We Qct au prins, bl~t TV acts OJ1.

us, according 1'0'

G.E. 's latesl study.of .


Herbert E. Krugman

E'~C\l'h~r~ I have s~gge;.5J!cd Umt telcvisiiD'!I is. n,ued[um of :lowi!'lVoh'emell~ :(I;$oompI1l'ed w]lh' p~ipt (Krllgm;~'Il. ·~%.sh lli!vo1~me;nt, was defined i:n ~"I:'ms (j·f the f.I!,lI!1"Ih~Ol' 0,[ persol1E'l.~. ,eoJmCcCl.olu bc~ II:wee-J:l thIi:51~m~~h!~ and [he V!;ewg!."; ~l'!c Humbcrof tl:totJgblS ''I'htch.c~m~ ~.pQ!llaneollsly to m.ind dur~ ~ng cxposm:e ~m:'! which. lin~i(,!(! !lomell~hI8 In. thtl cont~ .. t of 'Ilia s~lllru.]ll.1s lO Ulilillll!l:dling ,itl ·tbe 11:9:.11- 'I.ei'll oJ the v]cwetsown ure.

Jm. U61 lY.)~IC' spOlisorii~ a .snlrl!ll .study 11:1 whleh [ repol'l.i:d dmt thee. liia[l"u~~ klnds 'of lIQverli:siu;g in lVillid pfint evo~d in the TV form l:l'i.a!Iy lewer pcr,&I)n~,~ oonm:clion:s bclwci::n t'I~~ Qd caIUCtlt and &\O!lU~lbln8 in tl~o ~if~ c:oolliifit, of tb~ ",]c,WCIl' (Kwg· man. 1966) .. M(ue HiCCIii!!Y. in avery mucb large. study. !lm Ihilfcnu ·of Adv~li'tlsillg (l·r the ,A.N'PA COf.!· firmed .hal TV Vi;:rsion;f; ,of ,simiitl.r print ~CI~ cYl:iked


fewer pc rso 1l.l'1 eonnectlons (Bo,gan; d al~i 1910')"

T~,te\l~sioJl Is popl!li1r~ ]1l1.cl:'es.t~I1.g; 3lid lime ,con.$Uirn:il'll!l, und it is IW.r .mii::int 35 cri:lieism ~o S3.y 1Imt ,it Js alQ\iI involvement medium, It is, howeveil", very dll1fiii[~:nt .from .pli.IlI. ,lind perheps even marl(! se I,han Is ,generally !lirHnlcdl.

]":(), leern m.or,c tl,bo'Ut dllf-Se difi'c:renc:(: S" I bCt:S:roil mQre inl.cr~ted iliiabor.iJb;uyexperhi:i!lti~:'l 0[1. tile i'ro~~SC5 0" IQQ,~i!!8 Dnd ot!.hinldflg. on tha.proccs;s of <lUCllnl;l.!l Il!"ld g.r relmll!l.I]OIn. lin &0 do,ill.!:. I ,$C'JilSL::d that seoner 0:, 1;o,tcr Imi!:ht devdCip .;1. spe· elal v]ewpa:lnl tl.bol!lt. lhework or Marsha'll McL~Ihan, This is; ill roped on I,hllt developing vlewpo~l1t.

LeI us begin \lI'ilh h:lOking. "Lookins" was; de ..

flnoo. ill tcr,m5 oflbctmp:(lbi[ities{l:l!d Jlmllfitl(iI:Ui '€If the M::I.ckwor!h stand~molJli!ted ,eye movement recorder ]n whlch the rcspoo:uteat',s. lread I!;; rellde!!'ad lmmob]lc: With . rh~ !)l,(l of ill bit~~,llot~ md D, .:5 by fl-in.ch pj:C~llIre is viewcdil't a dislanee·of 18 Inehes (Mack .. wortb.1961) ..

Eye. m.~me!"l;1$ ~re re(:ordedto p.rodu:ce :!Ii .dewl· OPQU mo.iki'i:1. plchll'~ mm of" the: viewed scene lind. a liD!perimpo~eQ wh.h'e spot or nunker indicE!ws the Jl~th 'of eye lillove:menlS., 'i1en~ucond expesures are recerded, and. [1111'," tho developed fiim II JlIQt is m·aiBe' of I'oc; .. tion '0£ e.ye fi_x~too["s.j dlJf<l!tion or

Uiuh0rl !E. K'wGntIln is ;Jl'l!:niigcr of C:otpiifllfe, puho lic (!'p'inlon ~Iil~rch. at, Gen~J. ~c~, whi~h be ,10:11100 En. 1967.90 WDS pre,;~oillSl, wifh Mal''pbn.. Ted Ba'~'.! IiInd R:Jytqonii L&c~'Y/WiU~m :Snaiifb. Dr. K~lJIlali n"I:~lVfla bls l!Jl,.D. fE:um COIu;mhlo, l§iI~ ... crsllf;i' He tillS heen Q. cCl:lI5utiallf tlO .be Atr FtJ:rcl! and to, ·tliC; State DlYparrllDCl'lIl,,:lud hHS "b!e:en. On. tll,1) facuUles of Yale;, Prilllii:ctOlU, linn (ioiu:mbla Un'h'mities. He .is past~prf:5idcllt of biifh ,A.AMR. :Elndi 1)( 'I'h!! D$vlsi,on '0;( COIISUII<1e:f PsycMlogy of ~be APA. He is II 1tI.~~nbCl or the ooard 'of Public Opini'Qn 2~tfU'$,crly ~ml oi' iiha ]or.!.tJial (;1 llr'(il~&· sioHol PSydlOlogy. He is a Cru:s~:ec (If nil! M31'kdiing Sclel!lcc 1!JUi,Uhde.


1()1'm.!rJ'II)/.4.4v,arltsrrllJ R.C1CtiT(:/r

dw~11 Umc, mld shirts to :lieW fl.'<lltiiOllS, TIi~ tY.PCIi or equipl)lcnt b described and photographed ilil file A'ugllst ],968 cover Sctcuy of SC.if!.lt.ti(Jr; Americon.

