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second

edition

Greg Rickard
Isabella Brown
Nici Burger
Warrick Clarke
Janette Ellis
Faye Jeffery
Caroline Jeffries
Karin Johnstone
Dale Loveday
Geoff Phillips
Peter Roberson
Kerry Whalley

Sydney, Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth, Adelaide


and associated companies around the world
Contents
Acknowledgements v
Series features vi
How to use this book viii
Syllabus correlation x
Verbs xi

CHAPTER Forensics 1
1
Unit 1.1 Forensics and identification 2
Unit 1.2 Is it real? 12
Unit 1.3 Evidence 20
Science focus: Investigating the death of Azaria Chamberlain 31
Chapter review 33

CHAPTER The periodic table 34


2
Unit 2.1 Atoms and elements 35
Unit 2.2 Structure of the periodic table 41
Unit 2.3 Using the periodic table 47
Unit 2.4 Families of elements 56
Science focus: Development of the periodic table 62
Chapter review 64

CHAPTER Chemical change 66


3
Unit 3.1 Chemical reactions 67
Unit 3.2 Combination, combustion and decomposition 74
Unit 3.3 Precipitation reactions 80
Unit 3.4 Acids and bases 88
Chapter review 100

CHAPTER Sense and control 102


4
Unit 4.1 Sight 103
Unit 4.2 Hearing 112
Unit 4.3 Smell, taste and touch 117
Unit 4.4 Responding 124
Unit 4.5 Nervous control 129
Science focus: Understanding memory 139
Unit 4.6 Chemical control 142
Chapter review 149

iii
CHAPTER Reproduction 152
5
Unit 5.1 Types of reproduction 153
Unit 5.2 Human reproductive systems 161
Unit 5.3 Human reproduction 168
Unit 5.4 Reproductive health 174
Chapter review 183

CHAPTER Ecosystems 185


6
Unit 6.1 Energy for life 186
Unit 6.2 Recycling in nature 192
Unit 6.3 Human impact on ecosystems 200
Science focus: The right balance—a human problem 210
Chapter review 215

CHAPTER Light 216


7
Unit 7.1 Bending light 217
Unit 7.2 Focusing devices: Lenses and curved mirrors 226
Unit 7.3 Colour 239
Chapter review 248

CHAPTER The universe 250


8
Unit 8.1 The expanding universe 251
Unit 8.2 The Big Bang 256
Unit 8.3 The life of a star 261
Unit 8.4 Are we alone? 266
Unit 8.5 Using space 270
Science focus: Long-distance space travel 276
Chapter review 279

CHAPTER Earth’s fragile crust 280


9
Unit 9.1 Plate tectonics 281
Unit 9.2 At the edges 289
Unit 9.3 Earthquakes 297
Unit 9.4 Volcanoes 308
Unit 9.5 Landscaping the crust 314
Unit 9.6 Geological time 322
Chapter review 330

Sci Q Busters 332


Index 336

iv
Acknowledgements
The publishers wish to thank the following for their contributions and who kindly gave permission to reproduce
copyright material in this book:
Alamy Limited: pp. 74, 119, 123, 187 (kookaburra), 201b, 202, 280, 317.
ANT Photo Library Pty Ltd: p. 201tl.
Australian Associated Press Pty Ltd: pp. 3br, 12l, 15, 133l, 145, 205l, 206, 210br.
Australian Associated Press Pty Ltd: pp. 213 (logger, traffic), 299, 308r.
Corbis Australia Pty Ltd: pp. iv (volcano), 6r, 27, 62l, 75t, 76b, 81b, 117t, 187 (snake), 205r, 210l, 210tr,
211tl, 213br, 213tr, 239t, 258bl, 262br, 263r, 268t, 290r, 311, 316l, 323c, 324l.
Dorling Kindersley: pp. 103, 318, 323b.
Getty Images Australia Pty Ltd: pp. 23c, 24, 133br, 151, 152, 155l, 157tl, 161br, 163b, 169br, 180t, 186,
239b, 310, 316r.
iStockphoto: pp. iii (soft drink), 47, 68t, 76l, 105bl, 106l, 106r, 107, 114, 161t, 171, 179, 180b, 185, 187
(moth), 190, 192tl, 213 (farm), 326r, 330.
John Fairfax Publications: pp. 32, 203.
Jupiter Images: pp. 22l, 57c, 57t, 256.
Lennart Nilsson / Albert Bonniers Forlag: p. 163t.
Lochman Transparencies: p. 192b.
NASA: pp. 251t, 258br, 258t, 261t, 262bl, 262t, 267br, 267t, 272, 273; ESA: pp. iv (galaxy), 259t;
JPL: p. 271; Marshall Space Flight Center: p. 258c.
National Library of Australia: pp. 3tl, 211l.
Nationwide News Pty Ltd: pp. 26, 31, 274t.
NOAA: p. 291.
Paramount Television / The Kobal Collection: p. 278b.
Pearson Australia/Penelope Naidoo: p. 168t; Gordon Aird: p. 217b; Natalie Book: p. 217t.
Photodisc: pp. 68c, 69tr, 124tr, 139t, 140l, 200, 201tr, 226.
Photolibrary Pty Ltd: pp. iii (fingerprint scan, periodic table, rods and cones), iv (butterfly wing, tulip), 1, 2,
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157r, 160, 161bl, 162, 168b, 169bc, 169bl, 169t, 176, 178, 187 (frog), 193, 216, 219r, 220, 231, 233,
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Picture Media Pty Ltd: p. 195.
Public Library of Science, Journal of Biology / William M. Gray: p. 148; Charles Fisher: p. 188.
Reserve Bank of Australia: pp. 14t, 18.
Royal Victorian Eye & Ear Hospital: p. 95.
Shutterstock: pp. iii (butterfly), iv (optical fibres), 12r, 56l, 67b, 68b, 84, 92, 93l, 105br, 105c, 112, 124tl,
131b, 134, 140r, 154bl, 154tl, 174, 187 (lantana), 192tr, 196, 204, 213 (city, fox), 219l, 229, 241r, 289,
309, 313, 314, 326l, 332, 333, 334, 335.
The Picture Desk/The Kobal Collection: p. 266t.
Tourism Queensland: p. 323t.
US Navy/Ensign John Gay: p. 251b.
US National Archives and Records Administration: p. 302.
Cover: Getty Images Australia Pty Ltd, NASA, Shutterstock.
Every effort has been made to trace and acknowledge copyright. The publisher would welcome any information
from people who believe they own copyright to material in this book.

v
Series
features Science Focus Second Edition

The Science Focus Second Edition series has been designed for the revised NSW Science Syllabus, Stages 4 and 5.
This fresh and engaging series is based on the essential and additional content.

Student books with student CD


NENTW
ENT
C O
The student book consists of chapters with the following features:
• A science context at the beginning of each chapter
encourages students to make meaning of science in terms
of their everyday experiences.
• Science Clip boxes contain quirky and fascinating science
facts and provide opportunity for further exploration by
students.
• Unit and chapter review questions are structured around
Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Processes. Questions
incorporate the key verbs, so that students can begin to
practise answering questions as required in later years.
• Investigating sections incorporate ICT and research
skills. These tasks are designed to push students to apply
the knowledge and skills they have developed within the
chapter.
• Practical activities are placed at the end of each unit to allow teachers to choose when and how to
incorporate the practical work.
• Science Focus spreads use a contextual approach to focus on the outcomes of the prescribed focus area.
Student activities on these pages allow for further investigation into the material covered.
Each student book includes an interactive student CD containing:
• an electronic version of the student book
• a link to Pearson Places for extensive online content.

Homework books
NENTW
ENT
The homework book has a fresh new design and layout and provides the CO

following features:
• A syllabus correlation grid links each worksheet to the NSW Science Syllabus.
• Updated worksheets cover consolidation, extension and revision activities with
explicit use of syllabus verbs so that students can begin to practise answering
questions as required in later years.
• Questions are clearly graded within each worksheet, allowing students to move
from lower-order questions to higher-order questions.
• A crossword for every chapter spans across a double-page spread so students
can easily read the clues and instructions.
• Sci-words are listed for each chapter in an easy-to-follow tabulated layout.

vi
Teacher editions (including teacher edition CD and student CD)

The innovative teacher edition contains a wealth of support


NEW
material and allows a teacher to approach the teaching and
learning of science with confidence. Teacher editions are available
for each student book in the series. Teacher editions include the
following features:
• pages from the student book with wrap-around teacher
notes covering the learning focus, outcomes and a pre-quiz
for every chapter opening
• approximately 10 different learning strategies per unit
in addition to the activities provided in each unit of the
student book
• assessment ideas
• answers to student book questions
• practical activity support including a safety spot, common
mistakes, possible results and suggested answers to
practical activity questions
• Teacher Resource boxes highlighting additional resources available, such as worksheets, online activities
and practical activities.
Each Science Focus Second Edition Teacher Edition CD includes:
• student book answers
• homework book answers
• chapter tests and answers NEW Pearson Places
• curriculum grids
www.pearsonplaces.com.au
• teaching program for each chapter
Pearson Places is the online
• student risk assessments
destination that is constantly evolving
ng
• lab technician risk assessments
to give you the most up-to-date educational
• safety notes
content on the web. Visit Pearson Places to
• lab technician checklist and recipes.
access educational content, download lesson
material, use rich media and connect with
NEW LiveText™ DVD students, educators and professionals around
Australia.
The LiveText™ DVD is designed • Pearson Reader
for use with an interactive More than an eBook, Pearson Reader
whiteboard or data projector. provides unique online student books
It consists of an electronic that allow teachers and students to
version of the student book harness the collective intelligence of
with component links, some of all who participate. Search for a unit of
which are unique to LiveText™. work and contribute by adding links and
The features include one-touch sharing resources.
zoom and annotation tools that • Student Lounge
allow teachers to customise ise One location for student support
lessons for students. material—interactives, animations,
revision questions and more!
• Teacher Lounge
One location for teacher support
material—curriculum grids, chapter
tests and more!

For more information on the Science Focus Second Edition series, visit the Bookstore at
www.pearsonplaces.com.au
vii
How to use this book Science Focus 3 Second Edition

Science is a fascinating, informative and enjoyable subject. Science encourages us to ask questions and helps
us understand why things happen in our daily lives, on planet Earth and beyond. Scientific knowledge is
constantly evolving and challenges us to think about the world in which we live. Science shows us what we
knew, what we now know and helps us make informed decisions for our future.
Science Focus 3 Second Edition has been designed for the revised NSW Science Syllabus. It includes material
that addresses the learning outcomes in the domains of knowledge, understanding and skills. Each chapter
addresses at least one prescribed focus area in detail. The content is presented through many varied contexts
to engage students in seeing the relationship between science and their everyday lives.
The student book consists of nine chapters with the following features:

Unit
4.3 QUESTIONS

4.3
creating questions. Questions
Chapter opener
Remembering Creating
1 State the meanings of the terms taxonomy and taxonomist.t 14 A mnemonic is a silly sentence that helps remind you of
2 List these groups from the one that contains the greatest something. You could, for example, remember the order in
ms to the group that contains the least:
number of organisms organism are classified (kingdom—phylum—class—
which organisms
order—family—
order—family—genus—species) by, instead, remembering
m, genus, order, class.
family, species, phylum, kingdom,

incorporate a variety of verbs,


‘Kind people can often find green shoes!’ Create your own
3 State which of the groups in Question 2 has the most detailed mnemonic to rerepresent the order of classification from
description of the organisms in it. kingdom to spec
species.
4 Organisms are grouped into five kingdoms. List them. 15 The complete classification
cl of a human is:
5 State the structural feature that splits animals into twoo phyla. Kingdom: Anima
Animal
6 State the two major groups into which plants are classified.
ed.

The key prescribed focus area


Phylum: Chorda
Chordata (vertebrate)

including the syllabus verbs. 4.3 QUESTIONS


Understanding Class: Mammali
Mammalia (mammal)
7 Explain how you know a terrier and a poodle belong to the Order: Primata ((primates)

4
Sense and
same species. Family: Hominid
Hominidae (hominids)
8 Explain how you know that a horse and a donkey are different Genus and spec
species: Homo sapiens
species.
Use this and inf
information from the text to construct a table

addressed within the chapter is


9 Describe how the unique scientific name for every living thing s
that shows the similarities between a human with a dog and

control All verbs have been bolded 1 State the meanings of


thinkthe terms
a subclass
is created.
Remembering 10 A subphylum represents a group smaller than a phylum but
bigger than a class. Use this information to explain what you
taxonomy and taxonomist.
represents.
the differences bbetween them.
166 You have just discovered
di a new species! You must now report
your findings to the AS4NT (The Australian Society for
Things)
Naming Things).
a Outline the ccharacteristics of your new organism. Be
2 List these groupsApplying
from the one that contains the greatest

clearly emphasised.
creative!
11 The scientific name of the Tasmanian devil is Sarcophilus
number of organismsharrisii.
to Identify
the group that contains the least:

so students can begin to


its: b Construct a diagram
d or model of your new species.
a genus c Classify your organism by placing it in a kingdom.
family, species, phylum, kingdom, genus, order, class.
b species. d Further class
classify your organism by giving it a name using
Prescribed focus area the binomial naming system.

The nature and practice of science 3 State which of the12groups


Identify important characteristics shared by all animals in the
genus Felis in
(the Question
cat family). 2 has the most detail
description of theAnalysing
organisms in it.

key outcomes
5.2, 5.8.4

s (UMANSHAVEFIVESENSES
The learning outcomes relevant practise answering questions 4 Organisms are grouped into
ericifolia,

5 State the structural feature


13 Four native plants found in the Blue Mountains are Banksia
fivepunctata,
Eucalytpus

a State the number


kingdoms. Listandthem.
Acacia floribunda d Banksia
marginata. Analyse this information to:
that ofsplits animals
species this ents.into two phyla
represents.
b Name the plants that are in the same
ame genus.
anksia

6 State the two major cgroups into which plants are classified.
Essentials

s 4HEDEVELOPMENTOFNEWTECHNOLOGIES Predict if botanists couldd ever cross any of these plants to

s
s
HASALLOWEDHUMANSTOCORRECT
DIFFICULTIESINHEARINGANDSEEING
9OURSENSESARECOORDINATEDBYTHE
NERVOUSSYSTEM
9OURSENSESARETRIGGEREDBY
to the chapter are clearly listed. as required in examinations in Understanding
edlings.
make new seedlings.

SPECIALISEDCELLS
s
later years.
4HISSTIMULUSWILLOFTENTRIGGER
ARESPONSE 113
s
s
(ORMONESCANALSOBERELEASEDASA
RESULTOFAREACTIONTOASTIMULUS
.ERVOUSIMPULSESAREMUCHQUICKER
THANHORMONES
A clear distinction between
Additional

s
s
$IFFERENTHORMONESTRIGGERDIFFERENT
RESPONSES
$IFFERENTHORMONESARERELEASEDBY
DIFFERENTENDOCRINEGLANDS
essential and additional The solar system
2002 and beyond Voyager 1 & 2

outcomes is presented in Investigating


19 Much of the information we know about the outer uter planets
came from the Voyager 1 and 2 missions. Use the information
in the table to construct a scaled timeline for each mission. N
Date Mission What happened?
20 August 1977 Voyagerr 2 Launches

student-friendly language. 8.4


8 4 INVESTIGATING
INVESTIG
INVE STIGATIN
STIG ATING
ATING
5 September 1977 Voyagerr 1 Launches
5 March 1979 Voyagerr 1 Flies by Jupiter
9 July 1979 Voyagerr 2 Flies by Jupiter

The investigating activities can


12 November 1980 Voyagerr 1 Flies by Saturn
25 August 1981 Voyagerr 2 Flies by Saturn
24 January 1986 Voyagerr 2 Flies by Uranus
25 August 1989 Voyagerr 2 Investigate your available resources (e.g. textbook,
Flies by Neptune
1998 Voyagerr 1 encyclopaedias, Internetobject
Most distant human-made etc.) to:
2002 and beyond Voyagerr 1 & 2 Exploring past Pluto

be set for further exploration


1 Find out what or who each planet was named after.

Units Unit
context
4.1 Sight
4HEEYESPROVIDEWHATMANYWOULDREGARD
4HE EYES PROVIDE WHAT MANY
ASTHEMOSTIMPORTANTOFALLOURSENSESˆ
AS THE MOST IMPORTANT OF ALL
SIGHT4AKEALOOKAROUNDYOUNOW)FYOUR
SIGHT 4AKE A LOOK AROUND YO
EYESAREWORKINGNORMALLY THEYJUST
EYES ARE WORKING NORMALLY
TRANSMITTEDFOCUSEDCOLOURIMAGESOFSEVERAL
OBJECTSLOCATEDDIFFERENTDISTANCESAWAYTO
YOURBRAINANDWITHVIRTUALLYNOEFFORT
and assignment work. These 8.4
8 4 INVESTIGATING
INVESTIGAT
INVESTIGAT
ATING
ATIN
NG
N G

Investigate your available resources (e.g. textbook,


encyclopaedias, Internet etc.) to:
1 Find out what or who each planet was named after.
mation,
Construct a booklet that summarises this information,
Construct a booklet that summarises this information,
including pictures of each planet and the person or object the
planet was named after. L
2 Find out what the given statement means.
e -xploring
Money spent on space exploration would be better spent on
things like medical research and aid programs.
To find ou
out more about the solar system, a list of web destinations
can be found oon Science Focus 1 second edition Student Lounge.

activities may also include


Context
including pictures of each planet and the personn or object the Organise a class debate on this issue. L
There, you will also find a link to a website that allows you to
planet was named after. L construct a model of a spac
space probe, such as the Cassini spacecraft
that was sent to explore Saturn.
2 Find out what the given statement means.
enc
ie
cie e
ce
nce
Science
Sci
Sc etter spent on
Money spent on space exploration would be better
The eye lip p
Cllilip
Clip
C things like medical research and aid programs.

4.1
The structure of the eye allows it Organise a class debate on this issue. L

a variety of structured tasks


Fishy focusin
focusing
to limit or maximise the amount of

S
-OSTANIMALSFOCUSBY
-OST ANIMALS FO
light entering it, focus the light to

Unit
USINGTHECILIARY
USING THE CILIAR
form an image and then transmit MUSCLESTOCHANGETHE
MUSCLES TO CHA
the image to the brain. SHAPEOFTHELENS
SHAPE OF THE LEN

The context section These primary functions are &ISH HOWEVER FOCUS
&ISH HOWEVER
carried out by: IMAGESBYMOVING
IMAGES BY MOV
EACHLENSBACKWARDS
EACH LENS BACKW

that fall under the headings of


s THEiris and pupil: these close
ANDFORWARDS JUSTLIKE
AND FORWARDS J
down to limit light when it is AACAMERA
CAMERA
bright and dilate (open up) to Fig 4.1.14HEAMOUNTOFLIGHTENTERINGTHEEYEISCONTROLLEDBYTHE

context maximise the light entering the


4HEEYESPROVIDEWHATM
eye in the dark
COLOUREDIRISWHICHOPENSANDCLOSESTHEPUPIL

appears at the s THEcornea and lens: these bendd the rays of light
ASTHEMOSTIMPORTANTOF ht focuses on the rretina
entering the eye so that the light
s THEretina: this is where the image
Specialised cells in the retina
SIGHT4AKEALOOKAROUND
image to the brain.
mage should form.
na then transmit the
The rest of the eye is there basically to keep it in shape
(vitreous humour, aqueous humour and sclerotic layer),
to stop stray light from entering or reflecting around
the eye (the choroid) and to change the shape of the
lens to allow it to focus (suspensory ligaments and
Prac 1
p. 110

reviewing and e - xploring. 272

ciliary muscles). Prac 2


EYESAREWORKINGNORMALL
beginning of each unit
p. 111

iris
retina

to encourage students
lens
optic nerve

diaphragm

to make meaning of science convex lens


Fig 4.1.24HEEYEFOCUSESIMAGESINTHERETINA!LTHOUGHTHEIMAGEISUPSIDE
DOWN THEBRAINPROCESSESITSOTHATWEPERCEIVEITTHECORRECTWAYUP4HE
OPERATIONOFTHEEYEACTSVERYMUCHLIKEANOLD FASHIONEDFILM LOADEDCAMERA
film
shutter

103
Practical activities
in terms of their everyday Practical activities are placed at the end of each unit,
experiences. allowing teachers to choose when and how to best
incorporate practical work into the teaching and learning.
A practical activity icon will appear throughout the unit
Unit content to signal suggested times for practical work. Within some
The unit includes illustrations, photos and content to keep practical activities a safety box
g y y

students engaged and challenged as they learn about


Unit

appears that lists very importantt 2 Constructing


4.1 PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
VIT
VI TIE
T IE
IES
ES
4.1

keys
science. A homework book icon appears within the unit safety information. Some Aim ur 1
Aim
Making a pasta key

To construct a key to classify pasta.


4 When
en you get to the poin
point where you are at a particular type,
draw the pasta or paste a sample of it in that place on your
key.
To construct different
Equipment
types of keys to classify collect
5 Gather all the pasta togeth
together again and decide on a new set of

indicating a related worksheet from the


eristics by which tto reclassify your pasta. Once again,
characteristics
A sample of at least five different kinds of uncooked pasta (e.g. uct a dichotomous key.
construct

Safety
spiral pasta, tubes, shells, bows, spaghetti etc.) in a beaker or cup.

practical activities are design


Questions
ns

!
Method
1 Identify
fy the main feature of a dichotomous key.
1 Pour the contents of the beaker onto your bench.
2 Look at the keys designed by other groups. State whether

Worksheet Some
2 As aplants
group, decide(e.g. oleander
on the characteristics and
(e.g. shape, size etc.)rhus)they
are
used the same chara
characteristics that you did.

supporting homework book.


you will use to classify your sample of pasta.
3 Evaluate
uate the different key
keys you constructed. Which do you
cause allergic
3 In your reactions
workbook, construct
your pasta.
a dichotomousin key tosome
classify people.nk was better? Why?
think

your own (DYO) tasks and Equipment


pasta

A collection of at least ten of one of the following:


others may be conducted using s LEAVESCOLLECTEDFROMDIFFERENTTREESANDSHRUBS
school
Fig 4.1.15 Start off your key like this.

Unit questions
2

a data logger. Icons are inserteded to


C
Constructing
Constructi
t ting g keys
k
Aim Method
To construct different types of keys to classify collected objects. 1 As a group, decide on the characteristics you will use to
classify your ten objects.
Safety
! Some plants (e.g. oleander and rhus) are known to
2 Group the objects according to the characteristics you chose.
3 Construct a dichotomous key and a tabular key that would

indicate these options.


cause allergic reactions in some people.
allow others to classify your ten objects in exactly the same
way as you did.
Equipment

A set of questions related to the unit are structured around A collection of at least ten of one of the following:
s LEAVESCOLLECTEDFROMDIFFERENTTREESANDSHRUBSAROUNDTHE
school
s PIECESOFCOMMONLABORATORYGLASSWAREANDEQUIPMENT
s OBJECTSFROMAPENCILCASE
Questions
1 Outline some practical advantages of classifying different
EQUIPMENTUSEDINTHELABORATORY
2 Compare the dichotomous keys you constructed with your
tabular keys. Which was easiest to construct? Suggest why.

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive Processes. The questions


?
101

move from straightforward, lower-order remembering,


understanding and applying questions, through to DYO
more complex, higher-order evaluating, analysing and
viii
Science
and current research

Unit
Chapter review Focus Grouping living things

4.3
Prescribed Focus Area: Likewise, shellfish and crustaceans (maypal) have at
least ten categories. These are determined by how they
Scientists still argue over how many kingdoms
there should be. Some claim that the protists should
The history of science attach to rocks, how they move about and whether they not have their own kingdom and that, instead, they
On each continent, indigenous peoples established their live amongst rocks or on a reef. Four distinct subgroups are: should be split amongst the animal, plant and fungi

and development. The


own keys to classify the living things around them. gundapuy attached to reefs or rocks kingdoms. Recent research suggests that the monera
Many early keys were based on whether the animals or warranggulpuy move over the outer surface of rocks kingdom could also be split to form
plants were useful as a food source, a source of fur or lirrapuy move around the edges of rocks two new kingdoms. Although the Science
natural fibres that could be woven or whether they were djinawapuy attached beneath rocks or argument continues, most accept Clip
part of their spirituality. inside coral. that there are five basic kingdoms
Penis worms!
Animals, for example, were sometimes classified as (animal, plant, fungi, protists and
Carl Linnaeus Science Focus 1 presents
wild or domesticated. Other classification keys were monera).

Chapter review questions follow


nine main classes of animals,
based on whether the animal lived on the land or in the In 1735, the Swedish naturalist Carolus (Carl) Linnaeus Scientists also argue about how but there are other obscure
(1707–1778) proposed a systematic way of grouping many phyla and classes there are.

features allow students to


sea. The term ‘fish’, for example, used to refer to animals with their own
anything swimming or anything that lived in the sea. and naming living things. He classified all living things There is no hard-and-fast definition specialised classes. Sponges,
as either animal or plant. He then further divided all for a phylum and so scientists also for example, have their own
Even today, creatures such as jellyfish, shellfish, crayfish
animals into six classes: Mammalia (mammals), Aves class (ponifera), whereas
and starfish include ‘fish’ in their names, despite them Science argue about its definition, too,
starfish belong to another
(birds), Amphibia (amphibians and reptiles), Pisces sometimes merging the idea of class
now being classified as creatures other than fish.
(fish), Insecta (insects) and Vermes (all the other
Clip and phyla together. For these
class called echinoderms.

CHAPTER REVIEW Science


Clip
invertebrates). In recognition of his pioneering work,
Linnaeus was made a noble in 1761. From then on,
Monstrous humans!
Linnaeus originally left
reasons, there may be up to 89
different classes.
Another small class is called
priapulida, otherwise known
as penis worms!

the last unit of each chapter. These


he was known as Carl von Linne. Fig 4.3.8 Although there is no evidence room in his kingdoms
107 Reindeers! for unicorns (white horses with single
Remembering b Recent research has indicated th
that many (if not all) for mythical animals

explore science in further


The Laps are the indigenous people of Scandinavia. long, spiralled horns growing from their such mermaids, satyrs,
1 List three examples of each of the following: dinosaurs were warm blooded aand that birds may have Reindeer are important to them and so they have more foreheads), unicorn-like horns are found unicorns and
than 107 different categories for them! Their native on narwhals (rare arctic mammals that ‘monstrous humans’.
evolved from them. Use this info
information to classify Saami language classifies them according to their age, resemble dolphins) and some seahorses.
a organisms Room was left for
dinosaurs, placing them in the ccorrect animal kingdom. condition, body shape and the shape of their antlers! Many students of Linnaeus Homo ferus (humans
b vertebrates went on to explore the world who walked on all fours
c Identify a feature of birds that resembles
re a feature of those for new plants and animals. like dogs) and Homo
c invertebrates long-extinct dinosaurs. Indigenous Australian One, Daniel Solander,
caudatus (humans who

questions are structured around


had a tail)!
d endotherms classification accompanied Captain James
8 Identify whether the following ques
questions are dichotomous: Aborigines traditionally classify animals according to

detail through a range of


Cook on his first journey (on
e ectotherms a Does the animal have a backbone? their usefulness, where they live or how they were used. which he discovered the east coast of Australia in
Penguins and emus, for example, are placed in the same 1770). He and Joseph Banks brought back to Europe the
f angiosperms b What colour is your T-shirt? category as kangaroos—both are ground-dwelling

CHAPTER REVIEW
first ever collection of Australian plants. Botany Bay
g conifers c Did you feed the dog? sources of meat and so they are grouped together. Other (originally called Stingray Bay, then Botanist Bay) in
birds are placed in the ‘flying food source’ category. In Sydney was also named by them.
h fungi d What type of animal is that? some instances, an animal has no Aboriginal name Although some changes were made by the French
i protists. because it was not used for anything. Some Aboriginal zoologist Georges Cuvier in the early 1800s, the basic

Bloom’s Taxonomy of Cognitive


9 You watch somebody run across a field being chased by a tribes in northern Australia name plants according to system as developed by Linnaeus is still used today.
Remembering
2 State: hungry lion. Identify characteristics of life are shown
dentify which character

student activities.
their uses or their locations, such as a swamp. In these
by: tribes, fish (guya) are also classified according to where Arguments in science
a the five main classes of vertebrates
they live. This gives five categories: Linnaeus and Cuvier proposed their kingdoms and
1 List three examples
b the three main of each
orders of the following:
of mammals a the person garrwarpuy living near the surface classes based on the information they had available at
b the lion. ngopuy living near the bottom the time. The development of the microscope, however,
c the four main classes of invertebrates
a organisms
d the five main orders of arthropods 10 Identify whether the
he following pairs of animals belong to the
mayangbuy living in rivers
raypinbuy living in freshwater Fig 4.3.7 While on a scientific expedition to the far
revealed characteristics of organisms that had never
been seen before, particularly in plants and
north of Finland in 1732, Linnaeus nearly fell into an icy
same species: gundapuy living among rocks and reefs. microorganisms such as bacteria. With this new

Processes and cover the chapter


b vertebrates
e the five main classes of vascular plants. crevasse. He saved himself from near-death and went on
to discover 100 new plant species on this expedition. information, new kingdoms were needed and others
Fig 4.3.9 Until Linnaeus, common dandelions were known as naked
ladies, mare’s fart, hound’s piss, open arse, bum-towel and pissabed.
a a Lebanese mann and a Chinese w
woman could be re-organised. Using his binomial system, they became Taraxacum officinale.

c Understanding
invertebrates b a tiger and a gorilla
rilla 114 115

Literacy and numeracy


3 Explain why scientists classify things.
c a greyhound and
nd a poodle
d endotherms
4 Cells were unknown before the invention of the microscope.
d a lizard and a crocodile
Explain why.
e ectotherms
5 Clarify the meanings of the following terms:
e a donkey and a horse.

learning outcomes in a variety of


11 You are standing
ng by a campfire, list
listening to the rustle of the
a respiration
f angiosperms possums in thehe bushes, the crackle of the fire and the laughter
b excretion of your friends.
nds. Identify whether alall of the things mentioned in

icons appear throughout to indicate an emphasis on literacy


g conifersc stimulus this sentence
nce are alive. Do any of the non-living things show
d response any of the Explain.
he characteristics of life? Ex
h fungi 12 Electronic
ronic music storage systems ssuch as iTunes classify the
e taxonomy
music
usic they contain in a number of different ways (e.g. by
i protists.f

question styles to allow students


species
artist).
g vertebrate
2 State: a Identify some of the other ways in which they classify the

or numeracy. N L
h exoskeleton music.
a the five imain classes of vertebrates
heterotroph. b Explain the advantages of using ddifferent keys to classify
6 Plants and animals both use cellular respiration for energy. the same music.
b the threeExplain
main
Explai orders
why only ofundergo
plants can mammals
o photosynthesis.
Analysing
Ana
th f Appl i l
Applying
Applying
ying fi t b t
7 Until recently, it was thought that dinosaurs were reptiles.
a If this was correct, list the kind of features you would
13 Classify the following as angiosper
bryophyte:
a pine
angiosperm, conifer, fern or

the opportunity to consolidate new


Go to icons direct students to a unit within the same stage
expect dinosaurs to have. b tree fern
c apple tree

knowledge and skills.


d liverwort.

135

of the NSW curriculum. This unit reference allows students


to revisit or extend knowledge. Go to
Other features or icons Aboriginal flag icons denote material that is
The solar system

Science
Science Fact File boxes contain included to cover Indigenous perspectives
Fact File

Mass

Moons
Mars
0.107 times that of Earth
Two (Phobos—diameter 23 km,
Deimos—diameter 10 km)
essential science facts relevant in science.
to the topic.
6794 km ( = 0.53 × Earth’s
Diameter
diameter)

Surface
Soft red soil containing iron oxide
(rust),
( ), giving
g g the planet
p its red
appearance. Cratered regions, large
volcanoes, a large canyon and
possible
possibl dried-up water channels.
Pearson Places icons direct students to
Polar caps of frozen carbon dioxide

the Science Focus 3 Second Edition Student


and water.
Atmosphere
Atmo Very thin, mainly carbon dioxide
Gravity
Gr 0.376 times that on Earth
Surface
–120 °C to 25 °C
Fig 8.4.7 Mars showing red earth and polar caps. temperature

Science
Period of rotation

Lounge on Pearson Places. The Student


1.03 Earth days
(day)

Fact File
Tilt of axis 25.2°
Distance from
1.52 AU (228 million km)
Sun
Time to orbit Sun
687 Earth days
(year)

Lounge contains animations, video clips, web


Scale model (Sun = 300 mm)
Diameter 1.4 mm
Distance from
49.1 m
Sun
Mars
Fig 8.4.8 The Mars Phoenix mission. The landing system
syste
stem on Phoenix

destinations, drag-and-drop interactives and


allows the spacecraft to touch down within 10 kilometres
res of its
etres
targeted landing area.

The asteroid belt


Mass 0.107 times th
The asteroid belt is made up of thousands ds of small
ound the Sun
rocky metallic bodies and dust in orbit around Sun.
ameter of about
The largest asteroid is Ceres, having a diameter Two (Phobos—
Moons
revision questions.
1000 kilometres. Researchers have found several near-
Earth asteroids, but none are predicted to crash into
Earth in the near or distant future. Deimos—diam
Fig 8.4.9 Thousands of asteroids lie in a belt between Mars and
6794 km ( = 0
Unit

Jupiter. One is Ida, an asteroid big enough too have a gravitational


field that has trapped its own orbiting moon,, Dactyl.
Diameter Worms
diameter) Polyps

Sci Q Busters appears after Chapter 9 and provides answers


266 Polyps are cnidarians that att
attach themselves to There are three different phyla of worms—roundworms,
4.4

something like a rock. Corals and anemones are flatworms, and segmented worms.
examples of polyps.
Roundworms
Roundworms have long cylindrical bodies that are in
one piece without segments. They have a digestive tube
with a mouth and anus. Some roundworms are

Science parasitic, living off (and weakening) other living


animals. Others live ‘free’ in water or damp soil.
Examples of roundworms are threadworms, hookworms
to student questions. Students are able to email questions
Clip
and the parasitic roundworms found in the intestines of
humans, dogs, pigs and horses.

