As seen in figure 4.5.2, the frequency converter consists of three other components: An EMC filter, a control circuit and an inverter.

4.5.1 Basic function and characteristics
The speed of an asynchronous motor depends primarily on the pole number (2-pole, 4-pole, etc.) of the motor and the frequency of the voltage supplied. The amplitude of the voltage supplied and the load on the motor shaft also influence the motor speed, however, not to the same degree. Changing the frequency of the supply voltage is ideal for achieving asynchronous motor speed control. To ensure correct motor magnetization, it is also necessary to change the amplitude of the voltage.

T

f2

f1

f1 > f2

n
Fig. 4.5.1: Displacement of motor torque characteristic

Use of frequency/voltage control results in a change in torque which, in turn, changes speed. Figure 4.5.1 shows the motor torque characteristic (T) as a function of the speed (n) at two different frequencies/voltages. The load characteristic of the pump is also shown. As it appears from the figure, the speed is changed by changing frequency/voltage of the motor. The frequency converter changes frequency and voltage, so it can be concluded that the task of a frequency converter is to change the fixed supply voltage/frequency; for example, 3x480v/60 Hz into a variable voltage/frequency.

Mains supply AC
EMC filter Rectifier Intermediate circuit DC

Inverter

Control circuit

Fig. 4.5.2: Functional blocks of the frequency converter

122

The EMC filter
This block is not part of the primary function of the frequency converter and, in principle, could be left out. However, in order to meet EMC requirements and local requirements, the filter is necessary. The EMC filter prevents high noise signals from going back to the main electric supply and disturbing other electronic equipment connected to it. It also ensures that noise signals in the main electric supply generated by other equipment do not enter the electronic devices of the frequency converter, and cause damage or disturbances.

The control circuit
The control circuit block has two functions. It controls the frequency converter and provides communication between the product and the surroundings.

The inverter
The output voltage from a frequency converter is not sinusoidal like the normal mains voltage. The voltage supplied to the motor consists of a number of squarewave pulses, see figure 4.5.3. The mean value of these pulses forms a sinusoidal voltage of the desired frequency and amplitude. The switching frequency can range from a few kHz up to 20 kHz, depending on the brand. To avoid noise in the motor windings, a frequency converter with a switching frequency above the range of audibility (~16 kHz) is preferable. This principle of inverter operation is called Pulse Width Modulation control (PWM), and it is the control principle most often used in frequency converters today. The motor current itself is almost sinusoidal. This is shown in figure 4.5.4a, indicating motor current (top) and motor voltage. In figure 4.5.4b, a section of the motor voltage is shown, indicating how the pulse/pause ratio of the voltage changes.
Vmotor Mean value of voltage

0 0
t

T = 1/fm Fig 4.5.3: AC voltage with variable frequency (fm) and variable voltage (Vmotor)

0
a b
* * Detail

0

Fig 4.5.4: a) Motor current (top) and motor voltage at Pulse Width Modulation control. b) Section of motor voltage

123

Section 4.5 Frequency converter

4.5.3 Special conditions regarding frequency converters
There are some conditions which the installer and user should be aware of when installing and using frequency converters or pumps with integrated frequency converters. A frequency converter will behave differently than a standard asynchronous motor at the main electirc supply side.

a

b

Fig 4.5.5 a): Three-phase, twopole standard asynchronous motor

Non-sinusoidal power input, three-phase supplied frequency converters
This type of frequency converter will not receive sinusoidal current from the electrical supply. This influences the dimensioning of the main elecrical cable, electric switch, etc. Figure 4.5.5 shows how the current and voltage appear for a: a) Three-phase, two-pole standard asynchronous motor b) Three-phase, two-pole standard asynchronous motor with frequency converter. In both cases the motor supplies 4.08 hp to the shaft. A comparison of the current shows the following differences, see figure 4.5.6:

Fig 4.5.5 b): Three-phase, twopole standard asynchronous motor with frequency converter

Standard motor Mains voltage Mains current RMS Mains current, peak Power input, P1 cos ϕ, power factor (PF) 460 V 6.4 A 9.1 A 3.68 KW cosϕ = 0.83

Motor with frequency converter 460 V 6.36 A 13.8 A 3.69 KW PF = 0.86

Fig. 4.5.6: Comparison of current of a standard motor and a frequency converter

• The current for the system with frequency
converter is not sinusoidal • The peak current is much higher (approx. 52%) for the frequency converter option This is due to the design of the frequency converter connecting the electric supply to a rectifier followed by a capacitor. The charging of the capacitor occurs during short time periods where the rectified voltage is higher than the voltage in the capacitor at that moment. As mentioned, the non-sinusoidal current causes other conditions at the electric supply side of the motor. For a standard motor without a frequency converter, the relation between voltage (V), current (I) and power (P) is shown in the formula at right. The same formula cannot be applied for calculating the power input for motors with frequency converters.

V
V
V

PF

PF
( (

PF 4.93 hp

124

Because these are not sinusoidal, there is no accurate way of calculating the power input based on simple current and voltage measurements. Instead, the power must be calculated by means of instruments and on the basis of instantaneous measurements of current and voltage. If the power (P) and the RMS value of current and voltage are known, the power factor (PF) can be calculated by the formula at right. The power factor has no direct connection with the way in which current and voltage are displaced in time. When measuring the input current in connection with installation and service of a system with a frequency converter, it is necessary to use an instrument that is capable of measuring “non-sinusoidal” currents. In general, current measuring instruments for frequency converters must be able to measure “True RMS.”

Frequency converters and earth-leakage circuit breakers
Earth-leakage circuit breakers (ELCB) are used as extra protection in electrical installations. If a frequency converter is to be connected, the ELCB installed must be able to brake. If failure occurs on the DC side of the frequency converter, the ELCB must be able to brake. To ensure that the ELCB will brake in case of earth-leakage current, it must be labeled as shown in figures 4.5.7 and 4.5.8 Both types of earth-leakage circuit breakers are available on the market today.

Fig 4.5.7: Labelling of the ELCB for single-phase frequency converters

Fig 4.5.8: Labelling of the ELCB for three-phase frequency converters

125

Chapter 5. Life cycle costs calculation

Section 5.1: Life cycle costs equation
5.1.1 Initial cost, purchase price 5.1.2 Installation and commissioning costs 5.1.3 Energy costs 5.1.4 Operating costs 5.1.5 Environmental costs 5.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs 5.1.7 Downtime costs (loss of production) 5.1.8 Decommissioning or disposal costs

Section 5.2: Life cycle costs calculation – an example

Energy costs 90%

Maintenance costs 2-5% Initial costs 5-8%

Section 5.1 Life cycle costs equation

In this section the elements that make up a pump’s life cycle costs (LCC) as well as how to calculate LCC will be addressed. Finally, an example will be presented to demonstrate how the LCC formula is applied.
The life cycle costs of a pump are an expression of how much it costs to purchase, install, operate, maintain and dispose of a pump during its lifetime.

The Hydraulic Institute, Europump and the US Department of Energy have developed the Pump Life Cycle Costs (LCC) guide, see figure 5.1.1., This tool was designed to help companies minimize waste and maximize energy efficiency in different systems including pumping systems. Life cycle cost calculations aid in decision making associated with design of new or repair of existing installations. The life cycle costs (LCC) consist of the following: Cic Cin Ce Co Cenv Cm Cs Cd Initial cost, purchase price Installation and commissioning costs Energy costs Operating costs including labor Environmental costs Maintenance and repair costs Downtime costs (loss of production) Decommissioning or disposal costs

Fig. 5.1.1: A guide to life cycle costs analysis for pumping systems

Typical life cycle costs

Initial costs Maintenance costs Energy costs

Fig. 5.1.2: Typical life cycle costs of a circulating system in the industry

In the following paragraphs, each of these elements is described. As it appears from figure 5.1.2, energy costs, initial costs and maintenance costs are the most important.

LCC is calculated by the following formula:
LCC = Cic + Cin + Ce + Co + Cm + Cs + Cenv + Cd

128

5.1.1 Initial cost, purchase price
The initial cost (Cic) of a pump system includes all equipment and accessories necessary to operate the system, such as pumps, frequency converters, control panels and transmitters, see figure 5.1.3. Often, there is a trade-off between the initial cost and the energy and maintenance costs. For example, expensive components often have a longer lifetime or a lower energy consumption than inexpensive components.
Pump Control panels

Initial costs

Frequency converter

Transmitter

Fig. 5.1.3: Equipment that makes up a pumping system

5.1.2 Installation and commissioning costs
The installation and commissioning costs (Cin) include the following: • • • • Installation of the pumps Foundation Connection of electrical wiring and instrumentation Installation, connection and set-up of transmitters and frequency converters, etc • Commissioning evaluation at start-up As in the case for initial costs, it is important to consider the trade-off options. Pumps with integrated frequency converters often have components integrated in the product. This kind of pump often has a higher initial cost but lower installation and commissioning costs.

8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0

Initial costs

System 1 5200

System 2 7300

Fig. 5.1.4: Initial costs of a constant speed pump system (System 1) and a controlled pump system (System 2)

129

Section 5.1 Life cycle costs equation

5.1.3 Energy costs
In most cases, energy consumption (Ce) is the largest cost in the life cycle costs of a pump system, where pumps often run more than 2000 hours per year. In fact, around 20% of the world’s electrical energy consumption is used for pump systems, see figure 5.1.5. Some of the factors influencing the energy consumption of a pump system includes: • Load profile • Pump efficiency (calculation of the duty point, see figure 5.1.6) • Motor efficiency (the motor efficiency at partial load can vary significantly between high efficiency motors and normal efficiency motors) • Pump sizing (often margins and round-ups tend to suggest oversized pumps) • Other system components, such as pipes and valves • Use of speed-controlled solutions. By using speedcontrolled pumps in the industry, it is possible to reduce the energy consumption by up to 50%

Other use 80%

Pump systems 20%

Fig. 5.1.5: Energy consumption worldwide

η [%]

New Existing

80 60 40 20 0

0

22

44

66

88

110

132

154

176

198

220

242

Q [GPM]

Fig. 5.1.6: Efficiency comparison of a new and an existing pump

5.1.4 Operating costs including labor
Operating costs (Co) cover labor costs related to the operation of a pumping system, and, in most cases, are modest. Today, different types of surveillance equipment allow connection of the pump system to a computer network, lowering operating costs.

