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# GEOM 2015 GEOMATICS

## FOR CIVIL AND

ENVIRONMENTAL
ENGINEERS

2 Distance Measurement
Sunil Lalloo

OVERVIEW

## Introduction & Learning Objectives

Direct Linear Measurement

Pacing
Odometers
Taping

## Optical Distance Measurement

Electronic Distance Measurement

Summary

SECTION OBJECTIVES

## To define linear measurement

To introduce methods and equipment for
performing linear measurement
To define sources of uncertainties in linear
measurement
To introduce methods for dealing with systematic
errors in linear measurement
To define direct and indirect linear measurement,
methods, equipment and theories of operation

LINEAR MEASUREMENT
Distance Measurement
Direct measurement comparison of point
against scale
Indirect measurement calculation of the
distance from ancillary measurements

LINEAR MEASUREMENT
Distance between two points may be
Terrain
Vertical
Horizontal
Slope

LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Horizontal
distance

Vertical
distance

Slope distance

Terrain
distance

LINEAR MEASUREMENT
Direct linear measurement may be performed by
Pacing
Odometer/measuring wheel
Rigid rulers
Chaining /taping

LINEAR MEASUREMENT
Indirect linear measurement may be performed by
Stadia
Subtense bar
Electronic distance measurement (EDM)

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Pacing
Determine average pace length
Walking between points of interest
Generates terrain distances
Length changes going up or downhill
Pedometer can also be used
Accuracy of ~ 1:50 1:100

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Odometer/Measuring Wheel
Fixed circumference
Distance = # of revolutions x circumference
Generates terrain distances
Problems with alignment
Accuracy of ~ 1:200

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Taping
Using a tape between two ends of the line to be
measured
Need to:

## Properly align tape

Apply tension
Plumb tape when above ground
Read & record

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Taping accessories
Range rods and chaining pins
Tension handles or spring balances
Tape clamps
Plumb bobs
Hand level
Abney level
Pocket thermometers

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Taping procedures depend on
Type of tape available
Terrain to be measured
Project requirements/specifications
Personal preferences
Established practices

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

To obtain horizontal distances
Horizontal taping
Slope taping
Dynamic taping

Horizontal
taping
tape

Plumb
bob

Slope Taping

Dynamic taping

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Taping techniques for type of terrain
Flat ground without obstructions horizontal
taping
Obstructions catenary taping
Sloping ground slope taping

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Mistakes/blunders in taping
Adding or dropping a full tape length
Adding a unit
Confusing zeroes
Reading numbers incorrectly
Calling numbers incorrectly/unclearly

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Systematic errors in taping
Tape not of standard length
Tape not horizontal
Variations in temperature
Variations in tension
Sag
Incorrect alignment

TAPING CORRECTIONS
Standard Correction
Corrected length L' = L(l'/l)
54.395m = 54.375 (30.011/30)
or the standardisation correction Cs can be computed
from
Cs = L((l' l)/l)
Where:
l = standard length
l' = calibrated length
L = observed length
L' = corrected length

TAPING CORRECTIONS

Slope Correction

L'

''

## Corrected length L'' = L' cos

For Slope Correction
Ch = L' L''

TAPING CORRECTIONS

Temperature Correction

## Ct = L' ' (T0 T)

Where:
L'' is the measured length and
is the coefficient of thermal expansion
(0.00000645/1F or 0.0000116/1C for steel)
T = standard temperature
To = observed temperature

TAPING CORRECTIONS
Tension Correction

L
C P P P0
aE
where P is the applied tension in lbs or kgs
P0 is the standardisation tension in lbs or kgs (units
consistent)
L is the measured length
a is the cross-sectional area of the tape in in2 or cm2
E is the modulus of elasticity of steel in lb/in2 or kg/cm2

TAPING CORRECTIONS

## Sag (Catenary) Correction

2

W L
CC
24P 2
where
w is the weight per unit length of the tape in lb/ft or
kg/m
W is the total weight of the tape between the supports
in lb or kg (= wL)
L is the distance between the supports
P is the tension applied in lb or kg

## DIRECT LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Random errors in taping
plumbing to mark tape ends
marking tape ends
applying tension
determining elevation differences
angles
standardisation

and

slope

## A maximum accuracy of 1 in 5000 can be

achieved over most ground surfaces applying only
standardisation and slope corrections (using an
Abney level for slope measurement)

## Accuracy can increase to 1 in 10000 applying

tension and temperature corrections
On specially prepared (cleared, roughly levelled
ground) surfaces and over distances less than a
tape
length,
in
addition
to
careful
standardisation and slope angle measurement
(theodolite
vertical
angle
measurement),
accuracy can potentially reach 1 in 20,000.