Science Clip features Flatworms


Flatworms are similar to roundworms in that they also
can be parasitic or ‘free’. They differ in that they have
flat bodies instead of round ones. If they have a
digestive system, it has only one opening, which acts as that come up during class time to the Q Busters team at
What do I do? both mouth and anus. Flukes and tapeworms are

contain quirky examples of flatworms.


Fig 4.4.18 Coral polyps
olyps are living
ng things
th called cnidarians.

Medusas opening acts

SciQBusters@pearson.com.au
as both mouth
Medusas are cnidarians
nidarians that can swim about freely.
It is currently recommended Jellyfish are medusas. Many ar are harmless, whereas some,
ellyfish, can kill.
like the box jellyfish, kill The stinging cells of
and anus

hooks anchor the


others, such as bluebottles, in
inject a mix of chemicals

information related to
worm to the

that bluebottle stings are that leave painful, raised red w


the skin.
welts wherever they touch
internal wall of
the gut

soaked for about Fig 4.4.20 An image obtained by a scanning electron

the topic that students 20 minutes in hot water


microscope (SEM) of the head of a dog’s parasitic tapeworm.

Segmented worms
Also known as annelids, segmented worms can be

(say under a hot shower or nce


enc
cie
cience
cien
SScience
Sc
found both on land and in water. They have well-
developed body systems and bodies with multiple
segments. Examples are leeches and earthworms.

will find interesting.


Clip p
Clilip
What do I do?
It is currently recommended
that bluebottle stings are
Sci
Sc
Sci
ci Q Bus
Buster
B
Buuste
us ters
tter
ers
er
soaked for about Ask Sci
cii Q B
Busters
Bu
us team Chalk talk The big Moon Hot versus cold
20 minutes in hot water
(say under a hot shower or
in a bath). The traditional
Fig 4.4.19 Jellyfish are
medusas, a type of cnidarian. Chalk talk Chalk talk
vinegar solution does little until the Moon is higher in the sky. Measure it
Hi Q Busters,
since the bluebottle injects again, compare your measurements, and you’ll
The big Moon I was at school yesterday when there was a loud squeal coming from the chalk as the teacher wrote on find it’s more or less the same size no matter
a chemical irritant that is
the blackboard. What causes this? Can you suggest anything I can pass on to our teacher so she where it happens to be in the sky.
neither acid nor base. Worksheet 4.3 Classifying Fig 4.4.21 The segments are clear on the body of this leech. doesn’t do it again? It’s driving the whole class mad!
Some leeches are used in medicine to suck out blood from One theory suggests that the mind judges the
Prac 2 Hot versus cold Best wishes, Isabella
clots and to encourage blood flow into newly attached limbs p. x size of an object based on its surroundings.
after microsurgery. Pic of full moon?
123 REPLY
With a low Moon the trees and houses near you
Hi Isabella, appear smaller against the moon which, in turn,
Cereal sounds makes it appear bigger than it really is.
Unit
U

If a piece of chalk is held incorrectly, it first sticks That’s one theory anyway. There is another, which
to the blackboard and then suddenly crumbles. The is based on impurities in the chalk stick. These Another way to prove it is to look at the low
chalk then slips and vibrates, causing the loud small hard bits of grit scratch against the Moon though a rolled-up piece of paper. This
Stormy weather
Career squeal. As the vibrations die down and the chalk blackboard much like your fingernails would. will block out the surroundings and the illusion
9.3

dust falls out of the way, friction between the chalk And what about the solution? Well, you can ask should vanish.

Profile Palaeontologist and the board increases until the chalk sticks once
again and the cycle is repeated.
your teacher to try these: Happy moon gazing!
s 3NAPTHECHALKINTWO4HISSHOULDDOUBLETHE
The Q Busters Team
The frequencies of the squealing chalk depend on frequency of the sound and therefore should
the following things: not be heard.
Hot versus cold

Career
!PALAEONTOLOGISTEXAMINES CLASSIFIESANDDESCRIBES Palaeontologists can be involved in: s WHERETHECHALKISHELDBYTHEFINGERS s 0USHDOWNHEAVIERONTOTHEBLACKBOARD

Career Profile boxes appear


animal and plant fossils found in sedimentary rocks. s LOCATING
LOCATINGSITESWHEREFOSSILSMAYBEFOUND
SITES This should rub the grit off quickly and the Dear Q Busters
s ATWHATANGLEITISHELD lesson should be squeak free.
This helps us understand the history of life on Earth. s CAREFULLY DIG
CAREFULLYDIGGINGFOSSILSOUTOFTHEROCKSINWHICH Someone at school said she heard on the TV that hot water freezes faster that cold water.
they are fou
found s HOWTIGHTLYTHEPIECEOFCHALKISHELD s 5SETHEWHITEBOARD This can’t be true, can it? Please help as I am now confused about freezing water.
s PREPARING
PREPARINGFOSSILSFORDISPLAYORSTORAGE s THELENGTHOFTHEPIECEOFCHALK Regards, Alexandra

Palae
Or maybe you could

Profile
s DATING FO
DATINGFOSSILSTOWORKOUTTHEIRAGE For example, if the chalk is held just above the experiment yourself,
s USING IN
USINGINFORMATIONABOUTFOSSILSTOSTUDYOTHERTHINGS blackboard contact point and at right angles to it, and then pass on the REPLY
results to your teacher. Hi Alexandra,
SUCH A
SUCHASOILEXPLORATIONORTHEHISTORYOFLIFEONTHE the frequencies are higher than if the chalk is held

throughout the book,


Earth. at a 45° angle. In the first case, vibrations are Happy chalking! This would seem to be completely wrong by what the surface. Well, this is removing most of the
generated along the length of the chalk. In the you have been taught so far in Science. This dissolved gases in the water. The gases actually
A goo
good palaeontologist will:
second case, the chalk vibrates by bending. The Q Busters Team phenomenon, where hot water appears to freeze reduce water’s ability to conduct heat.
s BE AB
BEABLETOWORKSAFELYASATEAMMEMBERORALONE faster than cold water, actually has a special name. Therefore, with less dissolved gas in the water,
s BE AB
BEABLETOWORKVERYCAREFULLYANDPATIENTLY ASITCAN It’s called the Mpemba effect. It is named after the it can cool faster.
take yyears to remove fossils from rocks Tanzanian high school student, Erasto Mpemba, who, But we still don’t know for certain.
s HAVE A
HAVEAGOODEYEFORDETAIL The big Moon in 1963, discovered it when experimenting at school.
Happy freezing!
s LOVE FO
LOVEFOSSILS

covering information about


There is still great debate out there over whether The Q Busters Team
Fig 9.3.14 One of the jobs of a palaeontologist is to inspect fossils
and ancient skeletons, such as this fossilised dinosaur skull. !PALAEONTOLOGISTEXAMINES CLASSIFIESAND Dear Q Busters,
The other night when we had a full moon it looked enormous just as it rose, but then got smaller later in the
this is fact or fiction, but here are the two main
theories at present.

animal and plant fossils found in sedimen night. How can this be? I thought the Moon was the same distance away from the Earth all of the time!
From Rachel
1. Evaporation. As you know, when hot water is
placed in an open container it begins to cool
with steam coming off. This will reduce the

Career This helps us understand the history of lif Hi Rachel,


REPLY amount of water in the container. With less
water to freeze, the process can take less time.

Profile Geologist

Geologists study the composition and structure of the s KEEP ACCURATE RECORDS AND PREPARE
KEEPACCURATERECORDSANDPREPAREREPORTS
specific careers in science. 326
Many, theories have been put forward, and many,
experiments have been conducted. The findings
suggest thats it’s only an optical illusion.
To prove this for yourself, hold a ruler at arm’s
length and measure the Moon as it rises. Make a
note of this measurement, and then wait a while
2. Dissolved gases. When you are boiling water,
Alexandra, you know that it’s boiling because
you can see the bubbles rising and popping on
Insert pic?

327

Earth. This allows them to locate materials and minerals. s WORK SAFELY IN A NUMBER OF DIFFERENT ENV
WORKSAFELYINANUMBEROFDIFFERENTENVIRONMENTS
Geologists work in laboratories and in the field, usually as
part of a team. Fieldwork can involve spending time in
remote deserts, or in tropical or Antarctic areas.
Geologists can be involved in:
s ADVISINGONSUITABLELOCATIONSFORTUNNELSANDBRIDGES
s EXAMININGROCKSAMPLESUSINGELECTRONMICROSCOPES
s STUDYINGTHENATUREANDEFFECTSOFNATURALEVENTSLIKE
weathering, erosion, earthquakes and volcanoes
s TAKINGROCKSAMPLESFORANALYSIS

The Science Focus 3


s FINDINGTHEAGEOFROCKSANDFOSSILS
Unit

A good geologist will be able to:


s WORKASATEAMMEMBERORALONE
Case
1.2

Fig 9.3.15 Geologists studying sedimentary rock layers in the field.


study The medicine man

299 British GP, Dr Harold Shipman killed an estimated 236 23 computer system became
of his patients between 1974 and 1998. His visits to vital evidence as the date of
sick, elderly people were often followed by a worsening every file he modified was

Second Edition package


off their ailment and then what seemed to be an recorded. The files for many
ious death. Dr Shipman would return and wri
unsuspicious write of the deaths showed that
out the death certificate and alter the records to say ththat they were modified on the
the person was so sick that they were close to death. day the patients died,
Very few suspected thatat the doctor was actually giving uncovering many more
ction.
his patients a lethal injection. likely murders.
However, in 1986 he killed a healthy elderly lady and Shipman was convicted
fabricated a poorly worded lastst will and testament that and given 15 life sentences,

Case study boxes


made him the sole beneficiary. The police investigated but he committed suicide in

Case
the forged will and then exhumedd (dug up) her body. custody, leaving many
Fig 1.2.8 Dr Harold Shipman
They also exhumed the bodies of Shipman’s other questions unanswered. The killed at least 236 patients. A
patients. Traces of morphine were found und in each of motives for his crimes poorly forged will led to his

Don’t forget the other Science Focus 3 Second Edition


them—the probable cause of their deaths. aths. Shipman’s remain a mystery. capture.

study The m
Science

cover an in depth Clip


Plastic money
Australia was the first to use the plastic banknote—
banknote—a $10
Bank of Australia and prints all Australian banknotes. It has also
produced plastic banknotes for Thailand, Indonesia, Papua New

components that will help engage and excite students


commemorative note introduced in January 1988 tto coincide with Guinea, Kuwait, Western Samoa, Singapore, Brunei, Sri Lanka and
the Australian Bicentenary. Plasticc banknotes are mmore durable than New Zealand. NPA also sells plastic blank notes to government
paper ones, lasting four to five times
imes longer. A paper
pap $5 note had printers in other countries so that they can print their own money.
an average life of about six months, lasts more than
nths, a plastic one la Old and ‘worn-out’ Australian plastic money is recycled into plastic

exploration of a single British GP, Dr Harold Shipman killed an est three years. Note Printing Australia
ralia (NPA) is owned by the Reserve objects such as plumbing fittings and compost bins.

of his patients between 1974 andQUESTIONS 1998. His ON NS S


sick, elderly people were 1.2
often followed by a
in science:
case or topic. of their ailment and thenRemembering
what seemed to be Understanding
1 List five documents that a criminal might try to falsify. 6 Investigators generally ignore the slant and spacing of letters
unsuspicious death. Dr Shipman would
2 State what indicated hat the Hitlerretur
that diaries were fake. in a handwritten document. Explain why.
7 Describe how a computer printer can be identified from
3 State what can be used to determine which typewriter was
out the death certificate and alter the record
used for a ansom
ransom note. a fake letter.

V f d h h d
4 List the advantage(s) of Australian banknotes being printed
the person was so sick thatonthey
plastic. were close t
5 List the features that usually give away fake banknotes.
8 Explain how inks can be identified using:
a fluorescence
b chromatography
9 Describe the following:
a intaglio printing
Science Focus 3 Second Edition Homework Book
b microprinting
c a water mark
>>
15

Science Focus 3 Second Edition Teacher Edition, with CD


Science Focus 3 Second Edition Pearson Reader
Science Focus spreads appear throughout the book. These
are special features on various aspects of science including Science Focus 3 Second Edition LiveText™
history, the impact of science on society and the environment
ix
Stage 5
Science Focus 3
Syllabus Correlation

chapter 1 2 3 4 5 The Sense


6 7 8 9 Earth’s
Chemical The
Forensics periodic and Reproduction Ecosystems Light fragile
change universe
table control crust
• •
Outcomes

5.1 ▲
5.2 • ▲ ▲ • •
5.3 ▲ ▲ • ▲ •
5.4 • ▲ ▲
5.5 ▲ ▲

5.6 •
5.7 • •
5.8 • •
5.9 • •
5.10 •
5.11 •
5.12 •
5.13 • • • • • • • • •
5.14 • • • • • • • • •
5.15 • • • • • • • • •
5.16 • • • • • • • • •
5.17 • • • • • • • • •
5.18 • • • • • • • • •
5.19 • • • • • • • • •
5.20 • • • • • • • • •
5.21 • • • • • • • •
5.22 • • • • • • • • •
5.23 • • •
5.24 • • • •
5.25 • • • • • • • • •
5.26 • • • • • • • • •
5.27 • • • • • •
Note: ▲ indicates the key Prescribed Focus Area covered in each chapter.
Chapters may also include information on other Prescribed Focus Areas.

x
Verbs
Science Focus Second Edition uses the following verbs in the chapter questions under the headings of Bloom’s
Taxonomy of Cognitive Processes. The verbs in black are the key verbs that have been developed to help provide
a common language and consistent meaning in the Higher School Certificate documents. All other verbs listed
below feature throughout the book and are provided here for additional support to teachers and students.

Remembering Analysing
List write down phrases only without further explanation Analyse identify components and the relationship between
Name present remembered ideas, facts or experiences them; draw out and relate implications
Present provide information for consideration Calculate ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or
Recall present remembered ideas, facts or experiences information (requiring more manipulation than simply
Record store information and observations for later applying the maths)
Specify state in detail Classify arrange or include in classes/categories
State provide information without further explanation Compare show how things are similar or different
Contrast show how things are different or opposite
Understanding Critically (analyse/evaluate)
Account account for: state reasons for, report on. Give an add a degree or level of accuracy/depth, knowledge
account of: narrate a series of events or transactions and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and
Calculate ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or quality to (analyse/evaluate)
information (simply repeating calculations that are set Discuss identify issues and provide points for and/or against
out in the text) Distinguish recognise or note/indicate as being distinct or different
Clarify make clear or plain from; to note differences between
Define state meaning and identify essential qualities Interpret draw meaning from
Describe provide characteristics and features Research investigate through literature or practical investigation
Discuss identify issues and provide points for and/or against
Explain relate cause and effect; make the relationships between Evaluating
things evident; provide why and/or how Appreciate make a judgement about the value of
Extract choose relevant and/or appropriate details Assess make a judgement of value, quality, outcomes, results
Gather collect items from different sources or size
Modify change in form or amount in some way Critically (analyse/evaluate)
Outline sketch in general terms; indicate the main features of add a degree or level of accuracy/depth, knowledge
Predict suggest what may happen based on available and understanding, logic, questioning, reflection and
information quality to (analyse/evaluate)
Produce provide Deduce draw conclusions
Propose put forward for consideration or action Draw draw conclusions, deduce
Recount retell a series of events Evaluate make a judgement based on criteria; determine the
Summarise express, concisely, the relevant details value of
Extrapolate infer from what is known
Applying Investigate plan, inquire into and draw conclusions
Apply use, utilise, employ in a particular situation Justify support an argument or conclusion
Calculate ascertain/determine from given facts, figures or Propose put forward (for example a point of view, idea,
information argument, suggestion) for consideration or action
Demonstrate show by example Recommend provide reasons in favour
Examine inquire into Select choose one or more items, features, objects
Identify recognise and name
Use employ for some purpose Creating
Construct make; build; put together items or arguments
Design provide steps for an experiment or procedure
Investigate plan, inquire into and draw conclusions about
Synthesise put together various elements to make a whole
xi
Forensics

Prescribed focus area


1
Applications and uses of science

Key outcomes
5.3, 5.12, 5.15, 5.16, 5.17

• Developments in science impact on

Essentials
society and how it works.
• Evidence can be used to support
different viewpoints.
• Observations and measurements must
be accurately made and recorded.
• A range of data collection strategies can
be used.
• Information from a number of sources
needs to be collated.
• Information must be distinguished as
relevant or irrelevant.

• Additional
Technological developments have
extended the ability of scientists to
monitor and collect information about
events in the world.
Unit 1.1 Forensics and identification
context Society has a framework of laws based and community service orders to prison
on the rights, responsibilities and the terms and, in some countries, execution.
safety of its citizens. Theft, assault, Forensic scientists collect and analyse
murder and forgery (the faking of evidence that can be used to find the person
documents or money) are all crimes that who committed a crime and later bring them
carry penalties—from monetary fines to justice. Forensic evidence can also be used
to prove their innocence.

Pathologists are medical doctors who have


specialised in the study of disease and injury and
the damage these do to organs and tissues.
Forensic pathologists perform autopsies. In an
autopsy, a dead body is dissected to find signs of
damage that may point to the likely time and
cause of death.
Forensics also uses the expertise of specialists
in many fields such as information technology,
medicine, dentistry and psychology (the study of
how people behave and why).

Forensic methods of
identification
Forensic methods of identification assist in
Fig 1.1.1 Who is it and how and when did they die? Forensics identifying dead bodies and people who are living but
attempts to find out all this information and more.
are avoiding justice.
Most of the time these methods are not needed.
People usually carry some form of photo-identification
in their pocket, wallet or purse. This identification is
Forensic science readily available to police if they die, commit a crime or
Forensic science is scientific knowledge that can be are a witness to a crime. Family, neighbours, co-workers,
used by the legal system. A crime scene will contain schoolmates and personal web pages such as Facebook
multiple pieces of evidence and forensic science is used provide another way of identifying someone. Identity is
to analyse it. Forensic science helps to answer questions usually easy to establish.
such as when a death occurred and why, how fast a car Sometimes, however, none of this information is
was travelling on impact, what the blood alcohol available. Dead people are often difficult to identify,
concentration of the driver was at the time and the type especially if they are just bones. The identity of a living
of white powder found in a suitcase by Customs. person can also be hard to determine: criminals often
change their name to establish a new identity and to hide
Forensic scientists past crimes. Before the invention of photographs, they
Forensic scientists help investigators to collect scientific could simply move to a new location, change their name
evidence. Crime scene units are made up of police who and start a new life. The chance of being recognised was
are specially trained to collect, bag and label all types of slim. If caught for a new crime, then the probability of
evidence at a serious crime such as a homicide (murder being charged for others was very low. This was especially
or manslaughter). Regular police members also collect so in large and populous cities. Forensic methods of
2 and bag evidence in less serious crimes. identification can be used in such cases.
Unit
Identikit and composite drawings

1.1
Throughout history, drawings of wanted criminals have
been used as a tool of identification on ‘wanted posters’
for suspected criminals like bushrangers in Australia and
outlaws in what was known as the ‘wild west’ of the
USA. Initially, artists produced these images. Another
system called Identikit became popular after 1959 when
it was used to successfully identify an assassin, Guy
Trebert, in Paris. Identikit uses re-drawn facial features
that can be slotted together without the need of an artist.
Today, computerised methods involving thousands of
images are used to generate a composite drawing in
minutes. Some produce three-dimensional images.
Identikit and computer composites have
limited effectiveness, however, as it is difficult for
a witness to get all the features correct. Only
about two per cent of these images result in a
positive identification. Prac 1
p. 9

Fig 1.1.2 Wanted posters and newspapers were once the only ways
of spreading information to the public about criminals. This 1879
poster is calling for information about the assassin Ned Kelly.

Science
Facial recognition Clip
The face is one of the best Identification
indicators of someone’s identity. Mexico-style
This is why photographs appear In 2004, the Minister
on drivers’ licences and passports. for Police, the Justice
Minister and other
Photographic important law makers
identification in Mexico had
microchips surgically Fig 1.1.3 The computerised Identikit system was developed to speed
Photography was invented in implanted. These chips up the production of composite images.
1854. From the 1870s it was identified them and
used in conjunction with allowed only them to
anthropometry (the proportions gain computer access
to sensitive information
of the body) to identify suspects.
on criminal activity.
In the early 1900s, photography Dogs and cats
began to be used as a reliable way commonly have
of recording, identifying and microchips inserted
proving identity. under their neck skin
Photographs are difficult to allowing them to be
identified if lost.
classify and police may need to
sift through hundreds of
photographs to determine the
identity of someone in custody. A witness to a crime
will also find it difficult to identify a suspect. Looking at
so many photographs can also alter their memory. New
information interferes with old memories, making a Fig 1.1.4 This computerised Identikit photo of an Italian mafia boss
positive identification improbable. This is called helped police catch him in 2005. It shows a remarkable similarity with
the real man.
retroactive interference.
3
Forensics and identification
The Bertillon system
Alphonse Bertillon was a French
anthropologist and chief of criminal
identification for the Paris police.
About 1870 he devised the first
scientific method of criminal
identification. His identification
system was called anthropometry or
the Bertillon system. It involved
measuring and recording the
dimensions of a series of bony body
parts and was based on the assumption
that no two people would ever look
exactly alike or have exactly the same
measurements. It was widely used from
about 1882 to 1905, however, there
were cases of mistaken identity
including one when a man was sent to
jail for a crime committed by his twin
brother. It was eventually superseded
by fingerprinting.
Fig 1.1.5 Biometric cameras scan a face and computer software
measures the position of certain points on the face. These can then be Fingerprints Science
compared with profiles on the computer database. Fingerprints are found on the Clip
palms of the hands and soles of the Australia’s first
Biometric facial recognition feet of all primates (apes, monkeys In 1903, all prisoners
Specialised computer systems and software can recognise and humans). They help us grip in NSW were
a face by matching it to one stored in a database. The things, acting in a similar way to fingerprinted for the
position of points formed by the eyes, chin, nose, ears the tread patterns on shoes and car first time. Their 6000
tyres. Each fingerprint consists of prints started
and other facial features are measured and compared
Australia’s first
with thousands of profiles. The process takes only a few ridges and valleys that form a
fingerprint collection.
milliseconds and so facial recognition can be used to distinct pattern. The ridges form
screen people for access to secure areas. It is likely that beneath the outer layers of skin
this technology will be used in the near future at and will grow back in exactly the
airports and major train stations to help recognise same pattern if removed. It wasn’t until 1892 that
known terrorists. scientists and police started to agree that they could
However, the rate of false positives (the computer serve another purpose—to positively identify people.
detecting a match when there is none) and false After collecting and analysing thousands of
negatives (missing a match) is still quite high. Slight fingerprints, English scientist and statistician Sir Francis
changes in the angle and in the quality of the image Galton and the head of London police Sir Edward
make it difficult to get consistent results. There is also a Richard Henry concluded that no two fingerprints were
privacy issue: do people want government and exactly alike. Henry then invented a system of
corporations to be able to track their movements collecting and classifying fingerprints using ink on cards
through biometric facial recognition every time they with letter codes for each fingerprint type. These could
enter a building? be indexed and searched. This enabled police to:
• collect the fingerprints of existing criminals in jail
and index them
Identification using the body • match a person with their collection, even if they
Each person has features that identify their body. had changed their name and appearance
Different methods have been developed to measure these • match a fingerprint collected at a crime scene with
features and use them as a method of identification. one in their collection

4
Unit
1.1
Fig 1.1.7 An Automatic Fingerprint Identification
System (AFIS) uses infra-red (IR) light to scan a
Fig 1.1.6 Fingerprints are regularly taken from suspects to compare with those person’s fingerprint. In Scotland, banks are trialling
collected from a crime scene. ATMs which use fingerprints for identification
instead of a PIN.

• use the fingerprint from a corpse to help identify it. computer allowing instantaneous comparison of millions
Fingerprints also allowed people who of fingerprint records. Although computers can find
could not write to ‘sign’ their name with a probable fingerprint matches, the final analysis and
thumbprint instead. match must be made by trained fingerprint specialists.
Prac 2 Even so, errors can be made.
p. 10
Fingerprint scans As well as their forensic use, fingerprint scans are now
Over time, so many fingerprints were collected that it widely used as a ‘password’ that restricts access to
became very slow to search through them manually. computers and buildings and to sign in and out of work.
Each law enforcement agency had its own fingerprint As a result of the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001,
collection which also made it difficult to compare a visitors entering or leaving the USA via its international
print with those in the collections stored in other cities, airports must have their fingerprints scanned.
states or countries.
Computers now provide a faster system of storing, Types of fingerprints
searching, matching and identifying prints. At first, Fingerprints come in four types: loops, whorls, arches
existing fingerprint cards were scanned. Today, whole- and composites.
hand prints and fingerprints are scanned directly into a

Loops have ridges that enter Arches look like an Whorls contain circular/oval Composites are rare and are a
and leave from the same side arched bridge. or yin-yang patterns. mixture of the other three types.
like a loop of string. Loops can
begin and end on the left or the
right side of the finger.

Fig 1.1.8 The four basic fingerprint types: loops, whorls, arches
Worksheet 1.1 Fingerprints
and composites

5
Forensics and identification
Iris and retina identification any microscopic sample left by them. This sample might
Although initially a device of science fiction or spy be a few cells of skin, hair, sperm or even dandruff.
films, a person’s identity can be determined by scanning Evidence obtained through DNA profiling can be used
their eyes. Computerised devices scan either the iris in a court of law to prove identity.
pattern or the pattern of blood vessels in the retina. The
Use of DNA samples
chances of incorrect identification are very low because:
DNA samples can be useful to an investigation, even if
• two scans are taken, one of each eye
they do not match any samples in the police database.
• a glass eye cannot be forged. A glass eye never
DNA can be used to determine whether the sample
moves, whereas a real iris moves constantly
came from a male or a female and will be kept in the
• an iris is far more detailed than a fingerprint, with
database until a match is found. In the future, it may be
266 identifiable features
possible to tell more about a person from their DNA,
• the iris never changes, even with age, and is
such as their probable height, weight or even what they
therefore a good long-term identifier.
may look like.
Retina scans are more difficult to obtain than iris
While DNA is not always recovered from a crime
scans but they are more accurate. Retina scans are
scene, in some cases a definite sample can be collected.
currently used to gain access to high-security facilities
A rapist, for example, can leave behind a sample of
containing nuclear weapons.
semen. A negative match can prove the innocence of a
Although potentially useful in criminal
suspect; a positive match can be used to prove guilt.
investigations, iris and retina scans are very difficult to
The development of DNA profiling has forced a
obtain from uncooperative suspects.
review of many cases where people have been
imprisoned. Thousands of falsely
imprisoned people have been Science
proven innocent through new DNA Clip
evidence and have been released. In
Leftovers
the USA for example, the
Wherever you go you
‘Innocence Project’, largely leave a little of
managed by volunteer law students, yourself behind. DNA
has used DNA profiling and other matching has different
evidence to support the release of success rates
those jailed for crimes it appears depending on the
sample. For example,
they did not commit. This has the success rates for
called into question much of the blood are 90 per cent,
Fig 1.1.9 Computer scans convert markings in the iris into a coded legal system, including the accuracy saliva on a cigarette
series of black and white patches. These special contact lenses show of eyewitness testimony. butt 67 per cent, fallen
irises as the computer program sees them. hair 25 per cent, and
Go to Science Focus 4 Unit 4.1 sweat on a weapon
handle 17 per cent.

Genetic identification
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is a chemical that is
present in every cell of your body. The structure of
DNA provides the cell with a set of coded instructions
on how the cell can build all the materials that make a
human. Almost every person has their own unique
DNA. The only exceptions are children from identical
multiple births, such as identical twins who have
identical DNA.
DNA profiling
DNA profiling is a set of tests that measure the DNA Fig 1.1.10 The blood on this knife will contain the DNA of the victim.
code. DNA profiling is an extremely sensitive and Sweat and oils on its handle will contain the DNA of the attacker. There
powerful technique because it can identify a person from are also fingerprints in the blood which will provide further evidence.
6
Unit
When DNA gets it wrong of the person. Sex and age can be determined by careful

1.1
Errors in judgment and contamination of equipment examination of the pelvis, skull and other key bones.
and DNA samples occasionally do occur. In 2000, a This data can then be entered into a missing persons
toddler named Jaydyn Leskie disappeared in Moe, database which will hopefully result in a match, or a set
Victoria. His body was found in a dam later that year. of matches. Dental and hospital records, photographs
DNA was analysed but it came from a person that police and other materials can then be collected to help
knew had nothing to do with the investigation. Despite positively identify the person.
all precautions, the ‘innocent’ DNA had ended up in Additional information can come from the remains
the forensic testing laboratory and had somehow found of clothing, buttons, buckles or other objects
its way into the sample. It may have come from a visitor which might still be around the skeleton. These
to the laboratory. provide an invaluable aid to determining both the
identity of the person and the year or decade in Prac 4
Go to Science Focus 4 Unit 3.3 which they died. p. 11

Identifying a body
Corpses are often degraded to the point where they are
difficult to identify. Degradation occurs very quickly in
fires and explosions which can happen in a plane crash
or bomb blast. Sometimes it occurs more slowly. This
could be because a body has been hidden before being
discovered, when someone gets lost and dies in the bush
or after a natural disaster such as a tsunami.
Sometimes there is nothing left of the body except a
skeleton or perhaps a few bones. Fingerprints are no
longer present and DNA may have deteriorated to the
extent that it is no longer reliable as a method of
identification. This is when the forensic odontology
(dental measurements) and anthropometry (body
measurements) are used.
Worksheet 1.2 Time of death

Fig 1.1.11 Fillings and dental work can be compared with existing
‘Known’ bodies dental records, helping to determine a person’s identity. This 18-year-
old has fillings (seen in this X-ray as bright areas) and impacted
Sometimes police are reasonably sure of the identity of a wisdom teeth.
body. A body recovered from a house fire, for example,
probably belongs to someone who lived there. X-rays of
the body will show previous bone injuries and any pins
which have been used to stabilise and strengthen serious
breaks. Comparison can then be made with the hospital
records of who they think it is. Usually X-rays of the
teeth are also taken and compared with dental
records. These X-rays can be used to confirm
identity and make sure that the remains are
returned to the family for burial or cremation. Prac 3
p. 11
Mystery bodies
Sometimes the identity of a corpse or skeleton is
a complete mystery. Much information, however,
can be gathered through careful examination by a
forensic anthropologist.
Measurement of key bones such as the femur (the Fig 1.1.12 Measuring the skull can help to determine a victim’s age,
main bone of the leg) can be used to find out the height sex and other characteristics.
7
Forensics and identification

Case
study The ‘Pyjama Girl Murder Case’

In 1934, a burnt and mutilated female body dressed in The body was stored in a formalin bath and after
pyjamas was found in a ditch beside the road near 10 years a previously undetected porcelain tooth filling
Albury NSW. Everything matched missing woman, fell out. Another detailed dental examination proved it
Linda Agostini. Her husband did not recognise the was Linda. Her husband, Antonio, then confessed to
body, however, and there were subtle differences murder. He was convicted of manslaughter because of
between her dental records and the body’s teeth. confusing presentation of evidence by the prosecutors
and served less than four years.

QUESTIONS
1.1
Remembering 9 List the types of animals that have fingerprints and explain
1 State the job of: what they help these animals do.

a a forensic scientist 10 Explain what DNA is and where in the body it is found.

b a crime scene unit 11 Explain how a negative DNA match is sometimes very useful.

c a forensic pathologist 12 Teeth impressions left on a victim often cannot be used to


positively identify the culprit. Explain why.
2 List the identification you normally carry around with you.
3 List the advantages and disadvantages of the following Applying
methods of identification: 13 A person is shown dusting for fingerprints in the photo on
a photographs page 1.
b Identikit a Identify whether the person is likely to be a forensic
scientist, a member of a crime scene unit, a pathologist or
c biometric facial recognition
a forensic pathologist.
4 List the advantages and disadvantages of: b Propose a likely reason why the person is wearing
a the Bertillon system rubber gloves.
b fingerprints
Evaluating
c iris and retina scans
14 At the start of the ‘Pyjama Girl Murder Case’, victim Linda
5 List what checks are made when a body is found whose likely Agostini was not identified because of ‘subtle differences’
identity is already known. between the teeth of the body and her dental records.
6 List the measurements and details that need to be taken of a a Describe how your teeth can be different to the records
body whose identity is a mystery. kept at your dentist.
Understanding b Describe other changes that might happen to your teeth
over time.
7 Summarise the different methods of identification presented
c Propose a reason why X-rays were not used to analyse the
in this unit by constructing a table. For your columns use
skull and teeth of the body. The case occurred in 1934.
these headings: method, how it is used, effectiveness of
method and comments about the method. 15 Assess whether this delay in identification could happen today.
Explain your answer.
8 Explain why it was much easier in the past than it is today for
a criminal to simply ‘disappear’. 16 Propose at least five likely reasons why identification of the
bodies of the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami was so difficult.

8
Unit
1.1
17 Propose a likely reason why teeth are sometimes the only a TV shows like this one have characters carrying out
things that remain of a skeleton after a long time. multiple tasks
18 Propose a reason why the final identification of fingerprints is b it is better for a criminal investigation if different people
always done by a person and not a computer. carry out different tasks
19 TV shows like ‘CSI’ have their characters collecting evidence, 20 A blind experiment is one where the samples are all encrypted
testing it back at the laboratory, carrying out autopsies and so that the scientist does not know which is which. Propose
interviewing witnesses and suspects. In reality, different a reason why this might be especially important in
people carry out each role. Propose reasons why: forensic science.

INVESTIGATING
1.1
Peter Falconio a what happened the night Peter Falconio disappeared
While driving in the Northern Territory in 2001, British tourists b the key forensic evidence presented in the court case
Peter Falconio and Joanne Lees were stopped by a man. Peter c other evidence presented in the case
Falconio got out of the car. Lees heard what she thought was a d why some doubted Joanne Lees’ story of murder
shot and never saw Falconio again. She was kidnapped, then and kidnap.
escaped, hid and later flagged down a passing truck. Although
Present your work in one of the following ways by creating: L
Falconio’s body was never found, Bradley John Murdoch was
• a labelled timeline showing relevant events
found guilty in 2005 of his murder. Investigate your available
• an oral, written or videotaped interview with Joanne Lees
resources (for example, textbooks, encyclopaedias, internet) to
• an interview with one of the jurors at Murdoch’s trial
find out the following:
• a videotaped segment or script for a TV show like ‘CSI’
• a series of articles for the front pages of a newspaper.

