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User’s Guide

Ninth Edition

Meyer
Fracturing
Simulators

Meyer & Associates, Inc.

ii
Information in this document is subject to change without notice. No part of this document or the
associated software may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or
mechanical, for any purpose, other than as permitted in the license agreement, without the expressed
written permission of Meyer & Associates, Inc. (Meyer).
Copyright © 1997, 1999, 2003-2011 Meyer & Associates, Inc. All rights reserved. Printed in the
United States of America.
MFrac, MF2d, MAcid, MPwri, MView, MAcq, MinFrac, MProd, MNpv, MFast, MFrac-Lite,
MShale, and MWell are trademarks of Meyer & Associates, Inc.
Microsoft, MS-DOS, Windows and Word are registered trademarks of the Microsoft Corporation.
All names of companies, wells, persons or products contained in this documentation are part of fictitious scenarios and are used solely to document the use of a Meyer & Associates, Inc. product.

Software License Agreement
License Grant
This License Agreement permits you to use one copy of the Meyer software program(s) included in
the package. Meyer grants to the end user, a nonexclusive, nontransferable license, with no right to
sublicense or prepare derivative works from the program(s) in connection with your computers.

Warranty
Meyer hereby warrants that it has the right to license the program(s). Meyer agrees to defend, indemnify and hold harmless the end user against claims or alleged claims of infringement of any patent,
copyright or other intellectual property rights.
The licensed software is provided “as-is.” All warranties and representations of any kind with regard
to the licensed software are hereby disclaimed, including the implied warranties of merchantability
and fitness for a particular purpose. Under no circumstances will Meyer & Associates, Inc. be liable
for any consequential, incidental, special or exemplary damages even if appraised of the likelihood of
such damages occurring.
The licensed software includes libraries which are licensed under the Common Public License (CPL).
Any provisions of this agreement which differ from the CPL are offered by Meyer alone and not by
any other party.

Vendor Databases
The databases provided with the software are based on sound engineering practices, but because of
variable well conditions and other information which must be relied upon, Meyer & Associates, Inc.

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and its database suppliers make, no warranty, express or implied, as to the accuracy of their data or of
any calculations or opinions expressed therein or derived therefrom. You agree that Meyer & Associates, Inc. and its database suppliers shall not be liable for any loss or damage whether do to negligence or otherwise arising out of or concerning such data, calculations or opinions.

Third Party Acknowledgements
ICU License - ICU 1.8.1 and later
COPYRIGHT AND PERMISSION NOTICE
Copyright © 1995-2008 International Business Machines Corporation and others
All rights reserved.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, and/or sell copies of the
Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, provided that the above
copyright notice(s) and this permission notice appear in all copies of the Software and that both the
above copyright notice(s) and this permission notice appear in supporting documentation.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OF THIRD
PARTY RIGHTS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR HOLDERS
INCLUDED IN THIS NOTICE BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, OR ANY SPECIAL INDIRECT
OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM
LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH
THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THIS SOFTWARE.
Except as contained in this notice, the name of a copyright holder shall not be used in advertising or
otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings in this Software without prior written authorization of the copyright holder.
All trademarks and registered trademarks mentioned herein are the property of their respective owners.

UNICODE, INC. LICENSE AGREEMENT - DATA FILES AND SOFTWARE
Unicode Data Files include all data files under the directories http://www.unicode.org/Public/, http://
www.unicode.org/reports/, and http://www.unicode.org/cldr/data/ . Unicode Software includes any

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source code published in the Unicode Standard or under the directories http://www.unicode.org/Public/, http://www.unicode.org/reports/, and http://www.unicode.org/cldr/data/.
NOTICE TO USER: Carefully read the following legal agreement. BY DOWNLOADING,
INSTALLING, COPYING OR OTHERWISE USING UNICODE INC.'S DATA FILES ("DATA
FILES"), AND/OR SOFTWARE ("SOFTWARE"), YOU UNEQUIVOCALLY ACCEPT, AND
AGREE TO BE BOUND BY, ALL OF THE TERMS AND CONDITIONS OF THIS AGREEMENT. IF YOU DO NOT AGREE, DO NOT DOWNLOAD, INSTALL, COPY, DISTRIBUTE OR
USE THE DATA FILES OR SOFTWARE.
COPYRIGHT AND PERMISSION NOTICE
Copyright © 1991-2007 Unicode, Inc. All rights reserved. Distributed under the Terms of Use in
http://www.unicode.org/copyright.html.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of the Unicode data files
and any associated documentation (the "Data Files") or Unicode software and any associated documentation (the "Software") to deal in the Data Files or Software without restriction, including without
limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, and/or sell copies of the Data
Files or Software, and to permit persons to whom the Data Files or Software are furnished to do so,
provided that (a) the above copyright notice(s) and this permission notice appear with all copies of the
Data Files or Software, (b) both the above copyright notice(s) and this permission notice appear in
associated documentation, and (c) there is clear notice in each modified Data File or in the Software
as well as in the documentation associated with the Data File(s) or Software that the data or software
has been modified.
THE DATA FILES AND SOFTWARE ARE PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF
ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT OF THIRD PARTY RIGHTS. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT
HOLDER OR HOLDERS INCLUDED IN THIS NOTICE BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, OR
ANY SPECIAL INDIRECT OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, OR ANY DAMAGES WHATSOEVER RESULTING FROM LOSS OF USE, DATA OR PROFITS, WHETHER IN AN ACTION
OF CONTRACT, NEGLIGENCE OR OTHER TORTIOUS ACTION, ARISING OUT OF OR IN
CONNECTION WITH THE USE OR PERFORMANCE OF THE DATA FILES OR SOFTWARE.
Except as contained in this notice, the name of a copyright holder shall not be used in advertising or
otherwise to promote the sale, use or other dealings in these Data Files or Software without prior written authorization of the copyright holder.

