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Project consists of :
Set of activities Non-routine Limited resources Time period
“Organized programme of predetermined group of activities that are non routine in nature and that must be completed using the available resources within the given time limit.”
What is project?
“ A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.” A system involving the coordination of a number of separate dept. entities throughout the organization and which must be completed within prescribed schedules and time constraints.”
- Project management Institute
It requires students to undertake their own fact-finding and analysis. . either from library/internet research or from gathering data empirically.School and university At school and university. a project is a research assignment given to a student which generally requires a larger amount of effort and more independent work than is involved in a normal essay assignment.
embedded in the context of technological systems in general. in many countries. which requires that such projects should be carried out by registered engineers and/or registered engineering companies. specifically defined by legislation. .Engineering project The engineering project is a particular type of technological system. Engineering projects are.
Features of Project Performance Life cycle Definite time limit Interdependencies Uniqueness Risk & uncertainty Customize Multidisciplinary Resources Conflict .
Classification of Projects .
for example. construct a building or implement a major new computer system.Project Management Project management is a carefully planned and organized effort to accomplish a specific (and usually) one-time objective. .
quantifying the resources needed. identifying tasks and how goals will be achieved. and the mechanisms to implement recovery actions where necessary. and determining budgets and timelines for completion.Project Management Project management includes developing a project plan. It also includes managing the implementation of the project plan. . along with operating regular 'controls' to ensure that there is accurate and objective information on 'performance' relative to the plan. which includes defining and confirming the project goals and objectives.
Attributes of Good Project Manager Planning & organizational skills Personnel management skills Communication skills Change orientation Ability to solve problems in totality High energy level Ambition for achievement Ability to take suggestion Ability to develop alternative actions quickly .
Attributes of Good Project Manager (contd.) Knowledge of project management tools and methods Ability to make self evaluation Effective time management Integration skills Initiative and risk taking ability Knowledge of technology Team building skills Resource allocation skills .
Project Organization .
. controls its own performance.Organization An organization is a social arrangement which pursues collective goals. and has a boundary separating it from its environment.
.Organization in Management Organizing can be viewed as the activities to collect and configure resources in order to implement plans in a highly effective and efficient fashion. and often considered one of the major functions of management. Organizing is a broad set of activities.
. The way the organization is configured structurally. and by which. The form of organization will strongly influence the way project management is to be applied. The type of organization in which.Project Organization The orderly structuring of project participants. a project is managed should be appropriate to the project's Key Performance Indicators and Critical Success Factors. A temporary organization created for the purpose of carrying through a project.
Development of new product and process require inputs from diverse areas Expansion of technology Less believability in the conventional structure .Reasons for rapid growth of project oriented organization Speed and market responsiveness have become absolute requirements for successful competition.
FORMS OF PROJECT ORGANIZATION .
Functional Organization .
Functional Structure Strengths Weaknesses Small to medium-sized Weak coordination firms with limited product diversification across functional groups Restricted view of overall Specialization of functional knowledge organizational goals Limits customer attention Less duplication of functional resources Slower response to market changes Facilitates Burdens chief executives coordination within with decisions functional areas .
Pure Project Organization Structure .
Pure Project Organization Structure Strengths In-depth understanding of specific projects Responsiveness to changes in project preferences and needs Responsiveness to moves for better serve in projects Weaknesses Duplication of functional resources in each project unit Coordination between project units and corporate objectives .
Matrix Organization Structure .
Matrix Structure Strengths Information flow Decision quality Suited to a changing and complicated business environment Flexible use of human resources Weaknesses Complexity of performance evaluations Inhibited ability to respond to changing conditions Diffused accountability Conflicts between differing perspectives and objectives .
Mixed Organizational Systems .
Mixed Structure Strengths Optimum utilization of resources Quick decision Flexible use of human resources Weaknesses Complexity of handling projects Diffused accountability Conflicts between differing perspectives and objectives .
Staff Organization President Projec tS Finance Manufacturing Engineerin g .
Staff Structure Strengths Expertise system Decision quality Suited to a changing and complicated business environment Weaknesses Complexity of performance evaluations Coordination Duplication of work Conflicts between differing perspectives and objectives .
Project Development Cycle Project identificatio n Evaluation Project formulation Implementation Project appraisal Project scheduling .
social. economic. goals and time frames (technical. ecological) Project Development .Project Identification Project Identification Environmental Assessment based on identified activities.
Project Formulation Points to be considered: • The type and level of industrial activity • To match his financial resources with the required amount Prepare a nice project report • .
Project Appraisal Project appraisal is the process of detailed examination of several aspects of a given project before recommending the same. Technical appraisal Commercial Appraisal Economic Appraisal Financial Appraisal Management Appraisal .
keeping in view of the logical sequence of the activities.Project Scheduling Project scheduling refers to the process of laying out all the actual activities of the project in the time order in which they are to be performed. .