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
1.1
Method
1 Make your own Identikit
1 Set up the camera (preferably on a tripod) in a bright spot,
Aim about one to two metres away from a plain background.
To construct a basic Identikit and use it to create images of 2 Get someone to stand facing the camera and zoom in so that
different people their face takes up most of the picture.
Equipment 3 Take a test photo and adjust the lighting or camera settings
until you are obtaining consistently good quality photos.
• digital camera
• computer 4 Use sticky tape to mark the position on the ground of their feet.
• printer and optional camera tripod 5 Take individual photos of everyone in the class, making sure
• A4 paper that they are standing in exactly the same position marked by
• scissors or Stanley knife the sticky tape.
• sticky tape or glue 6 Print out all the photos in black and white and at A4 size.
>>
9
Forensics and identification

7 Photocopy all the photos so that every four to six students


have a complete set.
8 Cut each photo into sections as shown in Figure 1.1.13.
9 Use features from different people to construct different and
imaginary faces.
10 When you have a face that ‘works’, stick it onto a fresh sheet
of A4 paper.

Questions
1 Assess how realistic the constructed faces are.
2 Assess whether you had enough different features to make a
wide range of faces.
3 Identify parts of the Identikit faces that do not join up.
4 Propose how a computer could be used to fix this problem.

Fig 1.1.13

2 Fingerprints Name Thumbprint Forefinger print

Aim Me
To take the fingerprints of classmates and identify if they are loops,
whorls or arches
Equipment
• blank paper Jasmine
• inkpad
Method
1 In your workbook, construct a table similar to the one shown
here. You will enter fingerprints in this table, so leave plenty of
room for them.
Fig 1.1.14
2 Practise making ‘rolled prints’ with the inkpad and blank piece
of paper. This involves rolling your thumb and forefinger from
one side to the other on the paper to make the print. Do not
use too much or too little ink, and only roll once. Rolling back
and forward will smudge the print.
Questions
3 Collect a clear thumbprint and a clear forefinger print of the
1 State how many loops, arches and whorls you collected.
right hand of as many members of the class as you can.
If smudged, collect another one. 2 Identify the most common type of fingerprint in the class.

4 Paste the page into your workbook for later reference. 3 Identify which is the least common.

5 Identify what type of prints they have and write it next to each 4 State whether there are any people whose fingerprints are
print. Use the code LL (left loop) RL (right loop) W (whorl) hard to distinguish.
A (arch). 5 Discuss how you could tell them apart.

10
Unit
1.1
3 Collecting teeth impressions 3 Count how many teeth are displayed in the impression.
4 Use a string and ruler to measure the curving length of
Aim the impression.
To make teeth impressions and analyse them for features that may 5 Note and mark any irregularities in the impression, such as
be used for identification large gaps or missing teeth.
Equipment 6 Use a mirror to compare any irregularities in the impression
• ‘jelly’ lollies such as jelly frogs or snakes (one per student) with those in the mouth.
• grey-lead pencil 7 Compare your tracing with those of your neighbours. Tracing
• string paper will help.
• ruler
Questions
• access to a mirror
• tracing paper (optional) 1 State whether you have the same number of teeth markings
as in the impression.
Method
2 Propose reasons why the number may be different.
1 Carefully bite into the jelly lolly or snake. If possible, bite right
3 State whether the curved lengths of each student’s
through it. In doing so:
impressions were the same.
• bite the lolly so that the fullest set of teeth impressions are
formed. If using a snake, you may need to bend the snake 4 Explain how they might be different.
and push it into the teeth instead of biting through it 5 Teeth impressions can be found on bodies in murders and
• take only one bite sexual assaults. Identify what a forensic investigator might
• do not ‘tear’ the lolly. look for in the impression.
2 Remove the lolly and trace the teeth impressions made in it 6 Identify the types of fluids that an investigator might take
into your workbook. from such a teeth impression. Why would they take them?

4 Forensic anthropometry 2 Pair up with a partner and measure the length (in centimetres)
of each person’s femur, either using the string and ruler or the
The length of many bones can be used to determine the height tape measure.
of a skeleton
3 Use the following formula to calculate your estimated height
Aim and that of your partner, based on these bone lengths:
To measure the length of the femur and determine if it can be • male: height (in cm) 쏁 69.089 쎵 2.238 쎹 femur length
accurately used for identification • female: height (in cm) 쏁 61.412 쎵 2.317 쎹 femur length
Equipment 4 Measure your actual height using the metre ruler or
• string tape measure.
• metre ruler or tape measure 5 Repeat the measurement and calculation, but this time use
• pencil and calculator the skeleton.
• tape measure or metre ruler
• access to a model human skeleton Questions
Method 1 State whether your calculated heights were close to the actual
heights of the people you tested.
1 Check the location of the femur on the skeleton, taking
particular notice where the bone begins and ends. 2 Propose reasons for any differences.

11
Unit 1.2 Is it real?
context Forged documents such as licences, of money. Forensic examiners analyse the
passports, bank documents, cash and handwriting, typesetting, paper and inks used
bonds are commonly used to commit in a document to establish its origin and
fraud and to embezzle large amounts whether it is authentic.

start
direction of line

Fig 1.2.2 These are some of the many ways of writing the letter ‘E’.

This gives them a set of differences that occur


naturally in the person’s writing. The slant of
letters, their spacing and style are easy to
disguise, and so they pay more attention to the Prac 1
p. 17
formation of certain letters such as ‘E’.
Typewriter matching
Handwriting is easily traced and so criminals often used a
typewriter to produce ransom notes, fake documents,
Fig 1.2.1 In 2007, a man tried to open a bank
extortion demands and death threats. Typewriters,
account with this fake $1 million US banknote. however, could still be traced. The shape or font of the
Science Unfortunately for him, there has never been a US letters formed by a typewriter could easily be tracked to
Clip banknote for this amount. particular typewriter brands and models. This was enough
to remove any suspects who had different typewriters.
The Hitler diaries Analysis of writing and When the typewriter brand matched, microscopic
The Hitler diaries were
sold for $8.2 million in print examination of an individual typewriter could reveal
1983 ($15.5 million if
sold today). Although Handwriting analysis Type-bar acts as a hammer
the handwriting Raised letters and numbers:
matched a previous Handwriting analysis tries to identify
these can have characteristic
sample of Hitler’s, the who wrote or signed a particular pits and cracks in them allowing
paper on which it was document. The investigation might the machine to be identified.
written was of later, involve someone forging the signature
post-war origin. The on a cheque or perhaps trying to disguise
material had been
clearly copied from
their own handwriting when scribbling
Hitler’s speeches and out a ransom note.
other historians’ Like most skills, a person’s
documents and handwriting is learnt and practised and
included well-known takes years to develop. It alters little over
errors the historians
time. The capital letter E, for example,
had made. Keyboard
can be written in many different ways
depending on where the pen starts and
finishes, and where it is lifted off the paper.
Document examiners typically spend many hours
Fig 1.2.3 An old-fashioned typewriter. Imperfections in the
analysing other documents known to be written by a typewriter’s metal letters showed up in any document typed on
person before they examine the questioned document. that machine.

12
Unit
that it was used to write the suspect

1.2
document. Each key on a typewriter
links to a metal ‘type-bar’ or ‘hammer’
that has the raised shape of a letter on
it. These metal letters are all slightly
different when examined closely,
despite coming from the same make
and model. Tiny pits and cracks could
be compared under the microscope and
a positive match proved.
Printer matching
Modern computer printers are harder to
match than typewriters because they
produce their letters in a different way.
The paper, however, often shows marks
from the transport mechanism that
moves the paper through the machine. Fig 1.2.5 A forensic scientist inspects the pigments used in different
This can be seen and photographed black industrial dyes. Chromatography can produce rings like this or
when lit at a very low angle (oblique lighting). straight streaks of different pigments.

Ink analysis
The ink used to handwrite or print a suspect document drawing a solvent up through the paper. This will dissolve
can be analysed using different forensic methods. the different pigments in the ink, causing them to move
Documents are often examined and compared by up with the solvent and streak out like a rainbow. Black
reflecting different coloured lights (e.g. ultraviolet light) inks may all look the same, but chromatography
off them or by passing light through them. Many inks causes them to produce different patterns and
look different or will fluoresce (glow) under these show their different component colours.
lights. This is particularly useful for detecting forgeries Different solvents such as water or methylated
of paper money and official documents which have used spirits also produce different patterns. Prac 2
p. 17
the wrong inks.
Inks can also be examined using a technique called
chromatography. This involves cutting out a sample and
Forgery
Governments and banks use a range of technologies to
make it difficult to counterfeit money, cheques and
official documents. Since realistic forgery is beyond the
ability of most amateurs, the circulation of counterfeit
notes usually indicates the involvement
of organised crime. Science
Counterfeit bills: Clip
• often have identical serial numbers.
Real notes all have different serial Fake Aussies
numbers The first $100 notes in
Australia were made
• will usually be of poorer standard
from paper and had
than the real note, particularly when little colour in them,
comparing the finer details being largely black,
• will often be made from material that white and shades of
has a different feel to the real thing. grey. Amateur
counterfeiters simply
Successful prosecution of
photocopied the notes
counterfeiters requires locating the and some were able to
Fig 1.2.4 Some of the inks used to print banknotes and important
documents will fluoresce under UV light. The stars and stripes in this equipment used to make the bills and a pass them off as real.
European banknote glow red or blue. positive match with the printed bills.

13
Is it real?

Paper banknotes are printed Intaglio printing is a raised form of Optically active devices are images
on specialty paper with its own printing that can be felt with your that are holographic (producing
characteristic feel. fingers. multi-colour effects) or clear.

Australian banknotes are printed Australian banknotes


notes have their Most Australian banknotes have an
on polymer film (plastic). They last mination number and
portraits, denomination image of a seven-pointed star that is
longer than paper notes and are alia in intaglio printing.
the word Australia only complete when held up to the
harder to counterfeit. light. The $10 has a windmill.

Fluorescing inks glow under UV


light. On the back of the $5 note,
the wattle flowers, horizontal bars
and sunburst fluoresce, so does the
number 5.

Australian banknotes use a second


optical device: the denomination of
the note appears when held up to
the light.
Fig 1.2.6 An Australian
Aust $5 note with some off iits
counterfeit protecti
protection features identified

The Australian $5 note has an early


version of Advance Australia Fair on its Not shown
back. The $10 note has the poem The Serial numbers: prominent letters and/or numbers on
Man from Snowy River on its front. each one or both sides of the bill. Each number is different.
Counterfeit notes often all have the same serial number.
Watermarks: hidden images in paper notes that are only seen
when the note is held up to the light. Australian banknotes
Microprinting produces very small printed details have something similar. The $50 note has the Australian coat
such as sentences, initials etc. that can not be of arms.
reproduced by a colour printer or photocopier. Metal bands: paper notes often have a metal band inside the
A magnifying glass is needed to read it. layer of the paper. This can be felt and seen under backlighting.

Science
Clip
DNA can stop counterfeiting
Money is not the only thing criminals try to forge.
Merchandise for the last few Olympic Games has
included tags and stickers impregnated with DNA to
ensure their authenticity. Purchasers have been asked to
send tags and stickers with their name, address,
purchase date, store and product description for
verification and to assist in tracking fake merchandise.
Likewise, modern art—especially paintings—now often
includes some of the artist’s DNA in the paint.

Fig 1.2.7 The Dutch passport is probably the hardest in the world to
fake. The image on the right is made up of tiny holes that can only be
seen when the page is placed over a light. Prac 3 Prac 4
p. 18 p. 19

14
Unit
Case

1.2
study The medicine man

British GP Dr Harold Shipman killed an the forged will and then exhumed (dug
estimated 236 of his patients between up) her body. They also exhumed the
1974 and 1998. His visits to sick, elderly bodies of Shipman’s other patients. Traces
people were often followed by a worsening of morphine were found in each of them—
of their ailment and then what seemed to the probable cause of their deaths.
be an unsuspicious death. Dr Shipman Shipman’s computer system became vital
would return and write out the death evidence as the date of every file he
certificate and alter the records to say modified was recorded. The files for many
that the person was so sick that they were of the deaths showed that they were
close to death. Very few suspected that modified on the day the patients died,
the doctor was actually giving his patients uncovering many more likely murders.
a lethal injection. Shipman was convicted and given
However, in 1986, he killed a healthy 15 life sentences, but he committed suicide
Fig 1.2.8 Dr Harold Shipman
elderly lady and fabricated a poorly worded in custody, leaving many questions killed at least 236 patients.
last will and testament that made him the unanswered. The motives for his crimes A poorly forged will led to
sole beneficiary. The police investigated remain a mystery. his capture.

Science
Clip
Plastic money A paper $5 note had an average life of about Western Samoa, Singapore, Brunei,
Australia was the first country to use the six months—a plastic one lasts more than Sri Lanka and New Zealand. NPA also sells
plastic banknote—a $10 commemorative three years. Note Printing Australia (NPA) is blank plastic notes to government printers in
note introduced in January 1988 to coincide owned by the Reserve Bank of Australia and other countries so that they can print their
with the Australian Bicentenary. Plastic prints all Australian banknotes. It has also own money. Old and ‘worn-out’ Australian
banknotes are more durable than paper produced plastic banknotes for Thailand, plastic money is recycled into plastic objects
ones, lasting four to five times longer. Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, Kuwait, such as plumbing fittings and compost bins.

QUESTIONS
1.2
Remembering Understanding
1 List five documents that a criminal might try to falsify. 6 Investigators generally ignore the slant and spacing of letters
2 State what indicated that the Hitler diaries were fake. in a handwritten document. Explain why.
3 State what can be used to determine which typewriter was 7 Describe how a computer printer can be identified from
used for a ransom note. a fake letter.
4 List the advantage(s) of Australian banknotes being printed 8 Explain how inks can be identified using:
on plastic. a fluorescence
5 List the features that usually give away fake banknotes. b chromatography
9 Describe the following:
a intaglio printing
b microprinting
c a watermark
>>
15
Is it real?

10 Explain why early $100 bills were easy to counterfeit when 15 Write the letter E in your workbook and analyse how you
first introduced. did it. Add arrows to indicate the direction of each stroke
11 Explain why chromatography produces different coloured and numbers to indicate the order in which they
bands from black ink. were made.
12 Predict what would happen to society if everyone could print Evaluating
their own money. 16 Assess whether a person’s personality can be deduced from
Applying their handwriting.
13 Write your signature on a piece of paper. Swap signatures 17 ‘Identity theft’ is a common form of false identification.
with another classmate and then apply what you know about Propose what this might be.
writing slant and letter formation to reproduce their signature. 18 Imagine a new paper $200 note has just been released and
you have been given one as payment for a job. Assess
Analysing whether you are going to accept it or whether you are
14 List the evidence that helped convict Dr Harold Shipman. going to check it out. If so, identify the tests that you will
Classify each piece of evidence that suggests he committed carry out.
the murders as direct or circumstantial evidence.

INVESTIGATING
1.2
Reviewing e -xploring
Catch Me If You Can To assist with the following activity, a list of web
The movie Catch Me If You Can (rated M) shows the early life of destinations can be found on Science Focus 3
Frank Abignale Junior, a young forger and fraud who pretended to Second Edition Student Lounge.
be an airline pilot, doctor and lawyer. Watch the movie and prepare a How are coins minted? (This is the term used when coins are
a film review about it. In your review you must investigate: made.) Construct a simple diagram or flowchart explaining the
• details about its length, leading actors, director, producer, process. Find out what the term ‘legal tender’ means, what the
studio and year of production highest legal tender is and why the mint produces coins other
• the era or timeframe in which the film is set than legal tender.
• the forms of forgery and fraud Abignale used b How are plastic Australian banknotes made? Construct a
• how he bluffed his way into the various positions simple diagram or flow chart explaining the process. Find the
• if and how he was exposed as a fraud advantages of using plastic banknotes and the reason for
• what happened in the end using each of the security devices included in them.
• what Abignale does today for a job
• whether Abignale could get away with his forgery and
fraud today.
Present your review in one of the following ways:
• an interview with the director or who plays the leading actor
Frank Abignale
• a segment for a TV program such as ‘ET’, ‘At the Movies’ or
‘The Movie Show’. L

16
Unit
PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
1.2

1.2
1 Testing handwriting
Aim
To detect writing imprints left in paper
Equipment
• 2 pieces of paper
• hard-tipped pen (not felt pen)
• grey-lead pencil
• lamp or torch
Method Fig 1.2.9

1 Place one sheet of paper on top of the other and use the pen
to write a message on the top one. Swap the bottom sheet
with a classmate.
Questions
1 Compare the final message with the original message.
2 Use the lamp or torch (or even sunlight through a window) to
shine light obliquely onto the paper. 2 Propose how this technique could be used in forensic science.
3 You should be able to see an impression of what was written.
Use a grey-lead pencil to write over the impression. Compare
with the original.

2 Chromatography catches a Method


1 Cut out a single letter (e.g. F) from the extortion note so that
criminal you have a long strip of paper, with the letter at the bottom.
A note, written in black ink, is found at the Taste Better Biscuits At its top, label it as evidence.
factory. The note threatens that poison will be put into one of the
2 On another piece of paper, write the same letter with each of
batches of biscuits unless money is transferred to an offshore bank
the pens you have.
account. The manager thinks that it is an inside job. Pens are
collected and labelled from the desks of those who have had past 3 Cut out these letters and write the name of each suspect at
disagreements with the boss. the top.
4 Collect a gas jar for each strip that you have and place a small
Aim
amount of methylated spirits at the bottom of each jar.
To use chromatography to determine the black pen most likely to
5 Place each strip in a jar, with the letter at the bottom.
have been used in writing a ransom note.
6 The methylated spirits will move through the paper carrying
the different pigments with it. Remove the strip when the
Equipment ethanol or methylated spirits has nearly reached the top.
• a ‘ransom’ note written with an unknown brand of black felt pen 7 Match up the ransom note to the suspect using the ink patterns.
• several different black felt pens including the one that wrote
the note, the name of each suspect attached
• gas jars
• scissors
• paper
>>
• ethanol or methylated spirits
17
Is it real?

Questions 3 Identify which pen wrote the extortion note.


1 State whether there were any pens that did not show any 4 Explain why there are different coloured pigments in the
chromatography patterns. Propose reasons why. black pens.
2 Describe how the patterns differed for each pen. 5 Predict what you would see if you repeated the experiment
with water. If possible, try it and explain your observations.

3 Examining money Questions


Aim 1 Propose reasons why Australian banknotes do not have metal
bands or watermarks.
To identify the features used to make forgery of banknotes difficult
2 The Reserve Bank of Australia website can be used to identify
Equipment the portraits on each of the Australian banknotes. It also
• access to a banknote (doesn’t need to be Australian) explains what the other diagrams mean. On your photocopies,
• magnifying glass or stereo microscope identify the portraits and explain why they are important in
• access to UV light (optional) Australia’s history.
Method 3 The micro-printing found on the note will be an important
1 Perform the following tests on the banknote. Australian poem, speech or text. Use the Reserve Bank
website to find what this poem, text or speech is. Surf the net
• Record whether the note is paper or a polymer film
to find a copy of it. Print it out and paste it next to its micro-
(plastic). How do you know?
printed version.
• Feel the note. Feel its texture and feel for intaglio printing.
• Look at the note from different angles and hold it up to the 4 Design a new banknote for Australia. Your design must include:
light to see if there are any optically active devices, • a portrait on both sides
watermarks or metal bands. For example, if the note is • diagrams showing why that person is important
Australian then it should display a seven-pointed star when • relevant text to appear as micro-printing
held up to the light. Note: the $10 note does not have a star. • a design of an optically active device.
• Inspect the note under a magnifying glass or stereo
microscope, looking for micro-printing and other
hidden marks.
• Smell the note. Can you smell real money?
2 Photocopy both sides of the note. Photocopying is only illegal
if you intend to use the photocopy as a counterfeit note.
3 Cut out and paste the photocopied note into your workbook.
Mark and label on it the different features that make it difficult
to counterfeit that note.

Fig 1.2.10

18
Unit
1.2
4 Forging a photograph
Aim
To create a forged digital photograph of yourself at a place you
have never been
Equipment
• a computer
• digital camera
• a classmate
• image manipulation software (e.g. Adobe® Photoshop®,
Microsoft® Photodraw)
Method
1 Use the internet to find an outdoor photograph of a famous
location (e.g. Disneyland, Eiffel Tower, Big Ben). Save in an
appropriate file of images.
2 Take note of the direction of the sunlight, and any people who
are in the scene (you might want to make a photograph of
yourself with your arm around the shoulder of someone in
the picture).
3 Go outdoors and place yourself so that the Sun falls in a
similar way to that in the photo.
4 A classmate now must take a digital photo of you in a
suitable pose.
Fig 1.2.11 This photo is a fake but was presented as evidence of UFOs.
5 Transfer your image into the computer.
6 Open both images at the same time in your image
manipulation software. Questions
7 Use the Lasso tool to trace around your image. Feather the cut 1 State whether the fake photo was easy to produce or not.
edge if your program allows it. 2 State whether it fooled the person you showed it to.
8 Change to the Move tool and drag the cut-out image over to 3 Assess whether this photo would fool the average person.
your location photo. Alternatively, copy and paste if this is Explain why/why not.
how your program works. 4 Examine your printed photograph closely with a magnifying
9 Resize the image, add shadows, alter the colours etc. so that it glass or stereo microscope. What evidence is there of
really looks as if you are at this location. your tampering?
10 Save your ‘forged’ photograph. Print it out in colour if you 5 Discuss the phrase ‘the camera never lies’.
can. Assess how realistic it is.
11 If needed, alter the contrast and brightness and/or change the
image to a greyscale image and see if there is evidence that it
is a fake.
12 Invent a story to go with your photo. Show it to an
unsuspecting classmate or teacher and assess their reaction.

19
Unit 1.3 Evidence
context Everyone leaves a little of themselves sweat and body oils. Footprints and fingerprints
behind wherever they go. It doesn’t matter might also be left behind. Video surveillance,
how careful or clean a person is, they mobile phone data and website and chatroom
constantly shed tiny flakes of skin, hair and data are also being collected. All this is
dandruff and tiny droplets and smears of evidence and proves that a person was at some
time at the scene of a crime, making a
threatening phone call or was checking out
particular internet sites.

What is evidence?
Evidence is information that has legal value in a court
of law. Evidence can come from:
• eyewitnesses—people give verbal or written
testimony of what they have seen or heard
• physical evidence—evidence that can be touched,
observed, smelt, recorded or collected at a location.
The saliva on a cigarette butt is an example of
physical evidence. It can be analysed for DNA and
used to identify a suspect.
Forensic scientists are mainly concerned with
physical evidence. Information such as rumour and
gossip has no value in a court and is not evidence.

Collecting fingerprints
Fig 1.3.1 The collection of evidence takes time and must be carried Latent fingerprints are commonly found at crime
out so that contamination cannot occur.
scenes. These are the sweaty hard-to-see prints left
behind on objects that are touched. Most
Science fingerprints remain on non-porous (non-
Clip absorbent) materials like glass, plastic and mirrors,
and polished or painted wood. Police dust for them
Deadly serious!
by brushing a powder onto door handles, stair
In an average lifetime,
railings, rear-vision mirrors, steering wheels,
a human will flake off
and shed a massive
windows and so on. Light-coloured surfaces require
18 kg of dead skin. black carbon powder while dark surfaces require
white aluminium powder. Highly coloured or
decorative surfaces require fluorescent powders that
glow under UV light.
Fig 1.3.2 Fine Other techniques are used to collect prints
powders will attach from porous (absorbent) materials such as stone
to fingerprints if
gently dusted onto
and raw or unpolished wood. One
them. Black powder technique uses high powered ‘poly lights’
is used on glass. that cause fingerprints to fluoresce.
Prac 1
p. 28

20
Unit
Collecting body products

1.3
and fibres
People in close contact can transfer materials between
them. In assaults or sexual crimes, hair and fluff from
clothing will often be transferred between victim and
offender. In many cases, blood, skin, saliva and vaginal
and seminal fluid can also be collected. Evidence from
the inside and outside of a condom can be collected,
conclusively linking victim and offender. Biological
evidence such as this can then be DNA profiled to
positively identify them both.
Fibre analysis
Fibres such as hair, fluff, torn cloth or animal Fig 1.3.4 A forensic scientist uses a comparison microscope to
fur/feathers can be compared using a comparison compare two bullet casings. One was found at a crime scene, the
other taken from the gun of the suspect.
microscope. This allows a fibre from the crime scene to
be directly compared with another sample collected by
the police. Fibres can be: indicate the hair colour of a person, and may also
• animal in origin (e.g. fur, wool, hair or feathers) show what ethnic group they belong to.
Prac 2
• vegetable in origin (e.g. hessian, cotton and string) p. 29
• mineral in origin (e.g. industrial fibres such as glass
wool and rock wool from insulating roof batts)
Collecting impressions
Criminals usually carry with them their ‘tools of
• synthetic (e.g. polyester, rayon, viscose, elastane,
trade’—items that they can use to commit an offence if
lycra and nylon).
they see the opportunity. These tools could be a pistol,
Finding a match is not conclusive but is strong
a knife, a jemmy bar, wire-cutters or a screwdriver.
circumstantial evidence. The fibre or hair may have
Although some of these objects are innocent enough,
come from someone else with similar clothing and the
most ordinary citizens do not normally carry them
same hair colour. Hair is particularly useful as it can
around or conceal them.

Wool fibres: animal fibres,


hair and fur have characteristic
growth patterns that look a little
like scales. Thickness varies.

Synthetic fibres: these fibres are


smooth with no surface pattern
or breaks. Their thickness is the
same all along the fibre.

Cotton fibres: plant


fibres often twist and
change in thickness. The
surface is rough.

Fig 1.3.3 Each type of fibre has its own characteristic surface texture. This allows comparisons to be made between the suspect, the victim and
the crime scene and victim. These images are from a scanning electron microscope (SEM).

Go to Science Focus 4 Unit 2.4

21
Evidence

Science
Clip
DNA proves all but
one innocent
In 1999, a 91-year-old
woman was raped in
the small NSW town of
Wee Waa. Most of the
600 local men
volunteered to have
their DNA tested and,
as expected, none
proved to be the rapist.
The rapist turned
himself in soon after,
probably realising that
the police now only
had a few men to
investigate.
Fig 1.3.6 A suspect’s shoe is being printed and measured
so that it can be compared with a cast taken at a crime
Fig 1.3.5 Tool marks found at a crime scene will be scene. A database called SICAR holds all old and new shoe
photographed and compared with tools collected from tread patterns. SICAR quickly identifies the make, model
the suspect or their residence. and size of the shoe that made the cast or print.

Tool marks Impressions left in soft materials like mud, clay or


Any object used to pry open a door or cut wire will snow can be collected by pouring plaster into the imprint
leave a tell-tale impression or tool mark in the material to produce a hard mould. Prints are photographed at the
that it damages. These marks are typically lines (called scene next to a ruler to indicate their actual size.
striations) that are caused by imperfections in the
surface of the tool when it cuts a surface. Tool marks
can even be left in bone when it is cut or chopped using Collecting biological evidence
a saw or axe. Soft tissue such as skin and muscle usually Biological evidence, other than fibres, is often collected
do not show detailed tool marks. Soft tissue injuries can from a crime scene. This evidence can be swabbed with
still, however, indicate the shape, size and length of the wet cotton wool or lifted using sticky tape. Seeds, blood,
weapon used, and how it was used (for example, in a DNA from body secretions, and microscopic pollens will
downward stabbing movement). be collected and then identified to aid an investigation.
Track impressions Water organisms
Impressions from feet, shoes and tyres can be left behind: Small single-celled aquatic organisms are called
• in mud, clay or snow diatoms. Diatoms are partly made of silica, a very hard
• by someone stepping or driving in blood or grease material that forms amazing shapes that last well after
that has spilt over a hard surface the diatom dies. Each pond has its own unique colonies
• by someone with dirty shoes or tyres who has stepped of different shaped diatoms. Their shape can often be
or driven onto a clean surface. used to pinpoint the location of a drowning.
Even though millions of shoes and tyres are
manufactured each year, individual treads can often be Insects
identified and linked to a crime scene. This is because all Insects can also be very helpful in identifying the time
tyres and shoes wear differently and have and location of death. Insects change forms at different
imperfections, cuts or embedded objects such as times in their life cycle and any insect infestation of a
tacks or stones that can make them traceable to body can be used to reliably estimate how long the
the owner. person has been dead.
Prac 3
p. 29
22
Unit
Collecting electronic evidence

1.3
Electronic evidence can consist of photographs, video
footage, audio recordings, computer, internet and mobile
phone records.
You’re being watched
Although video footage from security cameras or CCTV
(closed-circuit TV) is useful, the images are often not
clear enough to give a clear identification of the culprit.
Video footage consists of many individual images called
frames that are played back one after the other, very
quickly, to produce the illusion of a ‘moving picture’.
Technology allows the footage from several frames of
video to be added together to make a still image that is
much clearer than each individual frame. Footage can
also be watched in slow motion, and the brightness and
Fig 1.3.7 Different colonies of microscopic diatoms will exist in contrast enhanced to get further important details.
different bodies of water. They will saturate the lungs of a drowned
person and can be used to pinpoint where it happened.
Fig 1.3.9 CCTV
images are being
collected
Different insects inhabit different ecosystems at everywhere. This
different seasons, and this knowledge can also assist CCTV image shows
investigators. Insects in the wood of boxes or in the suicide bombers
entering a London
plant material of packaged cannabis can be station in July 2005.
identified and DNA tested to determine their origin. Soon after, they
In cases such as these, a specialist biologist is detonated their
consulted, as the investigator would not normally bombs on three
underground trains
have the detailed knowledge needed to examine, test and one bus, killing
and interpret the clues, or give evidence in court. 52 and injuring at
least 700.

A blowfly detects the aroma of Maggots hatch from the eggs within Maggots undergo metamorphosis inside
decomposition from a dead body and 24 hours. They feed on the body for a pupa. This process can take weeks.
lays eggs on it. This SEM image shows a two to three weeks. This SEM image This SEM image shows an adult blowfly
blowfly laying eggs. shows a maggot feeding. emerging from its pupa.

If eggs are present then If maggots are present then the time since death is between If pupae are present then
the time since death is one day and three weeks. Bigger maggots suggest the body the time since death is
only a few hours. has been dead longer than if smaller maggots are present. over three weeks.

Fig 1.3.8 Blowflies can be found on a dead body. The stage in their lifecycle will indicate how long the person has been dead.

23
Evidence
You’re being tracked
When a mobile phone is switched on it can be used to
What does a bloody mess tell us?
There are usually copious amounts of blood in violent
pinpoint its exact location to within a radius of about
crimes. To a trained investigator, the pattern of blood
100 metres. Criminals may, however, plant their phone
sprays, pools and drips can tell a vivid story.
in another spot as an alibi, or plant someone else’s
• Drips on the ground, initially of the same volume,
phone to implicate them in a crime.
will vary in size depending on the height from which
You’re being recorded they dropped.
Everything that is done, stored or retrieved
on a computer is stored on its hard-drive—a
spinning disk about 9 cm in diameter. The
disk is covered in iron oxide (rust) and
information is magnetically recorded on its
surface in binary code, using the numbers
0 and 1. If information is erased on a
computer then all that is erased is its normal
access route: the original 0 and 1 series
storing the actual information is still there,
awaiting any investigators with special
retrieval software. After prolonged and
extensive use, however, this coding may be
overwritten, deleting it forever.

Science
Clip
Information set in concrete
Although software is available to overwrite computer
information, an Atomic Force Microscope has the ability to find
traces of any information you are trying to hide. This means
that even top-secret government and military information can
still be read. To stop this happening, some disks are ground
into a powder that is then mixed into concrete that is about to
be poured as foundations of a new building.
Fig 1.3.10 Blood marks, bruises and smears give important clues to what happened.

Case
study Eaten twice by shark!

Visitors to Coogee Aquarium in Sydney on Anzac Day another larger shark. It was this 4.3 m long monster
1935 were surprised when a recently caught shark they shark that was on display.
were watching vomited up an almost complete human Smith had apparently blackmailed a wealthy local,
arm decorated with a tattoo of two boxers. The arm Reginald Holmes, who then hired Patrick Brady to kill
belonged to Jimmy Smith, a local boxer and petty him. After Brady had killed Smith, he cut the arm off as
criminal. Smith was identified when fingerprints taken proof of having done the job and later threw it into the
from the arm matched those on his criminal file. sea. Holmes soon admitted everything to police and so
Analysis also showed that the arm had been cut from Brady was caught. On the day of the trial, Holmes shot
Smith and had not been chewed off by the shark. A himself. Brady was acquitted on the argument that
much smaller shark had eaten the arm and had just Smith could still be alive, but without one arm!
been hooked by someone fishing when it was eaten by

24
Unit
• Drips elongate in the direction of movement to • Sharp objects often slice neatly through flesh. Once

1.3
produce elliptical shaped drips. These can show the skin is punctured, the implement meets little
which direction a person was going or the resistance from other body tissues until bone is
movements of a bloody weapon. struck. Therefore it will cut to its full depth.
• Very fine sprays usually indicate a gunshot wound. • Wounds primarily on the right side of a victim
• Splattering on the ceiling shows that someone was generally indicate that the offender was left-handed
repeatedly striking from above. Drips hit the ceiling and vice versa.
after flying off the weapon when it is brought back • A piece of the weapon may break off (e.g. the point
for the next strike. of a knife) and can be matched to the offending
• Blood stains dry and fade over time. These give an weapon if found.
indication of when the act occurred. Doctors in a emergency department or a forensic
• Blood groups and DNA matching pathologist will probe the width, depth and angle of the
can be done on a drip to find out wound as part of their examination. This can indicate
whose blood it is. what size, shape and length weapon was used.
Prac 4 Prac 5
p. 30 p. 30

What do gunshot injuries tell us?