:I,n lind (if Jtsc:lf, iQQk~n.s Was of IhUe conoorn III the parlicllilar rC'.sean::l1 d:e,'St:rJbed slnce j~. starred wHh the pr,emise dill.'!. '!!l,e respcndents were looki!llg at tli~ ~,pcl'im.cn1~] ads. The c'onccm wru; \\I~;th how' they wereloQ.ldng whell oomm,u]lkauO'fI or learning \V3S taking place as compared wi~h how ~bey we:rc l(loJd!1.g whcn communicndon WillS not Uilik'in,s phu:'i}-i!!:=., wl:lat W'C'it: Ibo respaase qlilali~ic5; of ~oo.k-ing.with ~learniR!l'l

Of pl!raUcl conce,m were the stim.ull J!l~:m~lvc$., How were easHy learned ads rocked at as 001:11- pared wHh ads which were difficult to Jeam-=le., wbiLt Wgoo fhc ~Umu]w q~trl:l.hics of ]ooking·wl,,-n.; learni:lIg'l

The tcSp0l'lu:Elrnb ill sueh sm(Ues \1i'ere bronght '10 n.lnbo',rntory! cx.pos.'Cd to different lids: fol' ten ~LX;ond!O each via the Mackworl,h Opdsc:IIl,. nflul lhl:U lntervlcwcd for roeaU of the ads, Rec:dl" th~rcfore. WDS 1'h~ ¢rli~I;:!I'iQn of IC!IIrnlng. Additknuil oospondel1t!'O "'~e[e blOlllsht back O.IlIl;C a. week fC!f Ilt:n:e wt:lcks. W.iUlOUl verbal Jlitervicwi:ng. just to noti:!! tb~ e'![CiCU of' rop~au:!d ~:PO$u;ro; onlooking,

Of various: S'OO:I'~nj mC:lliiol:b. the onc of most intee,est concerned looting, in only one ~Ia.c.e vs.loOkillS' Illlov,a;r" 011' ;"l:ilmc~~. up" '0'5. i''5Pf~~il-01:J('' lookbiS, This was ealled focusing ,1l!1ld ~'i'iuudng Dnd was SOOFC(i by di.v.idin.s the total area Qfea.c:h advertisemc;nt hi'!!!:! j inch by 1 hlQb iI;l~1J5 and OOUIl~]!l!l ~M lunnbcr of dliffeNnt iI;i;ll1!iwhich were hlQQked i,n,lo/'

ll:litia~ ~m~ingspre!lented an jlJitt:,w~lhlJ! pa,rado:x.

Ol~ a ~po!,!drnl b!il.5'is, ~cl1l,ntilns rcp.rescn~5 [cokingwitb.Je-ami ng--i .C.I, I,hc res,PQndcl1ilswtii.1 :)cnm:u::d mote igcaJ[ed mOire. Howev'~r. QIii a ,~dnliih.ls basis, ~DcuslnB ~,p!!'lMent5 !Qoki:fi'g..w.ilh~le"'rnjl1®-l,e •• 'the ads wbicl~weN :s.c:~.tnlJi!:id t~1i were b~Uet re~~lcd,

'The rcsohxlion of die I'al'adox is apparently this:

Ads which ,iIIH} g~$il}' 1c:,ltrned IIcq;llIiro very Ilttle or lEu: I'e.'ipo.ndcnl ~;nd ;lhe:v' .;:omln'nafik3h~' witb muo; wad; 01'1 his pan. :But ads wbich dono'! learn easily do I:ICqUh:-Cl the l'¢.S']l(lnd~t, ~o be moIC actlvc. to

look a~l;I~J:I;ldj and w !i~an, .

Soa situation ooour:; woere~ ilt one eociremc, dm work Qr c~\lUnnml'c;(l'!tQiliI must he donI'!: by ~he cemmUlliGntor v:ia cr,eaiion (If an, easily h}RrJ1.lIblo nd 01' cQmmllniqule. or. 01']; the other hand" where thework of c-ammunlclldou may bo done by ~be re:spcmdcnt or Co'm mUIi.iC;:llIlt \'$111 lUil itbi1i1.y to leflrnd:iflicull, ,OOmm!llll'qilJes.





iU :IlJi;!ipoh~t we lI!iikcd" "flow i~ n dono;?" For example, we began losu:sp~t that scailnins. nS 1m active 1clIml!1lg process, hud ,SIOmetbllig to 0:,0 witb the possibility of IfCfSOIULl con:fiiitilions 1nki~gplllCe between '~ht! stimulus and the viewer, but haw? It ~Is(li nppLlareli Ute:!: ifocl!lls'.ingpermined milch Iaaming wilbom ilny cfTor,1 at nil:, Ql:ld:, apln~ we ask~!, ""How?·'

EtHer \Vllli!un James

It was WU.li.am James who came: tn 'the rescue, T!d~ 'l'g~n.of.tb~ilinhny H'nrv~rd ,piSy,c.hol(!~i.st !ulid becn the p.rimaty American eXFonc:nt of the study of con:sci(m,!) experience. As a student of ~hc. precess of MLcl.'ltion, b~ ~5 ~tiU ;u:ilmowlcdgtld iU nU.lslct 1)1 conte_m:porary scholars.

JOlmes: defined (wo ty~ of attention; \lo]Il[lt3Lr~ lind in'Jol.lI:ntlQ1.;u'!d he !'!olcd thllt voil,1lllary II~. l:e'il~i(lI~ ca~llot be con(~n.uo1l5~ U i!j n Qoontinual .c-hi:rning; of the attention to its obje-ct whea it wandeI'S away. He saId, "''V'ohm;lIr)' qlt~/,!tlon II ,always dcdv~d. we !'lev;;!' mllke 0),11 eft''Ol:'t Co fllliiilld to till Object except fDr the sake of some remot« i:ntl:re:st \"'h,i~b. tbe effQrt, wUl scrv,c' lind ''Illere is no .mri/J lidill: ,.u :wolrmta.r:y CluemJ.ol~ SII.flaitu:d /01' ,mQl'i! l"I~" a fe.w seconds .(It a lime,. What is c::al1ed "5Ustai,u~d vohin1lU'Y Il)t~cllitl.ollii' hi fi f'cpetltkr~ of ,success!v.e c:ltorts wbi~'Il bdog: baCk. the topIc to lhe m;ind,. No (me coo poslOibly attend continuously to '0111 object that ,ruoe!l not 'ChOllge' j. (Jllme:s. 1I:l90}.

jlDmes'tlIistiru:dlJin between voluntllry and j:n.vc[un .. t.aryattentl1:::in means tbat. mueh of ~hbdci~g. ~eafr![fig" and IlCl1djng~flresen1sa. seq;uence of :!ll!lCC,i:;!I" si~ efIortsl.oallll'nd. ""hili!!1 Jlulch ofAhe vi.ew~nso.r nre around us---fil:ms, TV. and oU'lc;r ebangin s:!imuli-lII'c fillr .Less 1:lkclytofelquirc ello'lt. In ,o1hcr WOOO5t Uit: cltmlSC!,; Un: ;rlw.itehln(!'i' or UtC, ri!.yth,. m['c !process goes (II;! insidc man when !he .~ 'Ivoddng: at 1110 jo.b of attention,. 01' .il, g{J~ on outside man find jn$id~ (c.s.:) tbe fl\ilvins fitlnllS h rel:levCI mnll, of thalwork.