Independent JPEG Group
The Meyer software is based in part on the work of the Independent JPEG Group.

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Libpng
The Meyer software includes libpng, which is:
Copyright © 1998-2008 Glenn Randers-Pehrson
Copyright © 1996-1997 Andreas Dilger
Copyright © 1995-1996 Guy Eric Schalnat, Group 42, Inc.
The Meyer software includes software developed by Greg Roelofs and contributers for the book,
“PNG: The Definitive Guide,” published by O’Reilly and Associates.

Lua License
Lua is licensed under the terms of the MIT license reproduced below. This means that Lua is free software and can be used for both academic and commercial purposes at absolutely no cost.
For details and rationale, see http://www.lua.org/license.html .
Copyright © 1994-2008 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:
• The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO
EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,
DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR
OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR
THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

PCRE LICENSE
PCRE is a library of functions to support regular expressions whose syntax and semantics are as close
as possible to those of the Perl 5 language.

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Release 7 of PCRE is distributed under the terms of the "BSD" licence, as specified below. The documentation for PCRE, supplied in the "doc" directory, is distributed under the same terms as the software itself.
The basic library functions are written in C and are freestanding. Also included in the distribution is a
set of C++ wrapper functions.
THE BASIC LIBRARY FUNCTIONS
Written by: Philip Hazel
Email local part: ph10
Email domain: cam.ac.uk
University of Cambridge Computing Service,
Cambridge, England.
Copyright © 1997-2009 University of Cambridge
All rights reserved.
THE C++ WRAPPER FUNCTIONS
Contributed by: Google Inc.
Copyright © 2007-2008, Google Inc.
All rights reserved.
THE "BSD" LICENCE
Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or without modification, are permitted provided that the following conditions are met:
• Redistributions of source code must retain the above copyright notice, this list of conditions and
the following disclaimer.
• Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above copyright notice, this list of conditions
and the following disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided with the distribution.
• Neither the name of the University of Cambridge nor the name of Google Inc. nor the names of
their contributors may be used to endorse or promote products derived from this software without
specific prior written permission.

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THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND CONTRIBUTORS
"AS IS" AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE DISCLAIMED. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR
CONTRIBUTORS BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO,
PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE, DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY, OR TORT (INCLUDING
NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.

WTL
The Meyer software uses a modified version of the Windows Template Library (WTL). Source code
for this modified version is available on our website.

yaml-cpp License
The Meyer software uses the yaml-cpp library which is:
Copyright © 2008 Jesse Beder.
Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including
without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to
the following conditions:
• The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO
EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM,
DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR
OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR
THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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“A fact is a simple statement that everyone believes. It is innocent,
unless found guilty. A hypothesis is a novel suggestion that no one
wants to believe. It is guilty, until found effective.”
- Edward Teller

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Table of Contents

Introduction _________________________________________ xxxvii
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxxvii
Program Descriptions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxviii
MFrac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxviii
MView . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
MinFrac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
MProd . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxxix
MNpv . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xl
MFast. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xl
MPwri. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xl
MFrac-Lite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xl
MWell. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli
MShale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xli

About this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xli
What’s in this Guide?. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlii
Technical Support Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xliv
How to use this Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlvi
Limited Experience with Meyer Software and Fracture Design . . . . xlvi
General Knowledge of Meyer Software and Fracturing . . . . . . . . . . xlvi
Experienced with Meyer Software and Fracturing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xlvi

Symbols and Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xlvi

Chapter 1
Getting Started

_________________________________________ 1

1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1
1.2 System & Hardware Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