What do wounds tell us? Many people each year die from accidental and
Many serious stab wounds are not fatal. However, a intentional gunshot wounds. Gunshot wounds are
relatively ‘minor’ wound can kill if it cuts a major artery particularly lethal because of the speed of the projectiles
or damages vital organs. and the energy they carry. This energy is often
The wounds on a body also tell much about transferred into the victim’s organs when they are
the attack. struck, causing a pressure wave that ‘explodes’ the
• Blunt objects often leave bruising, split the surface of organ. At other times bullets can drill right through a
the skin and fracture bone tissue. victim and become lodged elsewhere.

1 External 2 Simple incision 3 Suspicious death


examination If the death appears If the death appears
Examining body marks natural the unnatural the
or injuries provides pathologist cuts up pathologist will cut a
information that may the torso and Y or T shape to get
determine the order of removes internal better access to
the autopsy procedure. organs for the body.
Some injuries are examination. The
clear, while other pathologist attempts
less obvious clues to chart the progress
may give hints to of a disease and
unnatural deaths. identify the cause
of death.

4 Major organs 5 The head


Removing the chest The brain is removed for
plate by cutting the examination. Microscopic
ribs allows upper and examination of brain
lower internal organs slices can show various
to be removed for types of damage and
examination. Body help identify the cause
fluids are collected of death.
for testing.

Fig 1.3.11 An autopsy can reveal whether the cause of death is natural or unnatural.

25
Evidence
The height and direction that bullets have
come from can be determined by drawing a line
from where they are lodged through the point
where they pierced the person, towards where the
perpetrator was thought to be standing.
In an autopsy, the pathologist will probe the
bullet hole, particularly its entry, exit and the
angle of its path. Usually the entry wound is quite
small, while the exit wound is much larger.

Science
Clip
Licensed to kill
Police are trained to use firearms as a last resort and
only to protect themselves or other people from
serious threat. When they do shoot, police are trained
to aim for the body to maximise their chances of
hitting the attacker, and minimise the possibility of
hitting a bystander. If police aimed at legs or arms
the chances of missing would be high and they
would then be under even more threat. In most
cases, non-lethal weapons such as capsicum spray
or Tasers (a stun gun) will be used. Fig 1.3.12 Capsicum spray is a non-lethal but highly irritant weapon
now used by Australian police officers in threatening situations.

QUESTIONS
1.3
Remembering 8 Explain why fibres are considered circumstantial evidence.
1 a State what is and is not evidence. 9 Explain how insects can be used to:
b State two broad categories of evidence. a date a death
c List three examples of physical evidence. b determine where a drug crop came from
2 List five substances that might transfer in an assault between 10 Explain whether deleting a file from your computer erases
an offender and a victim. it completely.
3 List three ways in which track foot impressions can be left. 11 Explain how bullets kill.
4 State how accurately you can be located when using your 12 A bullet passes right through a body. Explain how
mobile phone. investigators can tell which direction it came from.
5 List what information blood drips can provide for Applying
investigators.
13 Identify the tool marks likely to be found:
6 List two things that a wound can tell investigators.
a at a house break-and-enter
Understanding b in a case where important papers have been cut up
7 Explain how latent fingerprints are obtained from: c at a stabbing murder
a non-porous substances like glass d in a rail derailment in which the tracks seem to have been
b porous substances like stone tampered with
e in a suspect car accident where it is thought the brakes
lines may have been cut

26
Unit
1.3
14 Identify the features of tracks that would indicate that a pair of Creating
shoes belong to: 20 Construct a flow chart to track the order of events in the
a a particular brand case study.
b a particular person 22 Circumstantial evidence is not conclusive by itself, but adds
15 A body has been dumped. It is thought that the person was together with other pieces of evidence to prove a case.
murdered by drowning them in a nearby lake or pond. Identify Construct a murder case where no body has been found but in
the evidence that could be used to pinpoint the lake. which multiple pieces of circumstantial evidence add together
16 Identify ways you are: to make a strong case against the accused.
a watched 22 The following phases of a blowfly can be used to date the
death of a body on which they are found. Order the following
b tracked
phases and construct a scaled timeline that can be used to
c recorded determine the time since death:
17 Identify what the case study suggests about fingerprints • small blowfly
obtained from dead bodies.
• large maggots
Analysing • large blowfly
18 Discuss whether shoe prints can definitely prove that a person • pupa
was at a particular location. • eggs
19 Audio and video footage does not always accurately represent • small maggots N
what happened at a crime scene. Discuss how and why.
Worksheet 1.3 Careers

INVESTIGATING
1.3
The assassination of
John F. Kennedy
American President John F. Kennedy (known to most as JFK) was
assassinated on 22 November 1963. Lee Harvey Oswald was
arrested for the assassination and was gunned down by mobster
Jack Ruby in a police bungle before any trial could take place.
Many believe this was a set-up to get rid of him without a trial.
Many others dispute that Oswald could have been the assassin.
Some believe that other people were involved as well as Oswald.
Before being shot dead, Oswald proclaimed his innocence,
stating that he was a ‘patsy’, meaning that he was framed. It was
even claimed that some of the photographs incriminating him were
faked. Oswald had an interesting history. Although at one time he
worked for the US Marines, he also defected to the Cold War
enemy, the USSR.

Fig 1.3.13 Lee Harvey Oswald always said that he did not kill JFK.
Oswald was shot soon after and so never went to trial.
>>
27
Evidence

1 Investigate your available resources (for example, textbooks, 4 What motive (if any) did Oswald have for assassinating JFK?
encyclopaedias, internet) to find forensic evidence relevant to 5 Assess whether there is enough strong evidence to convict
the assassination. Oswald beyond reasonable doubt in a court of law.
2 Summarise all the evidence you find and place it in a table
similar to that shown below. If a piece of evidence implicates Reviewing ‘CSI’
Oswald, then tick the Oswald column. If it implicates other
‘CSI’ is just one of many TV shows which demonstrate the methods
unknown persons, tick the ‘Others’ column. If it implicates
used by forensic scientists. Watch an episode of one such show and
both, tick both.
prepare a review about it. In your review you must investigate:
Evidence Oswald Others • details about its length, leading actors, director, producer,
studio and year of production
• the crime being investigated
• what forensic evidence was collected
3 Assess all the evidence in the table and decide whether you • what other evidence was collected
think that: • what happened in the end
a Oswald was not involved at all • whether the forensic science in the episode was realistic
b Oswald was involved but was not the killer • improvements to the film to make it more accurate.
c Oswald was one of several gunmen Present your review as a single page spread for an
d Oswald acted alone. entertainment magazine or for a TV guide such as
‘TV Week’. L

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
1.3
6 If the print is not clear, clean the slide and try again until you
1 Comparing fingerprints perfect your technique.
In this Prac you will dust for prints and compare with fingerprints 7 When you have a good print, get your teacher to write an
collected earlier. evidence number on it.
Equipment 8 Your teacher will then mix up all the fingerprint evidence
collected around the class.
• clean microscope slides
• small soft bristle brushes or puff-brushes 9 Take one of the collected prints. Identify what type it is then
• graphite powder try to match it to the correct class member using the
• sticky tape reference prints that you collected in Unit 1.1 Prac 2.
• paper 10 See how many you can identify in the time given.
Method 11 At the end, your teacher will read out who all the evidence
1 Hold the microscope slide firmly between your thumb and codes correspond to. Tally up how many you got correct.
forefinger for about 30 seconds. Questions
2 Let go, being careful not to smudge the fingerprints. 1 State whether the dusting and collecting of fingerprints was
3 Gently brush on a small amount of graphite powder using a difficult or not.
swirling motion. 2 List any mistakes you made in procedure.
4 Blow off the excess powder. You should see a clear print. 3 List any skills that you need to improve.
5 Place a clear piece of sticky tape over the print then remove it 4 State the number of fingerprints you correctly matched.
and stick onto a sheet of paper.
5 Assess whether you got better at identifying prints as time
passed. Explain why.
28
Unit
1.3
Part B: Monocular microscope
2 Fibre analysis
4 Brush your hair over a piece of paper. The hair that is not
Aim growing should fall onto the paper.
To observe the different surface structures of different fibres 5 Place a hair on a microscope slide and stick it down. Place the
slide on the microscope stage.
Safety 6 Focus on the hair, starting on the lowest magnification.

! 1 Some fibres (e.g. animal fur) may cause


allergic reactions.
7 Move up to the highest magnification that is still clear
and sharp.
2 Do not use glass fibres (used to make fibreglass) 8 Draw what you see. (Note: you should be able to see the
as they easily pierce the skin. inside and the surface of the hair depending on where you are
3 Do not use asbestos fibres since they are a known focused and how your lighting is set up.)
cause of the lung disease asbestosis.
9 Draw your observations—noting the magnification.

Equipment 10 Mount and observe other fibre types and draw them carefully.

• sticky tape Questions


• hairbrush Part A
• white paper
1 Name any materials that looked the same under
• access to monocular and stereo microscopes
the microscope.
• 2 microscope slides
• pencil 2 List any materials that needed greater magnification than what
• samples of a selection of fibres (natural, animal, vegetable, was available through the stereo microscope.
synthetic) 3 Assess whether your drawings are good enough for the
identification of the material in future.
Method
4 List observations that you could use to differentiate animal,
Part A: Stereo microscope
mineral and vegetable fibres.
1 Adjust the focus and magnification of the stereo microscope
Part B
to obtain the most detail.
5 Identify the magnification that gave the right balance of detail
2 Place each sample of fibre under the stereo microscope and
and brightness for your observations.
carefully draw what you see.
6 State whether you were able to observe the outside and inside
3 Record the magnification that you are using.
of the hair samples.
7 Construct an illustrated chart that could be used by an
investigator to identify a variety of different fibre types.

• stapler
3 Collecting foot impressions • shoes (old shoes from home or opportunity shops are good)
Aim Method
To make plaster impressions of the soles of different shoes 1 Make clear foot impressions in damp soil with different but
Equipment similar-sized shoes.
• plaster of Paris 2 Staple the ends of the cardboard strip together to
• a 5 cm wide cardboard strip make a circle.
• water 3 Place the circles down into the soil around the footprint.
• paddle-pop sticks 4 Mix up some plaster of Paris in a cup with warm water and a
• salt pinch of salt. Make it at least ½ water and ½ plaster.
• plastic disposable cups >>
29
Evidence

5 Tap the bottom of the cup against the ground until all the Questions
bubbles are removed. 1 Compare each plaster mould with the shoes they came from.
6 Carefully pour the plaster into the foot impression. State how many matches you got.
7 Wait until the plaster sets. This will depend on the 2 Explain the purpose of the paper-strip circle.
temperature, the amount of salt added and the thickness of 3 Did you get a clear mould from the impression? If not,
your mixture. propose reasons why.
8 Remove the plaster mould and carefully wipe or wash off 4 Propose ways in which the quality of the moulds could
any dirt. be improved.

4 Investigating stride length Questions


The height of a person can be determined from the length of bones 1 Identify why it would be inappropriate to join all the dots in
in their legs. The length of their stride is also related to this. your graph dot-to-dot. (Hint: do people of the same size all
walk the same way?)
Method 2 Describe the shape of the graph you plotted i.e. is it linear
1 Devise and test a method for determining a person’s height (a straight line), parabolic, random etc.
based on the distance between their footprints when walking.
3 If it is a straight line, evaluate what its mathematical equation
2 Plot a line graph of your results, placing stride length on the would be (Note: the equation for a straight line that takes the
horizontal axis and the predicted height on the vertical axis. form of y 쏁 mx 쎵 c, where m 쏁 gradient or slope,
Draw a line of best fit or curve of best fit through the data. c 쏁 vertical intercept).

5 Blood drips • dropper bottle


• spatula
Aim • small funnel
To make fake blood and to determine if there is a relationship • heating apparatus
between the height a drop falls from, and the diameter of the drip it Method
produces when it strikes the ground
Part A: Making blood
1 Place the empty beaker on the balance and tare it so that it
Equipment reads zero.
• 100 mL of hot water 2 Add 100 mL of hot water to the beaker and heat until
• starch nearly boiling.
• red ink (e.g. for a stamp pad)
3 Measure out 2 to 3 grams of starch on the electronic balance
• brown food colouring
and add to the water, stirring constantly.
• butcher’s paper
• metre ruler 4 Mix until all the starch has dissolved. Allow to cool.
• electronic balance 5 Add small amounts of red ink and brown food colouring until
• 250 mL beaker it looks like blood.
6 Pour into a dropper bottle using the funnel and cool.

30
Unit
Part B: Dripping blood Questions

1.3
7 Drip the blood from 10 cm, 30 cm, 50 cm, 1 m and 1.5 m 1 Assess whether your graph could be used to predict blood
heights onto butcher’s paper. drips at a crime scene. Explain your answer.
8 Write the dropping height next to each drip mark. 2 Identify whether there is a point where going any higher does
9 When they are dry, cut out the drips and paste them not increase the spatter width. If so, state the height at which
in your workbook. it occurred.
10 Measure the maximum diameter of each drip and enter the 3 Predict what would happen to the drip shape and size if the
details in a table. person was running or walking instead of standing.
11 Plot a graph of drip diameter versus height of drop (place
height on the horizontal axis).

Science
Focus Investigating the death of Azaria Chamberlain

Prescribed focus area the accepted scientific knowledge and practice.


Attempts to re-examine critical evidence were often
Applications and uses of science unsuccessful since much of it had been ‘lost’ or
In 1980, a holiday at Uluru turned into a nightmare for destroyed. This was very unprofessional, especially given
Michael and Lindy Chamberlain. Their youngest the circumstances of the case. It also meant that the
daughter, 10-week-old Azaria, was taken by a dingo validity of the previous forensic tests, and any associated
from her tent and was never seen alive again. Initially professional opinions, could not be substantiated.
Lindy Chamberlain’s story of the dingo was widely
believed and many were sympathetic to her ordeal.
Some members of the Northern Territory Police,
however, believed that Lindy and her husband were
responsible for the death. She was later charged with
murdering her daughter.
The court case attracted enormous global interest
and much community debate. Many forensic experts
were employed to give evidence and put forward a
convincing case for the prosecution. Lindy Chamberlain
was found guilty by the jury, and sentenced to prison.
Several years later, evidence confirming her dingo
story was accidentally discovered near Uluru. Her
murder conviction was overturned and the whole affair
is considered by many to be Australia’s greatest
miscarriage of justice. After this, much of the forensic
evidence so critical to her initial conviction was
examined again. It was determined that much of this
evidence had been given far more importance that it
should have been given. Some was considered little
more than ‘educated guesses’ because this field of
Fig 1.3.14 The Chamberlain car and tent the day after Azaria
science was still in its infancy and was on the fringe of went missing.

31
Evidence

STUDENT ACTIVITIES
Investigating the Chamberlain case Reviewing Evil Angels
Investigate your available resources (textbooks, encyclopaedias, Evil Angels (sometimes called A Cry in the Dark) is a film about the
internet) to find details about the death of Azaria Chamberlain and disappearance of Azaria Chamberlain. Watch this movie and
the subsequent inquests, trials, sentencing and final outcome. In prepare a film review about it. In your review you must:
particular, find: • give details about its length, leading actors, director, producer,
• details of the night on which Azaria disappeared studio and year of production
• the evidence that was used initially to support the idea that a • record all key dates
dingo took the baby • describe what allegedly happened the night Azaria disappeared
• the result of the initial inquest • record the order in which major events happened
• why the Northern Territory police doubted the dingo story • list the ‘forensic evidence’ on which Lindy was convicted
• when Lindy was accused of murder • assess the quality of this ‘forensic evidence’
• the ‘forensic evidence’ that was used to convict her • assess how Lindy coped with the disappearance, inquests
• what evidence or testimony was overlooked at the trials and trials
• the evidence that made Lindy look guilty to the jury • portray the opinion of the Australian public.
• what the Australian people thought of how Azaria was killed Present your review in one of the following ways:
• if there were any external factors that influenced the jury. • an oral, written or videotaped interview with Lindy or
While you are collecting this information, assess: Michael Chamberlain
• how you think Lindy felt when the dingo took her child • a segment for a TV program such as ‘ET’, ‘At the Movies’ or
• how she felt when charged and then convicted of murder ‘The Movie Show.’ L
• what you think of the ‘forensic evidence’ presented in court.
Present your work in one of the following ways:
a a labelled timeline showing relevant events
b a PowerPoint presentation.

Fig 1.3.15

32
CHAPTER REVIEW
Remembering • carefully enter the building checking for danger
1 Name four different uses for fingerprints. • get the security camera footage
2 State the type of information gathered by forensic • get everyone to sit down
pathologists. • ask everyone to write down everything that they saw
3 List the factors that affect the rate at which a body decays. and heard
4 List three types of electronic evidence and what each can • allow people to leave the building.
show investigators. 10 You are working at the local newsagency and a man with dark
glasses and a bushy beard and moustache steals a bunch of
Understanding
magazines from the shelf. List all the observations that you
5 Explain what pattern matching is. might make in such as situation. Classify your observations as
6 Explain why bite-mark comparisons are only either extremely helpful to the investigation or not very helpful.
sometimes helpful. 11 A woman puts expensive jewellery in her handbag and walks
7 The fire brigade is called to a fire in a ‘granny flat’ at the back of out of a shop. The owner calls out and runs after her but she
54 Smokers Lane, Ashwood. After quenching the fire, quickly jumps into a waiting car which drives off. Police
firefighters enter the building. Among the smouldering remains track her down and find the jewellery hidden under a
sits a charred corpse, on a very charred chair. You are the mattress in a spare room. The woman claims that the
forensic investigator who is called to investigate the following. jewellery is hers and says that she does not know what they
a Find out the identity of the person who is supposedly the are talking about. Analyse the evidence and outline what
grandfather of the residents in the main dwelling. List what suggests that she is guilty.
you could do to confirm his identity.
Evaluating
b You suspect that the person may have been dead before
12 A person arrives at hospital with long dark bruises and
the fire was lit. Outline further evidence you might collect
swelling on the right-hand side of their face and their forearms
to confirm your suspicion.
and hands. They refuse to explain what happened.
c You ask the fire brigade to determine where and how the
a Propose a likely set of events that might explain
fire started. Outline what they might look for to answer
these observations.
these questions.
b Outline the evidence doctors at the hospital should collect
8 A hiker’s body is found in the bush. The body is relatively
to help solve the mystery.
fresh, having died in the last day or two. There are what
appear to be animal bite marks around the neck. There are 13 You are presented with two photographs, one from a security
also cuts and bruises on the body. As chief forensic examiner, camera and one from the police records. The photographs
you must determine the cause of death. Explain what you were taken with different lenses and so they are distorted and
would do in this case. cannot be directly compared by anthropometry. Propose how
you are to solve the mystery.
Analysing 14 At Customs, a man is caught smuggling eggs out of the
9 A police officer is the first to arrive at the scene of a bank country, but crushes most of them when he is taken into
robbery. The following are a series of steps that the police custody. You suspect that they are galah eggs, an illegal
officer should follow. The steps are out of order. Analyse the export but with a value of $500 each on the black market.
steps and re-order them to outline what should happen at the The man claims that they are pigeon eggs.
crime scene: a Analyse this evidence and state what makes him
• call for back-up appear guilty.
• get the names and addresses of all people present b Propose what should be done to prove his guilt.
• make sure no robbers are still present at the crime scene
Worksheet 1.4 Crossword
• clear bystanders away from the building

Worksheet 1.5 Sci-words

33
2
The periodic
table

Prescribed focus area


The history of science

Key outcomes
5.1, 5.7.1, 5.7.2

• An atom is the smallest unit of


Essentials

an element.
• An atom is made up of a nucleus
surrounded by a cloud of electrons.
The nucleus is made up of protons
and neutrons.
• Different elements can be defined by
the numbers of protons, neutrons and
electrons in the atom.
• Molecules are made up of two or
more atoms.
• Elements in the same group in the
periodic table display similar properties.
Additional

• Our understanding of the structure


of atoms has progressed
throughout history.
• The electrons surround the nucleus of
an atom in shells.
• The subatomic structure of atoms
can be used to explain the physical
properties of the elements they
make up.
• An atom can combine with other atoms
by gaining, losing or sharing electrons.
• You can refer to elements using
an internationally recognised set
of symbols.
Unit 2.1 Atoms and elements
context Atoms are the building blocks of all like air, are made up of atoms. Therefore to
matter and determine a material’s understand the world around you it is
physical and chemical properties. important you understand exactly what an
Everything you see around you is made atom is and how it behaves.
up of atoms. Even things you can’t see,

Atoms
Atoms are invisible particles that
make up all matter. It was once
thought that atoms were indivisible, but
scientists now know that atoms are made up
from even smaller particles called protons
(often shown as p), neutrons (n) and
electrons (e). Protons and neutrons are
roughly 1800 times heavier than electrons and
are located at the centre of the atom, in the
nucleus. Electrons spin fast around the nucleus
in a region of empty space.
Neutrons are neutral, and have no electrical
charge. Protons have a positive charge and
electrons have a negative charge. Opposite
charges attract each other and this keeps the
electrons from
e– Fig 2.1.2 Molecules are made up of atoms bonded together.
spinning out
from the atom.

p+ n
nucleus
n p+

e–

Fig 2.1.1 A simple model of a helium atom

Science
Clip
Now that’s small!
Although atoms are too small to see with the naked eye, scientists
can use a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) to create images
of atoms. An STM scans a very sharp needle over the surface of a
crystal to sense the atoms—much like when a person uses their
finger to read Braille. In this way, the microscope is able to Fig 2.1.3 A scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) image
construct an image of the atoms on the surface of the crystal. of the surface of a silicon crystal

35
Atoms and elements

Atomic and mass numbers Compounds


Atoms are electrically neutral and must have the same Compounds are also considered to be pure substances.
number of electrons as protons. The number of protons However, their building blocks are made up of two or
in an atom is called its atomic number. more different types of atom. These atoms are
atomic number of number of chemically bonded to each other by chemical reactions
number  protons  electrons in which they gain, lose or share electrons. Usually a
compound will have very different properties to the
The total number of particles in the atom’s nucleus
elements that make them up. For example, sugar is made
(protons  neutrons together) is called its mass number.
up of carbon atoms, hydrogen atoms and oxygen atoms.
Neutrons have no charge and while the number of
neutrons in an atom of a particular element can vary, the
number of protons and electrons is always the same. Common Chemical Common
Composition
mass number of number of compounds formula name
number  protons  electrons Water H2O 2 hydrogen Water
These numbers can be shown as: atoms,
Mass number 씮 19 1 oxygen

Symbol of the element 씮


Atomic number 씮 9 F
This indicates that the atom is fluorine and has:
Methane CH4
atom
1 carbon
atom,
4 hydrogen
Marsh gas

• 9 protons and 9 electrons


atoms
• 10 neutrons (19  9  10)
Nitrous N2O 2 nitrogen Laughing
Science oxide atoms, gas
Clip Elements 1 oxygen
atom
Warning, warning! Elements are pure substances made up of
Pure fluorine is an only one type of atom: gold contains only Sucrose C12H22O11 12 carbon Sugar
extremely dangerous gold atoms, and oxygen contains only atoms,
gas that will react oxygen atoms. Atoms belonging to the 22 hydrogen
violently with just
same element all have the same number of atoms,
about anything. It was
not successfully protons and the same atomic number. For 11 oxygen
prepared until 1886 example, all gold atoms have 79 protons atoms
and only after several and all oxygen atoms have eight protons.
scientists died trying. Today, scientists know of 118 different types
of atoms. Only 92 of these occur naturally,
the others are made solely in the laboratory
by nuclear reactions. All of these synthetic elements break H
H
down quickly into other more stable elements. Some O
O
change so quickly that few experiments have been able to H H O
H H
H H
be performed on them, or with them. O H H
Each element is given its own symbol. Those known O O
H
in ancient times often have symbols based on their H H H H O
H H
Latin or Greek names. For example, silver has the O O
H O
atomic symbol Ag from its Latin name argentium. Other H
H H
symbols come from the element’s common name such as H O
O for oxygen or C for carbon. H
O
H
It is important to note that there is a correct
way of writing symbols for elements. The first
letter is always a capital and if there is a second Fig 2.1.4 A compound is made up of many identical molecules
letter, it is always in lower case. For example, or units.
Prac 1
calcium is always written Ca, never CA or ca. p. 39
36
Worksheet 2.1 Elements
Unit
Science
Fact File Molecules and lattices

2.1
What a difference an ‘O’ makes Atoms do not normally exist by themselves but exist in
Different compounds made from the
molecules or crystal lattices. A molecule is a small
same elements can have very different group of atoms bonded or joined together. In a crystal
properties. When you combine two lattice, atoms keep bonding together to form much
hydrogen atoms with an oxygen atom larger structures. Molecules and lattices have a chemical
we make water (H2O). However, if we formula that tells what type of atoms they contain and
just add an extra oxygen atom to a
the proportion of atoms in them. The chemical formula
water molecule, we make common
household bleach—hydrogen peroxide for carbon dioxide (CO2) tells us that each molecule
(H2O2), which is poisonous, flammable contains one carbon (C) and two oxygen (O) atoms.
and even explosive! The chemical formula for table salt (NaCl)
tells us that for every one sodium ion (Na) in
the lattice there is also one chloride ion (Cl).
O
Prac 2
H H O
Mixtures p. 40
H2O
H A mixture is made of different elements or compounds
H simply thrown together. This means that no chemical
O reaction occurs. As a result, mixtures can be separated
H2O2 by simple physical techniques such as filtration or
evaporation. No formula can be written for a mixture
since each mixture can be different even when they
Fig 2.1.5 Molecules of water and the bleach hydrogen peroxide are
both made from hydrogen and oxygen atoms. contain the same materials. Mud for example, is dirt and
water. It can be stiff mud or sloppy mud,
depending on the quantities of each. Examples
of mixtures include salt water, a can of cola,
soil, air and blood.
Prac 3
p. 40

water

sugars

colourings and
flavourings

carbon dioxide

Fig 2.1.7 Soft drinks are mixtures of many compounds.


Fig 2.1.6 This is the Atomium, a 103 m high building in Brussels,
Belgium, that was built for the 1958 World Fair. The building
represents a small part of the lattice formed by iron atoms when they
form crystals, magnified 165 billion times!

37
Atoms and elements

QUESTIONS
2.1
Remembering 13 Use Figure 2.1.8 to identify and label each diagram a to e as:
1 State the smallest unit of an element. atom, molecule, compound, lattice or mixture.

2 For each of the molecules listed below, state the elements and a b
how many atoms there are of each:
a CO2 (carbon dioxide)
b H2S (hydrogen sulfide)
c C12H22O11 (sucrose)
d H2SO4 (sulfuric acid)
e CH3COOH (acetic acid) N
c d e
Understanding
3 Use Figure 2.1.2 to help you describe the structure of an atom
using the terms ‘protons’, ‘neutrons’ and ‘electrons’.
4 Explain the relationship between the number of protons and
the number of electrons in an atom.
5 Clarify the following expressions: Fig 2.1.8
a atomic number
b mass number Analysing
c nucleus 14 What information would you use to distinguish between
6 Describe how compounds are formed. atoms of different elements?
7 Use an example to outline how a mixture can be identified. 15 Use examples to distinguish between atoms and molecules.
8 Explain why a chemical formula could never be written for a 16 Distinguish between:
glass of cordial. a an element and a compound
b the element iron and an atom of iron
Applying c the compound water and a molecule of water
9 Identify which of the three subatomic particles (protons, d a compound and a mixture
neutrons or electrons): e an atom and a molecule
a is the smallest b is the heaviest
17 Atoms can be compared by examining their atomic structure.
c is positive d is negative
Copy and complete the table on page 39. N
e is neutral f spins around the nucleus
g are in the nucleus Evaluating
10 Calculate the number of protons, neutrons and electrons that 18 Deduce which of the following statements are false
would be found in each of these atoms. N and evaluate how they can be rewritten to make the
56
Fe, 59 Ni, 64 Cu, 197 Au statements true.
26 28 29 79
a The mass number is usually bigger than the atomic
11 a State three examples of compounds.
number of an atom.
b Identify where these compounds may commonly be found. b The chemical symbol for iron is FE.
12 Identify each of the following as an element, compound c Salt is the compound NaCl.
or mixture. Explain your choice for each. d Most of the atom is empty space.
a lead, Pb e A molecule is the same as a lattice.
b nitric acid, HNO3
c sea water Creating
d ammonia, NH3 19 Construct a diagram to represent:
e peanut butter a an atom of carbon, C
b a molecule of water, H2O
c a molecule of oxygen, O2
d the lattice of sodium chloride, NaCl
38
Unit
Atomic Number of Number of Number of Symbol of the

2.1
Atom Mass number
number protons neutrons electrons atom
Carbon 6 6 6 12
6
C
Sulfur 32 16
Sodium 11 12
Oxygen 8 8
Fluorine 9 19
Iodine 127 74

20 You board your spacecraft-like machine and ready yourself for atomic world of atom 40 K. Construct a story of your journey
19
subatomic miniaturisation. Your mission: to explore the to the centre of the atom, describing what you see, particle
size, distances travelled and the problems you encounter. L

INVESTIGATING
2.1
1 Check the nutrition information on the labels of: 3 Investigate your available resources (textbooks,
• a canned food encyclopaedias, internet) to find out what an isotope is.
• a milk drink Illustrate this concept using examples and diagrams.
• a breakfast cereal
• a soft drink
List the ingredients under the headings: element, compound, e -xploring
mixture. To explore some comic strips, a list of web destinations
2 Find what foodstuffs are rich in these elements: Na, Ca, Fe, can be found on Science Focus 3 Second Edition Student Lounge.
Mg, Zn, I.

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
2.1
Method
1 Making elements
1 Half-fill the beaker with the dilute sulfuric acid.
Aim 2 Place both electrodes into the beaker so that they do not
To form oxygen and hydrogen gas from electrolysis of water touch each other.
Equipment 3 Connect the electrodes to the 9–12 V power supply and
switch on.
• large beaker
4 Record what you observe at both electrodes.
• 9–12 V power supply or battery
• alligator clips Questions
• 2 metal electrodes
1 Explain how this experiment shows that water is a compound
• 0.1 M sulfuric acid
and not an element.
• safety glasses
2 Identify if one electrode produced more bubbles >>
than the other.
39
Atoms and elements

2 Making a compound
rubber hose
Aim glass tubing
To prepare the compound carbon dioxide rubber stopper
Equipment
• 2 test tubes • limewater
2M
• test-tube rack • marble chips hydrochloric limewater
• drinking straw • 2 M hydrochloric acid acid
• 1-hole rubber stopper with
glass tubing marble
chips test-tube
Method rack

Part A
Fig 2.1.9
1 Place 5 mL of the limewater in a test tube. Place a fresh straw
in the test tube and gently blow bubbles through the
limewater. Record your observations as you finish blowing in 3 Record what you see happening in both test tubes.
the test tube, then again, when the tube has been left standing Questions
in a rack for 5 minutes. 1 Identify the gas in the air we breathe out that causes a change
Part B in the limewater.
1 Add a couple of marble chips to another test tube. Cover with 2 Evaluate evidence to determine whether the gases made in
2 cm of hydrochloric acid. Parts A and B are the same.
2 Stopper immediately and pass the rubber tubing into a test 3 Is carbon dioxide an element, compound or mixture? Explain.
tube filled with limewater (see Figure 2.1.9).

3 Compounds in soft drinks 3 Find the mass of the empty beaker.


4 Pour the entire can into a measuring cylinder. Record the
Aim actual volume.
To compare the amount of carbon dioxide in soft drinks 5 Empty the drink into the beaker and stir until it is ‘flat’.
Equipment 6 Find the mass of the beaker and flat drink.
• access to an electronic balance with a full scale reading above 7 Repeat for other drinks or share your results with
400 g and an accuracy of 0.1 g other groups.
• 500 mL measuring cylinder Questions
• large beaker (over 400 mL), stirring rod
1 Assess if all the cans contain their advertised volume.
• a selection of 375 mL cans of soft drinks including ‘lite’ drinks
2 Calculate the mass of CO2 in each drink.
(Note: if the scale cannot read to 400 g, then choose smaller
‘mixer’ cans of tonic and dry ginger.) 3 Predict which drink you would expect to go ‘flat’ first. Which
drink would you expect to stay ‘fizzy’ for longest?
Method 4 Lite soft drinks are lighter than normal drinks. Assess the
1 Create a table like the one below. validity of this statement.
2 Record the mass of a full, unopened can. 5 Define the term ‘lite’.

Mass of Mass of Mass of


Mass of full Volume of Mass of CO2
Drink Ingredients empty can empty beaker and
can (g) drink (mL) (g)
(g) beaker (g) flat drink (g)

40
Structure of the
Unit 2.2 periodic table
context The periodic table is one of the
most important tools for chemists
because it helps them to
understand and predict the
properties of the elements. In
particular, the periodic table shows
which elements belong to certain
‘families’ giving them similar
chemical properties.

The periodic table


The periodic table arranges the elements according to
their atomic numbers.
Horizontal rows in this table are called periods and
are numbered 1 to 7. Vertical columns are called groups
and are given the Roman numerals I to VIII. In general,
elements in the same group tend to have the same
chemical properties. For example, all the elements in
Group I are highly reactive metals while all the elements
in Group VIII are very stable and unreactive gases.

Features of the periodic table


If you take a close look at the properties of elements in
the periodic table, you will find many trends. These
trends help scientists to predict both the chemical and
physical properties of each of the elements. About 80 per
cent of the elements in the periodic table are metals.
Fig 2.2.1 Once you know how the periodic table is structured,
The elements on the left-hand side of the periodic table you can use it to predict how atoms will bond with each other,
are all metallic. The most reactive metals are at the how violently they will react and what their chemical formula
bottom left of the table (for example, francium, Fr). will be … very useful!
Elements on the right-hand side of the periodic table
tend to be non-metals. In general, the most reactive Science
non-metals are in the upper right (fluorine, F) although Fact File
all the elements in Group VIII are chemically inert.
Different-sized atoms
Separating the metals and non-metals is a set of elements
The element uranium, number 92
that act a little like both—the semi-metals (sometimes
on the periodic table, is the largest
called the metalloids). Silicon, germanium and arsenic and heaviest naturally occurring
are examples of some common semi-metals. element. Hydrogen, number 1 on
The periodic table also has three special blocks the periodic table, is the smallest,
without normal group numbers: transition elements, lightest atom. The nucleus of a
the lanthanides and the actinides. Every one of hydrogen atom is just a single
Prac 1 Prac 2 proton; all other elements have
these elements is a metal. Many of the lanthanides p. 45 p. 46 neutrons in the nucleus as well.
and actinides are radioactive.