5.1.5 Environmental costs
The environmental costs (Cenv) include the disposal of parts and contamination from the pumped liquid. This contribution to the life cycle costs of a pumping system in the industry is modest.

130

5.1.6 Maintenance and repair costs
Maintenance and repair costs (Cm) relate to maintenance and repair of the pump system and include: Labor, spare parts, transportation and cleaning. Preventive maintenance will extend pump life, optimize pump performance and prevent pump breakdowns.

5.1.7 Downtime costs (loss of production)
Downtime costs (Cs) are extremely important to pump systems used in production processes. Production stoppage is costly, even for a short period of time. Though one pump may be enough for the application, it is a good idea to install a standby pump that can take over in the event of an unexpected failure, see figure 5.1.7.

5.1.8 Decommissioning or disposal costs
Depending on the pump manufacturer, decommissioning or disposal costs (Cd ) of a pump system varies. This cost is seldom taken into consideration when calculating LCC.
Fig. 5.1.7: A standby pump assures that production continues in case of pump breakdown

Calculating the life cycle costs
The life cycle costs of a pump system are made up of the summation of the aforementioned components over the system’s lifetime. Typically, the lifetime range is 10 to 20 years. In the pump business, life cycle costs are normally calculated by a simplified formula with fewer elements to consider. This formula is shown at right.

Simplified: LCC = Cic + Ce + Cm Cic Initial costs, purchase price Ce Cm
Energy costs Maintenance and repair costs

131

Section 5.2 Life cycle costs calculation – an example

The example using the LCC formula mentioned on the previous page follows: An industry needs a new water supply pump and two solutions are taken into consideration: • A fixed speed multistage centrifugal pump • A variable speed multistage centrifugal pump According to the calculations, the variable speed pump consumes 40% less energy than the fixed speed pump. However, the initial cost, Cic, of the variable speed pump is twice that of the fixed speed pump. Life cycle costs calculations will help determine which pump to install in the system. The application has the following characteristics: • 12 operating hours per day • 220 operating days per year • Lifetime of 10 years (calculation period) Based on this data, it is possible to calculate the life cycle costs of the two solutions. Even though the initial cost of a variable speed pump is twice as high as a fixed speed pump, the total cost of the variable speed solution is 25% lower than the fixed speed pump solution after 10 years. Besides the lower life cycle costs the variable speed pump provides, as discussed in chapter 4, some operational benefits, such as constant pressure in the system. The payback time of the variable speed pump solution is a bit longer because the pump is more expensive. As you can tell from figure 5.1.9, the payback time is around 2½ years, and in general industrial applications, this is considered to be a good investment.

Pump types Average power consumption Operating hours per day Working days per year Calculation period Total energy consumption Electrical power price Pump types Pump price Maintenance costs Average power consumption Energy costs Operating hours per day Total costs Working days per year Calculation period Total energy consumption 45,000 40,000 Electrical power price Pump 35,000 price 30,000 Maintenance costs Energy costs 25,000 Total costs 20,000 15,000 10,000 45,000 40,000 5,000 0 35,000 30,000 USD 45,000 20,000 40,000 15,000 35,000 10,000 30,000 5,000 25,000 0 20,000 15,000 10,000 45,000 40,000 5,000 0 35,000 30,000 0 USD 25,000 20,000 15,000 10,000 5,000 0 0 2 4 Years 2 4 Years Fixed speed USD kw hours days years kwh

Fixed speed 18.76 12 220 10 495,264

Variable speed 11.31 12 220 10 298,584 .07 Variable 7204 speed 1417 11.31 20,066 12 28,688 220 10 298,584 .07 7204 1417 20,066 28,688

USD/kwh .07 Fixed USD 3602 speed USD 1417 kw 18.76 USD 33,284 hours 12 USD 38,303 days 220 years 10 kwh 495,264 Pump price USD/kwh .07 Maintenance costs USD 3602 Energy costs USD 1417 USD 33,284 USD 38,303

Pump price Maintenance costs Energy costs speed Variable

Fig. 5.1.8: Life cycle costs of a fixed and a variable speed pump 25,000

USD

Fixed speed

Variable speed Fixed speed Variable speed 6 8 10

Fixed speed Variable speed 6 8 10

Fig. 5.1.9: Payback time for a fixed and a variable speed pump

132

Appendix
A) Notations and units B) Unit conversion tables C) SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet D) Vapor pressure and specific gravity of water at different temperatures E) Orifice F) Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter G) Nozzles H) Nomogram for head losses in bends, valves, etc. I) Periodical system

J) Pump standards K) Viscosity for different liquids as a function of liquid temperature

Appendix A

Notations and units
The table below provides an overview of the most commonly used notations and units for pumps and pump systems.

U.S. unit ft GPM psi psi ft lb ft ft lb ft

SI unit

gph ft ft psi

lb gal

in in ft ft RPM hp 745.7 w = 1 hp g = 32.174 ft/s m

134

Appendix B

Unit conversion tables
The conversion tables for pressure and flow show the most commonly used units for pumping systems

CONVERSION FACTORS - UNITS OF LENGTH Examples: 2 Yards x 3 = 6 Feet x 0.333 = 1 Yard
Unit Inch Foot Yard Inch 1 0.0833 0.0278 Foot 12 1 0.333 Yard 36 3 1 Centimeters 0.3937 0.0328 0.0109 Meter 39.37 3.281 1.094 1 Mile = 5280 ft. = 1760 yards = 1609.3 meters = 1.61 Kilometers 1 Kilometer = 1000 meters = 1093.6 yards = .62137 miles Centimeter 2.54 30.48 91.44 1 100 Meter 0.0254 0.3048 0.9144 0.01 1

CONVERSION FACTORS - UNITS OF FLOW Examples: 500 U.S. Gpm x .00144 = .72 U.S. Mgd. x 694.5 = 6945 U.S. Gpm
U.S. Imp. U.S. Mgd Imperial Cu. Ft. Cu. Meters Liters Barrels/Min. Barrels/24 Hrs. Unit Gpm Gpm (2) Mgd (2) /Sec. /Hr. /Sec. (3) (3) U.S. Gal./Min. 1 0.833 0.00144 0.0012 0.00223 0.227 0.0631 0.0238 34.25 Imp. Gal./Min. 1.2 1 0.00173 0.00144 0.00268 0.272 0.0757 0.0286 41.09 U.S. Mgd (2) 694.4 578.7 1 0.833 1.547 157.73 43.8 16.53 23786.6 Imperial Mgd (2) 833.4 694.5 1.2 1 1.856 189.28 52.56 19.83 28544 Cu. Ft./Sec. 448.8 374 0.646 0.538 1 101.9 28.32 10.68 15360.4 Cu. Meters/Hr. 4.403 3.67 0.00634 0.00528 0.00981 1 0.2778 0.1047 150.8 Liters/Sec. 15.85 13.21 0.0228 0.019 0.0353 3.6 1 0.377 542.86 Barrels/Min. (3) 42 34.99 0.0605 0.0504 0.0937 9.534 2.65 1 1440 Barrels/24 Hrs.(3) 0.0292 0.0243 0.000042 0.000035 0.000065 0.00662 0.00184 0.000694 1 (1) US Mgd = Million U.S. gallons per 24 hr. day. Imp Mgd = Million Imperial gallons per 24 hr. day. (2) 42 gal. bbl.

CONVERSION FACTORS - UNITS OF PRESSURE Examples: 15 Ft. Water x .433 = 6.49 Psi 15 Psi x 2.31 = 34.65 Ft. Water
In. Water In. Water Ft. Water Psi. In. Hg. Mm. Hg. Bar atm Kilopascal 1 12 27.72 13.596 0.5353 401.86 407.19 4.0186 Ft. Water 0.0833 1 2.31 1.133 0.0446 33.49 33.93 0.3349 Psi 0.0361 0.433 1 0.4906 0.0193 14.503 14.696 0.1451 In. Hg. 0.0736 0.883 2.04 1 0.03937 29.54 29.92 0.2954 Mm. Hg. 1.87 22.43 51.816 25.4 1 750.5 760 0.7505 Bar 2.538 30.45 70.31 34.49 1.357 1 1.0133 — atm 0.0025 0.0304 0.0703 0.0345 0.0014 0.987 1 —

135

Appendix C

SI-prefixes and Greek alphabet
Factor 10 106 103 102 10 10-1 10-2 10-3 10-6 10-9
9

Prefix 1,000,000,000 1,000,000 1,000 100 10 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000.001 0.000.000.001 giga mega kilo hekto deka deci centi milli mikro nano

Symbol G M k h da d c m µ n

Greek alphabet
Alfa Beta Gamma Delta Epsilon Zeta Eta Theta Jota Kappa Lambda My Ny Ksi Omikron Pi Rho Sigma Tau Ypsilon Fi Khi Psi Omega Α Β Γ ∆ Ε Ζ Η Θ Ι Κ Λ Μ Ν ΚΣ Ο Π Ρ Σ Τ Υ Φ Χ Ψ Ω α β γ δ ε ζ η θ ι κ λ µ ν κσ ο π ρ σ τ υ φ χ ψ ω

136

Appendix D

Vapor pressure and specific gravity of water at different temperatures
This table shows the specific gravity [sg], vapor pressure p [psi] and the density ρ [lb/ft3] of water at different temperatures t [oF].