N,mv ln these r,e.rms. \Ye Ina,,, re-.3J,pprechll:e st'anning as an ,ili'l~cn'llptcd si;lrhl5 of dls.c!~I¢ CiVe:rits. They permit the intrusion of a stimulus iDiid~ the bead 'Df tile;ytewC'J" in. the fo.rm of ~ '!!Eu)lI:.e:b:I~ IU:K~ pnrHcull!.rly III thi~ cn~ in the form of iI. 'l,lloll!llh:1 ccnaected ~o the i!i·ti:n:u.dU5~

Thus •. Iovolvcml!'nt or thinking, when faking place vb-d-vis n mcdillsl,imul:lJs i'NJ'ui'rcs 1hu(, dii~ r-e$]ilO'nd· Illlt :ut<end ~on;, to ~~I~rn:a] ;and c:x~(!m~l stim.uU. It

51.! ppliied by The British Library -, ''Th,e woml d's knowledge"

.~omcLintes mcaiislhatoome Q( dlc exlemal. :sUmllIi Il~a::t be missed:; .h 5lom.elilncs: mC~lIli thtl:t PU$]iUfC to keep up will be fell-tbat IS .• to do l\\'O j:obs oI at~efldioll, one to the sUmuh.is gil thc:'page or s;(::men. ;tnd QUcI; h:; ~he rC!lcti·ci'l inside tbc hcod .. it is IUS·· ,,"cpdbJ:c to ii110~[v.M.ioll atld e.R'ort, tl.hd it f!}i:rly !l'!iay .Q.l-d.mcs. be c:dlcdi nmlud wo.rk.

This rlll,Uel: of dun[ MtenUoTi scr.:mod. '10 ~1:I5Wcr the "!iU:iw" ·of s~aIllliill!f in a wiI.y dlat ene could Oil·' d'i:r~tatld .it:s ~clatioll! to lll.voill'en:lefl!t or ,to thinking, i3litwh;llt. nboltlt focusing whetIC pUcn:l:io!l WIIS 08SY. and unInterrupted. and some:lI,ow still seemed to comm'~!illcfite~' \Vhat is there v.oout ithe cli::lnging Iitill~uilJ:s. ~Ii fil,i\l or "ry difit COil relieve m,lln. of the -woi.k "if [earning? is Icamillg the rigllt W{ll'd 10 use, twn Cjli;;;,lifled liS pass.i\1c Jear.n.iog'l

We Ihougln .:hiU: the cntcr,la'ining I,JUlIlhy or film and TV miGht have sCJlnlcdliilg Co. do withl'<iliiXalion. Is re!axanOil :n,ot the opposrl:e of work. and is. fln,at i1~Qcimed with sugge:sUbillty'l :Fu·rtl~(lrm.ofie. 3. p~ftic!ilhl.r TV ClJmmc1'ci:d colt'linlled to pfqll~ our· CliiriosillY·.

The p:lI:ticulo[' TV~omm~rcilil. was (he! Chl:irol Ni'oe 'N' Easy aUllmcrcl.nl \vhich llSe4 a .!ilow-mol.iOllleehn[que bi,ntowcd from the :lIlo'vic rum "'The P!l'W.nbro~t.·'; 1hllt film lmMtluccd tflC:~ of Jiash scenes :J~ weU as ;s,]ow motion, bLl~. Ullil= Nice'N· Easy eommerelel used only ~l1eslow Il1Qtiion.

TIle oommClJcl:il~ l:uu1 ClXCCPlig!lm.'lly bi'gll r~all S:c:{II'CS but OlIfOtlSlCd no pupil diila.llo.n rC$PO,Ii~e! 'This seemed qulte ltlirtisual. Was the comme,r,cbll ~eamed wHhoul i.lr.ly ,(!.j{~it·cme'tit 'wl:l!lts:(lc\I'cr, or wa;s .hcr-e a:t1Qthl1lr e«i:lmr:tlt ptC1ii~n~1 i.til unmeasured mpo-.nsc7 Is jhe o.ppoS:i~e of c::u:::i:lement jllllst nothing? Is calm II ~li:il >cmlld:~e5~1

\V,ilh :&llIch mC;:!;5illn:s ·Qf IIrOll~"[ blued upon eb:a:ngcs ill pupi:l dikldoll, skin. heat~. or respirailiiCllI, ~n gb!icl1(:c of ·e:tcUclflcnt br.iIlG.s ;Ihe tni!:ii!U1re N;ek: to a m inimal ba:scti:l:Je. No f'tll1tlc.r infot.nnltW!l Is prOl,1Id!;l~. With brain waves, however. a declline ,in iJrol:l~! woa,d'd ()fl: el~dcn,ce~l hI' a Jessc:nlng of .5"'" C:JillcdBcla waV~5, or fll)'tbll1ic lI"CqUiC\I'I~t~, cm~U~d in dw l3·4:o c}'\C'J'le pc,t $Ccond nlog.e. As WhO:3ticlD ;i;P~I!Nd I.hc~ would tlb:o, oppC:llr the Alpba waves in. ~he $ .. I:J c.1''Clo ])C'.r scooi'ld r.ang~ ~hll $Iow.cr Thel::'!. waves of 4~7 per second, ::imd .finally thl! D~,II{1, Wg,..~s .at 1-.3 !;li:.r Sl:l(lO'nd. In !lent'l'a1~ brll~n W:!!.V>I:!i tffi'ti:,1" the C~dl fllaglC ,of ImmJ11li :mpO'J:'Isc ji;D. tivity from. peak arcusal 1.0 ld{;l-epest. sleep •. S'O We ~'ccht~d to mea~1:!:ri:! bndn. 'W.,;v.~s: .pl'odim:;cdll'l .e. ~pat'i:5C IOI~!·c."!'.isiQn commr;!:!1;irn!s.

Volw,ne 1 J •. NlUnbtr 1 .. F.ebmary 19'71

Brain ''''ave Experiment

The: Neum:P£licholo,sical 'bbom~o:ry (If New YiOrk Mc:dii:!iil Collc,~~ is ,engag~-d i'n hade ~Ild: 0l.Pplied rew<I:rch, and frcqu!atly in pr~~ti~'lil a.ppn~a.· lions. The paid subject in OU~ experiment was II. 22 .. ye'II:r--ol~ SC:C1\~tlln'. She ''''I1S iL hlBh school .9w,u]. uale with a ilJlaek caIidwhitll t~rev,isi;oin iictiU home" aQdsitc had not served as a ~uh:Ject bef~)'i'C. T~lill,g· iO!l~ :p!~Il;C~ in NoveUll:le.r 1969.