41
42

Structure of the periodic table


Group I Group II Group III Group IV Group V Group VI Group VII Group VIII
H He
Period
hydrogen helium
1 1 2
Li Be B C N O F Ne
Period lithium beryllium boron carbon nitrogen oxygen fluorine neon
2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
Period sodium magnesium aluminium silicon phosphorus sulfur chlorine argon
3 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr
Period potassium calcium scandium titanium vanadium chromium manganese iron cobalt nickel copper zinc gallium germanium arsenic selenium bromine krypton
4 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36
Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe
Period rubidium strontium yttrium zirconium niobium molybdenum technetium ruthenium rhodium palladium silver cadmium indium tin antimony tellurium iodine xenon
5 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54
Cs Ba La* Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn
Period cesium barium lanthanum hafnium tantalum tungsten rhenium osmium iridium platinum gold mercury thallium lead bismuth polonium astatine radon
6 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86
Fr Ra Ac** Rf Ha Sg Ns Hs Mt Ds Rg Uub Uut Uua Uup Uuh Uus Uuo
Period francium radium actinium rutherfordium hahnium seaborgium nielsbohrium haffium meitnerium darmstadtium roentgenium
7 87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118

Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu
Lanthanides cerium praseodymium neodymium promethium samarium europium gadolinium terbium dysprosium holmium ersium thulium ytterbium lutetium
58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71

Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr
Actinides thorium protactinium uranium neptunium plutonium americium curium berkelium californium einsteinium fermium mendelevium nobelium lawrencium
90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103

Legend metals H symbol


liquid at room temperature hydrogen name
metalloids 1 atomic number
gas at room temperature non-metals transition elements
noble gases (non-metals)
Ce lanthanides Lu
Fig 2.2.2 The periodic table Th actinides Lr

Fig 2.2.3 Special blocks in the periodic table

Worksheet 2.2 Who am I?


Unit
e–

The role of electrons 4

2.2
It is the electrons in an atom that determine all the 3
e– e– 2
chemical reactions that an atom takes part in. Chemical 1
e– e–
reactions may occur when atoms bump into each other. e– Hve
The protons and neutrons are relatively unaffected by the
bump, being at the centre of the atom in the nucleus. e– e–
The outermost electrons, however, are greatly affected e–
and are often ‘grabbed’ or shared by other atoms.
Electron shells
Electrons do not orbit just anywhere around the atom,
but in shells or energy levels, which are numbered 1, Fig 2.2.4 The structure of an atom showing its energy levels. The
2, 3 and 4. It is easy to picture these shells if you negative electrons repel each other because they have the same charge.
imagine a pea as the nucleus of the atom. The pea sits
in the middle of a table tennis ball (our first shell). All
four go into the outer shell: its electron configuration is
this sits inside a tennis ball (second shell), which sits
written as 2,8,4.
inside a basketball (third shell), which sits inside a
The electron configurations of the first 20 elements
beach ball (fourth shell).
are shown in the table below.
Electrons repel each other because of their negative
charges and so need to have a certain amount of space.
Only two electrons fit on the small inner shell Periods, groups and electrons
(otherwise they would be too close) but more electrons An element’s position in the periodic table is strongly
can fit onto the next three shells because those shells determined by its electron configuration. Notice that:
are bigger. • the period number of an element is determined by
The number of electrons that can actually fit in each how many electron shells contain electrons
shell is shown below. • the group number of an element is equal to the
First shell Second shell Third shell Fourth shell number of outer shell electrons (helium, He, is an
exception).
Maximum of Maximum of Maximum of Maximum of For example, F has the configuration 2,7. It has two
2 e 8 e 18 e but 32 e but shells, so it is placed in Period 2. It has seven electrons in
stable if it stable if it its outer shell and so is placed in Group VII.
holds only 8 holds only 8 The chemical properties of an element are determined
by how many electrons are in its outer-most shell. If two
Electron configuration atoms are in the same group, they have the same number
The arrangement of electrons in the shells is called the of outer shell electrons and will have similar chemical
atom’s electron configuration. properties. However, as you move down a group, more
Silicon (Si) has 14 electrons. Two electrons go into shells are filled and the atoms get bigger so slight
the first shell, eight into the second and the remaining differences in properties can be expected.

Group Group Group Group Group Group Group Group


I II III IV V VI VII VIII
Period H He
1 1 2
Period Li Be B C N O F Ne
2 2,1 2,2 2,3 2,4 2,5 2,6 2,7 2,8
Period Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar
3 2,8,1 2,8,2 2,8,3 2,8,4 2,8,5 2,8,6 2,8,7 2,8,8
Period K Ca
4 2,8,8,1 2,8,8,2 43
Structure of the periodic table

QUESTIONS
2.2
Remembering 13 At normal room temperature, identify how many non-metals
1 List the names of the semi-metals. exist as:

2 List the symbols of the non-metals. a solids

3 List five common transition elements. b liquids

4 List four elements in Group I. c gases

5 List four elements in Period 2. 14 Identify three non-metallic elements that:

6 Recall how many electrons need to be in each shell in order a are gases at room temperatures
for it to be stable. b are liquids at room temperatures
c are in Group V
Understanding
d are in Period 2
7 Copy the following and modify any incorrect statements so
they become true. e would be related to chlorine
a Horizontal rows in the periodic table are transition metals. f would have larger atoms than those of oxygen
b Vertical columns are called ‘periods’. 15 Identify in which groups most metals and non-metals
are found.
c The most reactive metallic atom would be lithium, Li.
16 Identify five physical properties that can be used to
d The most reactive non-metallic atom would be fluorine, F.
describe elements.
e The transition elements are all metals.
17 Identify three elements that:
8 Define the term ‘energy levels’.
a are in Group VI
9 Describe what the following have in common:
b are in Period 3
a atoms in the same group
c would be in the same ‘family’ but not in Group VI
b atoms in the same period
d would show similar chemical properties but are not in
10 Use the periodic table to predict the mass number of: a, b or c above
a a hydrogen atom with 3 neutrons N e are noble gases
b a chlorine atom with 20 neutrons
Analysing
c a nickel atom that has 30 neutrons
18 Identify the following elements and classify them as either
Applying metal, non-metal or semi-metal:
1 Identify the Roman numeral for each of the following Cl, Na, Ar, Si, Cu, Ge
numbers. 19 a Copy the following table into your workbook with space for
a 5 eight more rows. N
b 4 Element
Atomic Number of Number of
c 7 (name and
number protons electrons
d 2 symbol)
12 Identify the metal(s) that: 7 Nitrogen (N) 7 7
a is the only metal that is a liquid at 25°C
b are in Period 3
c are in Group IV

44
Unit
b Here is information about eight different atoms. Evaluating

2.2
Distinguish between them by finding their atomic number, 20 The symbols of some elements come from their Greek or
name and symbol, number of protons and number of Latin names. Use the periodic table to determine the names of
electrons and place all this information in the table. these elements:
i an atom with 8 protons a cuprum
ii an atom with 18 protons b aurum
iii an atom with an atomic number of 3 c plumbum
iv an atom with an atomic number of 19 d wolfram
v an atom in Period 2, Group VII e bromos
vi an atom in Period 3, Group II 21 Plumbing pipes were once made of lead. Deduce where the
vii an atom of phosphorus words ‘plumber’ and ‘plumbing’ came from. L
viii an atom of aluminium
Creating
22 Construct a timeline to represent the historical development of
the periodic table. Include dates, scientists’ names and their
main contribution.

INVESTIGATING
2.2
These scientists—Curie, Mendeleev, Einstein, Nobel, Lawrence,
Fermi—had elements named after them. Investigate your available e -xploring
resources (for example, textbooks, encyclopaedias, internet) to To find out more about the elements, a list of web
find out about their lives and the important work done by each. destinations can be found on Science Focus 3
Write a short biography to summarise your information. L Second Edition Student Lounge.

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
2.2
Method
1 Investigating a physical 1 Measure the mass of each sample of material in grams.
property 2 You must also find the volume. Use a mathematical formula
Aim for samples with a regular shape such as a cube. You need to
develop a way of measuring volume accurately for strange
To compare the density of some elements and compounds
shapes. Volume must be measured in ‘centimetres cubed’ or
Equipment cm3. You can measure in mL, but you will need to convert
• cubes or cylinders of aluminium, brass, lead, wood, ice your measurement into cm3 (1 mL = 1 cm3). N
• a collection of small items such as pebbles, candles, 3 Draw a series of sketches showing how you intend to
chunks of concrete or cement, copper wire measure the volume of the irregular shapes.
• access to an electronic balance, rulers, beakers and 4 Collect all the necessary measurements for each sample
measuring cylinders you have.
>>
45
Structure of the periodic table

5 Test whether each sample floats on water. Questions


6 Density measures the mass of material that fits into a certain 1 Using your results, propose a rule about the density of objects
volume. Use the following equation to calculate the density of and floating on water.
each sample. N 2 Identify how to convert between mL and cm3.
mass (g) 3 The density of water is 1.0 g/cm3. How does your answer
density =
3
volume (cm ) compare to this? Identify the errors that may have caused
7 Place your results in a table like one shown below. your answer to be different.
8 Take measurements to find the density of a sample 4 What is heavier, a tonne of lead or a tonne of feathers?
of water. N Account for your answer.

Mass Dimensions Volume Volume Density


Sample Float/sink
(g) (cm) (mL) (cm3) (g/cm3)

2 Comparing elements 5 Place some of the sample in water: does it float? Watch for
any reaction.
Aim 6 Test whether the sample conducts electricity.
To examine the physical and chemical properties of
common elements
Questions
1 Identify the properties that are similar in each of the metals.
Equipment
2 Identify the properties that are similar in each of
• samples of sulfur, aluminium, carbon, silicon, tin, zinc, lead,
the non-metals.
magnesium, calcium, iron
• steel wool
• 3 to 4 test tubes and rack DC ammeter
• power pack about 2 V or battery AC
VOLTS
• wires with alligator clips 0
0.2 0.4
0.6

0.8
AMPS
• light globe

1.0

• safety glasses 5A V
1A
power pack
Method
1 Construct a table in your workbook like the one below.
2 Describe the appearance of each sample.
3 ‘Shine’ the sample with the steel wool. Record its material to
appearance now. be tested
4 Try and bend the sample. Does it bend or crumble?
switch
alligator clip
Fig 2.2.5 Does it conduct?

Metal or Action with Electrical


Element Appearance Shiny or dull Floats or sinks
non-metal water conductivity

46
Unit 2.3 Using the periodic table
context Although all atoms are made up of the nucleus. This determines if an atom is
protons, neutrons and electrons, they can reactive or inert, what sort of chemical
have vastly different properties. The reactions it can take part in, and even if the
chemical properties of an atom are element is a metal or non-metal.
almost entirely determined by its electron
configuration or how the
electrons are arranged around

Atoms that react and atoms


that don’t
Group VIII (sometimes called Group 0) contains
elements that are stable and rarely react. Group VIII
elements are called the noble gases. Helium (He)
was the first to be discovered—by the British
scientists Lord Rayleigh and Sir William Ramsay in
1894. Ramsay later discovered all the other noble
gases and added them to Group VIII. The noble gases
are stable because He and Ne atoms have their outer
shells filled and Ar, Kr, Xe and Rn have eight
Fig 2.3.1 Elements of Group VIII are known as the noble gases.
electrons in their outer shell. They have a stable electron configuration and don’t need to lose or
All other atoms react so that they can become as gain electrons. This makes them very unreactive. Many signs are
stable as the noble gases: they also want a filled outer filled with the noble gas, neon.
shell, or eight electrons. To do this, atoms gain name: chloride. Both ions are stable and happily exist as
electrons, lose electrons or sometimes share electrons. NaCl … sodium chloride (common salt).
Knowing this allows us to start to predict what atoms The attraction between the positive
will do in a chemical reaction. and negative ions holds the salt crystal
together as shown in Figure 2.3.2. Ionic
Ions charges for several common elements are
Prac 1 Prac 2
shown in the table on page 48. p. 51 p. 52
If the number of electrons changes in an atom, it
becomes electrically charged and is called an
H I H
ion (a Greek word for ‘the ones that move’).
• If an atom loses electrons, it becomes a positive ion.
• If an atom gains electrons, it becomes a negative ion. I H I
To see an example of how ions form, let’s look at I H I
how common table salt, sodium chloride, is formed. H I H
If a sodium atom meets a chlorine atom they will H I H
rearrange their electrons so that both can become more H I H
stable. The sodium has only one electron in its outer shell I H I
so the easiest way for it to become stable is to lose this I H I
electron to form the positive sodium ion Na. On the
other hand, chlorine has 7 electrons in its outer shell so H I H
the easiest way for it to become stable is to gain an extra
electron and make the negative ion Cl. It also has a new Fig 2.3.2 The sodium chloride lattice: positive and negative attract
47
Using the periodic table

Ionic charges for several common elements


Element Atomic Number of Electron The atom The atom Most likely Most likely
number electrons configuration could lose could gain scenario ion formed
H 1 1 1 1e 1e Uncertain H or H
He 2 2 2 Unreactive No ion formed
Li 3 3 2,1 1e 7e Lose 1 e Li
Be 4 4 2,2 2e 6e Lose 2 e Be2
B 5 5 2,3 3e 5e Lose 3 e B3
C 6 6 2,4 4e 4e Uncertain
  
N 7 7 2,5 5e 3e Gain 3 e N3
O 8 8 2,6 6e 2e Gain 2 e O2
F 9 9 2,7 7e 1e Gain 1 e F
Ne 10 10 2,8 Unreactive No ion formed

Sodium Chlorine
Before After Before After Metals, non-metals and
p 11 11 p 17 17 semi-metals
 
e 11 10 e 17 18 As mentioned, the elements in the periodic table
Charge Neutral 1 Charge Neutral 1 can be classified as either metallic, non-metallic or
semi-metallic depending on their
physical and chemical properties. These
Science The odd couple: H and He properties are mainly determined by the
Clip Hydrogen has only one electron so it can electron configuration of the atom, although
Prac 3
either lose it to become the hydrogen the atomic weight also plays a role. p. 53
Helios, the Sun
ion, H, or it can gain another one to
Helium (He) was
become the hydride ion, H. It can What is a metal?
discovered on the Sun In the periodic table, metallic elements outnumber non-
before it was
therefore act like a Group I or Group VII
discovered on Earth. element, depending on what it comes metallic elements four to one.
This is because every into contact with. • Metals allow heat and electricity to pass easily
element emits specific Helium’s two electrons fill its outer through them. They are excellent conductors of
colours of light when shell and therefore it acts like to the heat and electricity.
it is heated—a unique • Metals shine when polished or freshly cut. Metals are
set of colours called a
noble gases of Group VIII. It could be
placed in Group II but is described as lustrous.
spectrum that is like a
fingerprint for an usually placed in Group VIII • Metals can be hammered into new shapes. Scientists
element. When because of family call this malleable.
scientists looked at the resemblances. • Metals are ductile. This means that they can be
light coming from the stretched and drawn into long thin wires.
Sun, they noticed a
‘fingerprint’ they’d
never seen before—
Those electrons again! Non-
Metals have little control over their Name of
this was the spectrum metallic Ion formed Name of ion
for helium. As a result, outer electrons, while non-metals have atom
atom
helium was named tight control over theirs and are greedy
after the Greek name F Fluorine F Fluoride
for more. In a chemical reaction, non-
for the Sun, helios. Cl Chlorine Cl 
Chloride
metals try to ‘rob’ metals of their outer-
shell electrons. The metal forms a 
Br Bromine Br Bromide
positive ion and the non-metal forms a negative ion. O Oxygen O 2
Oxide
The name of the non-metal often changes too, as
N Nitrogen N3 Nitride
shown in the table opposite.
48
Unit
• Metals are solid at normal room temperature.
(Mercury, however, is a liquid.)

2.3
• Metals have high densities. Most metals
sink in water.
• Metals have atoms that form lattices.
Prac 4 Prac 5
p. 54 p. 54
About non-metals
Non-metals share the following properties.
• All (except carbon) are either poor conductors of
electricity or do not conduct at all (insulators).
• They have relatively low melting and boiling
points and are usually liquids or gases at normal
room temperature.
• They are brittle and tend to crumble into powders. Fig 2.3.3 Metals (from left to right): copper, liquid mercury and
magnesium
• They are dull, having little or no shine.
• Group VIII elements can exist as single atoms.
• Most other non-metallic atoms form molecules
containing two atoms. Some have more atoms
than this, and a few form lattices. Prac 6
p. 55
Semi-metals
The semi-metals or metalloids act like non-metals in
most ways. They do, however, have some properties
that are metallic: most importantly, they can
conduct electricity.

Worksheet 2.4 Periodic table properties

Worksheet 2.5 The periodic table Fig 2.3.4 Non-metals (clockwise from top left): sulfur, bromine
(liquid only), phosphorus, iodine and carbon

QUESTIONS
2.3
Remembering Understanding
1 State the electron configuration of silicon, Si. 8 Explain what information the electron configuration of an
2 State whether metal atoms in a sample of a metal are present atom provides.
as molecules or lattices. 9 Describe the electron configuration of magnesium.
3 Recall four non-metallic elements and their ions. 10 Describe what happens when a sodium ion forms.
4 State which type of element tends to attract electrons: a metal 11 Explain the difference between the formation of a positive ion
or a non-metal. and a negative ion. Use a diagram to clarify your answer.
5 a State another name for the semi-metals. 12 Explain why sodium chloride contains ions but has no
b List the properties of semi-metals. overall charge.
c Name two examples of semi-metals. 13 Explain why H could be placed:
6 Recall three positive and three negative ions by name a in Group I
and symbol. b in Group VII
7 State the number of electrons each shell normally holds. c by itself
>>
49
Using the periodic table

14 Helium could be placed in Group II but is normally placed 21 Identify the ions that these atoms would probably form.
in Group VIII. Explain. a Na
15 Define the following words. b S
a lustrous c I
b malleable
Analysing
c ductile
22 Distinguish between atoms that are reactive and those that
d brittle are not reactive.
e semi-metal L 23 Compare a chlorine atom with a chloride ion.
16 Outline the likely charges of the ions that belong in 24 Copy the table below and complete it. N
Groups I, II, III, V, VI, VII and VIII.
Evaluating
Applying
25 We don’t worry about the number of neutrons when
17 Identify which group in the periodic table contains elements calculating the charge of an ion. Justify this statement.
that rarely react.
26 Propose why you think metals might be malleable and ductile
18 Identify the period and group these atoms belong to: while non-metallic solids are usually brittle.
a an atom with configuration 2,4
Creating
b an atom with configuration 2,8,6
27 Construct a mobile of an atom. You could use different
c an atom with seven electrons
coloured plasticine to represent protons, neutrons and
d an atom with 15 electrons electrons. Wire could represent each electron shell. Shells
19 Write the electronic configuration of these atoms. increase in diameter as you move from the first shell
a an atom in Period 2, Group VI outwards. Use string to assemble the atom.
b an atom in Period 3, Group VIII 28 Construct a table to classify the following properties into those
that belong to metals and those that belong to non-metals:
c an atom in Period 1, Group VIII
ductile, normally gas or liquid, dense, malleable, brittle,
d an atom of Mg (be careful)
lustrous, excellent conductors, dull, poor conductors,
e an atom of S (be careful) normally solid.
20 Copy out the table on ionic charges (on page 48). Extend and
complete it to include all the elements up to calcium, Ca.

Number of Number of Number of Is it an atom or


Overall charge Symbol
protons neutrons electrons an ion?
8 6 8
10 10 10
11 10 10
17 16 18
15 15 18
19 18 1 K
20 19 2
8 7 10 2

50
Unit
INVESTIGATING
2.3

2.3
Investigate your available resources (textbooks, encyclopaedias, c How do they affect us?
internet) to research the following. d Create a warning leaflet that could be placed in particular
1 Find out about fireworks: areas to alert people of the potential dangers of exposure
a when fireworks were first used and by whom to lead and mercury. L
b what determines the different colours that you see. 3 Find out about the Iron Age and how it represented a massive
2 Find information about the metals lead and mercury. advance in the technology of food collection and warfare. Find
when it occurred and explain how iron (and its alloy, steel)
a Find out why they are cumulative poisons and what
changed the lives of people at that time.
this means.
4 Investigate the meaning of the term electronegativity and the
b Find out the main sources of these metals.
role this property plays in determining how reactive an atom is.

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
2.3
2 Briefly place the stick soaked in water in a blue Bunsen flame,
1 Firework colours then remove it. Record any colour that it gave the flame.
Aim 3 Briefly place each of the other sticks in the flame and record
the colour you see.
To identify elements by the coloured flames they produce
4 Optional: point a spectroscope towards a bright portion of the
Equipment sky (not the Sun). Draw the spectrum you see. Observe each
• Bunsen burner, bench mat and matches of the coloured flames through the spectroscope, recording
• tongs what you see.
• safety glasses
• wooden icy-pole sticks soaked overnight in distilled water and
solutions of barium chloride, copper chloride, potassium spectroscope
chloride, sodium chloride and strontium chloride
• spectroscope (optional)
look for colour
Method tongs
1 Copy the following table into your workbook. List all the
solutions used. blue flame
icy-pole stick
Non-
Metallic
Colour metallic Bunsen burner
Compound element
Solution of element
formula in
flame in
solution
solution
Distilled
H2O
water bench mat
Barium
BaCl2 Ba Cl Fig 2.3.5 What colour is produced?
chloride
>>

51
Using the periodic table

grains of starch Questions


covered with
explosive black powder 1 Clarify the purpose of the stick soaked in water only.
2 Explain why the water needs to be distilled and not from
propellant the tap.
charge
3 Identify which of the solutions you tested would be best to
colour a firework:
a red
b green
c blue/green
4 The grains that spray out and give colour are made of starch
soaked in the appropriate salt. Construct a diagram of a grain
grain of 2 salts that would burn and give the colours:
fuse a blue/green, then purple
b red, then green
Fig 2.3.6 A firework ‘grain’ 5 Propose where the electrons got the energy to jump shells.

2 Ions get together! Questions


1 Identify whether the overall charge of each compound is
Aim positive, negative or neutral.
To construct models of ionic compounds using an ion jigsaw 2 Propose a rule that allows you to predict the formula
Equipment of a compound. N
• photocopy of worksheet 2.3
3K and 3 K 2K
Worksheet 2.3 Ions

NaH
Method Mg2H O2I
1 Cut around the jigsaw pieces on the sheet provided by Al3H N3 I
your teacher.
FI
2 Copy the table below into your workbook with space for
nine rows.
3 Use the jigsaw pieces to ‘create’ the following compounds:
sodium fluoride, sodium oxide, sodium nitride, magnesium To make a compound: magnesium fluoride
fluoride, magnesium oxide, magnesium nitride, aluminium
fluoride, aluminium oxide, aluminium nitride FI
Put all the relevant information about each compound in the table.
Mg2H MgF2
5 Re-label some of the pieces to create:
I
• lithium chloride F
• calcium bromide
• barium sulfide
Fig 2.3.7 You need these jigsaw pieces.

Positive ion Negative ion Compound Total positive Total negative Overall charge
Compound
used used formula charge charge of compound

52
Unit
2.3
Method
3 Metal crystals
1 Place 40 mL of deionised water in the beaker and sprinkle
Aim 0.5 g of agar into it. Warm gently over the Bunsen burner,
To examine the crystal shapes formed by silver as it displaces out stirring until dissolved.
of solution 2 Remove the beaker and add the 0.3 g sample of silver nitrate
to it. Stir until dissolved.
Equipment
3 Pour the agar solution into a Petri dish and gently place the
• sterilised Petri dish
zinc strip in the centre.
• 250 mL beaker
• Bunsen burner 4 Allow the agar to cool and set into a jelly.
• tripod 5 Place the lid on top.
• gauze mat 6 Inspect the metal crystals that form over the next few days. If
• bench mat available, use a stereo microscope for a better view.
• 1 cm 쎹 4 cm strip clean zinc sheet 7 Draw the shape of the crystals you see in each group’s Petri
• one 0.3 g sample of silver nitrate dish. Describe any colour changes.
• 0.5 g agar powder
• 40 mL distilled water Questions
• stirring rod 1 Explain why the crystals were grown in agar and not in
• stereo microscope (optional) a liquid.
• safety glasses
2 Would these crystals be molecules or a lattice?
• gloves
Explain.
(Note: 0.3 g of lead nitrate, copper sulfate or tin chloride can be
used instead of silver nitrate, although the crystals are not nearly 3 Describe what happened to the colour of the agar with
as well formed or as large.) dissolved silver nitrate. This is also what happens if silver
nitrate comes into contact with your skin.
4 Petri dishes and agar are often used in pathology. Investigate
Safety
!
how and why they are used.
Silver nitrate badly stains the skin. Lead nitrate is very
poisonous and reactive. Wear safety glasses and
gloves at all times when dealing with these.

Part A
0.3 g sample folded paper

stirring rod
Part B

0.5 g agar
in 40 mL
water
agar solution
with dissolved
zinc sheet
sample

Petri dish

Fig 2.3.8 Making an agar plate

53
Using the periodic table

?
4 More crystals DYO cork stopper

Aim
Design your own experiment to make silver metal crystals
copper wire
Safety copper

! Silver nitrate badly stains the skin. Lead nitrate is very


poisonous and reactive. Wear safety glasses and
foil

gloves at all times when dealing with these. silver nitrate


solution
Equipment
• 100 mL conical flask, cork or rubber stopper
• silver nitrate solution
• 10 to 15 cm length of copper wire and/or strip of copper foil
• safety glasses and gloves
Method Fig 2.3.9
1 Use Figure 2.3.9 to design your own method for another way
to prepare silver crystals. Question
2 Have your teacher check your method and, if it is approved, 1 Copper ions give solutions a blue colouring. Describe two
set up your experiment. observations to support this inference.
3 Place the flask in a safe, dark place for a few days.

5 Changing the properties Method


of metals 1 Copy the table below into your workbook.

Number of bends Effect of


Aim Treatment
needed to break pin treatment
To observe the effect of heating and cooling on crystal size
None
Equipment
Normalising
• four steel hairpins (steel is about 98% iron)
• steel wool Quenching
• Bunsen burner Tempering
• bench mat
• matches
• 250 mL beaker filled with water 2 Repeatedly bend a hairpin until it breaks. Count how many
• wooden peg bends it took.
• safety glasses 3 Normalising: take another hairpin and heat the middle in a
• pliers (optional) blue Bunsen burner flame until it is red hot. Avoid touching
the red hot pin or leaving it unattended until it is cool.
4 Quenching: heat another hairpin in the same way, then drop it
into a beaker of water.

54
Unit
5 Tempering: heat and quench the remaining hairpin, then

2.3
hairpin
peg polish it with steel wool. Re-heat the shiny part of the pin.
blue flame Remove the pin occasionally to check whether it has gone
top of blue cone
blue. Once it has, remove the pin from the flame and allow
it to cool on the mat.
6 Bend each of the pins until they break. Record your counts.

Questions
1 Describe what the terms ‘normalising’, ‘quenching’ and
‘tempering’ mean.
2 Identify the treatment that caused the steel to become:
a more brittle
cold water b more malleable
quenching 3 Fast cooling produces small crystals; slow cooling makes
bigger ones. Identify which of the samples produced the
Fig 2.3.10 biggest crystals.
4 Propose a reason why bigger crystals make steel tougher.
5 Distinguish between iron and steel.

6 Using metals to make


burning match
non-metals
Aim
To make a non-metal compound from a metal
Equipment
• samples of magnesium, iron and copper
• 2 M hydrochloric acid in a dropping bottle
• test tubes and rack
• matches Fig 2.3.11 Making and testing a gas
• safety glasses
Method
1 Place the samples of metal in separate test tubes. Questions
2 Use the dropping bottle to add sufficient hydrochloric acid to 1 Identify the gas present if a lit match:
cover the metal in each. a causes a ‘popping’ sound
3 If bubbles form, test the type of gas produced by placing a lit b flares up brightly
match near the mouth of the tube. You may need to place a
c is extinguished
stopper in the mouth to gather sufficient gas to test.
2 Classify the gases in Question 1 as elements or compounds.
4 Record your observations.
3 Draw a conclusion about the reaction of metals with acids.

55
Unit 2.4 Families of elements
context Elements in the same group of the periodic table share
many chemical properties due to the fact that they all
have the same number of electrons in their outermost
shell. As a result, we group these elements together
into ‘families’.

Fig 2.4.2 Sodium burning in water. Reactions become more violent


as you move down Group I.

They all react violently with water, producing an


alkaline (basic) solution and hydrogen gas, which often
ignites due to the heat produced.
2Na  2H2O 씮 2NaOH  H2
sodium water sodium hydrogen
Fig 2.4.1 Elements belong in families: they are different metal hydroxide gas
but have many similarities.
Properties of Group I elements (the alkali metals)

Group I: the alkali metals Group Melting Boiling Uses of Group I


I point (°C) point (°C) compounds
The alkali metals:
• form +1 ions Alloys, carbon dioxide
Li 181 1342
• are far too reactive to be found free in nature, but are filters, water absorbent
found in mineral salts Vapour lamps,
• have typical metallic properties fertilisers, sedatives, in
• are very chemically reactive. Na 98 883 the manufacture of
Lithium, sodium and potassium are light enough to paper, soap, textiles
float on water and are so soft that they can be cut with and other chemicals
a knife. They all burn in chlorine gas (and in the other
Alloys, coolant in
Group VII gases) and produce similar white salts. K 63 760
nuclear reactors
Lithium, for example reacts via:
Radioactive tracer used
2Li  Cl2 씮 2LiCl
Rb 39 686 to detect brain
lithium metal chlorine gas lithium chloride tumours

56
Unit
Group II: the alkaline earths

2.4
These metals all act in a similar but slightly less
reactive way to Group I. Prac 1
p. 61

Properties of Group II elements (the alkaline earths)


Amorphous carbon is
Group Melting Boiling Uses of Group II the black powder on
II point (°C) point (°C) compounds the top of burnt toast,
burnt marshmallows,
Watch springs, spark- charcoal and coal.
Be 1278 2970
free tools
Alloys, rust protection,
Mg 649 1107
antacid, laxatives Graphite is a soft, slippery
Alloys, quicklime in solid that conducts
Ca 839 1484 electricity. It is a wonderful
mortar, plaster, cement
lubricant and forms
Fallout from nuclear the electrodes in many
Sr 769 1384 batteries and the brushes
explosions
in electric motors.
Used in medical
Ba 725 1640
diagnosis, rat bait

Group IV
Group IV begins with atoms that are non-metals The ‘lead’ in pencils is
(carbon and silicon), moves through the semi-metal a graphite–clay mix.
germanium, then the metallic atoms of tin and lead, to
finish with the synthetic element ununquadium.
Carbon exists in molecules in every living thing on
Earth such as trees and tigers. It also exists in anything
that was once living. Wood and paper come from trees
and so contain carbon, as does leather since it came from
an animal. Pure carbon exists in three different forms or Diamonds are the hardest
allotropes: amorphous carbon, diamond and graphite. All known natural substance.
three allotropes have very different properties despite all Only 20 per cent of diamonds
being made up of the same type of atoms. are gem-grade. The rest are
used to cut glass, metal and
Diamond is an allotrope or form of carbon and is the masonry or are crushed to
hardest known natural substance. Diamond needs to be make abrasives.
heated to about 800°C to be converted to graphite. To
turn graphite into diamond a pressure of between 50 000
and 120 000 of normal air pressure is needed.
Silicon is found as silicon dioxide and metal silicates,
which together make up 75 per cent of the Earth’s carbon atoms
crust—sand, clay, asbestos, quartz and many gemstones
contain silicon. It is the major component of glass.
Dental drills often have
Germanium was predicted to exist 15 years before its diamond tips. This SEM
discovery and was even given a name: eka-silicon. image shows one drilling
Germanium is used as the catalyst in fluorescent lights into a tooth.
and its oxides are used in the production of lenses for
optical instruments such as microscopes. Both
silicon and germanium are semiconductors and Fig 2.4.3 Carbon is found naturally as amorphous carbon (charcoal),
are widely used in electronic components. graphite (the lead in pencils) and diamonds (used for jewellery and
dental drills).
Tin and lead are typical metals.
Prac 2
p. 61 57
Families of elements
Science
Group VII: the halogens Clip
The halogens: Dead bumblebees!
• form ions with a charge of 1. The Swedish chemist Carl Scheele separated chlorine gas in 1774
• are never found in their pure form in nature but are and wrote that he was glad that he ‘did not take more than a tiny
in various types of salts, including sea salt whiff’ as ‘a large bumblebee died instantly when put into the
• have coloured and poisonous vapours vapour’. Scheele often tasted his discoveries and this is probably
• all form molecules, each being made up of two atoms. what killed him at the age of 43.

Properties of Group VII elements (the halogens)


Group State at room temperature Melting Boiling Uses of halogen compounds
VII point (°C) point (°C)
Prevention of tooth decay, etching of glass,
F Greenish yellow gas 220 188
insecticides, Teflon and the anaesthetic Fluothane
Disinfectant, sterilising agent, bleach, food
Cl Green gas 101 35
seasoning, PVC, neoprene rubber, insecticides
Br Red liquid with red vapour 7 59 Photographic film, sedatives
I Black solid with purple vapour 114 184 Disinfectant, control of goitre

Fig 2.4.4 Moving down Group VII,


the halogens become larger and less
reactive. This is demonstrated clearly
in their reactions with iron. Although
each reaction produces brown vapour
and a brown solid, the iron glows less
intensely when the reactant changes
from Cl2 to Br2 to I2.

