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LINEAR MOTION in 1 DIMENSION

1. LINEAR MOTION WITH CONSTANT VELOCITY


Constant Velocity object moves with certain velocity (its velocity does not change)
Example: If spacecraft Voyager 1 moves with constant velocity 17000 m/s in outer
space, then it will always moves with velocity of 17000 m/s.
Displacement is the distance travelled in a particular direction.
Velocity is defined by the word equation
=

The gradient of a displacementtime graph is equal to velocity.


Distance and speed are scalar quantities. A scalar quantity has only magnitude.
Displacement and velocity are vector quantities. A vector quantity has both
magnitude and direction.
Vector quantities may be combined by vector addition to find their resultant.

2. LINEAR MOTION WITH CONSTANT ACCELERATION


Acceleration is equal to the rate of change of velocity.
Acceleration is a vector quantity.
The gradient of a velocitytime graph is equal to acceleration:

The area under a velocitytime graph is equal to displacement (or distance


travelled). The equations of motion (for constant acceleration in a straight line) are:

1) = + .
1

2) = . + . 2
2

3) 2 = 2 + 2. .
For object moving vertically, the acceleration is gravity g = 10 m/s2. In calculation,
gravity can be positive or negative depends on the direction of velocity. If the gravity
is in the same direction as the objects velocity, then the gravity has positive sign. If
the gravity is in the opposite direction as the objects velocity, then the gravity would
have negative sign.

At highest position, Velocity V = 0

g is in the opposite
direction as V object

g is in the same
direction as V object

V object

In calculation of vertical motion, use 3 equations of motion, but change a into g.


(remember, g has (+) or () sign depends on velocitys direction).

Devilim, Physics Grade X, 1st sem, SMA K IBC 2015-2016

3. GRAPHS OF LINEAR MOTION


Motion of object can be shown using graphs. In linear motion, there are several types of
graphs to show displacement, velocity, and acceleration.

Graphical representation of motion:


A. Displacement-time; B. Velocity-time; C. Acceleration-time
Look at each line from the graphs above. From the graphs, it can be concluded that:
Line A :
Displacement is
Velocity is
Acceleration is
Line B :
Displacement is
Velocity is
Acceleration is
Line C :
Displacement is
Velocity is
Acceleration is
Line D :
Displacement is
Velocity is
Acceleration is

From line of graph, we can find its gradient and/or its area. Gradient and/or area of the
line in graphs can be used to find quantities in linear motion.
Graph of displacement-time:
Gradient of line represents velocity of object.
Graph of velocity-time
Gradient of line represents acceleration of object.
Area under the line in graph represents displacement of object during motion.
Graph of acceleration-time:
Area under the line in graph represents changes of velocity of object.

Devilim, Physics Grade X, 1st sem, SMA K IBC 2015-2016