About 8. baU-lI.ou:r after ]ullic;b, dUl .5ubJ~ct '~DS' sealed in: a. 1est .oom"actually a l.ig1u- Wid seundeo:ntroll!cd enVir.onment which could bcvi'ewed remok[y 'Vi!! l!i lel~iiio:n m,olni:lori:ns system.. The CllbiCie Ilad drapes, a comforlable: wUcb, mag· ail~s QOI It (lQl;:'ktllii1 U!:blt;, anti a . .!liIllUblcd TV set if! the QQm~r ot a view.ill,g: "istlmoo of SCVD~ f~t.

\\'!helll the subject entered the: cubiclc, a si:n,g1D ti~y oleel,rode \ViiS fixed toltlc ocdpil.al. 1Ugitln (Um back of nil: hr:ad) \ViU, tlla !:I,id of u. Hny qu~nthy Qf jetty. II 'was ruerelflccd ~o both ears, A very fine win: Icad ran from the ela::~m.de to the ws11 where it appi.lr,el:'ltly di:soppen«:d.. It l1f1d no d!isc~mibljJ weight and was iDot 'Visible ~o the seated. stJ~j~t. Tli{: read. then ,vcnt aLltAide "'0· It OrafOS Mod'el 1 PoIYllr~ph!. cOIlIic,clcdlil\l turn. 101 n 'Hf).I\~wC'.n 76000 ta~ iystem IIl:!d ill. CAT 40tYB compute:r.

The: .sUlbjeGt. was t(lld: "We have: fiXed up !lus t·oom ii, nine bit liRcc! II n:ylng; 100m a:l. homo, Ti!~ i$ sll}lposedllD be iii TV set. Just relaiJl; (ora while. LoQ'k tit one O'f th.e m::lJa-nnes ht.re or read for a r~W' minutes !!.!ntit some· Gmnmcte:l .. ls conw gll the screen. Then; watch t.lle 'COfi'lilin;Etwia.1s •. DI).n"t, be 5,11%"pnsed: j,f th.e 9Dmmeicials!lfe repeated 3. few times. "flim: w.i.ll be three cQmmcrcJ,tils· shown,. Toe. c:om,mereials wm. be: :shown Several tiDles, Whe'n Iht comnl~rci:ds go .oft' 'the screen •. go b;lek 10 the magazine and. recad or look a .1~t1c 'h;h'!~'r."

The simulated TV :set was; a, Faifr;h:ild 4(1). RU projector wilh, ,alii 1:1 by 1 I-lneh 5I:'reen:. (In a I.ale. retest Wml 'Ilt~ ~~~!; :;y.bjeel. lUI ,1I.(l;1'1I~ TV selalll:i! on-the"air ,~limuU wore. ~ted, bue, with .1I~imos1 ide-.n ... lica! results). A ~a,pe camirigc hcdd.tbroc· dilfere1llt color commcNhils. to be mn En _ seqll(:ru::e tluC!e times tor ~ total of ni:nc viewln8!i.

Each 'Of' tbe I;o.mmerciats. bad some Qwtdoo.r aeI!~vl\y ~n.,,·c~Yil:!g pi~. rOMoooe" ()f .sporls 50 lEllIt. res:po,m;lCSlo Ule oonUi1~I,~ial, rolghc nrm roflec:~: Some,. \: .. bd ~bc reSpOMil8 mhat m1g.htbe made to enterlll.inn:Ii:~Rl Gcmtcn:l as: weill ,illS comll!iI!'rciah.

Journal of /1(Jv8rr/rmc ,R;e'.rearcli

Tine cO'mmcreiDls wue n )asliCIl'Y about 11 boy' wji,o could IUit "nd pl;ny becauee his defecti\lc, h~t1:rt W,a1S arti.ficiaUy paced with a med!cal device d!evclopcfi by em; h, Wi'ls a q1iil:c~, scntlc oom:lflmhtl wi(b plcmmnl outdoo" scenes; (2) Uic ~Ia:s.si:c and ,,"'Cry Si::fitle Nkc'N' Easyca,mmercial; (3) a very ~plfiS~vC OJ:; o()l1lm~rciat ,s;i!owing st:s,1r' ba&elbal~ pitcher lob Onnen Un,owing f~U·b!d[s pt wl~~t looks Uk'll <l1iI ul:dm:akilMe ~hcet .or 1ll000$SJ aetul{Uy VI li:~wp,fOdi.llC1t caned ,len:t1.



A!101ilysiS of the h,Fain wave (BEG)' data wns flIst m!ute on the tot~l, oo~cl,ion tocillch of the n~nc vjcW'~ 'fliBii, orsp~¢iIi~allly toS'(i tec;{inds of eaeh 10 elim~nate Ihansilion respeoses, The 1ypc: of an<dysis ~tlmmed ~p' the '1IiIXlCI,l\Im:' os it. i5 callcd. of aU idenWiab!e 'bHlin Wavc :rreqlleru::~~s elll,itl:eil d.~riflg the $6-seoond uepm;h," as it is called, In !iimpl~ tetR!Jl'. one qbli!i:!l$ 't\ fi~~Il~!'!'~ or bow ml:l!lY SetlQiIl~$ wQ'tltI ot e .. ~h W,jlve .rrf01\q~len~;y ;a,p,pel1.rs dur:it1\G: the 56 ste:Ooos.

Th.c. eempuler pomgmm ~cpo\rted ew.vcll i!ba!;l!d';5.'! or frequency cl!'lss-illterV!lls fmm~.li' cyClcs pillE seeond up ~.o 32 cps. The fir5t .5 bands, were como' IbincQ and caUed •. islow W;[IVC5." The next iou;r 6illlds, Jrom 7.6 '10' 12.33 c,ps, nn: ~ISIUilly called A~pI1a.