Science
Clip
Have you seen my ring?
Sir Humphry Davy (1778–1829)
demonstrated that diamond was
a form of carbon by burning a Cl2
Br2
diamond that belonged to his I2
wealthy wife! All that was left
was carbon dioxide. atoms get larger and less reactive
iron
wool
iron crystals
gas out wool of
iron wool iodine
chlorine bromine
gas in liquid
heat

heat heat

Hot steel wool glows brightly The iron glows less The iron glows even less
when chlorine passes over it. brightly when bromine brightly with iodine.
Brown smoke and brown is used. Brown smoke Brown smoke and brown
solid form. and brown solid form. solid form.
58
Unit
Science
Group VIII: the noble Clip The transition metals

2.4
The transition metals include many of our most
gases Squeaky voices
useful, colourful and valuable metals such as iron,
The noble gases are colourless gases Our voices go high
and squeaky when we
copper, zinc, gold and silver. The transition metals
that occur naturally in the have very similar properties: for example, the Period
breathe in helium from
atmosphere. All can be separated by a party balloon. 4 metals—iron, cobalt and nickel—are all magnetic.
distillation of liquid air. They are Because helium is All transition metals tend to be relatively hard and
very stable and react only in rare lighter than air, our most have similar, high melting points.
and extreme circumstances. Helium vocal cords vibrate
more quickly, making
is safe and light enough to be used Worksheet 2.4 Periodic table properties
the pitch go higher.
for balloons and airships. Balloons of
Don’t try this, though!
the other noble gases get Worksheet 2.5 The periodic table
Some people have
progressively heavier: although the actually died from
atoms get bigger, they also get performing this trick.
heavier and more dense.

helium neon argon krypton xenon

rises rises falls falls falls


quickly slowly slowly quickly very quickly
density of gas increases
4 20 40 84 131
2
He 10
Ne 18
Ar 36
Kr Xe
054

mass of atom increases

Fig 2.4.5 The atoms of noble gases get bigger and heavier as we go Fig 2.4.6 The salts of transition elements are very colourful.
down the group.

QUESTIONS
2.4
Remembering 6 Describe what happens to the melting points and boiling
1 Name three alkali metals. points of the halogens as you move down the group.

2 Name three noble gases. 7 Describe some typical reactions of the alkali metals.

3 State the element(s) in group four that are considered 8 Describe the main uses for:
semi-metals. a diamond
b graphite
Understanding
c silicon
4 Describe the advantages of using helium and not hydrogen
in airships. d germanium
5 Describe what happens to the mass and density of the noble 9 Explain how carbon could be classified as a semi-metal, not a
gases as you move down the group. non-metal.

>>
59
Families of elements

Applying c are used for jewellery


10 Identify which of the halogens is used as: d are ‘silver’ grey in colour
a a disinfectant e have symbols from old Greek or Latin names
b a sedative 14 Identify which halogens would be solid, liquid or gas at
c a way of controlling goitre these temperatures:

d a bleach a 20°C

e an anaesthetic b 100°C

11 Identify which of the alkali metals: c 199°C

a has a melting point of 98°C d 150°C

b is in caustic soda Evaluating


c is used as an air filter 15 Evaluate if these statements about Group IV are true or false.
d would be the most reactive a The group contains both metals and non-metals.
e would have the smallest atoms b All the elements in this group contain four electrons in their
12 Identify which of the alkaline earths: outer shell.
a would be closely related to potassium c Diamond and graphite are forms of silicon.
b is used to kill pests d Carbon is in all living things, but not in things that
are dead.
c is found in plaster
16 Carbon has been known for over 2000 years. Propose why it
d is used to protect iron from rusting
was found much earlier than most other non-metals.
e would be the least reactive
13 Identify three transition elements that: Creating
a are in Period 5 17 Construct tables of the melting points, boiling points and uses
of the elements in Groups III, V and VI like the tables shown in
b are magnetic or can be made magnetic
this section. N

INVESTIGATING
2.4
Investigate your available resources (for example, textbooks,
encyclopaedias, internet) to find out the following.
1 What is goitre and how it is treated? Write a set of
guidelines for a person with goitre that could help them
manage the condition.
2 What are the different noble gases used for? Make a
summary of this information including pictures showing
each gas in use.
3 Find out what lead and tin are used for and why.
4 Carbon forms a compound called methane with the chemical
formula CH4. Silicon form silane, SiH4 when combined with
hydrogen. Research and compare the properties of these two
compounds. How are they similar and how are they different?
Where are they used?

60
Unit
PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
2.4

2.4
4 Add one drop of phenolphthalein.
1 The alkaline earths
5 Record your observations.
Aim
Questions
To examine the reactivity of the alkaline earth elements
1 Identify which alkaline earth is more reactive, Mg or Ca.
Equipment
2 Describe what happens to reactivity as we move down
• crucible • matches
Group II.
• lid and clay triangle • safety glasses
• 2 test tubes and rack • distilled water 3 Assess whether Group II metals are more or less reactive than
• Bunsen burner • a 5 cm strip of magnesium Group I.
• tripod and bench mat • steel wool or emery paper
• phenolphthalein • small sample of calcium
Part A Part B
Method
tongs
Part A lit match
1 Clean the magnesium strip with steel wool and then spiral it
loosely around a pen. distilled water
2 Place the coil in a test tube and cover it with distilled water. coil of Mg
3 Watch very carefully over the next five minutes. Look for distilled water
bubbles.
Ca
4 If nothing happens, heat gently over a yellow flame.
5 When finished add 1 drop of phenolphthalein to the solution.
Record the colour. Bunsen
burner
Part B Phenolphthalein

1 Put about 5 cm of distilled water into a test tube.


2 Add a piece of calcium.
3 Test the gas given off with a lit match.
Fig 2.4.7

2 Group IV Method
1 Describe carefully the appearance of each sample.
Aim
2 Test whether each conducts electricity using the apparatus
To examine family similarities in Group IV elements
used in Prac 2 of Unit 2.2 (page 46).
Equipment
Questions
• samples of charcoal
1 Classify the Group IV elements as metals, non-metals or
• graphite
semi-metals.
• silicon
• lead 2 Describe what happens to the properties of Group IV as we
• power pack or battery move down the group.
• leads with alligator clips
• light

61
Science Development of
Focus the periodic table
Prescribed focus area The development of the periodic table
Tables of elements became more complex as more
The history of science elements were discovered. In 1829, the German
The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle suggested that chemist Johann Dobereiner built on the earlier work
all matter was made from four ‘elements’—earth, air, fire of Dalton and others to show that groups of elements
and water—and the theory lasted for nearly 2200 years. It acted remarkably similar to each other, as if they
successfully pushed the ideas of another ancient Greek, belonged to the same ‘family’. This meant their
Democritus, into the background. His idea was that all physical properties (colour, melting and boiling
matter was made of particles that he called atoms. points, density, hardness) and
In the twelfth century, alchemists attempted to chemical properties (the way they Science
change base metals such as copper and iron into gold. In reacted with other chemicals) were Clip
doing so, they learned a lot about the chemicals and alike. Being able to group similar Musical elements
elements they worked with. This new knowledge made elements together was the
Newlands recognised
the ancient Greek ideas of the four elements seem less beginning of the periodic table. that every eighth
than satisfactory. In 1864, the English chemist element was similar,
Over the next 600 years, scientists continued to John Newlands arranged the 60 or like the notes used in
improve their understanding of the properties of matter. so known elements in columns of music. His Law of
increasing atomic mass. When each Octaves was not
In 1808 the English scientist John Dalton proposed a
accepted at the time
new ‘atomic theory’ that stated the following. column contained seven elements, and occasionally his
• All matter was composed of tiny particles the elements along each horizontal fellow scientists
called atoms. row tended to be similar. laughingly asked him
• Atoms could not be broken into smaller particles. Unfortunately, the rows of his table if his elements could
• Atoms of the same element are alike. also contained some dissimilar play a tune!
• Atoms join together in different ratios. elements, but at least it was a start.
Dalton also produced a table showing symbols and
The modern periodic table
atomic masses of the elements, but Dalton was not
100 per cent correct. Later scientists discovered that it is In 1869, Russian chemist Dmitri Ivanovich
possible to break down atoms into protons, neutrons and Mendeleev arranged the known elements into
electrons. Dalton went on to produce a table of the horizontal rows of increasing atomic mass and put the
known elements and their atomic weight. known ‘families’ into vertical columns.

Fig 2.4.8 John Fig 2.4.9


Dalton’s table of Dmitri Ivanovich
elements Mendeleev

62
Science
Clip
The perfect vodka!
It is thought that Mendeleev
structured his periodic table in
rows and columns because that
was the way the card game of
patience or solitaire was played.
Before developing his table,
Mendeleev was best known for
his long hair and beard (which
was only trimmed once a year)
and for the fact that he and his
mother hiked 6000 km across
Russia in 1848 to get to his
first day of university in
St Petersburg. He also spent
time perfecting the formulation
for the perfect vodka!

Fig 2.4.10 Dmitri Mendeleev’s 1869 version of the periodic table

To do this he needed to leave gaps in the table, promethium (61) and technetium (43). The use of
predicting that these were elements not yet discovered. nuclear reactors and the explosion of nuclear weapons
Using ‘family likeness’, Mendeleev predicted what have added to the known elements. A number of new
chemical properties these unknown elements could artificial (synthetic) elements have been created that
have. When eventually these elements were discovered, have an atomic number greater than atomic number 92,
their properties closely matched his predictions. uranium. In general, these elements rapidly decay into
At the same time, German chemist Julius Lother more stable elements. However, the periodic table
Meyer constructed a similar table to that of Mendeleev allows us to predict what their properties are likely to be
by comparing the physical properties of elements with without even seeing them.
atomic mass. He did not leave gaps for undiscovered
elements and went into print in 1870, one year after
Mendeleev. Despite losing the race to be first, Meyer is Science
acknowledged as a joint ‘father’ of the periodic table.
The present periodic table (see Figure 2.2.2) is very
Fact File
much like the later table designed by Meyer. Not a bad guess!
The final ‘modern’ periodic table was the result of Mendeleev left spaces in his table for undiscovered elements and
work by a young English physicist, Henry Moseley, in predicted their properties. The table shows his predictions for the
element that is below silicon on the periodic table, and that he
1913. He suggested that the physical and chemical named Eka-silicon. The element was discovered in 1886 and is
properties were related to the atomic number, rather now called germanium (symbol Ge).
than mass. He refined the previous periodic tables to
come up with a more accurate one with fewer errors and Mendeleev’s
Property Germanium
fewer missing elements. prediction

The final steps: artificial elements Atomic mass 72 72.6


Even today, the periodic table continues to grow. As a Colour Dirty grey Grey/white
greater understanding of the structure of atoms Density (g/cm ) 3
5.5 5.35
developed, scientists can now use nuclear reactions to
Boiling point (ºC) Below 100 84
artificially create (synthesise) missing elements, such as

63
Chapter review

STUDENT ACTIVITIES
1 a John Dalton proposed his atomic theory in 1808. Outline 3 Choose one of the scientists mentioned in this chapter and
his theory. research their background. Find out:
b Explain which part of Dalton’s atomic theory was later a when they lived and died (or are they still alive?)
found to be incorrect. b what contribution they made to the knowledge of the
2 Dalton developed a way to measure the relative atomic mass periodic table, elements and science
of the different elements. Using examples, research and c whether they worked with other scientists, and if so,
describe the meaning of the term ‘relative atomic mass’. with whom.
Present your research to the class as a short presentation
(2 to 3 minutes long). L

CHAPTER REVIEW
Remembering 4 Explain why elements of the same ‘family’ are always found in
1 State if the following are true or false. the same group.

a The mass number of an atom is the number of 5 Hydrogen and helium can be placed in a number of places in
protons it has. the periodic table. Explain.

b Mercury is a solid at room temperature. 6 Describe what happens to the size and weight of elements as
we move down any group.
c There are millions of different types of atoms.
7 Look back at the main scientists and their contributions to the
d Group V atoms all have five electrons in their outer shell.
understanding and development of the structure of the atom
e Period 4 atoms all have four shells in use. and the periodic table. Summarise this information in a table.
f An atom with an electron configuration of 2,8,5 would be 8 Explain what happens if a potassium atom meets a fluorine
in Period 5, Group III. atom in a chemical reaction.
g Carbon dioxide is an element. 9 Carbon also forms a molecule CCl4. Predict the compounds
h Air is a compound. that would form out of chlorine and the other Group IV
i The element carbon is found in all living things. elements.
j In an atom, the number of electrons equals the number Applying
of protons. 10 Draw a simple outline of the periodic table, then use different
k Ions are always charged. colours to demonstrate the location of:
l Ions are formed when atoms lose or gain protons. a the noble gases
m If an atom loses electrons it becomes a negative ion. b the transition metals
n An atom that has gained three electrons would now be an c the semi-metals
ion of charge –3. d the non-metals
Understanding 11 Identify which groups these families are in:
2 Describe the position of electrons in an atom and how many a halogens
electrons each shell can hold. b inert gases
3 Define what the period number and the group c alkaline earths
number represent.

64
12 Identify the most likely charge of ions formed from Creating
an atom of: 20 Construct models of:
a 5 electrons a the molecules H2O, H2O2 and other molecules found
b 17 electrons in this unit
c oxygen b the lattices of diamond and sodium chloride
d neon c a mixture that could represent a soft drink
e Group II
f Group V
13 Copy and complete the table. N

Number Number Number


Atomic Mass Atomic
Atom of of of
number number symbol
protons neutrons electrons
Sulfur 32 16
Hydrogen 1 0
Beryllium 9 4
Iodine 127 74

Nickel 28 59 59
28
Ni

Analysing
14 Distinguish five ways metals are different to non-metals. 21 a Research an element of your choice and gather the
15 Distinguish between a chlorine atom and a chloride ion. following details.

16 Calculate how many p, n and e these atoms have. N i name of element, symbol, atomic number and
35 whether it is a metal, non-metal or semi-metal
a 17
Cl
ii appearance: include a colour photograph and state
3
b 1
H (solid, liquid or gas) at room temperature
197 iii at least two uses of the element
c 79
Au
iv a brief history of its discovery
17 The outer electrons control what the atom does in a chemical b Present your information as a poster.
reaction. Analyse reasons why this is the case.
Worksheet 2.6 Crossword
Evaluating
18 Propose why francium, Fr is more reactive than sodium, Na.
Worksheet 2.7 Sci-words
19 Propose why fluorine, F is more reactive than iodine, I.

65
3
Chemical
change

Prescribed focus area


The nature and practice of science

Key outcomes
5.2, 5.7.3

• New compounds are formed when


Essentials

atoms rearrange themselves into


different combinations.
• Chemical reactions can be described
by word equations and chemical
equations that use the formulae for
each chemical.
• Combustion reactions burn a substance
in oxygen.
• Decomposition reactions break apart
a substance.
• Precipitation reactions form a
solid precipitate.
• Neutralisation happens when acids and
bases are mixed.
• Reactions between an acid and a
carbonate produce carbon dioxide.
• Reactions between an acid and a metal
produce hydrogen gas.
• Indicators determine the pH of an acid
or base.
Additional

• Acids, bases and salts can be


distinguished by certain characteristics.
Unit 3.1 Chemical reactions
context Chemical reactions are occurring whenever fireworks explode, iron rusts or you
constantly inside us, around us, in the digest food. However, not all chemical
soil, in the sea, in the air and throughout reactions are obvious. Scientists must look
the universe—absolutely everywhere! for certain signs to tell them when a reaction
A chemical reaction is taking place is taking place.

Physical change
There are many cases where a
substance changes the way it looks,
feels or behaves, even when no chemical change
has taken place. If no new substance is formed
during the change, then the process is classified
as a physical change. When you break a plate,
you have changed the way the plate looks but
you have not created any new substance. This
then is a physical change. It is important to be
able to identify physical changes to distinguish
them from chemical changes.
Physical changes are happening whenever:
• materials or objects are broken or crushed
into smaller pieces
• changes of state happen. A physical change is
happening, for example, when a solid melts
to form a liquid, or when a liquid boils to
form a gas
• a mixture is created by mixing different
materials together without them reacting
• something is dissolved in a liquid. For Fig 3.1.1 Explosions are chemical reactions that happen incredibly
quickly, releasing large quantities of heat and light energy.
example, the characteristics of sugar change
when it is dissolved in water. The characteristics of the
water change too. No new substance has been formed,
however, and you can still taste the sugar and can easily get it
back by evaporating off the water. Dissolving one material in
another creates a mixture known as a solution
• mixtures are separated, such as when sand is filtered from water
or fresh water is distilled from seawater.

Chemical change
The key difference between a physical change and a chemical
change is that new substances are formed in a chemical change.
When a chemical change occurs, scientists say that a chemical Fig 3.1.2 Melting is a physical change. When ice cubes
melt, the solid water forms liquid water. Although both
reaction has taken place. solid and liquid water behave differently, no new
substance has formed.

67
Chemical reactions
Chemical changes happen regularly in everyday life.
For example, it’s difficult to eat a lump of raw dough.
Chemical equations
Cook it, however, and the dough changes into a new Chemists write chemical equations to show and
substance called bread. By heating the dough in the explain what is happening in a chemical reaction.
oven, you have caused a chemical reaction to occur. Chemical equations are useful because they provide a
Anywhere you see a new substance being produced, you quick and easy way to represent complex reactions.
can be sure that there has been a chemical change— Word equations
whether it is cooking meat, letting an apple turn brown The simplest form of chemical equation is a word
in the sun or leaving iron to rust in the rain. equation. Word equations represent chemical reactions
Chemical reactions are happening whenever: by using the full names of all the chemicals involved.
• food is cooked Word equations take this general form:
• fruit and vegetables ripen
• something that was living rots and decays substance A  substance B  substance C  substance D
• something is burnt In this word equation, substance A reacts with
• something explodes substance B to produce substances C and D. Substances
• a metal corrodes. A and B are known as the reactants and substances C
and D are known as the products. This can be expressed
Prac 1
p. 72 even more generally using another word equation:
Science
reactants  products
Clip
Consider, for example, the reaction between
Chemical reactions are
magnesium and copper oxide. This reaction produces
all around you!
copper and magnesium oxide and so can be written as
When you strike a match, you
are setting off several chemical
the word equation:
reactions that you can detect magnesium  copper oxide  copper  magnesium oxide
with your senses. As the match
is burning you can see energy reactants  products
being emitted as light, feel the
heat energy being emitted and Using formulae
smell new gases being A chemical equation tells you even more information if
produced. Once the match has
it includes the element symbols and chemical formulae
burnt, you are left with a black
piece of charcoal, which is very of all the substances involved. In the above reaction, for
different from what you started example, the reactants are magnesium (symbol Mg) and
with. All of these are signs copper oxide (formula CuO). The products are copper
that a chemical reaction is (Cu) and magnesium oxide (MgO).
taking place.
The reaction can therefore be written as:
Cooking involves chemical
reactions to make the Mg  CuO  Cu  MgO
substances more palatable
and softer and making them Solid, liquid, gas or aqueous?
easier to digest. A chemical equation is even more useful to chemists
Rusting happens because of a if they know whether the reactants and products are
slow chemical reaction in
solids, liquids, gases or aqueous, meaning that the
which iron reacts with water
and the oxygen in the air to
chemical has been dissolved in water to make an
form a completely new aqueous solution.
substance called rust. Rust To make this clear in the chemical equation,
contains iron but is very chemists use the labels (s) for solid, (l) for liquid, (g) for
different from it. Iron is hard gas and (aq) for aqueous, usually presented as subscripts
and grey while rust is orange
and flaky.
written just below the chemical they are referring to. In
the above equation, for example, all the substances are
Fig 3.1.3 Chemical changes happen solid. The chemical equation then is best written as:
regularly in everyday life.
Mg(s)  CuO(s)  Cu(s)  MgO(s)

68
Unit
3.1
Fig 3.1.4 The reaction of magnesium and copper oxide is spectacular. Fig 3.1.5 A colour change is a sign that a chemical reaction is taking
place. Indicators are weak acids or bases that change colour because
of the strength of another acid or base.

As another example, consider what happens when a Science


solution of sulfuric acid reacts with solid sodium Clip
carbonate. Liquid water, carbon dioxide gas and a Carbon monoxide
solution of sodium sulfate are produced. This can be poisoning
written simply using the word equation: Carbon monoxide (chemical
sulfuric sodium carbon sodium formula CO) is a deadly gas
emitted by cars. It is produced
acid  carbonate  water  dioxide  sulfate
when carbon-based fuels like
(aq) (s) (l) (g) (aq) petrol burn in a limited supply
The whole equation can be written to give even of oxygen. Haemoglobin is the
molecule in red blood cells that
more information by using chemical formulae instead of
transports oxygen around your
the full name of each chemical. Using chemical body. Carbon monoxide, which
formulae, the equation becomes: is odourless and colourless, is
H2SO4 (aq)  Na2CO3(s)  H2O(l)  CO2(g)  Na2SO4(aq) extremely toxic because it binds
to haemoglobin 200 times more
strongly than oxygen does. This
Go to Science Focus 4 Unit 1.1
leaves no space for the oxygen,
so your cells quickly become
Signs of chemical change Fig 3.1.6 Bubbles in a liquid or solution starved of oxygen and die …
There are several signs that indicate whether a chemical are an indication that a chemical reaction and so do you!
is happening. Here hydrogen gas is
reaction has occurred. A chemical reaction has definitely
bubbling out of a reaction between
occurred if one or more of the following is observed. magnesium metal and hydrochloric acid.

Permanent colour change


A permanent change in colour is an indication that a A precipitate forms
chemical reaction has taken place. For example, if you A solution is made up of a solute (the substance that
bleach your hair with peroxide, toast bread to make it dissolves) and a solvent (the liquid that the solute
brown (or black!) or fry an egg to make it white. dissolves in). A salt solution, for example, is made when
solid sodium chloride (table salt NaCl) is dissolved in
A gas is given off water (H2O). Solutions are always clear, although they
If a reaction is taking place in a liquid, it is very easy to can be coloured.
see a gas being produced because bubbling will be Sometimes a precipitate forms when two solutions
observed. With other reactions it can be more difficult to are mixed. A precipitate is an insoluble substance. It
see the gas because most gases, like oxygen, hydrogen, does not dissolve in water and first appears as cloudiness
nitrogen and carbon dioxide, are colourless and odourless. in the solution. If the solid precipitate particles are
69
Chemical reactions
Fig 3.1.7 Lead iodide
precipitate is a distinctive
yellow colour.

Fig 3.1.8 This baby


mouse has been
genetically modified to
glow. A gene from a
naturally bioluminescent
jellyfish was inserted into
the egg from which the
mouse developed. The
release of energy is an
indication that a chemical
reaction is happening.

Heat is generated when fossil fuels such as petrol, oil


and coal are burnt. These are examples of exothermic
reactions. The heat produced can be converted into
heavy enough then they will sink to the bottom of the other forms of energy and then used to do things like
solution. The appearance of a precipitate is make cars move, produce electricity in power stations
an indication that a chemical reaction has and heat your home.
occurred. The burning of magnesium ribbon is an exothermic
Go to Science Focus 3 Unit 3.3 Prac 2 reaction that releases both heat and light energy. The
p. 72
Energy is produced or absorbed word equation for this reaction is:
Many chemical reactions produce or absorb energy in magnesium  oxygen  magnesium oxide  energy
the form of heat, light or sound. It can also be written as an unbalanced
Reactions that absorb energy are called chemical equation:
endothermic. The general equation for an endothermic
Mg  O2  MgO  energy
reaction can be written as: Prac 3
p. 73
reactants  energy  products
If an endothermic reaction occurs in a test tube, you
will feel the test tube getting colder because the reaction
Why do chemical reactions occur?
is absorbing the heat energy from its surroundings. Most chemical reactions need some energy before they
Chemical cold packs, for example, work by absorbing can occur. For example, a sparkler lit for a birthday party
heat from injuries and therefore work using an needs a flame to get it going. It then keeps burning until
endothermic process. all of the chemicals have reacted.
Photosynthesis is one endothermic chemical reaction For some reactions, the energy needed to get them
that is vital to life on Earth. Plants contain a green dye started is very small and so they occur on their own,
called chlorophyll that absorbs energy from the Sun. simply by taking the heat energy from the environment.
Without this energy, the reaction of photosynthesis Rusting of iron is an example of a chemical reaction that
doesn’t happen. The overall chemical equation for the occurs (slowly) without the need for any extra energy.
photosynthesis reaction can be written as a word Chemical reactions that can proceed by themselves, like
equation: rusting, are known as spontaneous reactions. The
sparkler reaction is also classified as spontaneous because
carbon dioxide  water  energy  glucose  oxygen the reaction keeps going once it has been started. It needs
or an unbalanced chemical equation: no more energy to keep it going.
CO2  H2O  energy  C6H12O6  O2 Other reactions need a continual energy input to
keep them going. The electrolysis of water splits water
Reactions that produce energy such as heat or light into hydrogen and oxygen gases. This reaction needs a
are known as exothermic. The general word equation continuous electric current for it to continue. Stop the
for an exothermic reaction is: current and the reaction stops too. These reactions are
reactants  products  energy known as non-spontaneous reactions.
70
Unit
QUESTIONS
3.1

3.1
Remembering d Two colourless solutions at room temperature are mixed.
1 List four examples of a physical change. After a minute, the temperature of the mixture is 60°C.
2 State the fundamental difference between a physical and a e Ice is taken from the freezer and left on the bench. The
chemical change. temperature rises from 0°C to 20°C and the ice melts.
3 List four signs of chemical change. f Yellow sulfur powder and iron filings are heated in a
crucible. After heating, only a black solid remains.
4 List the signs of chemical change you would observe when
you strike a match. Analysing
5 Specify what happens in: 15 Classify the following as examples of chemical change or
a an exothermic reaction physical change.
b an endothermic reaction a cutting up cheese
c a spontaneous reaction b making toast
d a non-spontaneous reaction c burning gas
d melting chocolate
6 State an example of each of the reactions in question 5.
e freezing cordial
Understanding f water evaporating
7 Define the term solution. L g putting a soluble aspirin tablet in water
8 Explain what is meant by a solution is clear, but not
Evaluating
always colourless.
16 Justify why lighting a sparkler is considered a spontaneous
9 Describe what happens when a precipitate forms.
reaction and propose other spontaneous reactions you might
10 Burning methane (natural gas) is a spontaneous reaction but find in your everyday life.
you need to light a match to make it burn. Explain why.
Creating
Applying 17 Construct word equations for the following reactions.
12 Identify two common examples of a chemical change and two
a When copper is added to nitric acid, copper nitrate,
of a physical change.
nitrogen monoxide and water are formed.
13 For each of the following reactions, identify: b If sulfuric acid is poured onto solid sodium carbonate,
a the reactants bubbles of carbon dioxide are produced, as well as water
b the products and sodium sulfate.
c whether the reaction is exothermic or endothermic c Magnesium burns easily in oxygen, producing
magnesium oxide.
d whether the reactants or products contain more energy
d During photosynthesis, the Sun’s energy, carbon dioxide
Reactions:
and water are used by green plants to produce glucose
i water  energy  hydrogen  oxygen
and oxygen.
ii methane  oxygen  carbon dioxide  water  energy e An iron nail exposed to air and water will rust, forming
14 For each of the following, identify whether a chemical change hydrated iron oxide.
has occurred and give a reason for each choice. f When solutions of lead nitrate and sodium iodide are
a A student mixes two unknown solutions together and mixed, a precipitate of yellow lead iodide is formed, as well
notices a cloudiness forming. as sodium nitrate in solution.
b Solid purple iodine crystals are heated slightly and a purple 18 Design an experiment to demonstrate how a cold pack works
cloud of iodine gas is observed. and perform your experiment for the class.
c When nitric acid is poured onto limestone, bubbling
is seen.

71
Chemical reactions

INVESTIGATING
3.1
1 Use your available resources (for example, textbooks,
encyclopedias, internet) to investigate the following tasks.
e -xploring
Acid rain is causing significant damage to forests,
a Research how a cold pack works, including whether it is a
monuments and historical buildings in certain parts of the world.
chemical or a physical change.
To find out more about acid rain, a list of web destinations can be
b Design a box that could be used to sell a cold pack. On the found on Science Focus 3 Second Edition Student Lounge.
back should be instructions for the user, and information a Research the chemical reactions that cause acid rain
that explains how the pack works. L to form.
c Predict whether a heat pack would be endothermic b Research the chemical reactions that happen when acid
or exothermic. rain reacts with buildings.
2 Find out how light sticks work. Explain why a light stick c Assess the damage that acid rain has caused to the natural
cannot go forever. and built environment.
d Write a letter to the government explaining the problems
associated with acid rain. In your letter, recommend action
that should be taken to reduce the possible damage caused
by acid rain. L

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
3.1
Method
1 Chemistry in the kitchen ? 1 Follow the recipe for baking your favourite biscuits or muffins.
DYO 2 Before putting them in the oven, list all the physical changes
Aim that the ingredients have gone through (for example, did you
To identify the physical and chemical changes that occur melt butter?).
during baking
3 Place the biscuits or muffins in the oven and watch as the
Equipment ingredients undergo a chemical reaction.
• ingredients and kitchen utensils to make your favourite biscuit
Questions
or muffin recipe or pre-made cake-mix
• access to an oven 1 Identify the changes that occurred during the baking and
explain why you think these are chemical or physical changes.
2 Compare the characteristics of the mixture before and
after baking.

• test-tube rack • dilute nitric acid


2 Signs of chemical change • thermometer • dilute sodium hydroxide
Aim • 5 test tubes • dilute sodium sulfate
(1 with stopper) • dilute copper sulfate
To observe changes during chemical reactions
• dropper or Pasteur pipette • dilute barium nitrate
Equipment • solid copper carbonate • lab coat
• splint • Bunsen burner • magnesium • safety glasses
• matches • test-tube holder • solid zinc
72
Unit
(Note: 1.0 M is an appropriate concentration for these solutions, 3 Add a small piece of magnesium to 2 cm of nitric acid in a

3.1
but anything between 1.0 M and 2.0 M would be suitable.) test tube. Stopper the tube to collect some gas. Have your
Method lab partner light a splint and place it near the mouth of the
test tube.
1 Copy the following results table into your workbook.
4 Put about 2 cm of the dilute barium nitrate solution in a test
Reactant(s) Observation Conclusion tube. Add the dilute sodium sulfate solution to the barium
nitrate solution using a dropper or Pasteur pipette.
Copper carbonate
5 Record the temperature of 2 cm of the nitric acid solution.
Nitric acid and Add 2 cm of sodium hydroxide solution and record the
magnesium new temperature.
Dilute barium nitrate 6 Place a small piece of zinc into 2 cm of dilute copper sulfate
and sodium sulfate solution. Record your observations.
Dilute barium nitrate Questions
and sodium sulfate 4 Identify the gas formed in the reaction in step 2.
Dilute nitric acid and 5 Describe what happened when you placed the lit splint near
sodium hydroxide the mouth of the test tube in step 3. What does this test tell
you about the gas in the test tube?
Zinc and dilute
copper sulfate 6 Propose where the white precipitate in step 4 might have
come from.
2 Carefully heat a small amount of copper carbonate in a test 7 State whether the reaction in step 5 is endothermic
tube. Ensure that the test tube is pointed away from people. or exothermic.
Stop as soon as you see a colour change. Record your
8 Predict what you think would happen if the zinc in the reaction
observations.
in step 6 was replaced with silver.

3 Light sticks: Questions


chemiluminescence 1 Compare the brightness of the light sticks.
2 Predict what would happen to an activated light stick if you
Aim put it into the freezer.
To investigate the effect of adding energy to a reaction 3 Discuss some uses for light sticks.
Equipment
• two 250 mL beakers
• ice
light stick light stick
• hot tap water
• 2 light sticks (from scuba-diving store)
Method
1 Set up two beakers: one with a mixture of ice and water, the
other with hot water. Your beakers should be filled to the
200 mL mark.
2 Activate your light sticks by bending them. This snaps the ice hot
capsule inside and allows the chemicals to mix. water water
3 Place one light stick in ice and the other in hot water.
4 After a few minutes, take them out and compare the intensity
of the light. Fig 3.1.9

73
Combination, combustion
Unit 3.2 and decomposition
context Although each substance is unique, general categories. Combination, combustion
similar substances behave in a similar and decomposition reactions are three
way in chemical reactions. This allows general classes of chemical reactions that
chemists to classify reactions into several occur when chemicals combine or break apart
to form new substances.

O
+ O C O
C
O

C + O2 CO2

Fig 3.2.2 One atom of carbon combines with one molecule of oxygen
to form one molecule of carbon dioxide.