Properties of Water at Various Temperatures
WATER TEMPERATURE
0

SPECIFIC GRAVITY

VAPOR PRESSURE

DENSITY

F

0

C

32 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 212 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290

0 4.4 7.2 10.0 12.8 15.6 18.3 21.1 23.9 26.7 29.4 32.2 35.0 37.8 43.3 48.9 54.4 60.0 65.6 71.1 76.7 82.2 87.8 93.3 98.9 100.0 104.4 110.0 115.6 121.1 126.7 132.2 137.8 143.3

1.002 1.001 1.001 1.001 1.000 1.000 .999 .999 .998 .998 .997 .996 .995 .994 .992 .990 .987 .985 .982 .979 .975 .972 .968 .964 .960 .959 .956 .952 .948 .943 .939 .933 .929 .924

0.0886 0.1217 0.1474 0.1780 0.2139 0.2561 0.3056 0.3629 0.4296 0.5068 0.5958 0.6981 0.8153 0.9492 1.2750 1.6927 2.2230 2.8892 3.7184 4.7414 5.9926 7.5110 9.3400 11.5260 14.1230 14.6960 17.1860 20.7790 24.9680 29.8250 35.4300 41.8560 49.2000 57.5500

PSIA

0.204 0.281 0.340 0.411 0.494 0.591 0.706 0.839 0.994 1.172 1.379 1.617 1.890 2.203 2.965 3.943 5.196 6.766 8.735 11.172 14.178 17.825 22.257 27.584 33.983 35.353 41.343 50.420 60.770 73.060 87.050 103.630 122.180 143.875

FEET

lb/ft3

62.400 62.425 62.420 62.410 62.390 62.370 62.340 62.310 62.270 62.220 62.170 62.120 62.060 62.000 61.980 61.710 61.560 61.380 61.190 60.990 60.790 60.570 60.340 60.110 59.860 59.810 59.610 59.350 59.080 58.800 58.520 58.220 57.920 57.600

137

Appendix E

Orifice
Nipple orifices are typically used in boiler feed applications when boiler feed pumps need to discharge built-up pressure. These boiler feed pumps operate continuosly in order to provide on-demand hot water; but when no hot water is needed, the valve to the boiler is closed and the pump ends up operating under a harmful shut-off condition during extended periods of time in which there will be a rise in liquid temperature in the pump because the input horsepower being converted to heat in the pump is not dissipated. For that reason, in order to increase the run life of the pump and control the temperature rise, the system is designed to allow the feed pump to discharge its build-up pressure through a bypass line in which a nipple orifice is installed. The orifice dissipates the high pressure and allows water to flow back to the reservoir tank. During feed pump system design, nipple orifices are sized using performance charts, like the ones shown in the figure below, derived from an acceptable mathematical approach that assumes a constant discharge coefficient (Cd) of 0.61 for all orifices in the general equation Q = 19.636 Cd d2 H0.5, where Q is in gpm, d is the nipple orifice diameter in inches, and H is the differential head in ft. of water.

Orifice size

Approximate Discharge Through Bypass Nipple Orifice

1000
1/8" 3/16" 1/4"

5/16" 7/16" 3/8"

1/2" 7/8" 13/16" 3/4" 11/16" 5/8" 9/16"

1"

Head (Feet)

100

10

1

10
Flow (GPM)

100

1000

138

Appendix F

Change in static pressure due to change in pipe diameter
As described in Chapter 2.2, a change in pipe dimension results in a change in liquid velocity and consequently, a change in dynamic and static pressure. When head has to be determined (see page 86), the difference in the two port dimensions requires a correction of the measured head.

Approximate Sudden Expansion Head Loss

100

d

D

10
H[ft]

1

0.1

10

100

Q[GPM]

1000

10000

d/D=1/1.5 d/D=4/5 d/D=10/14

d/D=1.25/2 d/D=4/6 d/D=12/14

d/D=2/2.5 d/D=5/6 d/D=12/16

d/D=2/3 d/D=5/8 d/D=14/16

d/D=2.5/3 d/D=6/8 d/D=14/18

d/D=2.5/4 d/D=8/10 d/D=16/18

d/D=3/4 d/D=8/12 d/D=16/20

d/D=3/5 d/D=10/12 d/D=18/20

Approximate Sudden Contraction Head Loss

100 10
H[ft]

D

d

1 0.1

10

100
Q[GPM]

1000

10000

139

Appendix G

Nozzles
The relationship between the nozzle diameter d [inches], the needed flow Q [GPM] and the required pressure before the nozzle p [psi] is found by the nomogram below. We assume that the nozzle has a quadratic behavior, and d / D is less than 1/3.

Nozzle Diameter (inch)
1/16 3/16 3/8 5/8 7/8 1 1/8 1 3/8 1 3/4 2 1/4 1/8 1/4 1/2 3/4 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 2 2 1/2 3 4 5 6

Q1 Q2 =

( )

p1 p2

n

where n = 0.5. Some nozzles have a lower n value (check with the supplier).
Pressure p [psi]

D

Flow Q [GPM]

Nozzle diameter d [inch]

2 3/4 3 1/2 4 1/2 5 1/2

Approximate discharge of a nozzle

400

PSI

100

10 5 0.1 1 10 100
Q [GPM]

1000

10000

100000

140

Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Sch. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F (Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
1/8” (0.26 ID) gpm 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 12 14 15 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 Vel. 0.57 1.13 1.69 2.26 2.82 3.39 3.95 4.52 5.08 5.65 6.77 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** Frict. 1.36 2.72 9.70 16.2 24.2 33.8 44.8 57.4 71.6 87.0 122 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1/4” (0.36 ID) Vel. 0.31 0.62 *** 1.23 *** 1.85 *** 2.47 *** 3.08 3.70 4.32 *** 4.93 5.55 6.17 7.71 9.25 10.8 12.3 13.9 15.4 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** Frict. 0.41 0.81 *** 3.70 *** 7.60 *** 12.7 *** 19.1 26.7 35.3 *** 45.2 56.4 69.0 105 148 200 259 326 396 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 3/8” (0.49 ID) Vel. Frict. 1/2” (0.62 ID) Vel. Frict. 3/4” (0.82 ID) Vel. Frict. 1” (1.04 ID) Vel. Frict. gpm 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 1.2 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.8 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 12 14 15 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60

0.84 1.01 *** 1.34 *** 1.68 *** *** 2.52 *** *** 3.36 4.20 5.04 5.88 6.72 7.56 8.40 9.24 10.1 *** 11.8 *** 13.4 *** 15.1 *** 16.8 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

1.26 1.74 *** 2.89 *** 4.30 *** *** 8.93 *** *** 15.0 22.6 31.8 42.6 54.9 68.4 83.5 100 118 *** 158 *** 205 *** 258 *** 316 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

1.06 *** *** 1.58 *** *** 2.11 2.64 3.17 3.70 4.22 4.75 5.28 5.81 6.34 6.86 7.39 7.92 8.45 8.98 9.50 10.0 10.6 12.7 14.8 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

1.86 *** *** 2.85 *** *** 4.78 7.16 10.0 13.3 17.1 21.3 29.8 30.9 36.5 42.4 48.7 55.5 62.7 70.3 78.3 86.9 95.9 136 183 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

0.60 *** *** 0.90 *** *** 1.20 *** 1.81 *** 2.41 *** 3.01 *** 3.61 *** 4.21 *** 4.81 *** 5.42 *** 6.02 7.22 8.42 9.02 9.63 10.8 12.0 15.1 18.1 *** *** *** *** ***

0.26 *** *** 0.73 *** *** 1.21 *** 2.50 *** 4.21 *** 6.32 *** 8.87 *** 11.8 *** 15.0 *** 18.8 *** 27.0 32.6 43.5 50.0 56.3 70.3 86.1 134 187 *** *** *** *** ***

0.37 *** *** *** *** *** 0.74 *** 1.11 *** 1.48 *** 1.86 *** 2.23 *** 2.60 *** 2.97 *** 3.34 *** 3.71 4.45 5.20 *** 5.94 6.68 7.42 9.27 11.1 13.0 14.8 16.7 18.6 22.3

0.11 *** *** *** *** *** 0.38 *** 0.78 *** 1.30 *** 1.93 *** 2.68 *** 3.56 *** 4.54 *** 5.65 *** 6.86 9.62 12.8 *** 16.5 20.6 25.1 38.7 54.6 73.3 95.0 119 146 209

141

Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Sch. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F (Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
gpm 5 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1400 1 1/4” (1.38 ID) 1 1/2” (1.61 ID) Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. 1.07 2.15 2.57 3.00 3.43 3.86 4.29 5.37 6.44 7.52 8.58 9.66 10.7 12.9 15.0 17.2 19.3 21.5 25.7 30.0 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.52 1.77 2.48 3.28 4.20 5.25 6.34 9.66 13.6 18.5 23.5 29.5 36.0 51.0 68.8 89.2 112 138 197 267 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.79 1.58 1.89 2.21 2.52 2.84 3.15 3.94 4.73 5.52 6.30 7.10 7.88 9.46 11.0 12.6 14.2 15.8 18.9 22.1 25.2 28.4 31.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.25 0.83 1.16 1.53 1.96 2.42 2.94 4.50 6.26 8.38 10.8 13.5 16.4 23.2 31.3 40.5 51.0 62.2 88.3 119 158 199 241 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 2” (2.07 ID) 2 1/2” (2.47 ID) Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. 0.48 0.96 1.15 1.34 1.53 1.72 1.91 *** 2.87 3.35 3.82 4.30 4.78 5.74 6.69 7.65 8.60 9.56 11.5 13.4 15.3 17.2 19.1 21.0 22.9 24.9 26.8 28.7 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.07 0.25 0.35 0.46 0.59 0.73 0.87 *** 1.82 2.42 3.10 3.82 4.67 6.59 8.86 11.4 14.2 17.4 24.7 33.2 43.0 54.1 66.3 80.0 95.0 111 128 146 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.67 0.80 0.94 1.07 1.21 1.34 *** 2.01 2.35 2.68 3.02 3.35 4.02 4.69 5.36 6.03 6.70 8.04 9.38 10.7 12.1 13.4 14.7 16.1 17.4 18.8 20.1 23.5 26.8 30.2 33.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.31 0.36 *** 0.75 1.00 1.28 1.57 1.94 2.72 3.63 4.66 5.82 7.11 10.0 13.5 17.4 21.9 26.7 32.2 38.1 44.5 51.3 58.5 79.2 103 132 160 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 3” (3.07 ID) Vel. Frict. 0.43 *** *** *** *** 0.87 *** 1.30 *** 1.82 *** 2.17 2.60 *** 3.47 *** 4.34 5.21 6.08 6.94 7.81 8.68 9.55 10.4 11.3 12.2 13.0 15.2 17.4 19.6 21.7 23.9 26.0 28.2 30.4 *** 34.7 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.04 *** *** *** *** 0.13 *** 0.27 *** 0.55 *** 0.66 0.92 *** 1.57 *** 2.39 3.37 4.51 5.81 7.28 8.90 10.7 12.6 14.7 16.9 19.2 26.3 33.9 43.0 52.5 63.8 75.7 88.6 101 *** 131 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 4” (4.07 ID) Vel. Frict. gpm 5 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 850 900 950 1000 1100 1200 1400

