U.S.

History

Jason Saba

CHAPTER 20: ³Politics of the Roaring Twenties´ ______________________________________________________
Section 1: Americans Struggle with Postwar Issues
One Americans Story: Irving Fajans was a sales clerk who persuaded workers to join the Department Store Employees Union Postwar Trends Stressful conditions as a result of WWI, The League of Nations, and the Progressive Era Nativism: prejudice against foreign-born people Isolationism: a policy of pulling away from involvement in world affairs Fear of Communism Threat to American life Communism: an economic and political system based on a single-party government ruled by a dictatorship The Red Scare Lenin established a new Communist state and called for the abolition of Capitalism A U.S. Communist Party was formed and were suspected of sending bombs to government and business leaders The public feared the communists were taking over The Palmer Raids U.S. Attorney General Palmer and his agents hunted down these anarchists Anarchists: people who opposed any form of government Ignored anarchist¶s civil rights by invading their homes and jailing them without trial Palmer found no evidence of a conspiracy theory and the public eventually ignored him Sacco and Vanzetti The Red Scare intensified people¶s suspicions of foreigners and immigrants Sacco and Vanzetti: Italian immigrants and anarchists who had both evaded the draft during World War I Accused of murdering a man after witnesses sad that the criminals appeared to be Italian Evidence had no grounds and their alibis were solid Sentenced to death People were furious Limiting Immigration WWI decreased need for unskilled labor People believed immigrants were anarchists and socialists The Klan Rises Again Used anti-communism as a way to revive the Klan Devoted to 100% Americanism

Notes taken from, The Americans, by McDougal Littel

The Quota System # of Immigrants increased from 141,000 to 805,000 Congress decides to limit immigration Quota System: established the maximum number of people who could enter the United States from each foreign country Designed to cut European immigration to the U.S. Limited immigration from each European nation to 2% of the number of its nationals living in the United States in 1890 Japanese immigration had been prohibited which made them furious because they had already made an agreement on emigration in 1907 Didn¶t apply to those on the Western Hemisphere A Time of Labor Unrest Not many held a strike during WWI so as not to interfere with the war effort Employers began labeling striking workers as Communists The Boston Police Strike The Boston Police had been denied a raise since the beginning of WWI They decided to strike Governor Calvin Coolidge called out the National Guard People praised him for saving Boston and the nation from communism and anarchy The Steel Mill Strike Workers in steel mills held a strike for shorter working hours and a living wage Strikebreakers: employees who were hired by companies to work during the strike Strikers were beaten by the police and federal troops Companies used propaganda to link the strikers to Communists After a report on the harsh working conditions, companies agreed to an eight-hour day The Coal Miners Strike John L. Lewis: the new leader of the United Mine Workers of America Wanted higher wages and shorter workdays The coal miners received a 27% wage increase by judge Labor Movement Loses Appeal Immigrants were willing to work in poor conditions Immigrants had difficulty forming unions with their multitude of languages Farmers who became factory workers relied on themselves Most unions excluded African Americans

Notes taken from, The Americans, by McDougal Littel

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