Combustion reactions
Ever since the first cave dwellers learnt to use fire,
people have been using combustion reactions to keep
warm, to cook food, to give light, to scare off wild
animals and to forge metals into tools and weapons.
A combustion reaction is simply burning a
Fig 3.2.1 A bushfire is a combustion reaction in which timber, leaves substance in oxygen. This means that oxygen gas (O2) is
and grass burn in oxygen. The most obvious product is the black always a reactant. The products will vary, depending on
carbon and charcoal that the fire leaves in its path. The reaction is the substance that is burnt.
highly exothermic, releasing heat and light energy.
Compare two gases, methane (CH4) and ethane
(C2H6). Both burn in oxygen in a very similar way, giving
Combination reactions out lots of heat in an exothermic combustion reaction.
In combination reactions, different substances combine Word equations:
to form just one new substance. These reactions have methane (g)  oxygen (g)  carbon dioxide (g)  water (g)
the general equation:
ethane (g)  oxygen (g)  carbon dioxide (g)  water (g)
x  y  xy
Unbalanced chemical equations:
For example, carbon and oxygen combine to form
CH4(g)  O2(g)  CO2(g)  H2O(g)
carbon dioxide. This is shown as a word equation:
carbon  oxygen  carbon dioxide C2H6(g)  O2(g)  CO2(g)  H2O(g)
A chemical equation: Balanced chemical equations:
C  O2  CO2 CH4(g)  2O2(g)  CO2(g)  2H2O(g)
O2 is used instead of just O because the oxygen in 2C2H6(g)  7O2(g)  4CO2(g)  6H2O(g)
the air around us exists as pairs of atoms known as
diatomic molecules. Diatomic means that two oxygen
Go to Science Focus 4 Unit 1.1
atoms bond together to form a stable molecule.
74
Unit
Science
Reactions can sometimes fall into more than one
Clip general category. Combustion reactions, for example,

3.2
How a bullet works can also be combination reactions. Magnesium oxide is
A combustion reaction occurs produced when you burn magnesium metal in oxygen.
when a bullet is fired. The Its equation can be written as follows.
combustion of the chemical
A word equation:
propellant in the bullet case
produces a gas which expands magnesium  oxygen  magnesium oxide
and forces the bullet out of the
barrel at great speed.
An unbalanced chemical equation:
Mg(s)  O2(g)  MgO(s)
A balanced chemical equation:
Prac 1 Prac 2
2Mg(s)  O2(g)  2MgO(s) p. 78 p. 78

Decomposition reactions
The term decomposition is often used to describe the
rotting of animal or plant matter caused by bacteria
and exposure to air. Chemists, however, use the word
decomposition to describe a specific set of
chemical reactions.
Decomposition reactions are the opposite of
combination reactions. One substance breaks down to
Fig 3.2.3 The combustion of a chemical propellant forces a bullet form two or more new substances. The general equation
from a barrel. for decomposition reactions can be written:
xy  x  y
For example, household bleach or hydrogen peroxide
(H2O2) spontaneously decomposes to form oxygen gas
and water. The equation for this reaction is written
as follows.
A word equation:
hydrogen peroxide (l)  oxygen (g)  water (l)
An unbalanced chemical equation:
H2O2(aq)  O2(g)  H2O(l)
A balanced chemical equation:
2H2O2(aq)  O2(g)  2H2O(l)

Science
Clip
Phlogiston
Before scientists learnt about the chemistry of combustion, many thought
that substances only burned because they contained an imaginary element
called phlogiston. They believed that when a substance was burned, its
phlogiston was released into the atmosphere. Only the ashes would be left
behind. When magnesium ribbon is burnt, its ash is heavier than the metal
ribbon it started as. This indicates that the magnesium metal must be
Fig 3.2.4 Magnesium burns in oxygen and releases intense light that gaining something from the air rather than losing phlogiston. These
is dangerous to look at. This reaction is both a combustion reaction observations suggest that the phlogiston theory was incorrect!
(involving oxygen) and a combination reaction (combining Mg and O2).

75
Combination, combustion and decomposition
Science
Clip
Airbags
It’s hard to believe that a decomposition reaction saves
lives every day! Inside the airbag in a car is a chemical,
sodium azide, which decomposes explosively when
triggered into sodium and nitrogen. Amazingly,
100 grams of sodium azide forms about 56 litres of
nitrogen in 0.03 seconds which then inflates the airbag.
The chemical equation for the reaction is as follows.
Word equation:

sodium azide (s)  sodium (s)  nitrogen (g)


Unbalanced chemical equation:

NaN3(s)  Na(s)  N2(g)


Balanced chemical equation:

2NaN3(s)  2Na(s)  3N2(g)

Fig 3.2.5 Carbonic acid (H2CO3) decomposes


spontaneously over time to form carbon dioxide and water.
This reaction is what puts the fizz in soft drinks:
H2CO3(aq)  H2O(l)  CO2(g).

Thermal decomposition
Decomposition reactions are usually
endothermic and as such can be enhanced by
adding heat to them.
Thermolysis reactions are a special type
of decomposition reaction. In these reactions,
heat causes a reactant to break up into two or
more products. The decomposition
temperature of a substance is the
temperature at which the substance
decomposes into two or more components.
Calcium carbonate, for example,
decomposes at temperatures above 825°C into
calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. The
reaction for this is written as: Fig 3.2.6 The deployment of an airbag during a crash is caused by
a decomposition reaction.
calcium calcium carbon
carbonate (s)  heat  oxide (s)  dioxide (g) Science
Clip
CaCO3(s)  heat  CaO(s)  CO2(s)
In hot water
Even water decomposes into its
components hydrogen and oxygen
Prac 3 when heated to well over 2000ºC.
p. 79

76
Unit
QUESTIONS
3.2

3.2
Remembering a 2Mg 쎵 O2 씮 2MgO
1 List two examples each of combination, combustion and b 2H2O 씮 2H2 쎵 O2
decomposition reactions. c CaO 쎵 H2O 씮 Ca(OH)2
2 State the general formulae for combination and Analysing
decomposition reactions.
10 Discuss how combustion is important in our everyday lives.
3 Name the gas given off when calcium carbonate is heated.
11 Compare how humans have used combustion reactions over
4 Write the chemical equation of a reaction that can be classified the course of history.
as two different reaction types.
Evaluating
Understanding
12 Propose what you think would happen to a candle left to burn
5 Oxygen is written as O2 in chemical reactions rather than in a very small confined space. Explain your reasoning.
just O. Explain why.
13 Hydrogen peroxide is often stored in a fridge. Propose why
6 Explain why combination and decomposition reactions could this is done.
be considered the reverse of each other.
14 Councils will often burn large areas of land in cool weather
Applying to prevent bushfires in summer.
7 Identify the following reactions as either combination, a Identify the type of reaction involved in this activity.
combustion or decomposition reactions. b Identify the gas being used in this reaction.
a 2KClO3 씮 2KCl 쎵 3O2 c Identify whether the reaction is spontaneous or non-
b CH4 쎵 2O2 씮 CO2 쎵 2H2O spontaneous. Justify you answer.
c O2 쎵 2H2O 씮 2H2O2 d Use energy to explain why:
8 Use chemical formulae to rewrite the following word equations i bushfires are more likely to happen in summer
as unbalanced chemical equations. than winter
a carbon 쎵 oxygen 씮 carbon dioxide ii burnoffs are done in winter.
b copper carbonate 씮 copper oxide 쎵 carbon dioxide e Propose reasons why burnoffs are useful.
c propane 쎵 oxygen 씮 carbon dioxide 쎵 water Creating
9 Use the names of the substances to rewrite the following 15 Design an experiment to determine which soft drinks contain
chemical equations as word equations. the most carbonic acid (H2CO3)

INVESTIGATING
3.2
1 Use your available resources (for example, textbooks, 2 a Research and explain the combustion reaction that drives a
encyclopaedias, internet) to investigate why the space shuttle. Use chemical equations in your answer.
decomposition of mercury oxide (HgO) was a very important b Draw a diagram to illustrate how the shuttle engines work.
reaction for the eighteenth century chemists Carl Wilhelm
Scheele, Joseph Priestley and Antoine-Laurent Lavoisier.

77
Combination, combustion and decomposition

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
3.2
Method
1 Burning magnesium ribbon
1 Wearing safety glasses, gloves and a lab coat, use the tongs
(teacher demonstration) to hold the magnesium ribbon a suitable distance away from
yourself and others.
Aim
2 Use a lighter to ignite the ribbon while keeping it at
To demonstrate a combination reaction arm’s length.
Equipment
Questions
• tongs
1 Construct the word equation for the reaction that occurs when
• lighter
magnesium ribbon is burned in air.
• 15–20 cm of magnesium ribbon
• safety glasses 2 Explain why this reaction can be classified as both a
• gloves combination reaction and a combustion reaction.
• lab coat 3 Propose whether you think that the reaction is endothermic or
exothermic and explain your reasoning.
4 Propose whether you think that the reaction is spontaneous or
non-spontaneous and explain your reasoning.

2 Stopping combustion the test tube. (Note: carbon dioxide is heavier than air so it
should displace the air in the test tube and remain there.)
Aim 6 Light the splint again and blow it out so that it is glowing.
To observe what happens to a combustion reaction when 7 Remove the stopper from the test tube and quickly insert the
oxygen is removed glowing splint. Record your observations.
Equipment
• 250 mL conical flask
• rubber stopper with a flexible plastic tube passing through it
• large test tube with rubber stopper
• wooden splint
• matches
• sodium bicarbonate
• 0.1 M hydrochloric acid sodium
0.1M HCl
bicarbonate
Method conical flask test tube
1 Use the matches to light the wooden splint and blow it out. Fig 3.2.7
Record your observation then extinguish the splint.
Questions
2 Place a small amount of sodium bicarbonate in the flask.
1 Describe what evidence you have that a combustion reaction
3 Half-fill the beaker with limewater.
is taking place at the end of the glowing splint.
4 Add about 20 mL of 0.1M hydrochloric acid to the conical
2 State whether this reaction is spontaneous or non-
flask and immediately place the stopper in the flask.
spontaneous. Explain your answer.
5 Place the other end of the plastic tube in the large test tube
3 Propose why you think the glowing splint stopped glowing
to fill it with carbon dioxide gas then place the stopper in
when you put it into the test tube filled with carbon dioxide.

78
Unit
3.2
3 Decomposition of a metal clamp stand

carbonate
delivery
Aim test tube tube
clamp
To perform a decomposition of a metal carbonate metal
carbonate
Equipment
• two large test tubes Bunsen test tube
• stopper for the test tube with a delivery tube burner
• retort stand and clamp
• Bunsen burner limewater
• limewater
• copper carbonate
Fig 3.2.8
Method Questions
1 Put a large measure of copper carbonate into a test tube.
1 Assess if a chemical reaction has taken place.
2 Fit a stopper with delivery tube and then clamp the test tube.
2 Construct the word equation for the decomposition of
3 Place the delivery tube so that it dips into a second test tube copper carbonate.
containing limewater.
3 Propose whether the mass of the substance left in the test
4 Use the Bunsen burner to heat the solid gently at first, then tube after heating would be greater or less than the mass of
more strongly. copper carbonate put in the test tube originally.
5 Lift the delivery tube from the limewater as soon as the 4 Investigate how limewater acts as an indicator for
heating is stopped to avoid ‘suck-back’. carbon dioxide and construct a word equation for the reaction
6 Write down all your observations. that takes place in the limewater when carbon dioxide is
bubbled through.

79
Unit 3.3 Precipitation reactions
context Another important class of reaction is reactions play a key role in the extraction of
precipitation, which occurs when two new compounds and in the purification of our
soluble substance come together to form water supply.
an insoluble substance. Precipitation

Fig 3.3.1 Precipitates are insoluble solids that appear when two clear solutions
are mixed and ions from both solutions combine. Eventually, most precipitates
settle out, falling to the bottom. Different precipitates come in different colours.

Precipitation reactions an example of a salt because it contains positive sodium


In a precipitation reaction, two clear solutions mix to ions (Na) and negative chloride ions (Cl). However,
form an insoluble solid known as a precipitate. These magnesium fluoride (MgF2) is also a salt made up of the
reactions can be written as: ions magnesium (Mg2) and fluoride (F). So too is
calcium oxide (CaO), which is made up of calcium ions
soluble salt soluble salt insoluble salt soluble salt (Ca2) and oxide ions (O2).
A  B  C  D A precipitation reaction occurs when we mix silver
(the precipitate) nitrate (AgNO3) with sodium chloride (NaCl).
Here the word salt doesn’t mean common table salt silver sodium silver sodium
(sodium chloride). Chemists use the word salt to   
nitrate chloride chloride nitrate
describe any substance that is made up of a lattice of
positive and negative ions. Sodium chloride (NaCl) is AgNO3(aq)  NaCl(aq)  AgCl(s)  NaNO3(aq)

80
Unit
silver nitrate sodium chloride sodium nitrate
solution solution solution and

3.3
AgNO3(aq) NaCl(aq) solid silver chloride
NaNO3(aq) + AgCl(s)

H Science
nitrate ion nitrate ion
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(NO3–) chloride ion (NO3–) Molten salts and ionic liquids
(Cl–)
sodium ion All naturally occurring salts have
silver ion sodium ion quite high melting points, above
(Na+)
(Ag+) (Na+) 800ºC. However, chemists
Silver chloride
discovered how to synthesise salts
precipitates out as a
that have much lower melting points
white solid forming
Fig 3.3.2 Silver nitrate and sodium chloride are both soluble in water. and which may even be liquid at
a white cloud at the
Silver nitrate dissolves, releasing its positive silver ions (Ag) and negative room temperature. These new
centre of the test
nitrate ions (NO3) while sodium chloride releases positive sodium ions compounds, known as ionic liquids,
(Na) and negative chloride ions (Cl). However, silver chloride (AgCl) is not tube as shown in the
photograph. contain no water molecules, just
soluble in water and so it precipitates or falls out of solution. A solution of positive and negative ions that move
sodium nitrate (NaNO3) is left behind.
around freely. As a result, they have
many special properties—including
the ability to conduct electricity.

Science
Clip
Hard water Ions and salts
Water is said to be ‘hard’ when it contains high Most salts are made up of a crystal lattice of
levels of calcium and magnesium salts. The positive metal ions combined with negative
calcium and magnesium ions combine with the non-metal ions. This occurs because metal
molecules in soap to form an insoluble precipitate atoms need to lose electrons to become stable
called soap scum. Hard water also forms hard
while non-metals prefer to gain electrons to
calcium carbonate deposits (commonly called
scale) which can completely block pipes. become stable.
Go to Science Focus 3 Unit 2.2

As a result, when a metal atom meets a non-


metal atom, the metal atom gives up its electrons
to the non-metal and they form a crystal lattice
of positive and negative ions. For example, if a
potassium (K) atom bumped into a chlorine atom
(Cl), the chlorine would quickly steal an electron
to form a chloride ion (Cl) leaving the
potassium with a positive charge—making it a
potassium ion (K). Because the two ions have
opposite charges they will attract each other and
stick together.
An important exception to this rule is
ammonium (NH4). Ammonium is a positive ion
but is non-metallic. Nonetheless, it still combines
Fig 3.3.3 Water pipes blocked by scale precipitated out of hard water. with negative non-metal ions to form salts. For
example, ammonium fluoride (NH4F) contains
no metal atoms but is still considered a salt.
81
Precipitation reactions
Simple ions
Simple ions contain only one atom that has lost or magnesium atom Mg magnesium ion Mg2+
gained electrons. Whether or not an atom gains or loses
electrons depends on its electron configuration—that
loses 2
is, how the electrons are distributed around the nucleus electrons
of the atom. Electrons in an atom exist in shells. The
first shell can hold two electrons while the second, third
and fourth shells hold eight. The number of electrons
that an atom has in its outer shell determines which
group in the periodic table it belongs to. Atoms in
Group I have one electron in the outer shell, atoms in The magnesium atom has The magnesium ion has lost
Group II will have two electrons and so on. As a general 2 electrons in the first shell, the outer 2 electrons so that
8 in the second shell and its outermost shell is full. It
rule, atoms will gain or lose electrons until they have a 2 in the third shell. has 2 electrons in the first
full outer shell of electrons. shell, 8 in the second shell.
For atoms with four or less electrons in their outer
shell, it is easier for them to lose these electrons to
obtain a full outer shell. As a result they become Fig 3.3.4 Electron configuration for a magnesium atom and a
positive ions. For atoms with five or more electrons in magnesium ion
their outer shell, it is easier for them to gain electrons
until their outer shell is full. They then become
negative ions. Elements in Group VIII already have a
full outer shell and so do not form ions. chlorine atom Cl chloride ion Cl–
The table below can be used to predict the charges
of simple ions.
gains one
Polyatomic ions electrons
Some ions are made up of more than one type of atom
and are called polyatomic ions. These ions have special
names. The table below shows some of the more
common ones.
Naming salts The chlorine atom has The chloride ion has gained an
2 electrons in the first shell, electron so that its outermost
When ions form salts, they combine in a ratio that 8 in the second shell and shell is full. It has 2 electrons in
ensures a total charge of zero. This means that there must 7 in the third shell. the first shell, 8 in the second
be enough negative charges to balance the positive shell and 8 in the third shell.
charges and vice versa. For example, sodium and chloride
ions combine in a 1:1 ratio because sodium ions have a
Fig 3.3.5 Electron configuration for a chlorine atom and a chloride ion
1 charge and chloride ions have a 1 charge. Add
these charges together: 1  (1)  0.

VIII
Group I II III IV V VI VII
(Group 0)
Most likely 1 2 3 Some form 3 2 1 No ions
charge formed 4 formed

Examples Na Mg2 Al3 Pb4 N3 O2 Cl


(sodium (magnesium (aluminium (lead ion) (nitride ion) (oxide ion) (chloride
ion) ion) ion) ion)

82
Unit
Ion name Formula

3.3
Hydroxide OH O H

Sulfate SO2
4

Nitrate NO3
Hydrogen carbonate HCO3
2
Ammonium NH4 O
Carbonate CO2
3 C
O O

sodium chlorine sodium ion chloride ion


(2, 8, 1) (2, 8, 7) (2, 8) (2, 8, 8)
Positive Negative
Formula Name
ion ion
Na Cl Na+ Cl– Mg2 Cl MgCl2 Magnesium chloride

+ – + Na O2 Na2O Sodium oxide


Al3 S2 Al2S3 Aluminium sulfide
An electron is
transferred from
– ++
Na –
sodium to chlorine. – + – Ca2 N3 Ca3N2 Calcium nitride
These positive and + – +
– Ba2 O2 BaO Barium oxide
negative ions are + +
attracted to each
+ – +
other and form a
crystal where the
– + –
ions are stacked – + –
to maximise attraction.
+ – +
Fig 3.3.6
O2– Ba2+ O2–
Therefore, two ions, one of each type, join to give a
compound with a total charge of zero (0). The formula is Ba2+ O2– Ba2+
NaCl, and the name of this compound is sodium chloride.
To name salts, simply follow these rules.
O2– Ba2+ O2–
• The positive ion is named first and the negative
ion second.
• The name of a positive ion is the same as the name
Fig 3.3.7
of the element that it comes from. For example, Na
is also called sodium.
• A negative ion is named by taking the first part of
the parent element’s name and adding the suffix-ide. When more than one polyatomic ion is required in a
For example, Br (originally bromine) is called formula, brackets are used. For example, in sodium
bromide, O2 (originally oxygen) is called oxide and sulfate, Na2SO4, only one sulfate ion is needed to
N3 (originally nitrogen) is called nitride. balance the charge so no brackets are needed. For
In the chemical formula of the compound, the small aluminium sulfate, Al2(SO4)3, three sulfate ions are
number at the base of a symbol indicates how many of required so brackets are used.
each ion is in the formula. If no number is given, it
Worksheet 3.1 Ionic compounds
indicates that there is only one of that type of ion.

83
Precipitation reactions

The sodium ion This was originally a


Predicting precipitation reactions
takes its name chlorine atom but is Not all salts are soluble in water and it is difficult to tell
directly from the
Na+ Cl– now an ion and is given whether or not a salt will be soluble without actually trying it.
sodium atom from the new name chloride.
which it was formed. However, chemists have already tested the solubility of all
Sodium chloride common salts and have developed a set of solubility rules.
The total charge is zero. Solubility rules help us to work out which
The chemical formula is NaCl. substance in the mixture is precipitating. For
example, in the reaction on page 80, it can’t
Fig 3.3.8 Naming sodium chloride possibly be sodium nitrate because all sodium
salts are soluble and all nitrate salts are soluble. Prac 1
p. 86
Prac 2
p. 87

The magnesium ion There are two


Cl– chloride ions with a
comes from a
magnesium atom Mg2
H total charge of –2 to
that has lost balance the charge of
2 electrons. Cl– the 2H magnesium ion.

Magnesium chloride
The chemical formula is MgCl2.
It contains two chloride ions
for every one magnesium ion.
Fig 3.3.10 The bright pigments in paints are often precipitates of ions from the
Fig 3.3.9 Naming magnesium chloride transition metals. They include precipitates of cobalt, iron, titanium and chromium.

Solubility of common inorganic compounds in water


Negative ions Positive ions (cations) Compounds with
(anions) solubility
Acetate CH3COO  All  Soluble

All  Alkali ions, Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr  Soluble

All  Ammonium ion NH4  Soluble

All  Hydrogen ion H  Soluble

Chloride Cl  Ag, Pb2, Hg2  Low solubility

Bromide Br  Cu, Ti  Low solubility

Iodide I  All others  Soluble

Hydroxide OH Alkali ions, H, NH4, Sr2, Ba2, Ra2, Ti Soluble

All others
 Low solubility
Nitrate NO3  All  Soluble

Phosphate PO43  Alkali ions, H, NH4  Soluble

Carbonate CO32  All others  low solubility

Sulfate SO42

Ca2, Sr2, Ba2, Pb2, Ra2  Low solubility
All others Soluble
Sulfide S2–

Alkali ions, H, NH4, Be2, Mg2, Ca2, Sr2, Ba2, Ra2  Soluble

84
All others  Low solubility
Unit
QUESTIONS
3.3

3.3
Remembering Evaluating
1 State the meaning of the subscripts (s), (l), (g) and (aq) and 13 Refer to the table of solubility rules on page 84. Assess which
specify which one would be used for a precipitate. of the following substances would be soluble in water.
2 Name a positive ion that is non-metallic. a BaSO4
3 List the names and symbols of five polyatomic ions. b LiNO3
4 State if nitrates are normally soluble or insoluble. c CaCO3
d MgCl2
Understanding
14 Using the periodic table from Chapter 2, deduce the chemical
5 To non-chemists, salt is sodium chloride, NaCl. Define what
formulae for the compounds:
chemists mean by the term salt.
a sodium bromide
6 Describe what observations suggest that a precipitation
reaction has occurred. b magnesium sulfide
c calcium fluoride
Applying
d lithium nitride
7 Identify two types of salts that are almost always soluble and
list any exceptions. e aluminium carbide

8 Use the table of solubility rules to predict the precipitate 15 Deduce the names of the following salts.
formed when these solutions are mixed: a RbBr
a silver nitrate and sodium chloride b K2S
b mercury(l) nitrate and potassium iodide c BeO
c calcium nitrate and lithium carbonate d Na3N
d barium nitrate and sodium sulfate e NH4Cl
9 Use word equations and chemical formulae to write equations f LiOH
for the reactions in Question 8. g Ag2CO3
Analysing h ZnSO4
10 Discuss why it is useful to classify reactions into Creating
different types. 16 Design an experiment to test whether the solubility of ionic
11 Calculate the total charge of: compounds increases or decreases as the solutions get hotter.
a four sodium ions Investigate and explain your results.
b eight manganese(IV) ions 17 Construct a board game that tests knowledge of how
c three nitride ions N compounds are named. You may use die or cards. The game
must involve answering questions about formulae or the rules
12 Calculate the number of each type of atom in the
for writing them. Design a list of rules, bonuses and
following formulae.
challenges for the game. L
a (NH4)2SO4
b K2Cr2O7
c Ca(OH)2 N

85
Precipitation reactions

INVESTIGATING
3.3
Use your available resources (for example, textbooks,
encyclopaedias, internet) to investigate the following.
e -xploring
1 Find out how precipitation reactions are used in the To test your understanding of chemical reactions
purification of water. and balancing equations, a list of web destinations
can be found on Science Focus 3 Second Edition Student Lounge.
2 Find out how hard water can be softened.
3 Research some of the properties and uses of ionic liquids.
4 Find all metal ions that are insoluble when combined with
iodide (I). Find the colour of each.

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
3.3
2 Place small amounts of Solution A and Solution B in separate
1 Precipitation reactions test tubes and record your observations.

Aim 3 Use the Pasteur pipette to add Solution A to Solution B and


record your observations.
To observe common precipitation reactions
4 Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each pair of solutions.
Equipment
• 0.1 M solutions of silver nitrate, sodium chloride, sodium Questions
hydroxide, barium nitrate and copper sulfate 1 Analyse the table of solubility rules to work out what salt has
• Pasteur pipettes precipitated from solution.
• lab coat 2 Construct word equations to describe what is happening in
• safety glasses each reaction.
• gloves
Method
1 Draw up a suitable table, similar to the one below, to record
your results.

Solution Solution Observations Observations


A B before mixing after mixing
Silver Sodium
nitrate chloride
Silver Sodium
nitrate hydroxide
Barium Copper
nitrate sulfate

86
Unit
3.3
2 Precipitation of unknowns
step 1 step 2 step 3
Aim
To identify an unknown solution using the solubility table
Equipment
• The table of solubility rules on page 84
- 
• unknown 0.1 M solutions labelled A, B, C, D, E—these are
(not in order): sodium iodide, sodium chloride, sodium
sulfate, sodium carbonate and sodium nitrate
• 0.1 M solutions of silver, lead, calcium and barium nitrates
• 20 semi-micro test tubes
• Pasteur pipettes
• lab coat 10 drops of Add 10 drops Check for
• safety glasses unknown test solution cloudiness—hold
solution and mix it up to the light
• gloves if not sure
Method Fig 3.3.11
2
(Hint: Cu ions are blue in aqueous solution. Lead iodide is 3 Add 10 drops of silver nitrate solution to the first tube,
bright yellow.) 10 drops of lead nitrate to the second, 10 drops of barium
1 Draw up a suitable table, similar to the one below, to record nitrate to the third, and 10 drops of magnesium nitrate to the
your results. fourth. Record your results.
2 Put about 10 drops of unknown A into each of four semi- 4 Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each unknown solution.
micro test tubes.
5 Use the table of solubility rules to work out which
Silver Lead Calcium Barium solution is which.
Unknown
nitrate nitrate nitrate nitrate Questions
A 1 Were any of your results inconclusive? If so, propose a reason.
B 2 If you wanted to test a clear solution for the presence of lead,
C identify what you could add.
D
E

87
Unit 3.4 Acids and bases
context Every day you come in contact with acids sensitive parts of the body such as your eyes.
and bases. You drink an acid when you Though dangerous, these acids and bases
drink orange juice and there is a base in play an important role in many different
the toothpaste you use to brush your chemical reactions used in industries such as
teeth. Other acids and bases can cause mining and manufacturing and sciences such
serious burns, especially when striking as medicine.

Strong and weak acids


Acids can be classified as being strong or weak. Strong
acids are corrosive which means they can destroy living
tissue and ‘eat through’ some surfaces. Nitric acid
(HNO3), sulfuric acid (H2SO4) and hydrochloric acid
(HCl) are all strong acids. In strong acids the hydrogen
breaks away very easily. Hydrochloric acid is so strong
that almost 100 per cent of its molecules will break
apart when it is added to water to make up a solution.
When it breaks, it form hydrogen ions (H) and
chloride ions (Cl).

Fig 3.4.1 Acids are corrosive and bases are caustic. Both burn and
damage tissues. This eye damage was caused by exposure to
ammonia, a strong base.

Acids
Acids contain the element hydrogen in combination
with other non-metal elements. For example,
hydrochloric acid (HCl) contains hydrogen in
combination with chlorine. Likewise, sulfuric acid Science
(H2SO4) contains hydrogen and sulfate ions, each
sulfate ion being made up of one sulfur and four oxygen
Clip
atoms. When an acid is placed in water, the hydrogen A strong stomach
Fig 3.4.2 Hydrochloric acid (HCl) is the
breaks away from the other elements. The hydrochloric acid
acid in the stomach that helps you digest
that helps digestion of
Acids have some common properties. Acids: food. HCl is a very strong acid yet the
stomach is not irritated by it. This is due to food in our stomachs
• have a sour taste. Although some acids are safe to is a highly
a special lining that keeps it away from the
taste (e.g. lemon, vinegar), most acids are far too muscle walls. The stomach ulcer shown concentrated strong
dangerous to taste or even smell here will allow the acid to attack the walls, acid with a pH of
• have a gritty feel to the touch causing pain. 1 to 2. Although this
• can be corrosive would normally destroy
Weak acids tend to hold on to living tissue, it doesn’t
• turn blue litmus red. Litmus is one of many eat through the
indicators and chemicals that change their colour their hydrogen and very little stomach lining because
in the presence of an acid or base hydrogen breaks away. Examples of the lining secretes
• neutralise bases. weak acids include vinegar (acetic protective mucus.

88
Unit
Science
strong acid—HCl
hydrochloric acid
weak acid—CH3COOH
acetic acid
Clip

3.4
Weak but deadly
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) is
considered a very weak acid
CH3COOH but can cause serious burns
Cl– CH3COOH and even death. However, it is
H+ Cl– H+ the fluoride ion (F) not the Science
H+ H+ CH3COOH hydrogen ion (H) that causes Clip
Cl– Cl– CH3COOH all the damage. The fluoride
Cl– ion is so small that it can easily Things that sting
H+ CH3COO– penetrate your skin. It then Worker bees can give
H+ binds with the calcium in your you a very nasty sting.
Cl– H+ CH3COOH bones which could result in The painful sting is
amputation or death. produced by the
Strong acids such as Only a few acid molecules methanoic (formic)
hydrochloric acid (HCl) split up and release H ions acid they inject. This is
completely separate out into in a weak acid such as the same acid that
their ions. Many H ions ethanoic (acetic) acid. The puts the sting into bull
are released. majority of the acid is still in ants and greenheads.
its molecular form. Other stinging
creatures, like wasps
and some jellyfish,
Fig 3.4.3 Strong acids break apart completely in water, while weak
inject a base into the
acids tend to stay together.
skin of their victims.
This can be neutralised
acid (CH3COOH) and citric acid. In a solution of by washing the wound
vinegar, most of the molecules will remain as with a weak acid such
CH3COOH, while only a small fraction will break apart as vinegar.
to form the hydrogen ion (H) and acetate ion
(CH3COO). Likewise, hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid
in which very few molecules split.
The uses of acids
You eat and drink weak acids such as the citric acid
found in orange juice, lactic acid in yoghurt and acetic
acid in vinegar. Strong acids tend to be more useful in
industry for extracting metals from ores, in fertilisers, in
the manufacture of automotive parts and even in the
production of microchips. For these reasons, more
sulfuric acid (H2SO4) is manufactured each year than
any other chemical. Fig 3.4.4 This scanning electron microscope (SEM) image shows the
The table below shows some acids and the common sting of a bee. The acid is ejected from the red glands at the bottom of
uses of each. the image.

Acid Common name Common use


Cetylsalicylic acid Aspirin Pain reliever
Benzoic acid Sorbic acid Preservatives in foods
Ascorbic acid Vitamin C Vitamin supplement, antioxidant
Sulfuric acid Battery acid Car batteries, manufacturing fertilisers
4-chloro-2-methyl phenoxyacetic acid MCPA Herbicide
Hydrochloric acid Spirit of salts Brick cleaners, cleaning metals
Ethanoic (acetic) acid Vinegar Flavour and preserving food
89
Acids and bases

Bases
Bases are commonly thought of as the opposite of acids.
This is because when an acid and bases are mixed
together, the resulting solution is often neutral. This
means that the solution is neither acidic or basic. Bases
in solution produce hydroxide (OH) or (O2) ions.
Both of these ions combine with the hydrogen ion (H)
produced by the acid to create water (H2O). This
process is called neutralisation.
Bases share certain properties. They:
• taste bitter. (Although some bases are safe to taste,
like toothpaste, most are not)
• have a soapy feel (as with taste, most bases are not
safe to touch)
• can be caustic
• turn red litmus blue
• neutralise acids.
Strong and weak bases
Like acids, bases can be classified as either strong or
weak. While strong acids break apart easily to release
their hydrogen ion (H), strong bases break apart easily
to release a negative hydroxide (OH) or oxide ion
(O2). Lithium hydroxide is an example of a strong
base. In solution, almost 100 per cent of the lithium
hydroxide will break apart to form lithium ions (Li)
and hydroxide ion (OH). Other examples of strong
bases are sodium hydroxide (NaOH) which is commonly Fig 3.4.5 This train is transporting bulk caustic soda (sodium
known as caustic soda. hydroxide), an important chemical in the mining industry. Caustic soda
is so caustic and damaging that it is often used as a paint stripper.
Strong bases can cause serious burns. They are said
to be caustic.
Quite often, weak bases will not contain a hydroxide
ion but will steal a hydrogen ion from a water molecule
The uses of bases
to produce the hydroxide ions. For example, ammonia
(NH3) in solution will steal a hydrogen from a water Many household cleaners contain bases because they are
molecule (H2O) to produce a positive ammonium ion excellent at dissolving oil and grease. Oven cleaners
(NH4) and a negative hydroxide ion (OH). The usually contain sodium hydroxide (NaOH), a strong
equation for this looks like: base, because it reacts with oils to form soap, which
then washes away easily. Bases include ionic compounds
ammonia  water  ammonium  hydroxide such as hydroxides, oxides, carbonates and hydrogen
NH3  H2O  NH4  OH carbonates.
The carbonate ion (CO32) is another weak base The table below shows some bases and their uses.
that behaves in this way.

Base Common name Common use


Sodium hydroxide Caustic soda Making soaps, cleaning ovens
Calcium hydroxide Slaked lime Reducing acidity in soil
Ammonium hydroxide ‘Cleaning’ ammonia Cleaning products
Sodium hydrogen carbonate Baking soda, bicarbonate of soda Cooking
Sodium carbonate Washing soda, soda ash Washing powders
90
Unit
Indicators
Concentration Indicators are chemicals that are used to show the pH

3.4
Solutions of acids and bases can be either concentrated
of a solution.
or dilute. In concentrated acid or base solutions, there
Some indicators are not very precise and only tell us
is a high proportion of acid or base particles compared
whether a solution is acidic or basic. Litmus is an
to water particles. In contrast, dilute solutions have only
indicator that is made from plants called lichens. Litmus
a few acid or base particles.
is red in acidic solutions and blue in alkaline solutions
Concentrated and strong are not the same thing.
and only gives you a broad range of possible pH values.
Neither are weak and dilute. Indeed, it is possible to
Other indicators are far more precise. Universal
have a dilute solution of strong acid or a concentrated
indicator, for example, can undergo many colour
solution of a weak acid. For example, if you add a single
changes and gives you a good estimation of the pH of a
drop of sulfuric acid to an entire bucket of water, then
solution. You may have seen universal indicator used to
you would have a very dilute solution of a strong acid.
check the pH of a
swimming pool or spa.
The pH scale
The pH scale is used to describe how strong an acidic Worksheet 3.3 pH levels Prac 1
p. 96
Prac 2
p. 96
Prac 3
p. 97
Prac 4
p. 98
or basic substance is. At 25°C, the pH scale goes from
0 to 14.
• Acidic substances have a pH less than 7, with
strongly acidic substances being closer to pH 0.
• Basic substances have a pH greater than 7, with
strongly basic substances being closer to pH 14.
• A neutral substance is neither acidic nor basic and
has a pH of 7.
The pH is a measure of how much free hydrogen is
present in a solution. If there is a lot, then the pH is
very low. If there is hardly any, then the pH is higher.
Every time you take a step along the pH scale (say from
pH 3 to pH 4) the hydrogen present decreases by a
factor of 10.
If you have 10 mL of a solution with a pH of 1 and
add 90 mL of water, the new volume will be 100 mL and
Fig 3.4.7 Red cabbage contains a natural indicator that changes
you will have diluted the solution by a factor of 10. The colour at pH 1, 4, 7, 10 and 13. Many other plants (e.g. beetroot,
pH of the new solution will be 2. hydrangeas, hibiscus and rose) also produce dyes that can be used as
indicators. Hydrangeas, for example, have blue flowers in acidic soil
and pink flowers in alkaline soil.

strong acids neutral strong bases


0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
pH
stomach acid

dishwashing
orange juice

baking soda
pure water

detergents
tap water

sea water
vinegar

coffee

blood
wine

powder

Fig 3.4.6 The pH scale (pH is short for ‘power of hydrogen’)

Fig 3.4.8 Citric acid has a pH less than 7. It turns blue litmus
paper red.