0.50 *** 0.76 *** 1.01 *** 1.26 1.51 1.76 2.02 2.27 2.52 3.02 3.53 4.03 4.54 5.04 5.54 6.05 6.55 7.06 7.56 8.82 10.1 11.3 12.6 13.9 15.1 16.4 17.6 18.9 20.2 21.4 22.7 23.9 25.2 27.7 30.2 35.3

0.04 *** 0.07 *** 0.12 *** 0.18 0.25 0.33 0.42 0.52 0.61 0.86 1.16 1.49 1.89 2.27 2.70 3.19 3.72 4.28 4.89 6.55 8.47 10.5 13.0 15.7 18.6 21.7 25.3 28.9 32.8 37.0 41.4 46.0 50.9 61.4 72.0 97.6

142

Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Sch. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F (Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
gpm 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000 5” (5.05 ID) Vel. Frict. 0.64 0.96 1.28 1.60 1.92 2.25 2.57 2.89 3.21 3.53 3.85 4.17 4.49 4.81 5.61 6.41 7.22 8.02 8.81 9.62 11.2 12.8 14.4 16.0 *** 19.2 *** 22.5 *** 25.7 *** 28.8 *** 32.1 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.04 0.08 0.14 0.21 0.29 0.39 0.48 0.60 0.73 0.87 1.03 1.19 1.37 1.58 2.11 2.72 3.41 4.16 4.94 5.88 7.93 10.2 12.9 15.8 *** 22.5 *** 30.4 *** 39.5 *** 49.7 *** 61.0 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 6” (6.07 ID) 8” (7.98 ID) 10” (10.02 ID) 12” (11.94 ID) 14” (13.12 ID) Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10000

1.11 1.33 1.55 1.78 2.00 2.22 2.44 2.66 2.89 3.11 3.33 3.89 4.44 5.00 5.55 6.11 6.66 7.77 8.88 9.99 11.1 12.2 13.3 14.4 15.5 16.7 17.8 18.9 20.0 21.1 22.2 27.7 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

0.09 0.12 0.16 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.36 0.41 0.48 0.54 0.62 0.85 1.09 1.36 1.66 1.97 2.33 3.13 4.04 5.08 6.23 7.49 8.87 10.4 12.0 13.7 15.6 17.5 19.6 21.8 24.1 37.2 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

1.15 1.28 1.41 1.54 1.67 1.80 1.92 2.24 2.57 2.89 3.21 3.53 3.85 4.49 5.13 5.77 6.41 7.05 7.70 8.34 8.98 9.62 10.3 10.9 11.5 12.2 12.8 16.0 19.2 22.4 25.7 *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

0.07 0.08 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.15 0.17 0.22 0.28 0.34 0.42 0.50 0.59 0.79 1.01 1.27 1.55 1.86 2.20 2.56 2.96 3.38 3.83 4.29 4.81 5.31 5.91 8.90 12.8 17.5 22.0 *** *** *** *** *** *** ***

1.22 1.42 1.63 1.83 2.03 2.24 2.44 2.85 3.25 3.66 4.07 4.48 4.88 5.29 5.70 6.10 6.51 6.92 7.32 7.73 8.14 10.2 12.2 14.2 16.3 18.3 20.3 24.4 *** *** *** ***

0.06 0.07 0.09 0.12 0.14 0.17 0.20 0.25 0.33 0.41 0.49 0.59 0.70 0.81 0.94 1.07 1.21 1.38 1.52 1.68 1.86 2.86 4.06 5.46 7.07 8.91 11.0 15.9 *** *** *** ***

1.43 1.58 1.72 2.01 2.29 2.58 2.87 3.15 3.44 3.73 4.01 4.30 4.59 4.87 5.16 5.45 5.73 7.17 8.60 10.0 11.5 12.9 14.3 17.2 20.1 22.9 *** ***

0.06 0.07 0.08 0.11 0.14 0.18 0.21 0.25 0.29 0.34 0.39 0.44 0.50 0.57 0.64 0.70 0.78 1.19 1.68 2.25 2.92 3.65 4.47 6.39 8.63 11.2 *** ***

1.90 2.14 2.37 2.61 2.85 3.08 3.32 3.56 3.80 4.03 4.27 4.51 4.74 5.93 7.12 8.30 9.49 10.7 11.9 14.2 16.6 19.0 21.4 23.7

0.09 0.11 0.13 0.16 0.18 0.21 0.24 0.28 0.31 0.35 0.39 0.43 0.48 0.73 1.04 1.40 1.81 2.27 2.79 4.00 5.37 6.98 8.79 10.8

143

Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Sch. 40 Steel Pipe at 60° F (Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
gpm 1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 5000 6000 7000 8000 9000 10,000 12,000 14,000 16,000 18,000 20,000 25,000 30,000 35,000 40,000 50,000 Note: 1. Table based on Darcy-Weisback formula; with no allowance for age, differences in diameter, or any other abnormal condition of interior surface. Any Factor of Safety must be estimated from the local conditions and the requirements of each particular installation. For general purposes, 15% is a reasonable Factor of Safety. 2. The friction loss data is based on seamless Sch. 40 steel pipe. Cast iron (CI) pipe has a slightly larger ID than steel pipe in the 3” to 12” dia. range, which generally makes no practical difference with respect to water supply pumping problems. 3. Ductile Iron (DI) has a larger ID than both Sch. 40 steel and CI pipes for the same nominal diameter. Friction Losses in DI pipe can be approximated by multiplying the tabulated value by .75 in the 4” to 12” size range and .60 for 14” and larger sizes. 4. Velocity head values are not included in the table, as they are normally not considered as a component of Total Head (TH) calculations to solve water supply pumping problem. Velocity and Velocity head can be calculated using the following formulas: Vel. (fps) = gpm (.410)/(ID) 2 = gpm (.321)/Area (in. 2); where: Area (in 2) = π (ID) 2/4 Vel. Head (ft.) = (Vel.) 2 /2g = (Vel.) 2/64.4 5. Velocity within column (vertical drop/riser pipe) should be kept within the range of 4 - 15 fps (5.0 fps is optimum). Velocity within horizontal distribution piping should be kept within the range of 1 - 6 fps (3.0 fps is optimum). 6. Tabulated friction loss values are calculated based on water at 60°F and a kinematic viscosity = 0.00001217 ft /sec. (31.2 SSU). Correct tabulated values for fluid temperatures other than 60°F as following: Temp (°F) Correction factor 32 1.20 40 1.10 50 1.00 60 1.00 80 1.00 100 .95 150 .90 200 .85 212 .80 16” (15.00 ID) Vel. Frict. 1.82 2.72 3.63 4.54 5.45 6.35 7.26 8.17 9.08 10.9 12.7 14.5 16.3 18.2 21.8 25.4 29.0 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 0.07 0.14 0.25 0.38 0.54 0.72 0.92 1.15 1.41 2.01 2.69 3.49 4.38 5.38 7.69 10.4 13.5 *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 16” (15.00 ID) Vel. Frict. 20” (18.81) Vel. Frict. 24” (22.62 ID) Vel. Frict. 30” (29.00 ID)* 36” (35.00 ID)* Vel. Frict. Vel. Frict. gpm

2.87 3.59 4.30 5.02 5.74 6.45 7.17 8.61 10.0 11.5 12.9 14.3 17.2 20.1 22.9 25.8 28.7 *** *** *** *** ***

0.14 0.21 0.30 0.40 0.51 0.64 0.78 1.11 1.49 1.93 2.42 2.97 4.21 5.69 7.41 9.33 11.5 *** *** *** *** ***

2.31 2.89 3.46 4.04 4.62 5.19 5.77 6.92 8.08 9.23 10.4 11.5 13.8 16.2 18.5 20.8 23.1 28.9 34.6 *** *** ***

0.08 0.12 0.17 0.23 0.30 0.37 0.46 0.65 0.86 1.11 1.39 1.70 2.44 3.29 4.26 5.35 6.56 10.2 14.6 *** *** ***

2.39 2.79 3.19 3.59 3.99 4.79 5.59 6.38 7.18 7.98 9.58 11.2 12.8 14.4 16.0 20.0 23.9 27.9 *** ***

0.07 0.09 0.12 0.15 0.18 0.26 0.34 0.44 0.55 0.67 0.96 1.29 1.67 2.10 2.58 4.04 5.68 7.73 *** ***

1.94 *** 2.43 2.91 3.40 3.89 4.37 4.86 5.83 6.80 7.77 8.74 9.71 12.1 14.6 17.0 19.4 ***

0.03 *** 0.05 0.08 0.10 0.13 0.16 0.20 0.28 0.37 0.48 0.60 0.73 1.13 1.61 2.17 2.83 ***

1.58 1.89 2.21 2.52 2.84 3.15 3.78 4.41 5.04 5.67 6.30 7.88 9.46 11.0 12.6 15.8

1000 1500 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 4500 0.02 5000 0.03 6000 0.04 7000 0.04 8000 0.06 9000 0.07 10,000 0.09 12,000 0.13 14,000 0.16 16,000 0.20 18,000 0.25 20,000 0.38 25,000 0.54 30,000 0.72 35,000 0.94 40,000 1.45 50,000

* The ID value specified for 30” and 36” sizes are for Sch. 20 pipe. Sch. 40 pipe is not available in diameters greater than 24”