-waves nndnre associated ·wi~l;-trdax.'a1iD'rI. They wen; ,comhlnQd ,Ilind called '!,AI[pt:mY The lmlt two bil:nd$~ ftom 12.3 lO 31.,8 Cp!ij ilrQ ~j:!i\Jial[y C'.D.!Ued E!~1a waves and ale assnelatnd witt. alert!l'l:I!JS., a'etivity, amI! areusal, They wer-e "o:mblBcdand c.:dlcd "ftlst \VI1VBS;:'

The subject ~rri.vedj. was s:ea,tedJ and received her lfistmctiollS. :For 8.bOLIt IS rn~nU!l:esshe browsed Ibroiigh miigLiunes while h~1 BEG rilSpOII,ScSe phl:S impressions fronl tile TV menlrer indiicated lit comfo·rt:i.bt(l:!llild rdaKcd adjustment to the sllrround~ hi!iii'. JUS:L before. lhoe com:rfil~rdilis '~lInte on., :r! fllll. il"eoord was made 'Of the REG sJ:iCcu rum for the last 56 seeends ,oE mJl!,g.~nereadirnt. 'lutsirtvc;]voo :tl:

M~:FIi~to~ IidVICl:'Us~rrumt which d~5Clls5ICd durcr~ ent l~l;:hniques tcu appT)'i118 make-up'., 'l1ie subject reported ~ater lb;il :ffi~ WaS very ]ilterc~I.c:d In this iidv~rUsemcn~ji!nd W~ ~. bit, liiHiQ.yed. whr;m ~l!e TV commcrci::!,ls came on. She; ~1l;o J''Cporte4 ebBt die liked the Ni.cc 'N' Easy commerelal, disl~k'l!d d~ f:j,ob ('j]b~on cllmmcn:i:a1,ii!'lU walO bored wi'lh ",1[1 ~y the lhi.de:l:pa:mre.


Fb!;!~ 'the print ;:uJ With fl.ve !(loomis o;i slow Will,ves~, 16 of Alp1iot lind 2Bor faiSt waves all iidd~d ,I.l]> to a pictllre 0'£ rclflxcd ·nlten.tiof.l; interest" :'.I1!!!t m!!l'Itllil IIcti.vitYt as sbown in Figure I,

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As tlbc first commcrc:ial: eo,mc Oti"lhc: !Hl.IbJcc¥1; 1:li:!tik.cUi '11,) [llld an cfl!tirc:ly fl,1;W p;'Ut~'m O.f mix, appr:3iood, ad/cUllg ilIP' to 21 r:I~OIld::i; of slow, 18, of A.ph"". :and 'J5 of fast. We 5ay "'paltern" becati$e closel' ifl!ipcc~~on "mi. IlQPly~i!:i a.llowcd UJ;iiit the wave patterns thl",ou.gno'Llt W'Cl'e at any one mome:nt mn:li1rcs of the o\l'crttl.pplng wnw actions. It was fl'ol iio:n~c !.tcond~ of on!:: frcqUililCY ,fol~tl1,wtd ~y som.e sec.onil:s: of onolbcr bIlt an. ove!1.aU S1:ate~ mede, Of !!It)l~B fif fCccp!lOl1 wUh elemeats ·of dlif[cr~nt ~av'C typgs. 'Thus, lIl0 21 .510\\', 1.8 Alpil14,iililil.G IS fast in response to the; fint commerelal rOlUshrep~llted conM3nl proportlnas of waVH odl:\l .. , i~ lill.)' one period within. the 56 scool1ds.

We were surpl)jsed that the .AJpba. or .re~ax.ed .elcmcot d~d not change s.lgnm.ea!fllly from pd1it to 1'V~ but w= look it os n ~i~n QJ' ,~!,lncrnl rcloxotion in ~Ih~ tS5'1: sinu.ldoill., We had e>;;pcded that the TV mig'ill be ma~-e relaxing., but l'Iotlimt, it: W(l1,l~dJ :in-, st£!'tltly produce II prcptm~~'.rlm~ (If ~to.w 'W:Ii,V(!' tI'tId 3. clin.]'8cte-rislle modo of r~onsc. R<i;lb,et. we ,ex-p~~ted that it might uevdop' ov~r time wj~h Um thr41!!l ~p['!~ilio~,

Th~ initial ~,pectnl.tn for the fit5t comme.rci:al did n(l~ <::lI.ange sigllificlI!JHy rortbe r-rutt two cammer· (lbt1s. APPlllfoC'lldy it 'wm; ,II M~u'i!!;:~!lrh:!iclnod~ 0" relijlOI!:!le. The ';a 1 .. [ g.U' became 24~U~]4 ior the

_ Supplied by The 6ri,tish Lll1br,ary ... "The world's knowledge"


second ca!l'l!'EIl;lrci;:ll" Il!I~d '24·1ii~l3 {or tl~ 'Ibirrd. R'C~Il]t5 ,fire ~11QWfI 'in 'Figure 2 •. "'fhcr~ WIlle, bolVeye., "Iiff'Cr,t:!1'Ce5 j!]! ~I:!~ ptopo,r:lioIl of Delta alld Thctllwhicb logclhi:i!' con.~prlse th-c:' '~';SIQw'J W2l'li'~. 'i1JeSQi d~;l;CfVIt cioS\l:r lluIC.ntion:in fu!:t,UC sll.liCl~a:5.

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iVcI!Wlt' J t, Number 1. Fl!b'Nl(lfY 1971

More I'ItlleWOl'llhy was th~ slmn;Jri~y of !!'e~pcns~ i.o fin three IOOmm~~~ii1!s~ :i~~n.;!1$tniB1Y :so w:ith rgPQ· miQ,n. n,t d'itFe:rcnocs between rcspo:nscto tiho 1hl't.'Ocom:me:rcif!~s en dllrd~pOS'l:lt~ ar"e J(lSS than i:hr;: dilf;:rcrl~ ll~t1;vc~na!,!y gQe ,CQI.U"llerc[f!'! en dl~ flrnt IC:XPCSllnl OiInd dun samecommcrcj;a.~ on :5COJnd tKp,O!!lUro:. 1111 short, the comm.crcia]s evoked Hula t!urcrll:n~c O!ll firnl trrhd nnd idmast nDl'I:C by t~!l libi.rd asshewn in. Rgu:re 3.,