## Accuracy can be further increased using

supported catenary taping applying sag
corrections

## There are two main techniques employed for

indirect distance measurement; optical distance
measurement (ODM), and electronic distance
measurement (EDM)

## There are several different methods involved in

ODM, but the only ones still used today are stadia
and subtense tacheometry

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
ODM
Optical distance measurement is based on the
principles of the parallactic triangle, where the
distance s is derived from the relationships
between the parallactic angle of the triangle
and its base b

## OPTICAL DISTANCE MEASUREMENT

s = (b/2) cot(/2)

## To obtain a value for s, one parameter (either b or ) is

held constant and the other is measured.

## For stadia tacheometry, the base is measured and the

parallactic angle held constant, and for subtense
tacheometry the parallactic angle is measured and the
base held constant.

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Stadia Tacheometry

## The term tacheometry means rapid or fast

measurement
the angle is kept fixed while the base is measured
This is achieved using two supplementary horizontal
lines (stadia) placed at equal distances above and below
the central horizontal line in the telescope of an
instrument

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Stadia Tacheometry
These lines serve both purposes
Since they are fixed in the telescope, they form a
fixed angle with the optical centre of the
instrument, and
Secondly they provide the lines for the
measurement of the base.

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT

## Since the parallactic angle is constant, the

equation reduces to
s = bk

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Stadia Tacheometry
For most modern instruments, the relationship
between the stadia and the parallactic angle is
designed such that the multiplication constant k
= 100, therefore

s = 100b

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
can be simply measured by sighting a ruler or
some other graduated instrument. Usually a
levelling staff is used.
For an inclined sight, the horizontal distance H
and the vertical distance V are required. For the
equation to hold true, b must be perpendicular to
the line of sight. For a vertical angle of , b will
be inclined by . To obtain perpendicular base
b
b

= bcos

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
so
s = 100b = 100bcos

b
90-

## This s is now the slope distance.

horizontal distance from s

To obtain the
s

## H = scos = 100bcos = 100bcos2

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Similarly the vertical distance is given by

## V = ssin = 100bsin = 100b(cossin) = 100b(1/2

sin2)

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Errors in stadia measurement
Stadia interval factor (multiplication constant) not
that assumed
Rod not standard length
Incorrect stadia interval
Rod not vertical
Unequal refraction
Errors in vertical angles

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Stadia interval
Interval factor depends on the relationship between
the optical centre of the instrument and the stadia
crosshairs on the telescope. If this is not in exact
adjustment this would produce a systematic error in
the distances proportional to the error in the interval
factor (e.g interval factor 98.99 instead of 100).

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Rod length
If the rod is not of a standard length, this will
produce systematic errors proportional to the
measured base. These errors can be minimised if
the rod is standardised and the appropriate
corrections applied to the observed stadia intervals.

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Incorrect interval
This is a random error due to the human
operators inability to read the stadia interval
exactly

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Rod not vertical
Relationships are only true if perpendicularity is
maintained. This produces a small error in the
vertical angle and consequently a larger error in
the observed stadia interval and computed
distance

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Unequal refraction
Refraction has a greater effect on light rays closer
to the earths surface. Since measurements are
taken in the vertical plane, the effects of refraction
may vary over b

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Accuracy of stadia measurements
Ordinary levelling staves can be used for a maximum
distance of ~100m.
Accuracy decreases with increasing distance, so
sights of 50 to 75m usually used as a reasonable
limit.
Accuracies between 1/300 to 1/500 typical for
horizontal measurements, but this can be improved to
1/1000 to 1/2000 using fixed targets instead of rods,
repeated measurements and high order theodolites

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Subtense Tacheometry
In subtense tacheometry, the angle subtended by two ends
of a horizontal rod of fixed length known as a subtense bar
is observed, and the horizontal distance computed.
The subtense bar has targets at both ends which are
connected by an invar wire under slight tension.
A theodolite is used to measure the parallactic angle
between the targets.

OPTICAL DISTANCE
MEASUREMENT
Subtense Tacheometry
To obtain accuracies of 1/5000, distances should be
restricted to <175m and repeated angles should be
measured to the nearest 1".
Subtense measurement is useful for measurements over
rough terrain, and since only horizontal angles are
measured, no slope distance corrections are required

E.D.M
Electronic distance measuring instruments provide a
rapid, accurate and flexible method of distance
determination.
The measurement principle is based on the invariant
speed of light (electro-optical) or electromagnetic
(microwaves) waves in a vacuum.

E.D.M

## Four basic ways in which distances are measured using

EDMI. These are

pulse,
phase

difference,
Doppler and
Interferometric methods.

## Only pulse and phase difference techniques are on

interest at this stage.

E.D.M
The

## principles of EDM measurement is based

upon wave theory. A wave is defined as a
disturbance that propagates in time or space
or both. A periodic wave is one where the
disturbance repeats itself in a periodic
manner.
Waves therefore have some
distinctive features
period P
wavelength
amplitude A
frequency f
phase (the fractional part of the wave)

E.D.M

## The waves used in EDM measurement are part of the

electromagnetic spectrum.

