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As mentioned earlier our plan takes a humanist approach drawing upon

Banduras Social Learning theory and Maslows Hierarchy of Needs, which is

numbers 5 and 8 on the hand-out.
The first part of our plan is to do with the classroom. We have observed that
Emma excels in Mathematics, Music and Languages but is struggling in SOSE and
Science. We suggest discussing with Emma on how to integrate some of these
subjects, for example Mathematics with Science. We hope that this will allow
Emma to positively transfer her knowledge and aptitude for Mathematics to
Science. The benefits of an integrated curriculum are outlined in Walkers
Integrating Education: Empowering Students to Learn which is number # on the
By discussing this integration with Emma we hope to increase her perceived
support from us as the teacher. Wentzel, 2004, number 10 on the hand-out,
describes the direct link between perceived teacher support and school interest
and democratic and expectations are factors of creating this support.
We plan to conduct a goal-setting group discussion for the whole class.
Zimmerman, Bandura and Martinez-Pons research proves a positive correlation
between goal-setting and academic achievement.
The second part of our plan revolves around Emmas relationships. Wentzel,
1998, number 9, describes the need to fulfil social needs for academic success.
We have observed that Emma is excluded and not encouraged to participate
while her step-mother is concerned that she doesnt seem to have any friends.
We recommended to her parents strategies to help improve her relationships
with her peers. McDonald, 2010, number 6, outlines that fulfilling the four
universal human needs can prevent motivational and behavioural issues. We
offer ways in which her parents could involve themselves and offering them
choice could lead to the removal of barriers to their involvement as Ewington,
1994, number 4, discusses in their article.
The final part of our plan for Emma involves the introduction of a third party. We
recommend counselling to strengthen Emmas relationship with her parents and
step-mother, though we offer this as a choice. Christensen, 2011 number 3,
found that the mother-child relationship leads to forgiveness for either parent
and developing peer relationships. We hope that if Emmas relationship is
strengthened then her ability to develop peer relationships will increase.
Another aspect is our recommendation of a mentor or tutor. Barry, 1998 number
2, have found a positive association between a students self-concept and their
having a mentor. Barry also outlines that peer or cross-age tutoring is beneficial
to learning for both parties.

1. Anderman, E., & Maehr, M. (1994). Motivation and Schooling in the Middle Grades.
Review of Educational Research, 64(2), 287-309.

Key Points: School culture can undermine class activities; fear of future self can lead to demotivation; motivation declines with age
2. Barry, K., & King, L. (1998). Beginning Teaching and Beyond (3rd ed.). Katoomba,
NSW: Social Sciences Press, Peer and Cross-Age Tutoring.
Key Points: heavily associated with improvements in positive self-concept while also
helping to formulate constructive relationships between student and mentor. Enhanced
learning is also generated, both for the student and the mentor/tutor.
Peer and cross-age tutoring stem from Vygotskys idea of zone of proximal
development and is heavily reliant on scaffolding the student in order to help them
bridge the gap between what is already known and what could be known.
3. Christensen, K., Padilla-Walker, L., Busby, D., Hardy, S., & Day, R. (2011).
Relational and social-cognitive correlates of early adolescents forgiveness of parents.
Journal of Adolescence, 34(5), 903-913.
Key Points: that a strong mother-child relationship leads to an easier forgiveness of either
parent; that social skills are learned from parents, so if the relationship is poor, the child
will have trouble making peers.
4. Ewington, J. (1994). Parents perceptions of school effectiveness. In T. Maddock & J.
Woods (Eds.), Theory, Research and Action in Educational Administration (pp. 161173). Hawthorn: ACEA.
Key Points: Parents who are more involved in schools are usually middle class and well
connected locally. Parents from low socioeconomic backgrounds are less likely to get
involved. Explaining to parents with openness, sharing power and offering choice ways
to remove barriers to parental involvement.
5. Krause, K., Bochner, S., Duchesne, S., & McMaugh, A. (2010) Educational
Psychology for learning and teaching (3rd ed.). South Melbourne, Vic: Cengage
Key Points: Vygotsky (social learning theory), Humanism- educating the whole child by
focusing wellbeing.

6. McDonald, T. (2010). Positive Learning Framework Classroom management:

Engaging students in learning. South Melbourne, Vic: Oxford University Press.
Key Points: The Circle of Courage indentifies the four universal human needs as achieving
belonging, independence, mastery and generosity. If one or more of these needs is
lacking then it important to assist the student to achieve fulfilment of that need.
Meeting these four basic needs is a way of preventing motivation and behavioural
issues and enhancing learning.
7. Murray-Harvey, R. (2010). Relationship influences on students academic
achievement, psychological health and well-being at school. Educational & Child
Psychology, 27(1), 104-115.
Key Points: Strong connection between students social/emotional and academic experience
of school. Teachers have the greatest impact on students social emotional adjustment to
school, followed by peers and family respectively. Teachers also have the greatest
impact on students academic achievement, followed by family and peers respectively.
8. Walker, D. (1995). Integrative Learning. National Association of Elementary School
Principals, 12(1), 1-5.
Key points: an integrated curriculum is valuable as it is known that the mind seeks patterns
and retention and retrieval are strengthened when embedded in meaningful contexts
provided by integrated curriculum.. Integrated education not only improves retention
and retrieval but also promotes broad mental; programs that require the use of skills
and information in a realistic context.
Integrated education is firmly rooted in humanistic theory, which focuses on the whole
child and is cantered around the theories of Maslow and Rogers and Piaget and
Vygotsky more broadly.
9. Wentzel, K. (1998). The Social Relationships and Motivation in Middle School: The
Role of Parents, Teachers, and Peers. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90(2), 202209.
Key points: consensus that social need must be met to ensure academic success;
interpersonal relationships are a motivator for schooling; multiple supports are additive,
not compensatory; that peers begin to replace parental support with age.

10. Wentzel, K., Barry, C., & Caldwell, K. (2004). Friendships in Middle School:
Influences on Motivation and School Adjustment. Journal of Educational
Psychology, 96(2), 195-203.
Key Points: perceived teacher support has a direct link to school interest; that democratic
interactions and expectations based on individuality are factors that create perceived
pedagogical support.