144

Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Type L. Copper Tubing and Sch. 40 PVC Pipe (Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
1/2” gpm 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 12.0 14.0 16.0 1” gpm 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 Tubing 1.03” ID Vel. Frict. 0.78 1.17 1.56 1.95 2.34 2.72 3.11 3.50 3.89 4.67 5.45 6.22 7.00 7.78 9.74 11.68 13.61 15.55 0.41 0.82 1.35 2.00 2.75 3.60 4.56 5.61 6.76 9.33 12.27 15.56 19.20 23.18 34.56 47.96 63.31 80.58 Tubing .545” ID Vel. 0.69 1.38 2.06 2.75 3.44 4.12 4.81 5.50 6.19 6.87 8.25 9.62 11.0 12.4 13.8 Frict. 0.75 2.45 4.93 8.11 11.98 16.48 21.61 27.33 33.65 40.52 56.02 73.69 93.50 115.4 139.4 Pipe .622” ID Vel. 0.52 1.04 1.57 2.09 2.61 3.13 3.66 4.18 4.70 5.22 6.26 7.31 8.35 9.40 10.4 12.6 14.7 Frict. 0.40 1.28 2.58 4.24 6.25 8.59 11.25 14.22 17.50 21.07 29.09 38.23 48.47 59.79 72.16 115.6 157.4 3/4” gpm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1 1/4” gpm 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 Tubing .785” ID Vel. 0.66 1.33 1.99 2.65 3.31 3.98 4.64 5.30 5.96 6.92 7.29 7.95 8.61 9.27 9.94 10.60 11.25 11.92 Frict. 0.44 1.44 2.91 4.81 7.11 9.80 12.86 16.28 20.06 24.19 28.66 33.47 38.61 44.07 49.86 55.97 62.39 69.13 Pipe .824” ID Vel. 0.60 1.21 1.81 2.42 3.02 3.62 4.23 4.83 5.44 6.04 6.64 7.25 7.85 8.45 9.05 9.65 10.25 10.85 Frict. 0.35 1.16 2.34 3.86 5.71 7.86 10.32 13.07 16.10 19.41 22.99 26.84 30.96 35.33 39.97 44.86 50.00 55.40

Pipe 1.05” ID Vel. Frict. 0.72 1.08 1.45 1.81 2.17 2.53 2.89 3.25 3.61 4.34 5.05 5.78 6.50 7.22 9.03 10.84 12.65 14.45 0.35 0.70 1.14 1.69 2.32 3.04 3.85 4.74 5.71 7.88 10.36 13.13 16.20 19.55 29.15 40.43 53.37 67.90

Tubing 1.27” ID Vel. Frict. 1.28 1.53 1.79 2.04 2.30 2.55 3.06 3.83 5.10 6.38 7.65 8.94 10.2 11.5 12.8 15.3 17.9 20.4 0.74 1.01 1.32 1.67 2.06 2.48 3.42 5.07 8.46 12.59 17.44 23.00 29.24 36.15 43.71 60.78 80.38 102.5

Pipe 1.38” ID Vel. Frict. 1.09 1.31 1.53 1.75 1.96 2.18 2.62 3.27 4.36 5.46 6.55 7.65 8.74 9.83 10.9 13.1 15.3 17.5 0.51 0.70 0.91 1.15 1.42 1.71 2.35 3.49 5.81 8.65 11.98 15.79 20.06 24.80 29.98 41.66 55.07 70.16

145

Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Type L. Copper Tubing and Sch. 40 PVC Pipe (Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
Tubing 1 1/2” gpm 8 9 10 12 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 2 1/2” gpm 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 1.51” ID Vel. 1.44 1.62 1.80 2.16 2.70 3.60 4.51 5.41 6.31 7.21 8.11 9.01 10.8 12.6 14.4 16.2 18.0 19.8 Frict. 0.73 0.90 1.08 1.49 2.21 3.68 5.48 7.58 9.99 12.68 15.67 18.94 26.30 34.74 44.24 54.78 66.34 78.90 Vel. 1.27 1.43 1.59 1.91 2.39 3.19 3.98 4.78 5.58 6.37 7.16 7.96 9.56 11.2 12.8 14.4 15.9 17.5 Pipe 1.61” ID Frict. 0.55 0.67 0.81 1.12 1.65 2.75 4.09 5.65 7.45 9.45 11.68 14.11 19.59 25.87 32.93 40.76 79.34 58.67 2” gpm 16 18 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 3” gpm 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 Vel. 1.66 1.87 2.07 2.59 3.11 3.62 4.14 4.66 5.17 6.21 7.25 8.28 9.31 10.4 11.4 12.4 13.4 14.5 Tubing 1.98” ID Frict. 0.66 0.82 0.98 1.46 2.01 2.65 3.36 4.15 5.01 6.95 9.16 11.65 14.41 17.43 20.71 24.25 28.04 32.07 Vel. 1.53 1.72 1.92 2.39 2.87 3.35 3.83 4.30 4.80 5.75 6.70 7.65 8.61 9.57 10.5 11.5 12.5 13.4 Pipe 2.07” ID Frict. 0.55 0.68 0.82 1.22 1.68 2.21 2.80 3.46 4.17 5.79 7.63 9.70 12.00 14.51 17.24 20.18 23.33 26.69

Tubing 2.46” ID Vel. Frict. 1.34 1.68 2.02 2.35 2.69 3.02 3.36 4.03 4.70 5.37 6.04 6.71 7.38 8.05 8.73 9.40 10.1 10.8 11.4 12.1 12.8 13.4 14.8 16.1 0.35 0.52 0.72 0.94 1.19 1.47 1.77 2.46 3.24 4.12 5.08 6.15 7.30 8.54 9.87 11.28 12.78 14.36 16.03 17.79 19.62 21.54 25.61 30.01

Pipe 2.47” ID Vel. Frict. 1.31 1.63 1.96 2.29 2.61 2.94 3.26 3.92 4.57 5.22 5.88 6.53 7.19 7.84 8.49 9.14 9.79 10.45 11.1 11.8 12.4 13.1 14.4 15.7 0.33 0.49 0.67 0.88 1.12 1.38 1.66 2.30 3.03 3.85 4.75 5.74 6.82 7.92 9.22 10.54 11.94 13.42 14.98 16.61 18.33 20.12 23.93 28.03

Tubing 2.95” ID Vel. Frict. 0.94 1.41 1.88 2.35 2.82 3.29 3.76 4.23 4.70 5.17 5.64 6.11 6.58 7.05 7.52 7.99 8.46 8.93 9.40 10.3 11.3 12.2 13.2 14.1 0.15 0.31 0.51 0.76 1.05 1.38 1.75 2.16 2.61 3.10 3.63 4.19 4.79 5.42 6.09 6.80 7.54 8.32 9.13 10.85 12.70 14.69 16.81 19.06

Pipe 3.07” ID Vel. Frict. 0.87 1.30 1.74 2.17 2.61 3.04 3.48 3.91 4.35 4.79 5.21 5.65 6.09 6.52 6.95 7.39 7.82 8.25 8.70 9.56 10.40 11.3 12.2 13.0 0.13 0.25 0.42 0.63 0.87 1.15 1.45 1.80 2.17 2.57 3.01 3.47 3.97 4.50 5.05 5.64 6.25 6.89 7.56 8.99 10.52 12.17 13.93 15.79

146

Appendix H

Friction Loss for Water in New Type L. Copper Tubing and Sch. 40 PVC Pipe (Frict. loss in ft. per 100 ft. - Vel. in ft. per sec.)
Tubing 3 1/2” gpm 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 3.43” ID Vel. Frict. 2.09 2.44 2.78 3.13 3.48 3.82 4.18 4.52 4.87 5.21 5.56 5.91 6.26 6.60 6.95 7.65 8.35 9.05 9.74 10.4 12.2 13.9 15.6 17.4 0.51 0.67 0.85 1.05 1.27 1.50 1.76 2.03 2.32 2.62 2.95 3.29 3.64 4.02 4.41 5.24 6.13 7.09 8.11 9.19 12.16 15.51 19.23 23.32 Pipe 3.55” ID Vel. Frict. 2.00 2.33 2.66 3.00 3.33 3.67 4.00 4.33 4.66 5.00 5.33 5.66 6.00 6.33 6.66 7.33 8.00 8.66 9.33 10.0 11.7 13.3 15.0 16.7 0.46 0.60 0.77 0.95 1.14 1.35 1.58 1.83 2.09 2.36 2.66 2.96 3.28 3.62 3.97 4.72 5.52 6.39 7.30 8.28 10.95 13.97 17.32 20.99 4” gpm 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 220 240 260 280 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 Vel. Tubing 3.91” ID Frict. 0.68 0.80 0.94 1.08 1.23 1.40 1.57 1.75 1.94 2.14 2.35 2.79 3.26 3.77 4.31 4.88 6.46 8.23 10.20 12.36 14.71 17.24 19.96 22.86 Pipe 4.63” ID Vel. Frict. 2.55 2.81 3.06 3.31 3.57 3.83 4.08 4.33 4.58 4.84 5.10 5.61 6.12 6.63 7.14 7.65 8.92 10.2 11.5 12.8 14.1 15.3 16.6 17.9 0.60 0.71 0.83 0.96 1.10 1.25 1.39 1.56 1.73 1.91 2.09 2.48 2.90 3.36 3.84 4.35 5.75 7.33 9.08 11.00 13.09 15.35 17.77 20.35

2.68 2.94 3.21 3.48 3.74 4.01 4.28 4.55 4.81 5.08 5.35 5.89 6.42 6.95 7.49 8.02 9.36 10.7 12.0 13.4 14.7 16.0 17.4 18.7

Note: 1. The friction losses listed under the pipe heading is approximately valid for Regular Weight Copper and Brass Pipe, in addition to Sch. 40 PVC Pipe 2. Table based on Darcy - Weisback formula 3. No allowance has been made for age, difference in diameter, or any abnormal condition of interior surface. Any factor of safety must be estimated from the local conditions and the requirements of each particular installation. It is recommended that for most commercial design purposes a safety factor of 15 to 20% be added to the values in the tables.

147

Appendix H

Friction Losses Through Pipe Valves and Fittings (Straight Pipe in Feet - Equivalent Length)

SIZE OF PIPE (inches) 1/8” 1/4” 3/8” 1/2” 3/4” 1” 1 1/4” 1 1/2” 2” 2 1/2” 3” 4” 6” 8” 10” 12” 14” 16”

WIDE OPEN .14 .21 .27 .33 .46 .61 .79 .93 1.21 1.39 1.69 2.40 3.40 4.40 5.70 6.80 8.20 9.10

GATE VALVE 1/4 1/2 CLOSED CLOSED .85 5.0 1.25 7.0 1.80 9.0 2.10 12.0 2.9 14.0 3.4 18.0 4.8 24.0 5.6 28.0 7.0 36.0 8.4 41.0 10.0 52.0 14.0 70.0 20.0 105 26.5 136 33.5 172 40.6 196 48.5 233 53.0 274

3/4 CLOSED 19 26 36 44 59 70 96 116 146 172 213 285 425 555 703 815 978 1110

GLOBE VALVEWIDE OPEN 9 12 16 18 23 29 38 46 58 69 86 116 175 225 285 336 395 435

ANGLE VALVEWIDE OPEN 5 6 8 9 12 15 20 23 29 35 43 57 86 115 141 166 195 220

CHECK VALVEWIDE OPEN 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 15.0 17.0 21.0 27.0 39. 53. 65. 78. 92. 106.