## The operation principles are based upon the basic

theory that
distance = speed x time

E.D.M
Since we are dealing with electromagnetic radiation,
the fundamental equation we are concerned with is

V = f

1
f

E.D.M

## where V is the velocity of the em wave, f is the

frequency of the wave and is the wavelength.
The mode and velocity of the propagated wave is
dependant upon

(i)

## the frequency, and

(ii) the medium through which the
wave is travelling.

E.D.M.
Now for a wave that is emitted at a point A,
reflected at a point B and returns to A

2d = Vt
where t is the flight time.

E.D.M
Pulse Measurement
In the pulse method, a short, intensive signal is
transmitted by an instrument. The signal travels to a
target point and is reflected back. The total time taken
between transmission and reception of the same pulse
is measured.
2d

= ct = c(tR tE)
d = c(tR tE)/2

## where c is the speed of the pulse (light) tR and tE are

the received and transmitted times respectively .

E.D.M

## Since the speed of light is very large (299792.5

km/s), this method requires very accurate time
measurement (0.1ns error in time gives ~15mm
distance error)

E.D.M
Phase Difference Measurement
The transmitter emits a continuous sinusoidial
measuring wave (YE) that is reflected and
received by the instrument (YR). The instrument
compares the outgoing and incoming waves and
measures the difference in phase or phase lag
.

E.D.M
YE = Asin
YR = Asin ( + )

## Since a continuous wave is used, YE and YR will

change with time, but will remain constant.

E.D.M.
so in terms of the wavelength, the basic formula for
phase difference measurement is given by
2d = m +
therefore
d = m(/2) + (/2)
where is measured directly by the instrument, /2 is
the Unit length and m is the Ambiguity

E.D.M.
Reflectors
For most type of EDM measurement, there is a
reflector to return the signal to the instrument. A
reflector is basically a device at the other end of the
line which reflects the light or infrared beam back to
the EDM instrument. Some examples of common
reflectors are
plane

## front surface mirror

spherical reflector
glass prism reflector (most used)
reflecting tape

E.D.M.

## Some of the properties of a good reflector are

1.Good reflectivity a high percentage of the
incident ray is reflected (i.e. no absorption)
2.Complete illumination of the receiver optics
of the instrument
Small

## movements in the reflecting device should not

result in a change in direction of the emerging ray

E.D.M.
Basic properties of electro-optical EDM
1.
They use visible light or NIR radiation as carrier
waves
2.
Normal telescopes can be used for transmitting and
receiving signals
3.
Different classifications based on range
Short range 1m to 2 km
Medium range 5 to 10 km
Long range 15 to 70 km (based on factors of
visibility and # of prisms)

E.D.M.
4.

## Classifications based on precision

1st order < (1mm + 1ppm)
2nd order > (5mm + 1ppm)
3rd order > (5mm + 5ppm)

## ERRORS IN EDM MEASUREMENT

Some of the errors that affect EDM accuracy are
i.
effect of atmospheric conditions
ii.
uncertainty in the position of the electrical centre of the
transmitter
iii. uncertainty in the effective centre of the reflector
iv.
frequency drift
v.
instrument non-linearity
vi.
cyclic error
vii. zero error
65

## Some of these errors are distance dependant, ((i),

(iv), (vi)), while others are fixed. The error
function for these EDMIs therefore have a fixed
component as well as a distance dependant
component

Method

Tool

Accuracy

Range

Advantages/Disadvanta
ges

Direct

Tape

Multiple

+
simple
theory
computations
- time consuming
- terrain dependent

Indirect
(Optical)

Stadia
Tacheomet
ry

1:5000
(Std.,
Slope)
1:10000
(Temp,
Ten)
1:20000(Sag,
Theo. Ranging)
1:500 to 1:1000

100m

## + quick and easy

+ simple computations
- instrumental errors large effect
- assumed value of k
- large errors due to staff readings
- large errors due to non-vertical
staff
- errors due to vertical circle
measurement

Indirect
(Optical)

Subtense
Tacheomet
ry

1:5000 to 1:10000

175m

## + always measures horizontal

distances
- laborious
- instrumental errors
- time consuming

Indirect
(Electron
ic)

EDM

15mm +5ppm to
0.2mm + 1ppm

to
150km

## + quick and easy

+ digital readout
+ longer range
+ high accuracy

and

67

SECTION OBJECTIVES

## To define linear measurement

To introduce methods and equipment for
performing linear measurement
To define sources of uncertainties in linear
measurement
To introduce methods for dealing with systematic
errors in linear measurement
To define direct and indirect linear measurement,
methods, equipment and theories of operation