Tb~ ql!lcslion arilse5 as; to the .rerniainlDg !iruts.i·· dvity' to the tlliird c:lIJlosurc of UU:lhlid Ii;QmlfiCr'" daf. iby this time probQbly bCi.f:ilrlS: rmd w~U.iJ:e.a;meod. Ag~dn:, wo lItJ:alyzcd. iSp~ctfa. thr flute lO..seconi:'l periQd~ witbin t~e third I::xpolture. tglhC:I~~r1(!. ~~m·' mc:rci:;rl. Within S~caJlds 2 to~2:, there weresix ~l1ids o[:5low, two of Alpha. a;nd! two of f[lst wav~~~ WiU1i:n S~~nd~ 1S t(l:;S~ tbc:rc we:rof.ot!t ~oonds Ol! silm'". three ()f Alpha,. and (WOOr fast waYe!s: iilnd w'.itbin 5'Coonds 46 to 56.. them: WC!tc fou.!' seconds of !i[o~!j'. ti~ooc of .A]fll~;'I. Qp(J ~wo 01' fllstwaves, ino!l'u~r W(lms.evcRi en ~bis ~;J;it dun vicwiN:g: th~su)bjeel~ jl"li:l!ial .. 1P~lloll!deramre of slow waWs aimini~hcd (I Utile ,M: tile commc(fclal pro~eded to' th.!: haJi{way po~nt. 1li1l5., it lipj:)"iia~ tbilt there may "'.e a ]r~!le life !er~. even hlwEiat. 8PJj(!lit5 to be a s(llil1t'l':d c,ondUlo.Il .•

Intc:rprccu ion

It :;l!ppe~l!(S fh.atth~s:~u.b~ecl~ modle ,of response to lclc,'Yisicm is w~y dlf:l'l!!'.I',cllt f!"Om ~~r N!lpOnsC'~o print. 'Ula~ ~$, t~!:l :b"!iia '~~it:r~l R!lpOI1!~: Q~ the IiJrain b m~ ~.Q t1!~ meni~ ~I:!~n l(;loord:ent drier" ,~cc~ wnMrn, Ihc TV' ~9mrnem;;ll~or t~ W~Ult! In,

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The .guei;[luII <lr:l5c5 as to how jmmediate ",.;'1$ ~hi!i citt'lrnc:tc:ds;Ho .mode of ro;spon~c. Did it. nppCrlif [In the fir&t SOOOIW;!i. of thl: flrsl.eomm~rei3il. orwEint.'l Tit,) atlSWoC,r this. we ~fl.a]¥Ze,'l SPCC!,fil fpr Hll:'oc 10· ' S!:lCOJ:u[ pe_liod!i witidn. th:l!fir~1 l!.~pO~1.IjJ b) (!he fifllt co.mmerc~a1. W~lbin Secomlis 2 to l2 .• lb.ere 'Were tW(l! SEl1l0Jld5i of stOW;. fOUll'm A~pli3~li:nd fOUf of fn!!t, waws. WI:II!~~ Seoonds25 t.O 3Sc, thc:r,c we:r.: fou:rseconds .of slow'. thme of Alpha, ~tnd I!fillC of fast waves: ruld within S~crlDdSi 46 to 56.1 them ~re r!~6s~ond:sof"I(lW, thre~ ·of A]p:nD~ !ijwd lbr'::i!!: of f:l~ waves.

In {lIthe1r: words •. it W\.'iSi :3.1'ioo~ half 'Way tl:'iro,agn li!c Jh:st e!I~o.sul'C to ni~ :lb"$t ~(i;I:'I\m!:rcrol!licf(j~,~ tl'ia stow \Y.a.vcs p.~dcmina~mil over the f:l5.twaves. We ,Cm'I.S<iiY. Ihcl'l.. .t":I~ the c;:haracte~iSitic mode of reo s(lo.ns~, t(jok flhDul 30Sl!l!:o.ndis to d~vl!ilopf!1lly.

lOt:l!dl'!g at j1i!st ~h~ firlt!O·.fI~QniIJ. ped.Q~. how· e~~ f¥@~~n illso S<lY dillt ~!QW Wgo,l\~ weN :1!l!fe~dy 1:\:a!lf M comm.o[l!r1S dlQ £mt. lWav~ liS com.pllmd to tbi;;, prlQ:fprifl,'l Yicwil:lB when: the ~lpw w.we~ were (lnly ,on~fi~lh to onO"~it:!;tb or ~hc fa-Sot waves. Thus, tll¢ !l!d'~ptlltiQIl:J qll.i~L'l r~'a:sotud)ly, Uegan I:mm~di~ at~ly upo~ vl:~m!l,c 1h~ ~~!I~Yr~~~fi :!limlllu!il.

Wmat a'boutre,pclitio",? Thl;: second round o:f v!~wia!l'l ..... em 2z,,2.0"]3,. 2..4.U5,,14, andZ8,,15~t2. the third mml!d. WEtU 24,.Hi.l3j.2.5..J6.12"fl:nd2.6. 11:.-12. "[he slow Wa'l"e;S gradually lincr~edl gen· crally from 23 to, 2S,w'hule the rut wavcs db:::liCt!l~d il'rom 14· ~o .~.2.


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pxe-McLuhil!l day!!, w'Ollkl ordlnarny t!avebcen i;:i')UCld 111iilCCmmJi::I'cial mCSSIl.Be.

It a.Lso ap!_rears. as sUGgested i~LUaUy 'y the earlier :studios ,or ~~vot\lcml!nt or of ecye-movemc.lu; I,hal lhe fe~jlon$G. 10 print ge!'!eriillliy mil)' came '1,0 be und6t.5tood AS I:U::UV'C; i'I'lldc(Io.m¥(Jsed primarily of f;i!l.Sit Dr,aiD. waves Wllniilhe Te!l'pOn.S;(l ~o teJe-ylsiol'l might co:m~ to be undr:'~,$I.ood.1I5 im:w~YC lind eompO!led primarily ofslow brain WOlVes. Further te:>ting is ,indicnt'ecil.

Iil rldd:ltion to (:O.m'IH:lt~r alla'lr&l~s of bmln wave freqYll:ncy rates, :it is pt)~i'b['6 to ej(amin~ 'visually tIm acmal W,<IV,\! t:rm:::i:ng prGlduDI':d. It Is a physical f~(jrd of tha, WIlVC. Bluch: c1!l.lminiitioll~boWi tbe arnpliludeof tho p.rill,l waves, to. beconsisteatly a.ihout five times t!hat .of till.': TV waves. We .may nllr,ibiJtc the ~a]le:i:prJlll 'W(l"'~ to ~h~ fllt' Ulil~ tl'ie pd:n.t .reolider Ui!i!i!S effort ~,o COil.Ve:rgc ids ,eyes on.tO the cloSl'!:r: sri:muli1:Js,' and also cnduros R tension in the: mtls~lcs: (If Uu: licck; ns 'Ihe hC:Ild is bl!!lIt ~i,bily £o:rward lind turned. It is ll~~il:lle'that :l'flmlillg CII:n~ nO:!; be' mai.n!:lllled withcul some such ten.sion, and th:!t IIlI [I, completcl.y CDlrlf:wtoblc 'clulir' 'w:ith pll'ra feet hC;ldi ilin:d neck S,UPPOflt 1M reader would! fa]!"