ORDINARY ENTRANCE TO PIPE LINES .46 .60 .75 .90 1.4 1.6 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 5.0 6.5 9.5 14. 16. 18. 21. 26.

STD. 90° ELBOW .74 1.0 1.4 1.6 2.3 2.7 3.6 4.5 5.4 6.5 8.5 12.0 17. 22. 27. 33. 37. 43.

MEDIUM SWEEP 90° ELBOW .65 .86 1.15 1.50 2.0 2.5 3.5 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 9.5 15. 19. 23. 27. 31. 36.

LONG SWEEP 90° ELBOW .50 .70 .90 1.10 1.5 2.0 2.5 2.9 3.6 4.4 5.5 7.2 11.2 15.3 18.2 20.2 23.3 27.5

Use the smaller diameter in the column for pipe size. d Smaller diameter = D Larger diameter SIZE OF PIPE (inches) 1/8” 1/4” 3/8” 1/2” 3/4” 1” 1 1/4” 1 1/2” 2” 2 1/2” 3” 4” 6” 8” 10” 12” 14” 16” SQUARE 90° ELBOW 1.6 2.3 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 9.5 13.0 15.0 18.0 23.0 34.0 44.0 57.0 66.0 79.0 88.0 CLOSED RETURN BENDS 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 9.0 11.0 14.0 16.0 19.0 25.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 72.0 84.0 99.0 ABRUPT CONTRACTION d d d D D D 1/4 1/2 3/4 .40 .30 .16 .50 .40 .22 .65 .50 .29 .80 .60 .36 1.0 .80 .48 1.5 1.0 .62 1.7 1.4 .83 2.0 1.6 .97 2.5 2.0 1.30 3.0 2.5 1.50 4.0 2.9 1.80 5.0 4.0 2.40 8.0 5.9 3.60 11.0 7.6 4.50 14.0 10.2 5.70 16.0 12.3 6.70 18.0 14.3 8.20 20.0 15.4 9.30 ABRUPT ENLARGEMENT d d d D D D 1/4 1/2 3/4 .74 .46 .16 1.0 .62 .22 1.4 .83 .29 1.6 1.2 .36 2.3 1.4 .48 2.7 1.6 .62 3.6 2.3 .83 4.5 2.7 .97 5.4 3.5 1.30 6.5 4.0 1.50 8.0 4.8 1.80 12.0 6.4 2.40 17.0 10.5 3.60 22.0 14.2 4.50 27.0 16.5 6.80 33.0 18.4 7.50 37.0 22.3 9.00 43.0 25.5 10.20

45° ELBOW .40 .50 .65 .80 1.0 1.5 1.7 2.0 2.5 3.0 4.0 5.0 8.0 11.0 14.0 16.0 18.0 20.0

STD. TEE .50 .70 .90 1.10 1.5 2.0 2.5 2.9 3.6 4.4 5.5 7.2 11.2 15.3 18.2 20.2 23.3 27.5

STD. TEE 1.6 2.3 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 8.0 9.5 13.0 15.0 18.0 23.0 34.0 44.0 57.0 66.0 79.0 88.0

Section 7

Note: 1. 1/8” to 12” nominal sizes are based on standard steel pipe, 14” to 24” sizes are ID pipe. 2. Friction losses are based on screwed connection from 1/8” to 4” sizes and flanged connections from 6” to 24”

7-21

148

Appendix H

Typical Check Valve Friction Loss Chart

Typical Surface Plate / 90° Discharge Elbow Friction Loss Chart
SURFACE PLATE / 90° DISCHARGE FRICTION LOSS CHART

149

Appendix H

Steel Pipe Friction Loss & Velocity Chart

Note: Above chart indicates average values for standard weight steel pipe. Hazen - Williams roughness constant (C) = 140.

Equivalent Pipe Capacity Comparison
Main Size 2” 3” 4” 6” 8” 10” 12” 14” 16” 18” 20” Smaller Pipe Size (Number of smaller pipes required to provide carrying capacity equal to a larger pipe) 3/4” 13 39 84 247 530 957 1” 6 18 39 115 247 447 724 1,090 2” 1 2 6 18 39 71 115 174 247 338 447 3” 1 2 6 13 24 39 59 84 115 153 4” 6” 8” 10”

1 2 6 11 18 27 39 53 71

1 2 3 6 9 13 18 24

1 1 2 4 6 8 11

1 1 2 3 4 6

Section 7

NOTE: Comparing the ratio of the square of diameters will provide the capacity equivalent relationship (ie. how many 12” lines will be required to equal the capacity of a 16” line? - (16 ) / (12 ) = 1.77 or 2 - 12” lines

150

Appendix I

Periodic system

1 H
Hydrogen

2 He
Helium

3 Li
Lithium

4 Be
Beryllium

5 B
Boron

6 C
Carbon

7 N
Nitrogen

8 O
Oxygen

9 F
Fluorine

10 Ne
Neon

11 Na
Sodium

12 Mg
Magnesium

13 Al
Aluminium

14 Si
Silicon

15 P
Phosphorus

16 S
Sulphur

17 Cl
Chlorine

18 Ar
Argon

19 K
Potassium

20 Ca
Calcium

21 Sc
Scandium

22 Ti
Titanium

23 V
Vanadium

24 Cr
Chromium

25 Mn
Manganese

26 Fe
Iron

27 Co
Cobalt

28 Ni
Nickel

29 Cu
Copper

30 Zn
Zinc

31 Ga
Gallium

32 Ge
Germanium

33 As
Arsenic

34 Se
Selenium

35 Br
Bromine

36 Kr
Krypton

Rubidium

37 Rb 55 Cs

38 Sr
Strontium

39 Y
Yttrium

40 Zr
Zirconium

41 Nb
Niobium

42 Mo 74 W
Tungsten

43 Tc 75 Re
Rhenium

44 Ru
Ruthenium

45 Rh
Rhodium

46 Pd
Palladium

47 Ag
Silver

48 Cd
Cadmium

49 In
Indium

50 Sn
Tin

51 Sb
Antimony

52 Te
Tellurium

53 I
Iodine

54 Xe
Xenon

Molybdenum Technetium

56 Ba
Barium

57 La
Lutetium

72 Hf
Hafnium

73 Ta
Tantalum

76 Os
Osmium

77 Ir
Iridium

78 Pt
Platinum

79 Au
Gold

80 Hg
Mercury

81 Tl
Thallium

82 Pb
Lead

83 Bi
Bismuth

84 Po
Polonium

85 At
Astatine

86 Rn
Radon

Caesium

87 Fr
Francium

88 Ra
Radium

89 Ac
Actinium

104 Rf
Rutherfordium

105 Db
Dubnium

106 Sg
Seaborgium

107 Bh
Bohrium

108 Hs
Hassium

109 Mt

110 Ds

111 Rg

112 Uub

113 Uut

114 UUq

115 UUp

116 UUh

117 UUs

118 UUd

Meitnerium Damstadtium Roentgenium Ununbium

Ununtrium Ununquadium

58 Ce
Cerium

59 Pr

60 Nd
92 U
Uranium

61 Pm
Promethium

62 Sm
Samarium

63 Eu
Europium

64 Gd
Gadolinium

65 Tb
Terbium

66 Dy
Dysprosium

67 Ho
Holmium

68 Er
Erbium

69 Tm
Thulium

70 Yb
Ytterbium

71 Lu
Lutetium

Praseodymium Neodymium

90 Th
Thorium

91 Pa
Protactinium

93 Np
Neptunium

94 Pu
Plutonium

95 Am
Americium

96 Cm
Curium

97 Bk
Berkelium

98 Cf
Californium

99 Es
Einsteinium

100 Fm
Fernium

101 Md
Mendelevium

102 No
Nobelium

103 Lr
Lawrencium

151

Appendix J

Pump standards Pump standards:
ASME B73.1-2001 ASME B73.2-2003 EN 733 EN 22858 Specifications for horizontal end suction centrifugal pumps for chemical process Specifications for vertical in-line centrifugal pumps for chemical process End-suction centrifugal pumps, rating with 145.03 psi with bearing bracket End-suction centrifugal pumps (rating 232.06 psi) - Designation, nominal duty point and dimensions

Pump-related standards:
ANSI/HI 1.6 ANSI/HI 1.3 Centrifugal tests; detailed procedures on the setup and conduction of hydrostatic and performance tests Rotodynamic (centrifugal) pump applications; the standard cover the design and application of centrifugal pumps, pump classifications, impeller types, casing configurations, mechanical features, performance, selection criteria, and noise levels End-suction centrifugal pumps - Base plate and installation dimensions Mechanical seals - Principal dimensions, designation and material codes Flanges and their joints - Circular flanges for pipes, valves, fittings and accessories, PN-designated Metallic flanges Pumps, and pump units for liquids: Spare parts

ISO 3661 EN 12756 EN 1092 ISO 7005 DIN 24296

Specifications, etc:
ASME/ANSI B16.5-1996 ISO 9905 ISO 5199 ISO 9908 ISO 9906 EN 10204 ISO/FDIS 10816 Pipe flanges and flanged fittings Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps - Class 1 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps - Class 2 Technical specifications for centrifugal pumps - Class 3 Rotodynamic pumps - Hydraulic performance tests -Grades 1 and 2 Metallic products - Types of inspection documents Mechanical vibration - Evaluation of machine vibration by measurements on non-rotating parts

Motor standards:
Nema MG 1-2007 EN 60034/IEC 34 Information guide for general purpose industrial AC small and medium squirrel-cage induction motor standards Rotating electrical machines

152

Appendix K

Viscosity of typical liquids as a function of liquid temperature
The graph shows the viscosity of typical liquids at different temperatures. As it appears from the graph, the viscosity decreases when the temperature increases.