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Table of Contents

1.3 Installing the Meyer Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
Before Installing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
To Install the Meyer Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Program Maintenance - Modify, Repair or Remove . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Database Installation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

1.4 General Application Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Application Installation Directories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Application Data Folder Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Application File Name Extensions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Application File Extension Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Long File Name Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Working Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8
Read Only Files. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Last Opened Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.5 Starting the Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Connecting the Hardware Security Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

1.6 Quick Start . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Program Check List. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

1.7 Customer Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
Updating Your Hardware Key - MKey Utility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

1.8 Windows Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
1.9 Meyer Program Basics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
Button Conventions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
File Management. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Opening a File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
Creating a New File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Saving a File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
Selecting a Printer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Defining the System Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
Setting the Input and Output Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Getting Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Accessing Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Error Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Data Entry Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Run-Time Error Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

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File Version Checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Working with Spreadsheets and Dialogs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Spreadsheet Keyboard Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
Spreadsheet Mouse Actions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
Freezing Spreadsheet Panes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
Spreadsheet Options Dialog . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
Spreadsheet Speed Buttons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
Dialog and Spreadsheet Column Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
Spreadsheets With Movable Columns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
Working with Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Arranging Plot Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
Moving Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
Zooming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
Printing Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
Plot Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
Configuring Plots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
Plot Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64
Run Menu for Other Meyer Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Simulation Data Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
Run Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
Display the following data windows when the simulator is run . . . . . . 70
Scale plots based on the last run while calculating. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Beep after each time step . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Disable MIN MAX error checking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Show template before running simulator. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70
Generating Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Viewing Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Report Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
Exporting Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

1.10 Unicode Compatibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .73
Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Pre-Unicode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
Unicode . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74
Text Files . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
Known Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

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Table of Contents

Chapter 2
MFrac ___________________________________________________ 77
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
Exporting to Exodus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

2.2 Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79
General Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
Simulation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Reservoir Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
Real-Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Net Present Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
Fluid Loss Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83
Treatment Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Treatment Design Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Wellbore Hydraulics Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
Fracture Solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86
Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Fracture Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88
Fracture Geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
Flowback. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Simulate to Closure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
Fracture Fluid Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Propagation Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
Fracture Initiation Interval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Fracture Friction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
Wall Roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
Tip Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
Proppant Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
Proppant Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100
Proppant Ramp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Proppant Flowback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Perforation Erosion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Proppant Transport Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101
Proppant Settling Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Wellbore-Proppant Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106
Fracture-Proppant Effects. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

2.3 Data Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

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Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
Wellbore Hydraulics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109
General Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110
Deviation Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113
Casing/Tubing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115
Restrictions Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
BHTP References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
Profile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
Zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
Active . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Zone Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Perforation and Fracture Intervals. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123
Zone Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124
Treatment Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134
Auto Design - Treatment Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135
Input - General Treatment Schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Acid Frac Treatment Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
Real-Time/Replay Treatment Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
Graphical Treatment Scheduling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155
Foam Schedule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159
Rock Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
Rock Property Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
Insert from Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171
Log File Importing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172
Fluid Loss Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182
Constant Fluid Loss Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
Harmonic and Dynamic Fluid Loss Models. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185
Time Dependent Fluid Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190
Fluid Type Dependent Fluid Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
Proppant Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192
Minimum Number of Proppant Layers to Prevent Bridging. . . . . . . . 193
Minimum Concentration/Area for Propped Frac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Embedment Concentration/Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Closure Pressure on Proppant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Non-Darcy Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194
Heat Transfer. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
Acid Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
Conductivity Damage Factor. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
Minimum Conductivity for Etched Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Acid Fracture Closure Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
Rock Embedment Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
In-situ Acid Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

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Carbonate Specific Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
Fraction of Non-Reactive Fines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

2.4 Run/Performing Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Calculation Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201
Stop Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Simulate Closure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202
Simulation Data Windows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202

2.5 Plots - Graphical Presentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Viewing Plots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
To Create a Plot:. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203
Plot Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Fracture Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Leakoff/Rheology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Wellbore Hydraulics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204
Diagnostic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205
Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Proppant Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Acid Transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Heat Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Net Present Value. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Input Treatment Schedule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206
Multilayer Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Multilayer Selection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Multilayer Legends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
Composite Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208
Multi-Axes Plots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209
Three-Dimensional Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

2.6 Generating Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Viewing a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Explanation of the Report Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

2.7 Program Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Fluid Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218
Fluid Code and Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Specific Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220
Shear Rate - Viscosity at . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Rheology Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221
Friction Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223
Proppant Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
Proppant Database Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

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Proppant Database Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
Non-Darcy Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
Non-Darcy Database Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
Acid Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235
Description of the Acid Database Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237
Casing and Tubing Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
Rock Properties Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

2.8 Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243
Proppant Calculator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
Beta Correlation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244
Proppant Property Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245

