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# Ohms Law

## Narissara Prachaktam (Nik), Suthida Chanrujipat (Am), Kantapon Wijittrasab (Tiger),

Atikan Thanasarakit (Mikan),and Tanyaporn Kachayoungyuen (New). G.11-2

OBJECTIVES
Determine the mathematical relationship between current, potential difference, and

## resistance in a simple circuit.

Compare the potential vs. current behavior of a resistor to that of a light bulb.

MATERIALS
Computer
Vernier computer interface
Logger Pro
one Vernier Current Probe and
one Vernier Differential Voltage Probe
Power Amplifier

## Vernier Circuit Board, or

Wires
clips to hold wires
two resistors (about 1 and 100 )
Light bulb (6V)

PROCEDURE
1. Open the file 22 Ohms Law in the Physics with Vernier folder. A graph of potential
vs. current will be displayed. The meter displays potential and current readings.

2. Connect the Current Probe to Channel 1 and the Differential Voltage Probe to
Channel 2 of the computer interface. Connect the audio jack of the power amplifier to
the speaker jack of the Lab Quest
3. With the power amplifier turned off, connect the power amplifier, 100 resistor,
wires, and clips as shown in Figure 1. Take care that the positive lead from the power
amplifier and the red terminal from the Current & Voltage Probe are connected as
shown in Figure 1. Note: Attach the red connectors electrically closer to the positive
side of the power supply.
4. Have your teacher check the arrangement of the wires before proceeding.
5. Open the Sensor Set up Window. Click on the Power Amplifier icon. Set voltage to
DC (Direct Current). Set the voltage to 0 V and then turn on the power amplifier.
6. Click
. A dialog box will appear. Click
to zero both sensors. This sets
the zero for both probes with no current flowing and with no voltage applied.
7. Click
graph.

## 8. Increase the voltage to approximately 1 V. Click

9. Increase again the voltage by about 1 V. Click
reach a voltage of 5 V.
10. Click

## to save the first point of your

.
. Repeat this process until you

## and set the voltage back to 0 V.

11. Click the Linear Fit button, . Record the slope and y-intercept of the regression line
in the data table, along with their units.
12. Save a copy of your graph and your file. Use Save as. Select Erase and
continue the next time you start collecting data.
13. With the power amplifier off, replace the 100 resistor with the 1 resistor.
14. Turn the power amplifier again and repeat steps 3 12 using the 1 resistor.
CAUTION: This time increase the voltage from 0 to 1 V in steps of 0.2 V
15. With the power amplifier off, replace the resistor with the light bulb provided to you
16. Turn the power amplifier again and repeat steps 3-10 with the light bulb. Use steps of
0.6 until you reach 6 V.
17. Take a picture of the light bulb under the same camera conditions for 0, 1.8, 4.2 and 6
V.
18. Use the first three points of your graph to find the slope of the graph. Also, use the
last 3 points of your graph to find the slope of the graph. Record these values in the
table.

DATA TABLE
1. Fill the following table with the data collected with your experiment. Include this table in the
results section of your report
Slope of regression line
(V/A)

Y-intercept of regression
line (V)

Resistor

100

16.04

0.02798 V

Resistor

0.9734

5.037 x 10-3 V

12

22.05

## Third graph : Light bulb

2. Include in your lab report the pictures of the light bulb under different voltages. Under the
picture include the voltage and power used in each case. Use the voltages and currents that you
recorded in your data files. (Power = Voltage * Current).

Voltage = 0 V
Power = 0 W

Voltage = 4.2 V
Power = 1.439 W

Voltage = 1.8 V
Power = 0.380 W

Voltage = 6 V
Power = 2.524 W

ANALYSIS
As the potential across the resistor increased, the current through the resistor increased. If the
change in current is proportional to the voltage, the data should be in a straight line and it
should go through zero.
1. In these two examples how close is the y-intercept to zero?
Y-intercept is 0.02798 V for 100 Ohm- resistor and is 5.037 x 10-3 V for 1 Ohm- resister.

