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You are on page 1of 68

ENVIRONMENTAL

ENGINEERS

2 Distance Measurement

Sunil Lalloo

OVERVIEW

Direct Linear Measurement

Pacing

Odometers

Taping

Electronic Distance Measurement

Summary

SECTION OBJECTIVES

To introduce methods and equipment for

performing linear measurement

To define sources of uncertainties in linear

measurement

To introduce methods for dealing with systematic

errors in linear measurement

To define direct and indirect linear measurement,

methods, equipment and theories of operation

LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Distance Measurement

Direct measurement comparison of point

against scale

Indirect measurement calculation of the

distance from ancillary measurements

LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Distance between two points may be

Terrain

Vertical

Horizontal

Slope

LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Horizontal

distance

Vertical

distance

Slope distance

Terrain

distance

LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Direct linear measurement may be performed by

Pacing

Odometer/measuring wheel

Rigid rulers

Chaining /taping

LINEAR MEASUREMENT

Indirect linear measurement may be performed by

Stadia

Subtense bar

Electronic distance measurement (EDM)

Pacing

Determine average pace length

Walking between points of interest

Generates terrain distances

Length changes going up or downhill

Pedometer can also be used

Accuracy of ~ 1:50 1:100

Odometer/Measuring Wheel

Fixed circumference

Distance = # of revolutions x circumference

Generates terrain distances

Problems with alignment

Accuracy of ~ 1:200

Taping

Using a tape between two ends of the line to be

measured

Need to:

Apply tension

Plumb tape when above ground

Read & record

Taping accessories

Range rods and chaining pins

Tension handles or spring balances

Tape clamps

Plumb bobs

Hand level

Abney level

Pocket thermometers

Taping procedures depend on

Type of tape available

Terrain to be measured

Project requirements/specifications

Personal preferences

Established practices

To obtain horizontal distances

Horizontal taping

Slope taping

Dynamic taping

Horizontal

taping

tape

Plumb

bob

Slope Taping

Dynamic taping

Taping techniques for type of terrain

Flat ground without obstructions horizontal

taping

Obstructions catenary taping

Sloping ground slope taping

Mistakes/blunders in taping

Adding or dropping a full tape length

Adding a unit

Confusing zeroes

Reading numbers incorrectly

Calling numbers incorrectly/unclearly

Systematic errors in taping

Tape not of standard length

Tape not horizontal

Variations in temperature

Variations in tension

Sag

Incorrect alignment

TAPING CORRECTIONS

Standard Correction

Corrected length L' = L(l'/l)

54.395m = 54.375 (30.011/30)

or the standardisation correction Cs can be computed

from

Cs = L((l' l)/l)

Where:

l = standard length

l' = calibrated length

L = observed length

L' = corrected length

TAPING CORRECTIONS

Slope Correction

L'

''

For Slope Correction

Ch = L' L''

TAPING CORRECTIONS

Temperature Correction

Where:

L'' is the measured length and

is the coefficient of thermal expansion

(0.00000645/1F or 0.0000116/1C for steel)

T = standard temperature

To = observed temperature

TAPING CORRECTIONS

Tension Correction

L

C P P P0

aE

where P is the applied tension in lbs or kgs

P0 is the standardisation tension in lbs or kgs (units

consistent)

L is the measured length

a is the cross-sectional area of the tape in in2 or cm2

E is the modulus of elasticity of steel in lb/in2 or kg/cm2

TAPING CORRECTIONS

2

W L

CC

24P 2

where

w is the weight per unit length of the tape in lb/ft or

kg/m

W is the total weight of the tape between the supports

in lb or kg (= wL)

L is the distance between the supports

P is the tension applied in lb or kg

Random errors in taping

plumbing to mark tape ends

marking tape ends

applying tension

determining elevation differences

angles

standardisation

and

slope

achieved over most ground surfaces applying only

standardisation and slope corrections (using an

Abney level for slope measurement)

tension and temperature corrections

On specially prepared (cleared, roughly levelled

ground) surfaces and over distances less than a

tape

length,

in

addition

to

careful

standardisation and slope angle measurement

(theodolite

vertical

angle

measurement),

accuracy can potentially reach 1 in 20,000.

supported catenary taping applying sag

corrections

indirect distance measurement; optical distance

measurement (ODM), and electronic distance

measurement (EDM)

ODM, but the only ones still used today are stadia

and subtense tacheometry

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

ODM

Optical distance measurement is based on the

principles of the parallactic triangle, where the

distance s is derived from the relationships

between the parallactic angle of the triangle

and its base b

s = (b/2) cot(/2)

held constant and the other is measured.

parallactic angle held constant, and for subtense

tacheometry the parallactic angle is measured and the

base held constant.