2.9 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .248

Chapter 3
MView

_________________________________________________ 251

3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .251
Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

3.2 Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .253
Creating a Parameter List . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Using Parameter List Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

3.3 Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .256
Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256
Importing Real-Time Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Importing a Replay Data File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257
Importing data from a Text File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258
Importing an MFrac or Mpwri Data File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
Setup Templates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Editing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263
Save Data as a Text File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
Merge Data Sets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

3.4 Real-Time Menu. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267

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Acquisition Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270
Making a Modem Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279
Troubleshooting Modem Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Real-Time Data Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Raw Data View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280
Translated Data View . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281
Digital Data View. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
Configuring the Real-Time Data Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
Add Log Entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
Clear Real-Time Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Recover Real-Time Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285
Real-Time Status Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

3.5 Simulation Setup. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
Sending Data To MFrac and/or MinFrac . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286

3.6 Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Building Plots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289
Viewing Plots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290
Graphically Editing Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
Graphical Edit Menu Bar. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294

Chapter 4
MinFrac________________________________________________ 299
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301
Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
Fracture Closure Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Fracture Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Total Leakoff Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
Fracture Geometry Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Pressure During Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
Determining Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305
Basic Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308
Step Rate Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Step Down Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309
Horner Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309

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Regression Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310
Derivative Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311
After Closure Analysis. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Permeability and Reservoir Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312
Diagnostic Plots and Derivatives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 313
Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

4.2 Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .316
General Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Graphical Technique - Use data from a text file . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
Graphical Technique - Use real-time data from MView . . . . . . . . . . 319
User Specified Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
Graphical Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319
User Specified Pumping Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321
Fracture Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Fracture Friction Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
Wall Roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323
Tip Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 324
Proppant Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326

4.3 Data Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .327
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 327
Base Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 328
Young's Modulus. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 329
Fracture Toughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
Poisson’s Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 331
Total Leakoff Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 332
Total Fracture Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Flow Behavior Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Consistency Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Spurt Loss Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333
Total Vertical Depth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Wellbore Fluid Specific Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Flowback Time (after ISIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Flowback Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Leakoff Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 334
Average Reservoir Fluid Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Total Reservoir Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
Equivalent Reservoir Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Equivalent Reservoir Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
Frac Fluid Leakoff Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336

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Filter Cake Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Closure Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
Injection Rate (2-wings) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Pumping Time. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Closure Time (after ISIP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
Closure Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 338
History Match Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339
Import Data File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Selecting a Data File. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 340
Edit Imported Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 342

4.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
Select Ranges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 344
Analysis Wizard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Select Analyses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 347
Wizard Window . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 351
Step Rate Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361
Select Ranges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 362
Select Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 363
Pressure Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 365
Diagnostic Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
Step Down Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 368
Select Ranges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 369
Select Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
Pressure Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 372
Diagnostic Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
Horner Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 376
Select Ranges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
Select Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 378
Regression Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 380
Select Ranges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 381
Select Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 382
History Match . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 394
After Closure Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 397
Select Ranges. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Select TC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 398
Select Points . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 399

4.5 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403
Simulation Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
Base Data Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 404
History Match Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 406
Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 408

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Manage Points. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409

4.6 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .409

Chapter 5
MProd

_________________________________________________ 413

5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .413
5.2 Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .415
General Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Simulation Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 417
Well Orientation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Reservoir. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420
Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 421
Fluid Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422
Internal PVT Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Production Boundary Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423
Fracture Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Non-Darcy Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424
Permeability Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Fractured Well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426
Fracture - Multi-Case (NPV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 427
Variable Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 428

5.3 Data Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .428
Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429
Formation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 430
Reservoir Drainage Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Dimensionless Reservoir Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Dimensionless Well Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 431
Total Pay Zone Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Initial Reservoir Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Total Reservoir Compressibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432
Equivalent Reservoir Permeability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 434
Equivalent Reservoir Porosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Equivalent Reservoir Viscosity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Gas Specific Gravity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Bubble Point Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435
Oil API . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 435

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Reservoir Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Fracture Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 436
Fracture Characteristics Tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 437
Stages/Cluster Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 440
Variable Fracture Conductivity Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Fracture Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 442
Fracture Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Dimensionless Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
Conductivity Gradient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
History Match Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443
No Fracture Case - Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Fracture Case - Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 445
Fracture Characteristics Tab. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 446
Stages/Cluster Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 449
Gas PVT Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 451
Proppant Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 452
Design Optimization Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Total Proppant Mass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Pay Zone Proppant Mass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Proppant Number . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 454
Production Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 455
Measured Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
Well Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 457
No Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 458
Fractured Well. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 461

5.4 Run/Performing Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
5.5 Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 462
Plot Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463
Viewing Plots. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 463

5.6 Generating Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Viewing a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Explanation of the Report Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464
Production Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465

5.7 Program Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Non-Darcy Database. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 465
Non-Darcy Database Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 466

