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Atikan Thanasarakit (Mikan),and Tanyaporn Kachayoungyuen (New). G.11-2

OBJECTIVES

Determine the mathematical relationship between current, potential difference, and

Compare the potential vs. current behavior of a resistor to that of a light bulb.

MATERIALS

Computer

Vernier computer interface

Logger Pro

one Vernier Current Probe and

one Vernier Differential Voltage Probe

Power Amplifier

Wires

clips to hold wires

two resistors (about 1 and 100 )

Light bulb (6V)

PROCEDURE

1. Open the file 22 Ohms Law in the Physics with Vernier folder. A graph of potential

vs. current will be displayed. The meter displays potential and current readings.

2. Connect the Current Probe to Channel 1 and the Differential Voltage Probe to

Channel 2 of the computer interface. Connect the audio jack of the power amplifier to

the speaker jack of the Lab Quest

3. With the power amplifier turned off, connect the power amplifier, 100 resistor,

wires, and clips as shown in Figure 1. Take care that the positive lead from the power

amplifier and the red terminal from the Current & Voltage Probe are connected as

shown in Figure 1. Note: Attach the red connectors electrically closer to the positive

side of the power supply.

4. Have your teacher check the arrangement of the wires before proceeding.

5. Open the Sensor Set up Window. Click on the Power Amplifier icon. Set voltage to

DC (Direct Current). Set the voltage to 0 V and then turn on the power amplifier.

6. Click

. A dialog box will appear. Click

to zero both sensors. This sets

the zero for both probes with no current flowing and with no voltage applied.

7. Click

graph.

9. Increase again the voltage by about 1 V. Click

reach a voltage of 5 V.

10. Click

.

. Repeat this process until you

11. Click the Linear Fit button, . Record the slope and y-intercept of the regression line

in the data table, along with their units.

12. Save a copy of your graph and your file. Use Save as. Select Erase and

continue the next time you start collecting data.

13. With the power amplifier off, replace the 100 resistor with the 1 resistor.

14. Turn the power amplifier again and repeat steps 3 12 using the 1 resistor.

CAUTION: This time increase the voltage from 0 to 1 V in steps of 0.2 V

15. With the power amplifier off, replace the resistor with the light bulb provided to you

16. Turn the power amplifier again and repeat steps 3-10 with the light bulb. Use steps of

0.6 until you reach 6 V.

17. Take a picture of the light bulb under the same camera conditions for 0, 1.8, 4.2 and 6

V.

18. Use the first three points of your graph to find the slope of the graph. Also, use the

last 3 points of your graph to find the slope of the graph. Record these values in the

table.

DATA TABLE

1. Fill the following table with the data collected with your experiment. Include this table in the

results section of your report

Slope of regression line

(V/A)

Y-intercept of regression

line (V)

Resistor

100

16.04

0.02798 V

Resistor

0.9734

5.037 x 10-3 V

12

22.05

2. Include in your lab report the pictures of the light bulb under different voltages. Under the

picture include the voltage and power used in each case. Use the voltages and currents that you

recorded in your data files. (Power = Voltage * Current).

Voltage = 0 V

Power = 0 W

Voltage = 4.2 V

Power = 1.439 W

Voltage = 1.8 V

Power = 0.380 W

Voltage = 6 V

Power = 2.524 W

ANALYSIS

As the potential across the resistor increased, the current through the resistor increased. If the

change in current is proportional to the voltage, the data should be in a straight line and it

should go through zero.

1. In these two examples how close is the y-intercept to zero?

Y-intercept is 0.02798 V for 100 Ohm- resistor and is 5.037 x 10-3 V for 1 Ohm- resister.

2. What do the slopes of your graphs represent (Graph: Voltage vs. Current)? Are those the

values that you would expect?

The slope or the gradient of the graphs represents resistance. Since the relationship

between voltage and current is V=IR (R = V/I) , the slope is defined by a value on the yaxis(Voltage) divided by a value on x-axis(Current). The slope will be a voltage divided by

a current which is a resistance. All resistances we have recorded from Vernier follow our

expectation according from the Ohms Law.