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Stadia Tacheometry

measurement

the angle is kept fixed while the base is measured

This is achieved using two supplementary horizontal

lines (stadia) placed at equal distances above and below

the central horizontal line in the telescope of an

instrument

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Stadia Tacheometry

These lines serve both purposes

Since they are fixed in the telescope, they form a

fixed angle with the optical centre of the

instrument, and

Secondly they provide the lines for the

measurement of the base.

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

equation reduces to

s = bk

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Stadia Tacheometry

For most modern instruments, the relationship

between the stadia and the parallactic angle is

designed such that the multiplication constant k

= 100, therefore

s = 100b

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

can be simply measured by sighting a ruler or

some other graduated instrument. Usually a

levelling staff is used.

For an inclined sight, the horizontal distance H

and the vertical distance V are required. For the

equation to hold true, b must be perpendicular to

the line of sight. For a vertical angle of , b will

be inclined by . To obtain perpendicular base

b

b

= bcos

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

so

s = 100b = 100bcos

b

90-

horizontal distance from s

To obtain the

s

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Similarly the vertical distance is given by

sin2)

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Errors in stadia measurement

Stadia interval factor (multiplication constant) not

that assumed

Rod not standard length

Incorrect stadia interval

Rod not vertical

Unequal refraction

Errors in vertical angles

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Stadia interval

Interval factor depends on the relationship between

the optical centre of the instrument and the stadia

crosshairs on the telescope. If this is not in exact

adjustment this would produce a systematic error in

the distances proportional to the error in the interval

factor (e.g interval factor 98.99 instead of 100).

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Rod length

If the rod is not of a standard length, this will

produce systematic errors proportional to the

measured base. These errors can be minimised if

the rod is standardised and the appropriate

corrections applied to the observed stadia intervals.

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Incorrect interval

This is a random error due to the human

operators inability to read the stadia interval

exactly

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Rod not vertical

Relationships are only true if perpendicularity is

maintained. This produces a small error in the

vertical angle and consequently a larger error in

the observed stadia interval and computed

distance

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Unequal refraction

Refraction has a greater effect on light rays closer

to the earths surface. Since measurements are

taken in the vertical plane, the effects of refraction

may vary over b

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Accuracy of stadia measurements

Ordinary levelling staves can be used for a maximum

distance of ~100m.

Accuracy decreases with increasing distance, so

sights of 50 to 75m usually used as a reasonable

limit.

Accuracies between 1/300 to 1/500 typical for

horizontal measurements, but this can be improved to

1/1000 to 1/2000 using fixed targets instead of rods,

repeated measurements and high order theodolites

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Subtense Tacheometry

In subtense tacheometry, the angle subtended by two ends

of a horizontal rod of fixed length known as a subtense bar

is observed, and the horizontal distance computed.

The subtense bar has targets at both ends which are

connected by an invar wire under slight tension.

A theodolite is used to measure the parallactic angle

between the targets.

OPTICAL DISTANCE

MEASUREMENT

Subtense Tacheometry

To obtain accuracies of 1/5000, distances should be

restricted to <175m and repeated angles should be

measured to the nearest 1".

Subtense measurement is useful for measurements over

rough terrain, and since only horizontal angles are

measured, no slope distance corrections are required

E.D.M

Electronic distance measuring instruments provide a

rapid, accurate and flexible method of distance

determination.

The measurement principle is based on the invariant

speed of light (electro-optical) or electromagnetic

(microwaves) waves in a vacuum.

E.D.M

EDMI. These are

pulse,

phase

difference,

Doppler and

Interferometric methods.

interest at this stage.

E.D.M

The

upon wave theory. A wave is defined as a

disturbance that propagates in time or space

or both. A periodic wave is one where the

disturbance repeats itself in a periodic

manner.

