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# LESSON 7

## Duration: one or two 60 minutes periods

Objectives:
Understanding that experimental
probability = the number of
observed occurrences/total number
of trials

Curriculum Objectives:
General Outcomes:
Communication of their ideas and reasoning
Supposition adding an additional player and keeping track of results
for coin 1 and 2
Reasoning regarding fairness of game
(Alberta Education, 2015, p.4)
Specific Outcomes:
Identifying all possible outcomes of a probability experiment
Determining the experimental probability of outcomes in a
probability experiment
(Alberta Education, 2015, p.34)

Materials:
Enough coins for 2 per group of 3
Large paper and markers for each
group of 3
Formative Assessment
from last class:

## Link to Previous Lesson(s):

Links to understanding of possible outcomes presented in Lesson
6 Impossible, Likely and Certain lesson
Links to fairness presented in Lesson 4 Effects on Data lesson.
Learners Differentiation:
Challenged or ELL learners: Provide the students with pre-printed
table to record results. Provide a glossary of probability terms.
Extension: ask students to come up with a similar game using dice.

Lesson

Perform activity first. After the activity, lead a group discussion about the
fairness of the game. Construct a table to show the students the four possible
outcomes and how this is used to represent the experimental probability. See if
students are able to come up with the equation for experimental probability. Is
it possible to make the game fair by adding more coins? (generalization adding more coins will not make a difference because player C will still be
more likely to win) have students create a chart on the board to show why this
is the case. Ask students can you make the lesson fair by adding more players?
(Answer: Add a fourth player D, player C will get a point if the first coin is a
head and the second coin is a tail and player D will get a point if the first coin
is a tail and the second coin is a head. This demonstrates reasoning,
supposition, and problem solving). Ask students to form groups of 3 and
discuss how their new understanding of possible outcomes can affect their lives
or those of others provide examples and questions to scaffold their learning: are
midway games fair? casinos? Does this relate to making informed guesses
during an exam or leaving a question blank? Have them record their ideas and
answers on large pieces of paper. Post their answers and facilitate a class
Three students toss 2 like coins, player A gets a point if there are two heads,
player B gets a point if there are two tails and player C gets a point if there is
one head and one tail. The player who has the most points wins. Have players
play the game at least two or three times with twenty tosses and record their

Formative/Summative
Assessment

Reflection

results. After each game have students discuss the results, if they think the
game is fair and predict who will win the next game. While they are playing
ask the students to use words or pictorials to describe their results and
reasoning for whether the game was fair. Once the players have completed the
game have them record whether or not they think it was fair and why?
After the game has been played three times have a class discussion about the
fairness of the game. Challenge the students to make an argument based on the
data and game rules and determine whether the game was fair or not and why.
Proceed to Lesson.
Circulate while the games are being played to provide facilitation and have
conversations with the students to assess their preliminary understanding.
Have students present their ideas as a group to the class. Ensure that students
write their names on the poster sheets and collect at the end of the class to
assess their understanding. Take notes as students present to the class and at a
later time provide suggestions on an individual basis to aid them in improving
their presentation skills, ask them what they find most challenging in
presenting in order to encourage them to take ownership of their improvement.