Viscosity
Kinematic viscosity is measured in centiStokes [cSt] (1 cSt = 10-6 m2/s). The unit [SSU] Saybolt Universal is also used in connection with kinematic viscosity. The graph below shows the relationship between kinematic viscosity in [cSt] and viscosity in [SSU]. The SAE-number is also indicated in the graph. For kinematic viscosity above 60 cSt, the Saybolt Universal viscosity is calculated by the following formula: [SSU] = 4.62 . [cSt]

cSt 10000 8 6 4 V

The densities shown in the graph are for 68° F
Glycerol ρ: 1260
Kinematic viscosity centiStokes cSt Sekunder Saybolt Universal SSU

2

1 2 32 35 40 50 10

1000 8 6 4

3
Silicone oil

4 5

Fuel oil
2

Olive oil ρ: 900
Cottonseed oil ρ: 900 Fruit juice ρ: 1000

100 8 6 4

20
Heavy ρ: 980
Mean ρ: 955

100

30 40 50 200 300 100 400 500 SAE 10 200 300 1000 SAE no. o ( at 68 F)

2

Spindle oil ρ: 850

10 8 6 4

Gas and diesel oil ρ: 880

Light ρ: 930

Silicone oil ρ: 1000
Milk ρ: 1030

SAE 20

Petroleum ρ: 800

Aniline ρ: 1030

2

400 500

2000 3000 SAE 30 SAE 40 SAE 50 SAE 60 SAE 70 20000 30000

1.0 8 6 4
Petrol ρ: 750

Ethyl Alkohol ρ: 770

1000
Silicone oil

4000 5000

Acetone ρ: 790

Water ρ: 1000

Ether ρ: 700

Acetic acid ρ: 1050

2000 3000 4000 5000

10000

2

Mercury ρ: 13570
0.1 - 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90

t 100°C

10000

40000 50000

20000 30000 40000 50000

100000

200000

100000

153

Appendix K

Ethylene glycol
Density of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol Concentrations in Volume Percent Ethylene Glycol
Temp., °F -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 10% 63.69 63.61 63.52 63.42 63.31 63.19 63.07 62.93 62.97 62.63 62.47 62.30 62.11 61.92 61.72 61.51 61.29 61.06 60.82 60.57 60.31 60.05 59.77 20% 64.83 64.75 64.66 64.56 64.45 64.33 64.21 64.07 63.93 63.77 63.61 63.43 63.25 63.06 62.86 62.64 62.42 62.19 61.95 61.71 61.45 61.18 60.90 60.62 30% 65.93 65.85 65.76 65.66 65.55 65.43 65.30 65.17 65.02 64.86 64.70 64.52 64.34 64.15 63.95 63.73 63.51 63.28 63.04 62.79 62.53 62.27 61.99 61.70 61.40 40% 67.04 66.97 66.89 66.80 66.70 66.59 66.47 66.34 66.20 66.05 65.90 65.73 65.56 65.37 65.18 64.98 64.76 64.54 64.31 64.07 63.82 63.56 63.29 63.01 62.72 62.43 62.12 50% 68.12 68.05 64.98 67.90 67.80 67.70 67.59 67.47 67.34 67.20 67.05 66.90 66.73 66.55 66.37 66.17 65.97 65.75 65.53 65.30 65.05 64.80 64.54 64.27 63.99 63.70 63.40 63.10 62.78

Note: Density in lb/ft3.

Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Ethylene Glycol Concentrations in Volume Percent Ethylene Glycol
Temp., °F -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 10% 0.0015 0.0012 0.0010 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 20% 0.0026 0.0021 0.0017 0.0015 0.0012 0.0011 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0007 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0002 0.0002 30% 0.0046 0.0036 0.0029 0.0024 0.0020 0.0017 0.0014 0.0012 0.0011 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0007 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 40% 0.0132 0.0092 0.0068 0.0052 0.0041 0.0033 0.0027 0.0023 0.0019 0.0017 0.0014 0.0013 0.0011 0.0010 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 50% 0.0428 0.0271 0.0183 0.0130 0.0096 0.0073 0.0057 0.0045 0.0037 0.0031 0.0026 0.0022 0.0019 0.0016 0.0014 0.0012 0.0011 0.0010 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003

154

Appendix K

Propylene glycol
Density of Aqueous Solutions of Propylene Glycol Concentrations in Volume Percent Propylene Glycol
Temp., °F -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 10% 63.38 63.30 63.20 63.10 62.98 62.86 62.73 62.59 62.44 62.28 62.11 61.93 61.74 61.54 61.33 61.11 60.89 60.65 60.41 60.15 59.89 59.61 59.33 20% 64.23 64.14 64.03 63.92 63.79 63.66 63.52 63.37 63.20 63.03 62.85 62.66 62.46 62.25 62.03 61.80 61.56 61.31 61.05 60.78 60.50 60.21 59.91 59.60 30% 65.00 64.90 64.79 64.67 64.53 64.39 64.24 64.08 63.91 63.73 63.54 63.33 63.12 62.90 62.67 62.43 62.18 61.92 61.65 61.37 61.08 60.78 60.47 60.15 59.82 40% 65.71 65.60 65.48 65.35 65.21 65.06 64.90 64.73 64.55 64.36 64.16 63.95 63.74 63.51 63.27 63.02 62.76 62.49 62.22 61.93 61.63 61.32 61.00 60.68 60.34 59.99 50% 66.46 66.35 66.23 66.11 65.97 65.82 65.67 65.50 65.33 65.14 64.95 64.74 64.53 64.30 64.06 63.82 63.57 63.30 63.03 62.74 62.45 62.14 61.83 61.50 61.17 60.83 60.47 60.11

Note: Density in lb/ft 3.

Viscosity of Aqueous Solutions of Propylene Glycol Concentrations in Volume Percent Propylene Glycol
Temp., °F -30 -20 -10 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 10% 0.0019 0.0015 0.0013 0.0011 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 0.0002 20% 0.0036 0.0028 0.0023 0.0019 0.0016 0.0013 0.0011 0.0010 0.0008 0.0007 0.0007 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0002 0.0002 30% 0.0090 0.0067 0.0050 0.0039 0.0030 0.0024 0.0020 0.0016 0.0014 0.0012 0.0010 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 0.0003 40% 0.0275 0.0183 0.0124 0.0089 0.0065 0.0049 0.0037 0.0029 0.0024 0.0019 0.0016 0.0013 0.0011 0.0010 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0006 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004 0.0004 0.0003 50% 0.1049 0.0645 0.0412 0.0273 0.0187 0.0132 0.0096 0.0072 0.0055 0.0043 0.0034 0.0027 0.0023 0.0019 0.0016 0.0014 0.0012 0.0010 0.0009 0.0008 0.0007 0.0007 0.0006 0.0005 0.0005 0.0005 0.0004 0.0004

155

Appendix K

Sodium hydroxide
ρ
[lb/ft3] Concentration wt % = Temperature 32 41 50 59 68 77 86 95 104 113 122 131 140 149 158 167 176 5% ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 10%

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 15%

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 20%

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 25%

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 30%

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 35%

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 40%

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 45%

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 50%

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft3] 55%

ν [cSt]

66.17 66.04 65.98 65.92 65.79 65.67 65.54 65.42 65.29 65.17 65.04 64.86 64.67 64.48 64.30 64.11 63.98 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.5

69.73 69.60 69.48 69.35 69.23 69.10 68.92 68.79 68.67 68.48 68.29 68.17 67.98 67.79 67.60 67.42 67.23 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.6

73.29 73.16 73.04 72.85 72.66 72.54 72.35 72.22 72.04 71.85 71.66 71.48 71.35 71.16 70.98 70.79 70.60 2.5 2.1 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.8

76.78 76.59 76.41 76.28 76.09 75.97 75.78 75.60 75.41 75.22 75.03 74.85 74.66 74.47 74.28 74.03 73.85 3.6 3.1 2.7 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.1

80.21 80.09 79.90 79.72 79.53 79.34 79.15 78.97 78.78 78.59 78.40 78.22 78.03 77.78 77.59 77.41 77.22 6.2 5.1 4.0 3.4 2.8 2.6 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.5

83.27 83.15 83.02 82.77 82.52 82.34 82.09 81.90 81.71 81.53 81.28 81.09 80.84 10.1 8.3 6.5 5.5 4.5 3.9 3.3 2.9 2.4

86.40 86.21 85.96 85.65 85.33 85.15 84.90 84.71 84.46 84.09 83.65 16.8 13.3 9.9 8.2 6.6 5.6 4.6

89.58 89.20 88.83 88.64 88.39 88.21 88.02 87.83 87.58 87.14 86.71 25.4 19.9 14.4 11.6 8.9 7.5 6.0

92.58 92.39 92.26 91.83 91.39 91.20 90.95 90.77 90.52 90.08 89.64 38.2 29.0 19.9 15.9 12.0 9.9 7.8

95.51 95.38 95.20 94.76 94.32 94.14 93.89 93.70 93.45 93.01 92.58 51.8 39.0 26.2 20.5 14.7 12.1 9.4

97.32 97.13 96.95 96.51 96.13

lb/ft3

cSt

99.88 55% 50% 93.64 45% 40% 87.39

100 50% 45% 40% 35% 10 35% 30% 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% 5%

81.15

25% 20% 1

74.91 15% 10% 5% 62.42 32 0 68 50 68 86 104 122 140 158 176
°F

68.67

77

86

95

104

113

122

131

140

149

158
°F

156

Appendix K

Calcium chloride
ρ
[lb/ft ]
3

Sodium chloride
ν

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft ]
3

ρ
[lb/ft ]
3

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft ]
3

ν [cSt] Concentration wt % = Temperature 7.7 6.3 5.2 4.4 3.8 3.3 2.9 2.5 2.2 2.0 1.8 1.6 5 14 23 32 41 50 59 68 77 86

ρ
[lb/ft ]
3

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft ]
3

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft ]
3

ν [cSt]

ρ
[lb/ft ]
3

ν [cSt]

[cSt]