3. Do your resistors follow Ohms law? Base your answer on your experimental data.

As all three graphs present in form of linear lines, this proves that our resistors follow

Ohms Law because a current is directly proportional to potential different with the

constant slope, a resistance. From the first graph, if a current is about 0.05, voltage will be

around 4.802 according to R = V/I (16.04 = 4.802 / 0.05).

4. If you wanted to operate each resistor at the same current of 0.5 A, at what voltage would

you have to operate each resistor?

From the Ohms Law, V = IR, the voltage that we need to operate 1 ohm- resistor with

0.5 A is 0.5 V(0.5V = 0.5 A X 1 Ohm) while we need 500V to operate 100 ohm-resistor

with the same resistance( 500V = 0.5A X 100 ohm). Therefore, the more resistance the

circuit has, the more voltage we need to put.

5. Describe what happened to the current through the light bulb as the voltage increased.

Was the change linear? Since the slope of the linear regression line is a measure of

resistance, describe what happened to the resistance as the voltage increased.

The graph is not really a linear; it is more likely to be a curve line at low voltages

However, as the voltage gets higher, the graph becomes more linear. Because an electrical

current flowing through a circuit is directly proportional to a voltage and a resistance, as

the voltage increases, the resistance also increases. Comparing the first three points and

the last 3 points on the third graph, we set the voltage from 0 to 6 V in steps of 0.6. We

found that the resistance of last three points was 22.05 ohm while that of the first three

points was 12 ohm.

6. Since the light bulb gets brighter as it gets hotter, how does the resistance vary with

temperature?

Since the Ohms Law does not support when there is a change in temperature, as the light

bulb gets brighter, it gets hotter. This means a line showing V and Is relationship will not

be a linear line. When the light bulb gets hotter, its atoms vibrate more and faster.This will

make electrons pass through slower. Therefore, the resistance will increase if the

temperature increases.

7. Does your light bulb follow Ohms law? Base your answer on your experimental data.

No, our light bulbs dont follow Ohms Law. According to Ohms law, V = IR. Voltage is

directly proportional to current only when resistance is constant. Resistance will remain

constant if temperature is constant. However, as we increased the voltage, the light was

brighter and also hotter, causing some change in temperature. This is why the presented

line is not a linear line. But still the voltage increased, if we increased the resistance, from

the question no.5 that when we used the other resistor (100 ohm).

CONCLUSION

Today we all become get used to electrical equipment. The electricity is handled in

circuits. One of the fundamental laws describing how electrical circuits behave is Ohms law.

According to Ohms law, there are no "perfect" electrical conductors through a series of

experiments in 1825. Every conductor he had tested offered different levels of resistance. Ohm's

law states that if a temperature remains constant, a current flowing through certain conductors is

proportional to the potential difference (voltage) across it, therefore the resistance R is viewed as

a constant independent of the voltage and the current. In equation form, Ohms law is V = IR. In

other words, there is a linear relationship where the voltage or potential difference (V) equals to a

current (I) times resistance (R).

In this experiment, we verified that the y-intercept is extremely close to zero for both the

100 and 1 resistor. There is a proportional relationship between voltage and current. The

graph of potential difference vs. current for a resistor resulted in a linear plot, in accordance with

the equation R = V / I, so it follows the Ohms law. However, when compared these behavior of a

resistor to that a light bulb, the plot is no longer a straight line. The change was more curved at

the low potential (V), but became more linear as the potential (V) was raised higher. Resistance

increased as the potential increased; the slope was 12 V/A for the first 3 points and 22.05 V/A for

the last 3 points. It may due to temperature change because the bulb got brighter as it got hotter,

and that means resistance increases with temperature. Therefore we concluded that Ohm's Law is

a simple and powerful mathematical tool for helping us analyze electric circuits, but it has

limitations, its resistance can change when it is cooler or warmer.

During our experiment, there were some mistakes and error occurred that probably

affected out result. First of all, every electrical equipment, especially a resister, has error in itself.

The error also presented on our result; instead of getting exactly zero for the y-intercept when

voltage was zero, we got slightly different values. Lastly, when we collected data by pressing

Keep, we accidentally had clicked Keep before values of voltage became constant.

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