5.8 Tools. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467

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Meyer User’s Guide

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 475 Frac Fluid Unit Cost . . . . . . . 477 Hydraulic Power Unit Cost . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . 482 Variable Unit Cost Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Variable Share% Table . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 473 MProd Output File with NPV/Multi-Case Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .469 6. . . . 478 Miscellaneous Cost . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Currency Escalation Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Revenue/Unit Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Share of Revenue . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Partner Share Option. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 484 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Variable Unit Revenue Table. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 476 Proppant Unit Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 References. . .468 Chapter 6 MNpv __________________________________________________ 469 6. . . . . . . . . . . 477 Transverse Fracture Unit Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Unit Revenue Escalation Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 480 Share of Cost . . . . . . . . .5 Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 Unit Revenue for Produced Oil or Gas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .470 Fluid Type . . . . . . . . .4 Run/Performing Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents xxi Proppant Calculator . . . . . . . . . . 486 Viewing Plots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .486 Plot Categories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 468 5. . . . . . . . . . . .485 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 486 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . . 478 Fixed Equipment Cost. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Graphical Presentation. . . . . . . 471 Well Orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Economic Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 472 Unit Costs . . . . . . . . . . .3 Data Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .474 Description. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . 498 Base Data . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Consistency Index . . . . . . . . .2 Data . . . . 496 Proppant Type . . . . . . . 506 Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . . . . 493 Input . 492 Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 498 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Total Leakoff Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Explanation of the Report Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio . . . . . . . . . . 492 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Input Total Volume Injected . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 Chapter 7 MFast __________________________________________________ 491 7. . . . . . . . . 488 Treatment Cost . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 495 Tip Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Spurt Loss Coefficient. . . . . . . . 500 Fracture Toughness . . . 503 Total Fracture Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 499 Young's Modulus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meyer User’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Injection Rate .6 Generating Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Input Fracture Length . . . . . .xxii Table of Contents 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Units . . . . . . . . 501 Poisson’s Ratio . . 488 Net Present Value Solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 488 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 487 Viewing a Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 491 Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 493 Fracture Friction Model . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 504 Flow Behavior Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 502 Total Pay Zone Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 494 Wall Roughness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 505 Maximum Proppant Concentration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Coefficient of Thermal Expansion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Initial Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 Constant Fluid Loss Model . 520 Zone Depth . . . . . . . . 515 Fluid Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 Reservoir Lithology . . . . . . . . . . . . . .511 Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents xxiii Run . . . . . . . 517 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 512 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 Reservoir Coupling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .513 General Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 Reservoir Half-Length . . . . . . . .4 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 519 Thermal/Poro-elastic Stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 In-situ Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 506 Plot . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 525 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . 522 Thermal/Water Front Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 Biot’s Constant . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 507 Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 523 Minimum Reservoir Height . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 522 Injected Fluid. . . . . . .2 Options. . . . . . 518 General Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 508 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 521 Layer Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .518 Treatment Schedule . . . . . . . .509 Chapter 8 MPwri __________________________________________________ 511 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 514 Thermal and Poro-Elastic Stresses. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 Drainage Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Data Input. . . . . . . . . . . . . 516 Fracture Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 518 Stage Tab . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 524 Fluid Loss Data . . . . . . 516 Fluid Loss Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . 556 Fracture Options . 546 Damage Model Database . 534 Internal Deposition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 Harmonic or Dynamic Fluid Loss Models . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 533 Cake Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Graphical Presentation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 555 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 542 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxiv Table of Contents Dynamic Fluid Loss Model . . . . . 527 Time Dependent Fluid Loss . 557 Proppant Options . . . . 551 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Plots . . 561 Constant Fluid Loss Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 554 Chapter 9 MFrac-Lite _____________________________________________ 555 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Program Database . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 561 Fluid Loss Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References. 535 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 558 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 Zone Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meyer User’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Run/Performing Calculations. . . 533 Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 559 Zones . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 Waterflooding Plots . . . . . . 562 Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . 556 General Options . . . . . 532 Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Options and Features . . . . . . . . . . 548 External Damage Parameters. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Data Input. . . . . . . 536 Particulate Transport Plots . . . . . . . . . . 560 Rock Properties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 536 8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 534 External Deposition. . . 547 Internal Damage Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .579 11. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 571 Wellbore-Proppant Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .565 General Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 570 Proppant Options. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 582 Perforations. . 583 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . 573 Zone Name . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 569 Fluid Temperature. . . . . 570 Proppant Ramp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 Treatment Design Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Treatment Type. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574 Zone Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 Zone Name . . . . . . . . . 581 Zone Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 564 10. . Inc. 567 Wellbore Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 566 Real-Time . . . .3 Data Input. . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 574 Chapter 11 MShale ________________________________________________ 579 11. . . . . . . . 574 Perforation and Fracture Intervals. . . .573 Wellbore Hydraulics. . . . . . . . .2 Zones Dialog . . .2 Options. . . . . . . . .563 Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .580 Active . . . . . . . . . . . 571 10. . . . . 566 Simulation Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents xxv Chapter 10 MWell __________________________________________________ 563 10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 567 Wellbore Hydraulics Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 573 Zones. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 Perforation and Fracture Intervals. . . . .

n) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . .4 Parametric Relationships . . . . . . 623 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxvi Table of Contents Pay Zone. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .…. . . . . . . . . 625 Appendix B Multilayer Fracturing _________________________________ 627 B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 631 Momentum Eqns. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 615 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 588 Appendix A Hydraulic Fracturing Theory _________________________ 611 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . .3 Solution Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 A. 612 After Pumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 Fracture Propagation Criteria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 614 A. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 612 During Pumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 613 Width-Opening Pressure Elasticity Condition . 612 Continuity . . 632 Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Nomenclature . . . . . . (i=1. . . . . . Meyer User’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Numerical Solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 627 B. . . . . . 586 Fracture Network Options . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . 629 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 B. . . . . 629 Momentum Conservation . . . .2 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 611 Mass Conservation . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . .637 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 Toughness Dominated . . . . . . . . . . . . .640 Net Pressure for Multiple Fractures . . 641 Toughness Dominated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 647 PKN Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Far Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Multiple Fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .635 Appendix C Multiple Fractures ____________________________________ 637 C. . . . . . . . . 638 Interaction Factors . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 Width-Opening Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .644 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 Turbulent Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 641 Viscous Dominated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 Fluid Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . 643 Constant Critical Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Multiple Fractures . . .5 Conclusions . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Near Wellbore . . . . . . . . 640 C. . . . . . . 647 C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents xxvii B. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638 Flow Rate . . . . . . . . . . 642 Net Pressure Ratio . . . . . . .634 B. . . . . . . . . . . 646 GDK Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .638 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 639 Momentum Conservation . . . . . . . . . . 642 Viscous Dominated . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 645 Laminar Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 Near Wellbore Pressure Loss . . . . . . . . . . . . . 646 Width-Opening Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . 647 General Near Wellbore Dissipation Function. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .649 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 638 Stiffness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 642 Constant Critical Stress. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Spurt Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 653 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 671 . . 662 Conservation of Momentum . . .3 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 665 Fluid Loss During Pumping . . . 663 Fracture Propagation Solution. . . . . . . . 666 Mass Conservation After Shut-In . . . . .2 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652 CI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 664 Mass Conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Total Leakoff Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 654 Appendix E Wellbore Friction Factor _____________________________ 657 E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 651 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coefficient . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 661 F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Appendix D Fluid Loss _____________________________________________ 651 D. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 652 CII . . 668 Minifrac Closure Equations . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Friction Factor Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 660 Appendix F Minifrac Methodology ________________________________ 661 F. . . . . . . . . . . . .Coefficient. . 657 E. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Coefficient. . . 662 Width-Opening Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Leakoff. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 657 E. . . . . . . . 652 CIII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 706 G. . . . . . . . . 674 Pressure Decline . 700 Single Vertical Fracture. . . . . . . . . .6 References. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .686 Appendix G Production Model Theory ____________________________ 689 G. . . . . . . . 694 Pseudo-Radial Flow Solution . 694 Horizontal Well Solution . . . . . . . 703 Multiple Stage/Cluster Transverse Fractures . . . . . . 692 Constant Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .689 G. . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents xxix Dimensionless Net Pressure Slope . . . . 694 Productivity Increase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .683 F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 Multiply Fractures . . . .690 Dimensionless Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 698 No Fracture: . . . . . . . . . . 691 Trilinear Solution . . . . 701 Multiple Equally Spaced Transverse Fractures . . . . . . . . .Lateral Length . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Generate Closed Systems. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 693 Wellbore Choked Skin Effect . . . . . . . .5 Nomenclature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697 Method of Images . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Nomenclature . 692 Pseudosteady-State Pressure Solution . . . . . . . 690 Pseudopressure . . 677 F. . . . . 696 Constant Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 692 Constant Flow Rate. . . . . 693 Pseudosteady-State Resistivity Solution . . . . . 704 Transverse Fracture Interference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .679 F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Governing Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .709 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 697 Desuperposition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .681 F. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Minifrac Numerical Solution . . . . 700 Multiple Transverse Fractures in Horizontal Wells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 700 Fracture: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 721 I. . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 722 Design Criteria. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 718 Discounted Return on Investment (DROI). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Numerical Simulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 General Equations . Meyer User’s Guide . . . . . . . . . 733 J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 731 I. . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Methodology. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 732 Appendix J Produced Water Reinjection Fracturing ____________ 733 J. . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . 715 H. . . . . 717 Fracture Net Present Value (NPV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Results and Conclusions . . . .4 References . . . . . . . . 733 Meyer & Associates. 719 Appendix I TSO & Frac-Pack Methodology ______________________ 721 I. . . . 717 Discount Well Revenue (DWR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 711 Appendix H Net Present Value Theory ____________________________ 715 H. 723 I. . . . . . . . . . . .2 Thermal and Water Front Equations . . . 726 I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxx Table of Contents G. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 723 Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 769 Filter Cake Coefficient. . 741 The uniform fracture flux solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 738 J. Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 766 Internal Cake Saturation Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 757 Internal Filtration Equations . . . 755 J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 742 The infinite-conductivity solution . . 743 Linear Solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .776 J. . . . . . . . . . . . . 736 Poroelastic Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 748 Internal Skin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Other Relationships . . . . . . . . . . . 768 External Cake Filtration Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 767 Internal Cake Permeability . . . . . . . . . . 742 Dimensionless Rate Solution. . . . . . . .3 Thermoelastic and Poroelastic Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents xxxi J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 References. . 774 J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .776 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . . . . . 772 Filter Cake Build Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 743 General Dimensionless Rate Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Linear Fluid loss. . . . . . . . . . . 771 Filter Cake Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Governing Fluid Loss Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 General Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Internal and External Filter Cakes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 750 Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .736 Thermoelastic Stresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Fracture Skin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 MPwri Input Dialog Nomenclature. . 758 Displacement Damage Model . . . . . 746 J. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 740 Dimensionless Pressure Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .748 External Skin . . . . . . . 766 Deposition Saturation and Porosity. . . . Thickness. . . . . . . .739 Carter’s Solution . .757 Filtration Damage Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 773 Filter Cake Erosion Rate . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 794 Horner Time . . . . . . . 792 Linear Solution Summary . 786 Time Dependent Velocity Boundary Condition . . . . . . . .xxxii Table of Contents Appendix K After-Closure Analysis _______________________________ 779 K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . .4 Linear Solution . . . . . . . . . . . .7 References . . . 807 Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . . .3 Impulse Injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 785 Constant Pressure Boundary Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801 General Equation . 798 Horner Time . . . . . . . . . . . 793 K. . . . . . . . . . 801 K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 797 K. 791 Apparent Closure Time . . . . . . . 801 Diagnostic Plots and Derivatives . . . . 789 Constant Injection Rate followed by a Shut-in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Summary and Implementation of After Closure Analysis 798 Impulse Injection . . . .5 Radial Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meyer User’s Guide . . . . . . . . . . . . 788 Variable Injection Rate followed by a Shut-in . . . . . . . . . . . 785 Constant Velocity Boundary Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Infinite-acting time period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 795 Nolte’s After-Closure Radial Time Function . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 801 Permeability and Reservoir Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 799 Nolte After Closure Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Superposition or Duhamel’s Theorem: General Solution 780 K. . . . . . . . . . . . . 804 Appendix L Pseudosteady State Analysis of Finite Conductivity Vertical Fractures ____________________________________ 807 L. . . . . 779 K. 781 K. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 800 Graphical Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . 826 Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .854 L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6 Infinite Fracture Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 860 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 808 L. . 827 Effective Wellbore Radius . . . . 829 L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .857 External Skin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 844 Effective Wellbore Radius . . . . . . . . . 834 Tail-in . . . . . . . . . 830 Non-Uniform Fracture Conductivity. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858 Internal Skin. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 818 Square Reservoir .830 Constant Finite Conductivity Fracture . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Fracture Skin . . 837 Over Flush. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 812 Reservoir Resistivity . 809 Effective Wellbore Radius . . .809 Dimensionless Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4 Pseudosteady Fracture Solutions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Shape Factor . . . . . . . . . . . 813 Fracture Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . 821 L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 819 Rectangular Reservoir . . . . . . . 814 Finite Conductivity Vertical Fracture System . . . . . . . . 813 Inverse Dimensionless Productivity Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Radial Flow Differential Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .841 Vertical Fracture in an Infinite System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 838 L. . . . . . . . . .Infinite Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 852 L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Pseudosteady Fractured System Model. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .824 Slot Flow . . . 842 Vertical Fracture in a Rectangular Closed Reservoir. .859 Derivation of Radial Diffusivity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 Pseudosteady Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . 814 No Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 825 Uniform Flux . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Pseudosteady Cases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .812 Resistivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 858 L. . . . 810 L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 842 Uniform Flux Vertical Fracture . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents xxxiii Dimensionless Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 914 Limiting Narrow Slot Ellipsoidal Solution. . . . . . . . . . . . . 915 Turbulent Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 918 M. . 866 Pseudopressure Relationships and Limits . . . . 882 Constant Flowing Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 919 Turbulent Flow. . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 Constant Flowing Pressure. . . . . . . . . . . . . 920 Time Dependent Cross-Sectional Area. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901 Agarwal Pseudopressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 874 Constant Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 912 Laminar Flow. . 869 L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 873 Infinite or Infinitely Acting System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 901 General Pseudopressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861 Improved Pseudo-Pressure and Pseudo-Time Functions . . . . . . . . . . . 921 Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 902 L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 877 Closed System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 907 L. . . . . . . 919 Laminar Flow. . . . . . . . . . . 913 Elliptical Slot Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 913 Slot Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 911 M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .xxxiv Table of Contents Linearization of Radial Diffusivity Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Real Gas Potential and Related Equations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 DFN Momentum Equations . .2 Momentum Equation . . . . . 883 Numerical Solution -Total Mass and Mass Rate. . . . 908 Appendix M Discrete Fracture Network Methodology ___________ 911 M. . . . . .12 Forchheimer Equation . . . .13 References. . . . . 894 L. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meyer User’s Guide . .10 Dimensionless Rate & Pressure Solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . 861 Pseudo-Pressure and Pseudo-Time Functions . . . . . 882 Constant Mass Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 903 Effective Conductivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 930 Dominant Fracture Proppant Distribution . . . . . . . . . .4 DFN Characteristics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .927 Fluid Loss Interaction . . . . . . .7 Proppant Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5 Mass Conservation . . . . . .935 Fluid Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 931 User Specified Proppant Distribution. . . . . . . . . . .6 DFN Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 922 DFN Geometric Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .During Pumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .921 Fracture Network . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .929 Uniform Proppant Distribution . . . . . . . . . . . 923 DFN Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .926 M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .940 Subject Index______________________________943 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925 Specific DFN Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938 Midfield or Extended Wellbore Storage Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 Midfield Fracture Complexity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Table of Contents xxxv M. . . . . 927 Stiffness Interaction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 925 Stimulated Reservoir Volume Ratios . . .After Pumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Inc. . . . . . 921 Number of Discrete Fractures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938 Fluid Loss. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 938 M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 928 M. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 933 M. . . . . . 926 M. .9 References . . . . . . . . 928 Empirical Correlation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Inc. Meyer User’s Guide .xxxvi Table of Contents Meyer & Associates.