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Mcl;u!mn m~Ghtcllarflcl!e:rlzo, our fie.ld! of ~m~ municafh.lfi lll.cory ns ,1IQrse-:J;nd·,buggy. arat. im:st, a '''Pomy'Ex,l.''feut• type ,of thea'lf. That it, weare w~ddwl.Q ... vlaw ·af someone preparing l mc,;'sag,c, th~ mes~a.Rc cauled aeross;li, di~t!!tilCi';l (bO'llcf'ully fast). and a r,eceh!'el" reading t)F deeodlni;' the rues- 1il:!g:clIl the olh!:r cnd. ().ur5·isii tt:JJnsporli'idon ty!p~ of UUiOf)' wlln It 'oonm1I.micmlor" II, communique, and a communicant.

Ollr .ml.ln !:igmmli:n~Q~UQ'n lh~clji' hills .much to 5ay a,bout, c:omm.untc~,I,Qrsl ,Ull;) jll:H!.1en,~1i:i QfI Ib~rn and. their media, It Is also nluch eencerned with l~iB:lterlls of dia!)~iQn 0[' id!:Qs.lIl'1d It [s very con,.. cemed WiUl llie 5elccl111'ily .mdi depl'" of aui!i!ll:n~ re~pOOSf;lS,. SlOm.cllow Mc.t"l.than. ~ecmu tOliay fllLat this. 1105 ~'II bc~n mau.C! i:rrdevflot'by dicl,echnologt.. (lal fll.c:t. of ttlcvi:Sion"

Television fs not mass commlln'ication :in our sense, says .M,oLu'liEin .• Nobody cut tbc~e: b :Irying to d!l:\:Qde: or receive .any mt'!ssa,u..t5. ~n:5licfld. dUll:r eyes. and ears have beet) ·'ex.tetlded" into tEm slh.lil.~ tioDiponrayed 0[1 fhe screen. They ;}[lopnrticipaliug in !ll~ ~pe,ri.,cm:c-cven :if il is passive. pilll:ticiDilI~

liOn. AnduliU'kn f1lms~ II, .5igni.fi.cnntpOl'tion of television. i;s "lbi'c" Qt, ns they $ay hi.lhc comput,er t'ierd:., ~'jliJ real time."

In ter.m!l at otlr old m~ss com:mur!i:-cadtm. (hMt'1. we W01Jldordifllld~y ~ay (hint Ilclev[s-io,n isbcUcr 01' dehct 1bati radio beeaese an extra d.'Emelislon .• that (If video" is added!; !!llr rich!:!!: than m:\vs[lilpcr.s 'bec;(n.iSC' I;h,\l ,i'lu:dio W~ iiddtd.

Thill is a fight conclusion t'f(lm, a, wtoog premise.

Radio and ncwsPlIPcr.s as ,communication IUC d:~ :fi.ci;c:nt in tiu:n they must emit H;li..iI:lh h~f(i~.m::ltion, SilIll]ar1y. tehwj5i(lf! as c.Kpcricn:ce ls ddicient in that rulilUy hi p~e:lCnted mlnes th.e €eeUngs. This ~~ MeLbdi.iii~;5 "oool" mcdi,tlln,!n con!i~qUl!nc:e !lildd: 1.00 be b.ecding a ,gtneratioll yeamillg for feelings lind meanings bi!blInd tho :;upe:rficud happenings MId I'!J!Qotm~lllrs jn life: aroUindll!il:~h

Ott[ inrtial EEG dalfi5upJ.iOrl\S McLtihOiIl i:n fhe sense that tele,,~toll docs ~lot 'appear to be commu,nlcnrionl!.s we .h~IV= known :it. Our .sli.bjcct 'WIi:!! wOiJtiin.g 10 learn wmethillog from 3. print ad, btU Will> passl",o: about telelo'iiiWl. If som~1Idllg :h.B.ppm~di ~o comml!t.llcDte, UII),tts, :nl:'lit~ if it didn't" U \"~llt 'by ;:ma wm:s: gOfl.e DIld! no process (If scmnn!n,g or dll:al attention. wouh1 worry over Us: .shol'toom:irlgs:. The ,5ubjc~t Wiil no more tryillg to lcarn ,!iomcthi:ng from l.:ilc,m:ion than she wotlld bE,! fil]l'tni! 10 IC8111 .some.lbing; .from apark lal1dscape while· r~ti!.'l.g .. On a PlU'};; h~lIIc:h. y~, t~1evlslon Esco'mmtlilicatian.

What sTudl we say' or it,. a I:Ommli[Jlc:UiDU med[um that m<lY effortl.essly transmit into storase b!ll~ qtl:anUties O'ElnformoUo:n not tnoutbt il!bOU.t l!it tl~e time of ~';(PQ$t:in;:" bnt lll'luc:b of it cnpl'lhic of .I~tcr' ~cti~tiOl:l?

New Theory; Lea.ming from. Experiences

no 'rill 'yf~Wi!li(i i& wc'I~~qulpp'ed! 'to r,ecollniv.:: many ~hi!1gs, in life seen beforehand on ~eleYI:'l]OiI. Sj) equipped. heslartlcs in~oan. l'AIl ha, I've seen Yoll or (Ids bc{ore,i! Tliis stl1rlle ls tlle bc!!in:ning of aR ~U\l<e res;Jlolili~ b'l1t ~if!"@ th!istia$ not been thOiLl!;lht. out ~R Ildvam::e 00:( t~e d:ml;!: of exposure,. :it eomes Olll, l.)n,formcdi'iJid mllp~lWl.,

This :sugS(li5t5ith~ a,wkWal:'u spootrlllcity of' tbe YOllnger !lCnernU'Ollt ibe tcnc!L:1lc,Y to .n'Ct or rc.act ,in u v.fid~ty ,oJ now bU!t fainl.ly ~etagJlllzed$iHUldO:tl$ where, (lU1r,pose or inl~:ll.t ill'ls mot )'~l (:;rystami;edl.fil; may [oQkimlllatOff.: or 11:othU5,lfllStic il.o many ob!lerv~ CU,. hut ltemanMrul from chc oblUty to r'er:ogni~c; ns famili:.l' jJ wiele 'll'oriclyof IhillSill in I ire.

Suppll€,d bY'The British Libr,ary ~ "The Woorld's, :knowile,dge!l

~fhi:. pnlll vic\\!er. litlill.liw.hile, 11fi!ii Pillt\set.ll find I;hought .:Ibom "'hut .he bas sean in. p.linG; has formed all olPhi~on . or mel:l.t~ll.y rehearsed 3. plan. Wbcc!! he :re>e<OSillzi!$ so.mri1l:ilng Ahn'il;iU' .in re:td Iif:e lie .is read)' with a formed or' ·'m:llhtrc"· J'C5ponse ..