Project Implementation .
recognition of actual changes and progress made. need for improvement or where expected outcomes are unrealistic. validation for project staff and partners that desired outcomes are being achieved.Project Evaluation Project Evaluation is a step-by-step process of collecting. demonstration of effective. efficient and equitable use of financial and other resources. recording and organizing information about project results. Common rationales for conducting an evaluation are: response to demands for accountability. . identification of success factors.
and the logical framework approach Planning Cycle .Tools and Techniques of PM Risk Impact/Probability Chart Gantt Charts CPM/PERT Logframes.
. Companies undertake increasingly complex and ambitious projects. in an uncertain and often risky environment.Risk Impact/Probability Chart Risk management is an important function in organizations today. and those projects must be executed successfully. The Risk Impact/Probability Chart provides a useful framework that helps you decide which risks need your attention.
human life. by its very nature. .A risk is an event that "may" occur.Risk Impact/Probability Chart The Risk Impact/Probability Chart is based on the principle that a risk has two primary dimensions Probability . the size of the impact varies in terms of cost and impact on health. However. or some other critical factor. always has a negative impact.A risk. Impact . The probability of it occurring can range anywhere from just above 0% to just below 100%.
Gantt Charts Gantt Charts (Gant Charts) are useful tools for analyzing and planning more complex projects. They: Help you to plan out the tasks that need to be completed Give you a basis for scheduling when these tasks will be carried out Allow you to plan the allocation of resources needed to complete the project. . and Help you to work out the critical path for a project where you must complete it by a particular date.
Drawing a Gantt Chart List all activities in the plan Head up graph paper with the days or weeks through to task completion Plot the tasks onto the graph paper Presenting the analysis .
is a procedure for using network analysis to identify those tasks which are on the critical path: ie where any delay in the completion of these tasks will lengthen the project timescale.Critical Path Analysis and PERT Charts Critical Path Method (CPM). unless action is taken. .
Drawing a Critical Path Analysis Chart List all activities in the plan Plot the activities as a circle and arrow diagram .
. and the longest time that might be taken if the activity takes longer than expected. To use it. estimate the shortest possible time each activity will take. Use the formula below to calculate the time to use for each project stage: shortest time + 4 x likely time + longest time ----------------------------------------------------------6 This helps to bias time estimates away from the unrealistically short time-scales normally assumed.PERT PERT is a variation on Critical Path Analysis that takes a slightly more skeptical view of time estimates made for each project stage. the most likely length of time.
Network Analysis .
The operation research techniques used for planning, scheduling and controlling large and complex projects are often referred to Network Analysis or Scheduling Techniques
Critical Path Method (CPM)
Activity-on-Node (AON) Activity B
Activity-on-Arrow (AOA) Activity B
Rules for construction (ND)
Arrow represent activities and circles the events The length of the arrow is of no significance Avoid arrows which cross each other Each activity is represented by one and only one arrow and must start and end ina circle called events Use arrows from left to right. Vertical and horizontal may be used if necessary No two activies can be identified by the same start and end events.
ACTIVITY IMMEDIATE PREDECESSOR
A B C D E F G
None None A A B C D&E
J I K.PROBLEM Activity Predecessor Activity A B C B D E F G H I J K L M A C C F F H I D.G.L .E.
Time Analysis (CPM) Notations .
Question Activity Time (in days) Activity Time (in days) 1–2 1–3 2–4 4 1 1 5–6 5–7 6–8 4 8 1 3–4 3–5 4–9 1 6 5 7–8 8 – 10 9 – 10 2 5 7 .
D F.G Time (in days) 23 8 20 16 24 18 19 4 10 .D C B.PROBLEM Task A B C D E F G H I Preceding Task A A B.
Determination of Floats of an activity The float is the time duration to which a noncritical activity can be delayed without delaying the total project duration Float Total Float Free Float Independent Float .
Total Float.Amount of time by which the start of an activity can be delayed without affecting the earliest start time of any immediate successor activity .“Amount of time by which the completion of an activity could be delayed beyond the earliest expected completion time without affecting the overall project duration time.Time by which the completion of an activity can be delayed beyond the earliest finish time without affecting the earliest start of an immediate predecessor activity Independent float. Free float.
Logframes. using the ideas of Management by Objectives The Logical Framework Approach elegantly weaves together top-down and bottom-up approaches to project management. "waterfall approach" for identifying the activities in a project. top-down. and the Logical Framework Approach The Logical Framework Approach (LFA) was developed in the 1970s as a tool for strategic planning. with a rigorous bottom-up checking process to make sure that these activity lists are comprehensive . It brings together the classical.
Computation of Floats i T12 E 1 E 2 j L1 L2 Float Total Float = Latest time (start) – Earliest time (start) Free Float = (E2 – E1) – T12 Independent Float = (E2 – L1) – T12 .