2. What do the slopes of your graphs represent (Graph: Voltage vs. Current)? Are those the
values that you would expect?

The slope or the gradient of the graphs represents resistance. Since the relationship
between voltage and current is V=IR (R = V/I) , the slope is defined by a value on the yaxis(Voltage) divided by a value on x-axis(Current). The slope will be a voltage divided by
a current which is a resistance. All resistances we have recorded from Vernier follow our
expectation according from the Ohms Law.
3. Do your resistors follow Ohms law? Base your answer on your experimental data.
As all three graphs present in form of linear lines, this proves that our resistors follow
Ohms Law because a current is directly proportional to potential different with the
constant slope, a resistance. From the first graph, if a current is about 0.05, voltage will be
around 4.802 according to R = V/I (16.04 = 4.802 / 0.05).
4. If you wanted to operate each resistor at the same current of 0.5 A, at what voltage would
you have to operate each resistor?
From the Ohms Law, V = IR, the voltage that we need to operate 1 ohm- resistor with
0.5 A is 0.5 V(0.5V = 0.5 A X 1 Ohm) while we need 500V to operate 100 ohm-resistor
with the same resistance( 500V = 0.5A X 100 ohm). Therefore, the more resistance the
circuit has, the more voltage we need to put.
5. Describe what happened to the current through the light bulb as the voltage increased.
Was the change linear? Since the slope of the linear regression line is a measure of
resistance, describe what happened to the resistance as the voltage increased.
The graph is not really a linear; it is more likely to be a curve line at low voltages
However, as the voltage gets higher, the graph becomes more linear. Because an electrical
current flowing through a circuit is directly proportional to a voltage and a resistance, as
the voltage increases, the resistance also increases. Comparing the first three points and
the last 3 points on the third graph, we set the voltage from 0 to 6 V in steps of 0.6. We
found that the resistance of last three points was 22.05 ohm while that of the first three
points was 12 ohm.
6. Since the light bulb gets brighter as it gets hotter, how does the resistance vary with
temperature?
Since the Ohms Law does not support when there is a change in temperature, as the light
bulb gets brighter, it gets hotter. This means a line showing V and Is relationship will not
be a linear line. When the light bulb gets hotter, its atoms vibrate more and faster.This will
make electrons pass through slower. Therefore, the resistance will increase if the
temperature increases.
7. Does your light bulb follow Ohms law? Base your answer on your experimental data.
No, our light bulbs dont follow Ohms Law. According to Ohms law, V = IR. Voltage is
directly proportional to current only when resistance is constant. Resistance will remain
constant if temperature is constant. However, as we increased the voltage, the light was
brighter and also hotter, causing some change in temperature. This is why the presented
line is not a linear line. But still the voltage increased, if we increased the resistance, from
the question no.5 that when we used the other resistor (100 ohm).

CONCLUSION
Today we all become get used to electrical equipment. The electricity is handled in
circuits. One of the fundamental laws describing how electrical circuits behave is Ohms law.
According to Ohms law, there are no "perfect" electrical conductors through a series of
experiments in 1825. Every conductor he had tested offered different levels of resistance. Ohm's
law states that if a temperature remains constant, a current flowing through certain conductors is
proportional to the potential difference (voltage) across it, therefore the resistance R is viewed as
a constant independent of the voltage and the current. In equation form, Ohms law is V = IR. In
other words, there is a linear relationship where the voltage or potential difference (V) equals to a
current (I) times resistance (R).
In this experiment, we verified that the y-intercept is extremely close to zero for both the
100 and 1 resistor. There is a proportional relationship between voltage and current. The
graph of potential difference vs. current for a resistor resulted in a linear plot, in accordance with
the equation R = V / I, so it follows the Ohms law. However, when compared these behavior of a
resistor to that a light bulb, the plot is no longer a straight line. The change was more curved at
the low potential (V), but became more linear as the potential (V) was raised higher. Resistance
increased as the potential increased; the slope was 12 V/A for the first 3 points and 22.05 V/A for
the last 3 points. It may due to temperature change because the bulb got brighter as it got hotter,
and that means resistance increases with temperature. Therefore we concluded that Ohm's Law is
a simple and powerful mathematical tool for helping us analyze electric circuits, but it has
limitations, its resistance can change when it is cooler or warmer.
During our experiment, there were some mistakes and error occurred that probably
affected out result. First of all, every electrical equipment, especially a resister, has error in itself.
The error also presented on our result; instead of getting exactly zero for the y-intercept when
voltage was zero, we got slightly different values. Lastly, when we collected data by pressing
Keep, we accidentally had clicked Keep before values of voltage became constant.