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THE BASIS OF

PHONETICS &
PHONOLOGY
International
Phonetics Alphabet

Phonetics & Phonology

Phonetics & Phonology


No
Topics
1. Main Focus
2.

Normal Scope

3.

Role of Native
Speaker

4.

Role of Linguist

5.

Linguistic
Perspective

Phonetics
How sounds are
made
All Languages
Native Speaker
pronunciation of
sounds
Record sounds
accurately
Etic

Phonology
How sound are
used
A particular
Language
Native Speaker
reactions to sounds
Describe
significance of
sounds & sound
changes
Emic

Phonetics & Phonology


The phone is the basic unit of phonology.
Phonological rules for a particular language
dictate both phoneme and allophones used by
the language and the acceptable syllable
structures (phoneme/allophone combination)
Phonetics and phonology are strongly
interrelated. Phonetics provide the speaker
with the sound differentiation necessary to
imply meaning whereas phonology helps the
speaker understand sound patterns,
sequences, and coarticulatory
interrelationships.

International Phonetic Alphabet


The IPA provides the user with a
universally accepted symbols for each of
the speech sounds.
The IPA is phonetic, not phonemic in
design. In other words, a particular symbol
is used to represent the pronunciation of a
speech sound, not to delineate a change
in meaning.
The International Phonetic Association, the
agency governing IPA, has a system of
detailed principles applied to the
formation and variation of the alphabet
(see the IPA chart)
IPA does not use capital letters

IPA
Chart

Consonant
Chart

Vowel Chart

Other symbols, Diachritics, and


Suprasegmentals
Other symbols, diachritics, and
suprasegmentals are the three subscription of
IPA used to enhance and further delineate
production.
The other symbols category allows for the
transcription of additional sounds not fully
represented in consonants and vowel
categories.
Diachritics are symbols designed to be added
to consonant, vowels, and other symbols to
further describe the phoneme.
Suprasegmentals provide information on
stress, boundaries, timing, and speech.

Why Do We Need to Study English Phonology? [1]

Why Do We Need to Study English Phonology? [2]