Logframes Matrix Logframe Matrix Project Summary Indicators of Achievement Means of Verification Important Risks and Assumptions Goal: Purpose: Outputs: Activities: .
what assumptions underlie the structure of our project and what is the risk they will not prevail? .what are the deliverables? Activities .what will we do to deliver the outputs? Indicators of Achievement . and the Logical Framework Approach Goal .why are we doing this? Outputs .Logframes.how will we check our reported results? Risks and Assumptions .what results do we expect? Purpose .how will we know we've been successful? Means of Verification .
Column 1): Verify the Vertical Logic Identify the Risks and Assumptions of your plan (Column 4) Verify the Logic of the Risks and Assumptions Determine the Indicators of Achievement and Means of Verification .Using a Logframe Identifying Outputs and Activities (Project Summary.
unified process. By planning within this structure.Planning Cycle The Planning Cycle brings together all aspects of planning into a coherent. you will help to ensure that your plans are fully considered. . well focused. practical and cost-effective. resilient.
Steps in Planning Cycle Analysis of opportunities SWOT Analysis Risk Analysis Identifying the Aim of Your Plan Exploring Options Selecting the Best Option Detailed Planning Evaluation of the Plan and its Impact Implementing Change Closing the Plan .
. This helps you target the key influencers so that you can win the resources and support you need to reach your goal.Influence Mapping Discovering your project's true stakeholders (not just the obvious ones) and the influence relationships between them.
.There are three main considerations when you construct an influence map: The importance or weight of a stakeholder's overall influence (represented by the size of the circle representing that stakeholder). The relationships between stakeholders (represented by the presence of lines or arrows between them). The amount of influence stakeholders have over others (represented by the heaviness of the lines drawn between them).
Step Two: For each stakeholder. This helps you identify.Creating an Influence Map Step One: Prepare a stakeholder analysis. and understand your key stakeholders. and who influences him or her? How strong is that influence? What is the history of each relationship? How does this impact overall influence? What role does hierarchy play in the amount of influence? . find out the following: Whom does he or she influence. prioritize.
Where possible. The largest circles belong to stakeholders with the most influence. . and put less influential people lower down. place the most influential stakeholders at the top of the page. depending on whether influence flows to the same extent in both directions).Creating an Influence Map Step Three: Map the importance of influence using the size and position of the circles. (These may be one-way or two-way. Step Four: Map the direction of influence by drawing arrows to link the stakeholders.
you'll better understand the dynamics of decision making relating to your project. . and identify stakeholders with the most overall influence.Creating an Influence Map Step Five: Map the strength of influence by using thicker lines to indicate stronger influence. these important influencers. Step Seven: Map these influence relationships on a regular basis. Form a stakeholder management plan that will allow you to communicate with. This way. Step Six: Study the map. and hopefully influence.
Project Financial Plan Step 1: List the Financial Expenses The first step taken when defining a Financial Plan and setting a project budget.g. However other types of expenses incurred may include those related to the: Procurement of resources from suppliers Establishment of a Project Office Administration of the project . leasing. is to identify all of the types of expenses that are likely to be incurred throughout the Project Lifecycle. renting or contracting the resources to the project (e. equipment and materials). most projects spend the majority of their budget on purchasing. Typically. labor.
The unit cost is simply the cost of a single unit of a particular expense item. For instance.Step 2: Quantify the Financial Expenses Once you have identified a detailed list of expenses to be incurred throughout the project. the next step is to forecast the unit cost of each expense type listed. the unit cost for: ◦ labor may be calculated as the cost per hour supplied ◦ equipment may be calculated as the rental cost per day ◦ materials may be calculated as the purchase cost per quantity .
Step 2: Quantify the Financial Expenses (contd) After listing the unit costs. For instance: ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Identify the number of roles required Quantify the items of equipment needed Determine the amount of materials required Quantify the procurement items to be sourced from suppliers ◦ Calculate the administration costs the project . you should calculate the total amount of each expense item needed to undertake the project using these project management tools.
you can sum up all of the expenses for any particular week to gain a weekly budget for the entire project . build a table which lists all of the expense types down the left hand side of page. the amount of financial expenditure to budget. This schedule enables the Project Manager to calculate the total cost of undertaking the project on a daily. To create an Expense Schedule. and all of the weeks in the year across the page. Once complete. Then identify for each week and for each expense type.Step 3: Construct an Expense Schedule You have now collated all the information needed to build a detailed expense schedule. weekly or monthly basis.
Define the Cost Management Process for your project by documenting the: ◦ Purpose of the process ◦ Steps involved in undertaking the process ◦ Roles and responsibilities involved in undertaking the process ◦ Templates used to support the process . costs) throughout the Project Lifecycle.Step 4: Define the Financial Process Now that you have created a detailed Expense Schedule.e. you need to define the process for monitoring and controlling expenses (i.
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