91
Acids and bases
Science
Clip
Antacids
Heartburn and indigestion are
caused when there is more
acid in your stomach than the
amount normally present for
digestion. Antacids work by
neutralising this excess acid.
They contain a non-toxic base
such as magnesium hydroxide.
This reacts with the excess
hydrochloric acid in your
stomach to form salt and water
pH … and relief!
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

deep red red red orange yellow green green green blue blue violet
red orange blue violet

Fig 3.4.9 The colours of universal indicator at each pH value

Neutralisation
A neutralisation reaction is when an acid reacts with a
base. Water is always a product in neutralisation
reactions, as is a salt:
acid  base  salt  water
Neutralisation reactions are very common. Every
time we brush our teeth, the toothpaste, which contains
a base, neutralises the damaging acids left on our teeth Fig 3.4.10 Most soaps, detergents and toothpastes contain a base
by bacteria. Farmers can reverse the effects of acid rain that neutralises acids and cuts oil and lifts dirt, allowing it to be
on soil by adding the base calcium hydroxide. washed away.
Indigestion caused by too much acid in the stomach
can be relieved with antacids, which are just bases in
Acids and oxides
solid or liquid form.
The general reaction of an acid with an oxide is:
Acids and hydroxides acid  oxide  salt  water
The general reaction equation for an acid combining
Examples of acids reacting with solid oxides are:
with a hydroxide is:
hydrochloric  calcium  calcium  water
acid  hydroxide  salt  water
acid oxide chloride
Some examples of acids reacting with hydroxide
2HCl(aq)  CaO(s)  CaCl2(aq)  H2O(l)
solutions are:
hydrochloric  sodium  sodium  water
sulfuric  lithium  lithium  water
acid hydroxide chloride
acid oxide sulfate
HCl(aq)  NaOH(aq)  NaCl(aq)  H2O(l)
H2SO4(aq)  Li2O(s)  Li2SO4(aq)  H2O(l)

nitric  lithium  lithium  water Acids and carbonates


acid hydroxide nitrate Like the last two neutralisation reactions that we’ve
HNO3(aq)  LiOH(aq)  LiNO3(aq)  H2O(l) looked at, the reaction of an acid with a carbonate
produces a salt and water. It also produces a third
Prac 5
92 p. 98
Unit
3.4
Fig 3.4.11 Self-raising flour contains baking powder which releases
carbon dioxide as it is baked. This causes scones, cakes, bread and
muffins to rise. Fig 3.4.12 Hydrochloric acid reacting with
magnesium to form a salt and hydrogen Science
Clip
product, carbon dioxide. The reaction of an acid with a
hydrogen carbonate produces the same three things:
Acids and metals Water fit for a king
Although gold is
When an acid reacts with a metal, extremely unreactive, it
acid  carbonate  salt  water  carbon dioxide hydrogen gas and a salt are produced. can be dissolved by a
acid  hydrogen carbonate  salt  water  carbon dioxide A salt is an ionic compound containing mixture of concentrated
Examples are: the ions left over after reaction. The nitric and hydrochloric
general reaction can be written as: acids. This mixture is
nitric  sodium  sodium  water  carbon called aqua regia, which
acid carbonate nitrate dioxide acid  metal  salt  hydrogen is Latin for royal water
because of its ability to
2HNO3(aq)  Na2CO3(s)  2NaNO3(aq)  H2O(l)  CO2(g) Technically, this type of reaction is
dissolve gold.
not call a neutralisation reaction as
hydrochloric  ammonium  ammonium  water  carbon
metals are not bases and no water is
acid carbonate chloride dioxide
formed. An example of an acid-metal reaction is:
2HCl(aq)  (NH4)2CO3(s)  2NH4Cl(aq)  H2O(l)  CO2(g) hydrochloric  magnesium  magnesium  hydrogen
acid chloride

sulfuric sodium sodium carbon 2HCl(aq)  Mg(s)  MgCl2(aq)  H2(g)


acid  hydrogen  sulfate  water  dioxide
Most metals will react with acids. Some, like the
carbonate
Group I metals, react violently, while other metals, like
H2SO4(aq)  2NaHCO3(s)  Na2SO4(aq)  2H2O(l)  2CO2(g) lead, need hotter or more concentrated acid solutions to
You can test for carbon dioxide by bubbling the gas make them react.
through limewater. The limewater goes from clear to The table below shows the reactions between some
milky if carbon dioxide is present because of the acids and metals.
formation of a calcium carbonate precipitate. Another You can test for the hydrogen gas given off by using
test is that carbon dioxide will extinguish a the ‘pop’ test. A spark in the presence of H2
lit match. causes a popping sound as the gas combines with
the O2 in air to form water.
Worksheet 3.2 Neutralisation Prac 6 Prac 7
p. 99 p. 99

Acid Metal Reaction equation Salt produced


Nitric acid Calcium 2HNO3(aq)  Ca(s)  H2(g)  Ca(NO3)2(aq) Calcium nitrate

Sulfuric acid Magnesium H2SO4(aq)  Mg(s)  H2(g)  MgSO4(aq) Magnesium sulfate

Hydrochloric acid Iron 2HCl(aq)  Fe(s)  FeCl2(aq)  H2(g) Iron(II) chloride


93
Acids and bases

QUESTIONS
3.4
Remembering 11 Use word equations to describe the reactions of the following
1 Define the terms acid and base. metals with nitric acid:
2 List three properties each of acids and bases. a aluminium
3 List two examples of: b zinc
b strong acids c iron
c weak acids d lithium
d strong bases 12 Use word equations to describe the following reactions.
e weak bases a hydrochloric acid  iron(II) hydrogen carbonate
4 State the likely pH of: b nitric acid  silver hydroxide
a a strong acid c sulfuric acid  barium oxide
b a weak acid d Use the formulas given throughout this chapter to write the
reactions as chemical equations.
c pure water
d a weak base Applying
e a strong base 13 Identify the acid present in vinegar.
5 Name the colour of the following indicators at pH 8: 14 Identify an important use for an indicator.
a universal indicator 15 Identify three fruits containing citric acid.
b red litmus 16 Identify the salt produced by each of the following
c blue litmus neutralisation reactions.

6 Name the products when an acid reacts with a carbonate and a nitric acid  strontium hydroxide
when an acid reacts with a metal b sulfuric acid  copper carbonate
c hydrochloric acid  silver oxide
Understanding
d nitric acid  magnesium hydrogen carbonate
7 Describe some everyday examples of neutralisation.
17 Identify which acid and base you could combine to make:
8 Describe how you could test for:
a barium chloride
a hydrogen gas
b calcium nitrate
b carbon dioxide gas
c iron(III) sulfate
9 a Name some examples of stinging creatures.
b Explain what can be done to neutralise the sting. Analysing
c Explain why vinegar would not relieve bee stings. 18 Distinguish between a dilute solution of nitric acid and a
10 The normal pH in the mouth is about 6.5. The pH in the concentrated solution of nitric acid.
stomach is around 1 to 2. Explain why you get a burning 19 Discuss the importance of acids and bases in our daily lives.
sensation in the oesophagus, throat and mouth when 20 Distinguish the reactants and products of the following
you vomit. reaction types to complete the table.

Example (word equation and


Reaction type Reactant(s) Product(s)
chemical formulae)
acid  hydroxide
acid  oxide
acid  carbonate
acid  metal

94
Unit
21 You are given 10 mL each of two solutions. Solution A has a a Propose which substance should be added to basic soil to

3.4
pH of 2. Solution B has a pH of 4. Calculate how much water lower its pH. Choose either water, an acid or a base.
you would have to add to solution A to make its pH the same b Explain your answer.
as that of solution B. This is a hard one! N
23 A certain food is found to be slightly acidic. It contains either
Evaluating hydrochloric acid or acetic acid. Evaluate which acid it is
more likely to contain.
22 Azaleas grow only in soil with pH less than 7.

INVESTIGATING
3.4
Use your available resources (for example, textbooks,
Safety
!
encyclopaedias, internet) to investigate the following.
1 Find other acids that are used either in cooking or in medicine. Always use safety glasses in science classes when
These could include salicylic acid or tartaric acid. handling or heating chemicals that could spit or
2 Research shampoos and skin lotions that mention their pH spill from their containers. If a foreign substance
and find the best pH for your skin and the best for your hair. does get into your eye, flush it immediately with
Find if the age of a person and their type of skin or hair water while trying to keep your eye open to allow
changes the pH that should be used. water to contact the affected area. An eyewash
bottle should be available for this purpose. In other
3 Describe how pH levels of swimming pools are tested, why
subjects such as technology, always use the
they change and how the pH is kept at 7.2 (the ‘best’ pH to
protective eyewear provided to keep splinters and
control bacteria).
metal or plastic filings from entering your eye.
4 Find what anaphylactic shock is, how it is often related to bee
or ant stings, what an Epi-pen is and how it is used. Present
your information as an instruction leaflet on how, why and
when to use the Epi-pen. L
5 a Sulfuric acid is one of the most important chemicals in the
world. The sulfuric acid production of a country is said to
be a good indicator of the state of its economy. Investigate
what sulfuric acid is used for and analyse the reasons why
sulfuric acid is a measure of the economy.
b Create a flow chart showing how sulfuric acid goes from Fig 3.4.13 An eyewash bottle can be
the factory and into products that we use in our used to rinse foreign matter from the eye—
everyday lives. make sure you know where it is in your
science rooms.

95
Acids and bases

PRACTICAL ACTIVITIES
3.4
2 Using the beakers, pour 2 cm of acid into one test tube,
1 Common indicators 2 cm of sodium hydroxide (base) into another test tube,
Acid-base indicators are used to show the approximate pH and 2 cm of distilled water into the third test tube.
of a solution. 3 Add 3 drops of red litmus to each tube. Record your results.
Aim 4 Repeat steps 2 and 3 for the other indicators.
To determine the colour changes of common indicators
Questions
Equipment 1 Propose a reason why distilled water was used for this
• 0.1 M solutions of sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric acid experiment, rather than tap water.
• distilled water 2 Compare your results with those shown in Figure 3.4.14.
• three test tubes
indicator pH
• test tube rack
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
• three 100 mL beakers
bromothymol yellow change blue
• liquid red and blue litmus blue
• universal indicator
litmus red change blue
• methyl orange, methyl red, bromothymol blue,
phenolphthalein
methyl orange red-orange change yellow
• lab coat
• safety glasses
phenolphthalein colourless change pink
Method deep
1 Copy the results table below into your workbook. universal deep red violet
red orange yellow green blue violet
indicator
Fig 3.4.14 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Colour in strong acid Colour in strong base Colour in neutral solution


(hydrochloric acid) (sodium hydroxide) (water)
Red litmus
Blue litmus
Universal indicator
Methyl orange
Methyl red
Phenolphthalein

2 Universal indicator • 10 mL measuring cylinder • universal indicator


• waterproof felt-tip pen • lab coat
Aim • 14 large test tubes • safety glasses
To investigate the colour changes of universal indicator Method
with increasing pH
1 Label your test tubes 1 to 14.
Equipment 2 Place 10 mL of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid in test tube number 1.
• 0.1 M hydrochloric acid • distilled water 3 Using a pipette, transfer 1 mL of this solution to the
• 1.0 M sodium hydroxide • Pasteur pipette measuring cylinder. Add 9 mL of distilled water and pour the
mixture into test tube number 2.
96
Unit
4 Using a pipette, transfer 1 mL of the solution in tube 2 to the 8 Add 3 drops of indicator to each tube and sketch the result.

3.4
measuring cylinder. Add 9 mL of water and pour the mixture The number of the tube is approximately the same as the pH.
into test tube number 4. Continue this method up to tube
number 6. Questions
5 Add 10 mL of distilled water to tube number 7. 1 On your sketch, indicate which tubes contain strong acids,
weak acids, strong bases and weak bases.
6 Add 10 mL of 1.0 M sodium hydroxide to tube number 14.
2 Calculate the dilution factor between:
7 Using a pipette, remove 1 mL of this solution, add 9 mL of
water and pour the mixture into tube 13. Continue this method a tubes 2 and 4
down to tube number 8. b tubes 10 and 11

3 Natural indicators 6 Add about 10 drops of flower-petal water to each and record
the colour of each solution.
Aim 7 Clean the test tubes and repeat steps 5 and 6, first using
To prepare and use natural indicators beetroot juice, then tea.
Equipment 8 Carefully dry the freshly made indicator paper over a Bunsen
• 0.1 M hydrochloric acid burner flame, being careful not to burn it.
• 0.1 M sodium hydroxide 9 When dry, put a drop of acid on one end of each piece of
• distilled water paper, and a drop of base on the other end. Allow them to dry,
• pink or red flower petals then stick them in your book.
• beetroot juice
• tea bag Questions
• three 100 mL beakers 1 Propose a suitable conclusion for this experiment.
• filter paper cut into strips 2 Identify which of the three indicators was best. Explain
• Bunsen burner your choice.
• heat mat
• tripod red flower
• gauze petals beaker pipette
• matches 50 mL water
• 3 test tubes test-tube
rack
• test-tube rack indicator
• Pasteur pipettes
• lab coat Bunsen tripod
burner
• safety glasses
Method
1 Gently boil 50 mL of water in a beaker combined with the
heat-proof mat
flower petals until the water becomes strongly coloured, then hydrochloric sodium distilled
remove from heat. making flower petal indicator acid chloride water
2 Place 20 mL of beetroot juice in another beaker.
3 Boil 50 mL of water in another beaker and add a tea bag. Fig 3.4.15

4 Using tongs, dip a strip of filter paper into each solution and
lay all the strips on paper towel to dry. 3 How did the colours produced with the paper compare to the
5 Place 2 cm of hydrochloric acid in a test tube, 2 cm of sodium colours produced when using the liquid indicators?
hydroxide in a second test tube and 2 cm of distilled water in 4 Can you think of any other substances that might be natural
a third test tube. indicators? If so, explain why you think they would work.

97
Acids and bases

4 Testing household solutions test-tube


test tubes
rack Pasteur
Aim pipette

To test the pH of various household solutions

Safety
! 1 The chemicals in this Prac are toxic—avoid
contact with eyes, skin and mouth. test watch-glass
red blue

2 Clean up spills immediately to prevent slip and solution


trip hazards. test solution - test solution - test solution -
universal indicator red litmus paper blue litmus paper
Equipment
• test tubes Fig 3.4.16
• test-tube rack
• Pasteur pipettes
3 Pipette a small amount of the solution onto each of two
• 2 watch-glasses
watch-glasses. Add red litmus paper to one and blue litmus
• blue and red litmus paper
paper to the other. Record your results.
• liquid universal indicator
• distilled water 4 Add 3 drops of universal indicator to the test tube and record
• safety glasses the pH of the solution.
• lab coat 5 Clean the equipment—repeat procedure for other solutions.
• a variety of household solutions including orange juice, soft
drink, fresh and sour milk, vinegar. Solids may be used if Questions
dissolved in water first. 1 Arrange your solutions in a list from most acidic to
least acidic.
Method
2 A brick cleaner is marked as highly corrosive. Identify where
1 Place 2 cm of solution into a test tube using a Pasteur pipette.
you think it would go on your list.
2 If the colour of the solution is quite strong, add distilled water
3 Explain why there is a difference in pH between fresh and
until it is faint.
sour milk.

5 Acids and hydroxides Method


1 Pour 25 ml of 0.1 M hydrochloric acid into the beaker.
Aim 2 Measure the pH using a digital pH meter or universal indicator.
To investigate the neutralisation of an acid using a hydroxide 3 Add 5 mL of 0.1 M sodium hydroxide.
Equipment 4 Re-measure the pH of the solution in the beaker.
• 250 mL beaker 5 Repeat steps 3 and 4 until you have added 35 mL of the
• 50 mL measuring cylinder sodium hydroxide solution.
• 0.1 M hydrochloric acid (HCl)
• 0.1 M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) Questions
• digital pH meter or universal indicator 1 Identify at what point the solution was neutral. Explain why.
• Pasteur pipette 2 Construct a word equation to describe the reaction.
• lab coat
• safety glasses

98
Unit
3.4
5 Add nitric acid to the other two tubes, but don’t stopper.
6 Acids and carbonates Record your observations.
Aim 6 Repeat steps 2–5 using hydrochloric acid.
To observe the reaction of an acid with metal carbonates
Equipment
• test tubes
• test-tube rack and stopper match
stopper
• 100 mL beaker
• matches
• limewater
• solid samples of sodium hydrogen carbonate Test 1 Test 2
If carbon dioxide is If carbon dioxide is
• lithium carbonate present, a lit match present, limewater
• sodium carbonate and ammonium carbonate goes out. goes from clear
• spatula to milky.
• 0.1 M solutions of nitric and hydrochloric acids
• lab coat
• safety glasses
Fig 3.4.17
Method
1 You will be combining each acid with each solid. Draw up a Questions
suitable results table, similar to that used in Prac 1.
1 Construct word equations for all reactions.
2 Add a small amount of each solid (about the tip of a spatula
2 Identify the salt in each equation by circling it.
full) to four different test tubes.
3 Draw a diagram to explain how you could set up this
3 Add 2 cm of nitric acid to the first tube and quickly stopper.
experiment so that the gas produces bubbles through a
Light a match and, removing the stopper quickly, put the lit
separate beaker of limewater as it is produced.
match in the mouth of the tube. Record your observations.
4 Add 2 cm of nitric acid to the second tube and quickly stopper.
Remove the stopper and add a small amount of limewater.
Re-stopper the tube, but don’t let too much gas build up.
Record your observations.

Equipment
7 Acids and metals • test tubes with stoppers
Aim • test-tube rack
• matches
To observe the reaction of an acid with a metal
• 100 mL beaker
• small pieces of aluminium
Safety
!
• magnesium
1 The chemicals in this Prac are corrosive—avoid • zinc
contact with eyes, skin and mouth. • iron and tin
2 Clean up spills immediately to prevent slip and • 0.1 M solutions of hydrochloric, sulfuric and acetic acids
trip hazards. • lab coat
• safety glasses
>>

99
Acids and bases

Method i
1 Copy the results table into your book.

Hydrochloric Sulfuric Acetic


acid acid acid
Aluminium
Hold stopper on tube for 15 seconds.
Magnesium
Zinc
ii
Iron
Tin
2 Pour 2 cm of hydrochloric acid into each test tube.
3 Add one of the metals to the first test tube. If there is an
obvious reaction, hold the stopper on the tube for about
15 seconds. Light a match and, removing the stopper
quickly, hold the lit match to the mouth of the tube.
A second person lights a match and holds it to
Record your observations.
the mouth of the tube as the stopper is removed.
4 Repeat step 3 for the other metals. You do not have to repeat
the gas test for every reaction. iii ‘pop’
5 Repeat steps 2–4 for the other acids.

Questions
1 Construct word equations for the reactions of the metals with
one of the acids tested.
2 For the other two acids, identify the salts produced in
each reaction. A ‘pop’ indicates hydrogen is present.
3 From the speed of the reaction with each metal, list the metals
tested in order from most active to least active. Fig 3.4.18

CHAPTER REVIEW
Remembering 5 List two types of salts that are almost always soluble and two
1 State the difference between a chemical change and a that are almost always insoluble.
physical change and give two examples of each. 6 Name the following ions:
2 List the four indications that a chemical reaction has occurred a HCO3
and give examples. b I
3 List four polyatomic ions. c S2
4 State formulae for: d NH4
a lithium hydroxide 7 State the difference between an acid and a base.
b barium sulfate 8 List the products and reactants in an acid-metal reaction and
c aluminium bromide give an example.

100
Understanding 20 Classify the following substances as acids or bases:
9 Scientists use a number of tools to make understanding a NaOH
science easier. Using examples from this chapter, explain how b Li2CO3
scientists have used the following tools. c HCl
a classification d MgO
b models e HNO3
c rules 21 If you have 10 mL of HCl acid solution at pH  1, calculate
10 Define the terms exothermic and endothermic and give how much water you need to add to increase the pH to 2.
examples of each.
Evaluating
11 Explain why burning a match is considered a spontaneous
reaction even though it needs energy to start it. 22 Deduce what charge the ions of these metals have:
12 Describe the observations you might make if a chemical a sodium
reaction occurs. b strontium
13 Define the word salt. c aluminium
14 Explain how solubility rules help us to predict 23 Deduce the products of the following neutralisation reactions:
precipitation reactions. a sodium carbonate  hydrochloric acid 
15 Explain how a weak base like ammonia or carbonate can form b calcium hydroxide  nitric acid 
hydroxide ions in solution. 24 You are given three unlabelled colourless solutions. You are
Applying told that one is pure water, one is a solution of hydrochloric
acid and one is a solution of sodium hydroxide. You are also
16 Identify the reaction type for each of the following equations:
given some universal indicator which you can add to only one.
a lithium  chlorine  lithium chloride Propose how you could identify each solution.
b sulfuric acid  barium carbonate  barium sulfate 
carbon dioxide  water Creating
17 Identify what specific chemical is found in antacids. 25 Design an experiment to show how the pH of an acid changes
as it is diluted. Predict what results you’d expect to see.
18 Identify what colour the following indicators would be at pH 4:
26 Design an acid spill kit taking into account all possible safety
a blue litmus
risks involved.
b red litmus
c universal indicator Worksheet 3.4 Crossword

d methyl orange
Worksheet 3.5 Sci-words
Analysing
19 Classify the following salts as either soluble or insoluble:
a AgCl
b NaCl
c AgNO3
d PbI2
e CuSO4
f HgCl2
g PbSO4
h BaSO4

101
4
Sense and
control

Prescribed focus area


The nature and practice of science

Key outcomes
5.2, 5.8.4

• Humans have five senses.


Essentials

• The development of new technologies


has allowed humans to correct
difficulties in hearing and seeing.
• Your senses are coordinated by the
nervous system.
• Your senses are triggered by
specialised cells.
• This stimulus will often trigger
a response.
• Hormones can also be released as a
result of a reaction to a stimulus.
• Nervous impulses are much quicker
than hormones.
Additional

• Different hormones trigger


different responses.
• Different hormones are released by
different endocrine glands.
Unit 4.1 Sight
context The eyes provide what many would regard transmitted focused colour images of several
as the most important of all our senses— objects located different distances away to
sight. Take a look around you now. If your your brain and with virtually no effort!
eyes are working normally, they just

Science
The eye Clip
The structure of the eye allows it Fishy focusing
to limit or maximise the amount of
Most animals focus by
light entering it, focus the light to using the ciliary
form an image and then transmit muscles to change the
the image to the brain. shape of the lens.
These primary functions are Fish, however, focus
carried out by: images by moving
each lens backwards
• the iris and pupil: these close and forwards, just like
down to limit light when it is a camera.
bright and dilate (open up) to
Fig 4.1.1 The amount of light entering the eye is controlled by the
maximise the light entering the coloured iris which opens and closes the pupil.
eye in the dark
• the cornea and lens: these bend the rays of light
The rest of the eye is there basically to keep it in shape
entering the eye so that the light focuses on the retina Prac 1
(vitreous humour, aqueous humour and sclerotic layer), p. 110
• the retina: this is where the image should form.
to stop stray light from entering or reflecting around
Specialised cells in the retina then transmit the
the eye (the choroid) and to change the shape of the
image to the brain.
lens to allow it to focus (suspensory ligaments and
ciliary muscles). Prac 2
p. 111

iris
retina

lens
optic nerve

diaphragm

film
shutter

convex lens
Fig 4.1.2 The eye focuses images in the retina. Although the image is upside
down, the brain processes it so that we perceive it the correct way up. The 103
operation of the eye acts very much like an old-fashioned film-loaded camera.
Sight

Sclerotic layer: a tough, white-coloured protective layer Vitreous humour: a jelly that helps
(coloured pink here) that surrounds the eye and helps maintain the shape of the eye.
maintain its shape.
Choroid: a black layer that forms part of
the inside lining of the eye behind the lens.
Conjunctiva: a clear, thin layer covering the
It prevents light from reflecting all around the eye
front of the eye. An infection of the eye called
and nourishes it with blood and oxygen.
conjunctivitis can occur here.
Retina: a layer containing over 100 million
Cornea: a clear 'window' in the light-sensitive cells which transmit messages to the brain.
sclerotic layer and under the conjunctiva
that allows light to enter the eye. Yellow spot (fovea): a section of the retina
directly behind the pupil that contains a
Pupil: hole in the centre of the iris. large number of colour-sensitive cells. This
In the dark, the pupil opens up to is why you should look directly at an object
let more light in. It is then said to to see it most clearly.
be dilated. When very bright, the
pupil shuts down to a small hole. Blind spot: where blood vessels
and the optic nerve join the eyeball.
pupil There are no light-sensitive cells
to detect image information.

dilated (dim light) bright light Optic nerve: joins the eye to the brain.
Passes information about the image to
Aqueous humour: a watery liquid that the brain for processing so that the
fills the space between the cornea image is seen the right way up.
and the lens. Helps maintain the
shape of the eye. Lens: a clear jelly-like ‘window’ that helps
focus an image on the back surface of the eye.
Iris: just in front of the lens. Suspensory ligaments: hold the lens in place.
Changes size to control the
size of pupil. It also gives Ciliary muscles: change the shape
eyes their colour. of the lens to bring images into focus.

Fig 4.1.3 The human eye

Worksheet 4.1 The eye


Prac 3
p. 111
Colour vision
The retina contains special cells called rods and cones.
Eye protection Rods are more sensitive than cones, but respond only to
A number of features help protect your eyes: light and dark, helping us to detect shapes. Cones need
• eyebrows and eyelashes help keep dust out more light to be activated and come in three types
• tear ducts produce tears to flush out any which detect the colours red, blue and green. Only the
foreign particles rods are activated at night or in the dark and so you see
• eyes are set back in depressions in our skulls everything in shades of grey without much colour.
called orbits. This gives them some protection If red light falls on the retina, ‘red’ cones are
from being knocked. activated. With purple light, both red and blue cones
are activated. Both rods and cones send messages to the
Why two eyes? brain to help you see.
Two eyes allow you to judge distances more accurately Some people lack some types of cone cells and
since each eye sees a slightly different view. The brain cannot easily differentiate between some colours, most
combines the two images to create a three-dimensional notably red and green. This condition is known as
view that gives us more information about how far away red/green colour blindness. It is an inherited disease
an object is. This is known as binocular vision. and affects about 1 in 15 males and 1 in 1000 females.

104
Science

Unit
Clip
What colours can’t

4.1
you see?
Lots of colours cannot be
seen by humans. Infra-red
(IR) and ultraviolet (UV) are
two colours, for example, that
are impossible for us to see.
We feel IR, however, as heat
and UV is known to damage
our skin. Special cameras can
detect IR and make it possible
to detect sources of heat
(such as people lost in the
bush). Likewise, some dyes,
fabrics and detergents can
convert ‘invisible’ UV into a
Fig 4.1.4 A scanning electron microscope Fig 4.1.5 A colour blindness test. What do you see? strange violet-white glow that
photograph of rods and cones can be seen.

Animal eyes
The eyes of different animals are adapted to increase
their chances of survival by detecting predators or food
more easily. A rabbit’s eyes, for example, are positioned
on the sides of its head so that it can see most of its
surroundings without moving its head and attracting
attention. Other animals that are preyed on also have
their eyes facing sideways: mice, rats, sheep and small
birds all have good all-round vision to protect them
from attack.
Predators tend to have forward-facing eyes: this gives
them excellent eyesight and helps them judge distances
accurately when swooping on prey. The eagle, for
example, has excellent eyesight and can detect a rabbit
from three kilometres away!
Fig 4.1.7 Many insects have multiple lenses to provide an
all-round view.

Fig 4.1.6 The forward-facing eyes of the owl give it good binocular Fig 4.1.8 Spiders have four, six or eight eyes while scorpions have
vision, allowing it to judge distance as it swoops on prey. between six and twelve.

105
Sight
Science
Clip
Wobbly chook
heads
Chickens wobble their
Science heads around
Clip frequently to obtain
better vision. Their
The largest eyes eyes are on opposite
in the world sides of their heads
The giant squid can and to judge distance
grow up to 14 metres accurately they need
long and has eyes as to see an object with
large as soccer balls! both eyes. The only
way they can do this is
to quickly move their
heads to view the
Fig 4.1.9 A rabbit can see both sides at once. Fig 4.1.10 A chicken must continually object with one eye,
This is because the rabbit’s eyes are positioned on move its head to obtain a complete
then the other!
the sides of its head so that it can see most of its view of its surroundings.
surroundings without moving its head and
attracting attention.

Do animals see in colour?


Many animals see in colour, but not the same as we
Eye defects
The job of the lens is to bend light so that an image is
do—it depends on the number and type of cones they
formed on the retina. It does this by using the ciliary
have. Some animals, like bees, have extra types of cones
muscles to change its shape. When these muscles relax,
in their eyes. This allows them to see colours that we
they pull on the suspensory ligaments and stretch the
can’t. Birds that are active in
Science daytime are able to see colours,
lens, making it thinner so it bends light less. When the
Clip but those that are active at
ciliary muscles contract, they pull less and allow the lens
to fatten up. Fatter lenses bend light more, which is
Cats’ eyes night cannot. Cats, dogs and
what’s required when looking at close objects. The
Cats’ eyes are unusual. They have a rabbits are thought to have
ability of your eyes to change lens shape and focus at
slit-shaped pupil which opens and very poor colour vision, and see
closes much faster than a round different distances is called accommodation.
virtually in black and white.
one, allowing their eyes to adjust to In some people, the lens becomes less elastic and is
Sheep and horses have good
changes in light intensity more unable to become thin enough or fat enough to focus
quickly. Cats’ eyes shine at night
colour vision. Insects can see
images at exactly the right position in the eye. This can
because of a mirrored lining at the colours, but not red. Some
result in one of three conditions:
very back of the eye (called a insects can see ultraviolet light,
tapetum). It reflects light through which is normally invisible to
the rods and cones a second time, humans.
giving the cat more chance of
seeing objects even in very dim
conditions. It is because of this Eye focused on image Eye focused on image
circular fibres circular fibres
reflectivity that roads have ‘cats a distant object on a near object on
relaxed contracted
eyes’ installed to show lane retina retina
markings at night. meridional fibres
meridional fibres relaxed
relaxed
light from
Fig 4.1.11 This is how the eye light from close object
focuses on close and distant distant
objects: the ciliary muscles in object suspensory suspensory
each eye stretch and relax the ligaments ligaments
lens making it thinner and taut slack
thicker. This changes the amount
light bent little light bent more
of bending of light that occurs as
by thin lens by fatter lens
it passes through the lens.

106
Unit
• short-sightedness—people can focus on objects a the bottom for reading, and concave at the top for
short distance away, but not on distant objects. This distance vision).

4.1
condition is known as myopia. As well as spectacles, contact lenses can be used to
correct vision. Soft plastic lenses are available which are
more comfortable than hard glass lenses, but they are
not suitable for everyone. Wearers of contact lenses
distant object must ensure that their eyes still receive enough oxygen.
Modern plastic contact lenses are gas permeable,
allowing some oxygen to pass through to the cornea.
The eye may react to a lack of oxygen by growing
additional blood vessels to supply more oxygen
concave lens via the bloodstream, but the extra vessels can
cause irritation and other problems.
distant object Prac 4
p. 111

Fig 4.1.12 Short-sightedness (myopia) can be corrected by wearing


concave lenses that move the focus point of the image back onto the
retina.

• long-sightedness—people can see long distances


away, but cannot focus on close-up objects. Another
name for long-sightedness is hyperopia.

close object

convex lens

close object
Fig 4.1.14 Contact lenses can be used to correct impaired eyesight.

Science
Science Clip
Fig 4.1.13 Long-sightedness or hyperopia, can be corrected by Clip Artificial eyes
wearing convex lenses which bend light more so the focus point of the Medical researchers
Bifocal contacts
image is brought forward onto the retina. are working on an
The first bifocal artificial eye that they
contact lenses were hope may restore
• presbyopia—as people age, they often lose the invented by sight to blind people.
ability to focus at short distances, particularly when Queensland optical The artificial eye
research scientist implants directly into
reading. Some people have trouble focusing at both Stephen Newman the optic nerve.
short and long distances, and may use bifocal lenses, in 1992.
which have two types of lens in one (e.g. convex at

107
Sight
Laser surgery Science
A more recent development in eyesight Clip
correction is laser surgery. The two
Monovision
main methods are PRK (photoreactive
Monovision does not
keratotomy) and Lasik (laser in situ
mean having one eye!
keratomileusis). The term refers to
• PRK involves removing a layer of cells vision correction in
from the surface of the cornea and which a person who is
remodelling the shape of the cornea unable to focus at
using a laser. both short and long
distances wears a
• Lasik treatment involves a thin flap of different strength
the cornea being lifted up, but not contact lens in each
removed, and a laser is used to reshape eye. With time, the
the cornea before the flap is replaced brain learns which
over the laser-treated area. lens to use depending
on the distance of the
Patients undergoing Lasik feel less
object being viewed.
discomfort and healing time is reduced,
while with PRK, there is more cornea to
work with. Fig 4.1.15 The Lasik procedure being used to correct myopia

QUESTIONS
4.1
Remembering