Waves therefore have some

distinctive features

period P

wavelength

amplitude A

frequency f

phase (the fractional part of the wave)

E.D.M

electromagnetic spectrum.

theory that

distance = speed x time

E.D.M

Since we are dealing with electromagnetic radiation,

the fundamental equation we are concerned with is

V = f

1

f

E.D.M

frequency of the wave and is the wavelength.

The mode and velocity of the propagated wave is

dependant upon

(i)

(ii) the medium through which the

wave is travelling.

E.D.M.

Now for a wave that is emitted at a point A,

reflected at a point B and returns to A

2d = Vt

where t is the flight time.

E.D.M

Pulse Measurement

In the pulse method, a short, intensive signal is

transmitted by an instrument. The signal travels to a

target point and is reflected back. The total time taken

between transmission and reception of the same pulse

is measured.

2d

= ct = c(tR tE)

d = c(tR tE)/2

the received and transmitted times respectively .

E.D.M

km/s), this method requires very accurate time

measurement (0.1ns error in time gives ~15mm

distance error)

E.D.M

Phase Difference Measurement

The transmitter emits a continuous sinusoidial

measuring wave (YE) that is reflected and

received by the instrument (YR). The instrument

compares the outgoing and incoming waves and

measures the difference in phase or phase lag

.

E.D.M

YE = Asin

YR = Asin ( + )

change with time, but will remain constant.

E.D.M.

so in terms of the wavelength, the basic formula for

phase difference measurement is given by

2d = m +

therefore

d = m(/2) + (/2)

where is measured directly by the instrument, /2 is

the Unit length and m is the Ambiguity

E.D.M.

Reflectors

For most type of EDM measurement, there is a

reflector to return the signal to the instrument. A

reflector is basically a device at the other end of the

line which reflects the light or infrared beam back to

the EDM instrument. Some examples of common

reflectors are

plane

spherical reflector

glass prism reflector (most used)

reflecting tape

E.D.M.

1.Good reflectivity a high percentage of the

incident ray is reflected (i.e. no absorption)

2.Complete illumination of the receiver optics

of the instrument

Small

result in a change in direction of the emerging ray

E.D.M.

Basic properties of electro-optical EDM

1.

They use visible light or NIR radiation as carrier

waves

2.

Normal telescopes can be used for transmitting and

receiving signals

3.

Different classifications based on range

Short range 1m to 2 km

Medium range 5 to 10 km

Long range 15 to 70 km (based on factors of

visibility and # of prisms)

E.D.M.

4.

1st order < (1mm + 1ppm)

2nd order > (5mm + 1ppm)

3rd order > (5mm + 5ppm)

Some of the errors that affect EDM accuracy are

i.

effect of atmospheric conditions

ii.

uncertainty in the position of the electrical centre of the

transmitter

iii. uncertainty in the effective centre of the reflector

iv.

frequency drift

v.

instrument non-linearity

vi.

cyclic error

vii. zero error

65

(iv), (vi)), while others are fixed. The error

function for these EDMIs therefore have a fixed

component as well as a distance dependant

component

Method

Tool

Accuracy

Range

Advantages/Disadvanta

ges

Direct

Tape

Multiple

+

simple

theory

computations

- time consuming

- terrain dependent

Indirect

(Optical)

Stadia

Tacheomet

ry

1:5000

(Std.,

Slope)

1:10000

(Temp,

Ten)

1:20000(Sag,

Theo. Ranging)

1:500 to 1:1000

100m

+ simple computations

- instrumental errors large effect

- assumed value of k

- large errors due to staff readings

- large errors due to non-vertical

staff

- errors due to vertical circle

measurement

Indirect

(Optical)

Subtense

Tacheomet

ry

1:5000 to 1:10000

175m

distances

- laborious

- instrumental errors

- time consuming

Indirect

(Electron

ic)

EDM

15mm +5ppm to

0.2mm + 1ppm

to

150km

+ digital readout

+ longer range

+ high accuracy

and

67

SECTION OBJECTIVES

To introduce methods and equipment for

performing linear measurement

To define sources of uncertainties in linear

measurement

To introduce methods for dealing with systematic

errors in linear measurement

To define direct and indirect linear measurement,

methods, equipment and theories of operation

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