HClwever. p'ri:n.t n:os :lIUOW1!a: him to stere i1'·el:J.dvdy Jess infOminliO!1l, and so thc:re t!!l mum tlmf h(l dDes not f~Sl'lizc and to which hi! reacts net ;d all, So prinl n~alJJ seems v·eJY sel~dv~, and !1~acfs w~n:I Or' not .tlt nil, It I,oaks wry mtl~Urti!,.

~n ·short.! :it. :is i1USSes!i!d tb:lltlelevi:siQI:I: mail,. !be passive . nledliu i1udicnec. I'i. a mo[caCitive but ~I:c,~m~.yt expcr1en,(ic-o:ric[!ted parliciFOlnl ~i1 life, whn~ pri;nt. mall, the ncl'ive media. tiudielu:ei !is .!! more selective, Je!s activeand mOTe "mature" ~!l-' lpJIniii.i(ut or :me.ssa.gc.oll'icrlted pa:r,!ie.ip.apt 111 iU~. Never I1dn:d flOW 'whicb i~, beU~J'. McL\!I:h1l1l was awaw of some :such difi'erC'J;lce '""bil!;: none g;f our mltSscommt.!l'Ii(·'_Jtiol:l lhcQry was rc]c'i'llnt.

A, tOlbe qnestiQ!I1 "WJ1i~'h i'S bCUc.I:1"·" Wii: :Ilre handicapped. by our g;r,eater f<lffiil iarily wtlh aetlve lind ili.vcl.ved types of hmfJli!'1l.!l. Ou.1' underst8mIillig ·of nG:lw p>l~ive: 1cnrniDI ~ok~;s; p\Tllioo ls ~'~m ·d:Cfl.e.icnt, ;nnd we arc not yet :sum IUWf to measure its effeeli\''CIlCSS. 1.0 ill falr mannr..I'.

\Vhilc: ~II rthc:r work ""'~1.1~ b:~td'Jt W.!liV'C'S· laems. jll·· di:cated! it should be stressed Umt there i5 no lev~ Mente or spe(;ula~iv.e inference In. tills in:lcl'im roo pott to !lUI!!CG:,s·t; tbllt ,!dnle~ pri:n;l Oll" l\~rc.".blon is "better" dlah th~ other. or lha~ f~S't or sloW' b:ratu waves are bll~U!1:' dun the other, Instead, We have =:I. vc:ry gront Ii!l,'!icd [0 b(!U~r undCj;$I.andtl1ic diffor-

Vdimi,;!! 1.1. Nl'lmb~,.I. Fdru'al'j! .197}· '~ncli.¥s. .and. F~rJl,a,p!li. especially ~Q beUer uflde:rstand the ~ig!]ificilIlCe ,of slolW' brnbi W:IlleS.

To de Si(I we must ho[di:1I abey.aJlil're those histol'.ic!lHy bum·in pr,i:cUSpg,smonii in favor of ciQ!:Uilin h4!h:l.v.iors wflij;:h curili:e:nd:y seem n'tOI'~"tQ;Q.tu:re,"

F.ifl~l]y, we bavc ~rcViouslr poinled ou·t i[JJ 1be ann~y!t:iSi ·of i:l'j!'1:! filU:lvcment paJrlems iD'i'olYlflg Io~~~ itlruOtnd scan nJIlI!llhat: Ddver:l[sh:lg ,l.(ll.il)l.'I is cilsily rn~medrequiires very little. wori:on. 1tlc pa.utof ~be !I'e$:po:m,:Ilcn:1;. b!'!'l tbatadiv.el1l[sl:ng wbi:Ch oommll:nl·· cate-s less ~lI.si])' dees ~q.t1ire the lespolli:!c;!U: to be: mere aerive, This observation based On eye move!llcnt dntfl ~e.fQS I;:Qllfir.mod Or' pill'llinclcd lily tile .lPfle5l;nt :b .... in W!II.I;'C doto • .so th~' re~pC\L'I~ :10 t·ei.c" vision ls more passive: simply because it is ,III cas:kr form oJ' oomm'unl:Cbt[On. Th~ task :o.1.)w· :Is to· ·~tC'icrmi;nc ~lI$t how CiUY or Inll:d d:illeoont oom· .m.ul1.icalion: ar even cdl1catilJllal maten;als should be: JIlade f,o,ropdmlli ieornirn.g by variou:s ni1.lllic.ni::cs.

il'!aGUtT. i.., S. B. T(I!:'~'El". II'ND P. OIU1NSf.1i..1H, \V,h;:U One Little Ad Can Do. JOIl.rmd oj A.dw:l'li~ltg Rem ,stt2tcll. Vol. lOt No. 4. AUSlllS1 1970'"pp. 3··lS, _

.!I ... .M:E5, W. l'ril'lcipiet aJ P.uw./!olocr •. New York: Dover

Pi!!blw.utiotiL9. ~ 81)(1. -

K'R1lG1>.'i1l.N, H. E. 'fIil;~ lmpm:t of Tc1e.vision Ailvel'i!isini:: b!l'H1ing; Wllhout ·]niVOl.ve:mcllt. P~"blk (Jp"liqn Qua',,· U:1'i'y. Fal[ ~'J6S. pp. 349-56.

K:R,tmm,N', 1lI. :E,. 'the ~M~.~1!Jrcm!:~t gof Ad"'~r«;~lns In· V(iIY~ ment, .l'llbJ:ic Opinr,ulI fluf11.irrly., Wil1.~~r·:i 5H:liS· 61', PI'. 0583·5115,

MA(;XWQR'1'.H. N. H. A Si:lll.d Camera for Une-of~;riht RC9QrdlM.P~rc~prT(:m ~jm P3}"Cl((jp.Jo'J'I:I.tI~III.;fI j,9'67 •.


AU the papers p.res.ented at the first day of ARf's Annual Conferelillce· have run,.. b'13!en p~'inled In an attractive b!;llok~ For your p!erMan,ent rae'ord 0" the Ideas and findin.gs of tbe I.eading adve.rUs'ing researchers wrUe, encfosing: check fOrr $15.00 (plus: tax in. N. Y. and N.V.C.,,) to .Depr:artlllent Bt .Adv,e:rUs;~n.g Res.e·an::h FOLmda'Uon~ 3 East 54lhStree:tr

N.ew York, N. Y.. 10022. - . .

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