Concentration wt % = Temperature -13 -4 5 14 23 32 41 50 59 68 77 86

10%

15%

20%

25%

5%

10%

15%

20%

77.72 77.66 74.22 71.04 68.04 67.92 67.79 67.73 67.60 67.54 67.54 67.48 2.3 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.9 70.98 70.85 70.79 70.66 70.60 70.48 70.35 70.23 3.0 2.6 2.2 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 74.16 74.10 74.03 73.91 73.78 73.66 73.54 73.41 73.22 4.3 3.6 3.1 2.6 2.3 2.0 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.3 77.53 77.47 77.34 77.22 77.09 76.97 76.78 76.66 76.53 76.34

72.54 69.91 67.54 65.11 65.04 64.98 64.92 64.86 64.73 64.67 1.8 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.0 0.9 0.8 67.42 67.35 67.23 67.11 67.04 66.92 66.79 2.2 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.9 0.9 69.79 69.66 69.54 69.41 69.29 69.17 69.04 68.85 2.9 2.4 2.0 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.0 0.9 72.41 72.29 72.10 71.97 71.85 71.66 71.54 71.41 71.23

4.0 3.2 2.7 2.3 1.9 1.7 1.5 1.3 1.2 1.1

157

Index

A
Absolute pressure Adjusting pump performance Aluminum ATEX (ATmosphère EXplosible) Austenitic (non-magnetic) Autotransformer starting Axial flow pumps Axial forces 85 106 70 41 68 46 8 14

B
Balanced shaft seal Basic coupling Bearing Insulated bearing Bellows seal Groundwater pump Bypass control 31 16 51 48 30 23 106

Constant differential pressure control Constant pressure control Constant temperature control Copper alloys Corrosion Cavitation corrosion Corrosion fatigue Crevice corrosion Erosion corrosion Galvanic corrosion Intergranular corrosion Pitting corrosion Selective corrosion Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) Uniform corrosion Corrosion fatigue Coupling Basic coupling Flexible coupling Spacer coupling Crevice corrosion

115 114 115 69 60 63 64 62 63 64 62 61 62 63 61 64 16 16 16 16 62

C
Canned motor pump Cartridge seal Casing Double-volute Single-volute Return channel Cast iron Cavitation Cavitation corrosion Centrifugal pump Ceramics Close-coupled pump Closed system Coatings Metallic coatings Non-metallic coatings Organic coatings Computer-aided pump selection Control Throttle control Bypass control Speed control 18 32 15 15 15 15 66 10, 89 63 8 71 12, 13, 16 96, 98 73 73 74 74 58 106 107 107 108

D
Decommissioning and disposal costs 131 Deep well pump 23 Density 10, 93 Density of water Appendix D Density of brine Appendix K Diaphragm pump 25 Differential pressure 88 Differential pressure control 116 Dilatant liquid 55 Direct-on-line starting (DOL) 46 Dosing pump 25 Double mechanical shaft seal 33 Double seal in tandem 33 Double seal in back-to-back 34 Double-channel impeller 21 Double-inlet 17 Double-suction impeller 11, 17 Double-volute casing 15 Downtime costs 131

Index

Index

Duty point Dynamic pressure Dynamic viscosity

96 84 54

Frequency converter

47, 108, 118

G
Galvanic corrosion Gauge pressure Grey iron 64 85 66

E
Earth-leakage circuit breaker (ELCB) 125 Efficiency 10 Efficiency at reduced speed 109 Efficiency curve 10 Electric motor 40 Flameproof motor 42 Increased safety motor 42 Non-sparking motor 42 EMC directive 123 EMC filter 123 Enclosure class (IP), motor 43 End-suction pump 12 Energy costs 130 Energy savings 111, 114, 117 Environmental costs 130 Erosion corrosion 63 Ethylene propylelediene rubber (EPDM) 72 Expansion joints 80

H
Head Heat capacity Hermetically sealed pump Horizontal pump Hydraulic power 9, 85 93 18 12, 13 10, 91

I
IEC, motor Immersible pump Impeller Double-channel Single-channel Vortex impeller Increased safety motor Initial costs In-line pump Installation and commissioning costs Insulation class Intergranular corrosion 40 22 14, 21 21 21 21 42 129 12, 13 129 44 62

F
Ferritic (magnetic) 68 Ferritic-austenitic or duplex (magnetic) 68 Ferrous alloys 65 Flameproof motor 42 Flexible coupling 16 Floating foundation 79 Flow 83 Mass flow 83 Volume flow 83 Units Appendix B Fluoroelastomers (FKM) 72 Flushing 32 Foundation 78 Floating foundation 79 Floor 79 foundation 79 Vibration dampeners 79 Frame size 44

K
Kinematic viscosity 54, Appendix K

L
Life cycle costs Example Liquid Dilatant Newtonian Non-Newtonian Plastic fluid Thixotrophic Viscous Long-coupled pump Loss of production costs 117, 128 132 54 55 55 55 55 55 54 12, 13, 16 131

N
NEMA, motor standard Newtonian fluid Nickel alloys Nitrile rubber Nodular iron Noise (vibration) Non-metallic coatings Non-Newtonian liquid Non-sinusoidal current Non-sparking motor NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) 40 55 69 72 66 78 74 55 124 42 10, 89

M
Magnetic drive Maintenance and repair costs Martensitic (magnetic) Mass flow Measuring pressure Mechanical shaft seal Bellows seal Cartridge seal Metal bellows seal Rubber bellows seal Function Flushing Metal alloys Ferrous alloys Metal bellows seal Metallic coatings Mixed flow pumps Modifying impeller diameter Motors Motor efficiency Motor insulation Motor protection Motor start-up Direct-on-line starting (DOL) Star/delta starting Autotransformer starting Frequency converter Soft starter Mounting of motor (IM) Multistage pump 19 131 68 83 85 18, 28 30 32 32 31 29 32 65 65 32 73 8 108, 110 40 49 48 49 46 46 46 46 46, 47 46 43 11, 12, 13, 16

O
Open system Operating costs Organic coatings O-ring seal Oversized pumps 96, 99 106, 130 74 30 106

P
Paints Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) Phase insulation PI-controller Pitting corrosion Plastic fluid Plastics Positive displacement pump Power consumption Hydraulic power Shaft power Pressure Absolute pressure Differential pressure Dynamic pressure Gauge pressure Measuring pressure Static pressure System pressure Units Vapor pressure 74 72 48 114 61 55 71 24 10, 91 10, 91 91 84 85 88 84 85 85 84 88 85, Appendix A 90, Appendix D

Index

Index

Pressure control Constant differential pressure control 115 Constant pressure 114 Constant pressure control 114 Constant supply pressure 114 Pressure transmitter (PT) 114 Proportional pressure control 120 PTC thermistors 50 Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) 123 Pump Axial flow pump 8 Borehole pump 23 Canned motor pump 18 Centrifugal pump 8 Close-coupled pump 12, 13, 16 Diaphragm pump 25 Dosing pump 25 Hermetically sealed pump 18 Horizontal pump 12, 13 Immersible pump 22 Long-coupled pump 12, 13, 16 Magnetic-driven pump 19 Mixed flow pump 8 Multistage pump 11, 12, 13, 16 Positive displacement pump 24 Radial flow pump 8 Sanitary pump 20 Single-stage pump 15 Split-case pump 12, 13, 17 Standard pump 17 Vertical pump 12, 13 Wastewater pump 21 Pump casing 15 Pump characteristic 9, 96 Pump curve 9 Pump installation 77 Pump performance curve 9, 96 Pumps connected in series 103 Pumps in parallel 101 Pumps with integrated frequency converter 118 Purchase costs 129 PWM (Pulse Width Modulation) 123

Q
QH curve 9

R
Radial flow pump Radial forces Reinforced insulation Resistances connected in parallel Resistances connected in series Return channel casing Rubber Ethylene propylelediene rubber (EPDM) Fluoroelastomers (FKM) Nitrile rubber (NBK) Perfluoroelastomers (FFKM) Silicone rubber (Q) Rubber bellows seal 8 15 48 98 97 15 72 72 72 72 72 72 30

S
Sanitary pump Seal face Seal gap Selective corrosion Setpoint Shaft Shaft power Shaft seal Balanced shaft seal Unbalanced shaft seal Silicone rubber (Q) Single resistances Resistances connected in series Single-channel impeller Single-stage pump Single-suction impeller Single-volute casing Soft starter Sound level Sound pressure level Spacer coupling Static head Static lift 20 28 29 62 114 11 91 28 31 31 72 97 97 21 11, 12, 13, 15 11 15 46 81 82 16 99 99

Speed control 106, 108, 110 Variable speed control 108 Speed-controlled pumps in parallel 102 Split-case pump 12, 13, 17 Stainless steel 66 Standard pump 17 Standards 40 IEC, motor 40 NEMA, motor 40 Sanitary standards 20 Standstill heating of motor 51 Star/delta starting 46 Static pressure 84 Steel 65 Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) 63 Stuffing box 28 Submersible pump 23 System characteristic 96 Closed system 96, 98 Open system 96, 99 System costs 117 System pressure 88

T
Temperature Units Thermoplastics Thermosets Thixotrophic liquid Throttle control Throttle valve Titanium Twin pump 93 Appendix B 71 71 55 106, 110-113 107 70 11

U
Unbalanced shaft seal Uniform corrosion 31 61

V
Vapor pressure Variable speed control Vertical pump Vibration dampeners Vibrations Viscosity Dynamic viscosity Viscous liquid Viscous liquid pump curve Voltage supply Volume flow Units Volute casing Vortex impeller Wastewater pump 90, Appendix D 108 12, 13 79 78 54, Appendix K 54 54 55 47 83 Appendix A 11 21 21

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www.grundfos.com

L-IND-HB-01 8/2008 (US)

U.S.A. GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation 17100 West 118th Terrace Olathe, Kansas 66061 Phone: (913) 227-3400 Telefax: (913) 227-3500

Canada GRUNDFOS Canada Inc. 2941 Brighton Road Oakville, Ontario L6H 6C9 Phone: (905) 829-9533 Telefax: (905) 829-9512

Mexico Bombas GRUNDFOS de Mexico S.A. de C.V. Boulevard TLC No. 15 Parque Industrial Stiva Aeropuerto C.P. 66600 Apodaca, N.L. Mexico Phone: 011-52-81-8144 4000 Telefax: 011-52-81-8144 4010

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