This guide explains the available options and basic procedures used for running the Meyer programs. Windows 2003. A number of example files are included with the software. MinFrac. Inc. the manipulation of data. The Meyer software is designed for use with the following Microsoft operating systems: Windows 7. MView. MProd.Introduction Overview This User's Guide is designed to explain the installation and use of the suite of hydraulic fracture design and analysis software developed by Meyer & Associates. and Windows XP SP3. xxxvii Meyer & Associates. . MNpv. as well as. In addition to the examples and the explanation of program options. MFast. The suite of computer programs include MFrac. These examples demonstrate the utility of many of the program features. MWell. Inc. supplementary technical information is contained in the appendices. Windows Vista. MFrac-Lite. and MShale. MPwri.

Fully coupled proppant transport and heat transfer routines. together with a flexible user interface and object oriented development approach. as well as treat- Meyer & Associates. auto design features. MFrac MFrac is a comprehensive design and evaluation simulator containing a variety of options including three-dimensional fracture geometry. permit use of the program for fracture design. and integrated acid fracturing solutions.xxxviii The figure below shows an overall simulation flowchart for the Meyer intergrated suite of software. Program Descriptions A brief description of each of the programs in the Meyer suite of software is given below. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. Please refer to the corresponding chapter for specific information.

individual fracture geometry leakoff coefficients and near wellbore effects. Inc. fracture efficiency. however. pumpin/shut-in tests for the determination of stress. Once calculations are performed using MProd. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The program provides a means of examining rate and pressure data during and after a period of injection. the program works in conjunction with our real-time data acquisition and display program. When operating in this manner. Inc. The program is used to assess the production benefit for a variety of treatment scenarios with comparison of unfractured wells. can also communicate dynamically in real-time with MView to share data. MinFrac The MinFrac program has been specifically designed for use as an analysis tool for injection tests and minifrac analysis. conductivity) that will maximize production for a given amount of proppant mass. the results are available for use by MNpv. The primary purpose of MinFrac is to calculate closure pressure. Output produced by MFrac (propped fracture characteristics) can be used by this program as input. primarily for hydraulic fracturing applications. This includes. its flexible structure also makes it functional as a general data handling system. MProd is integrated and fully compatible with MFrac. like MFrac. As part of a treatment optimization methodology. This program was created as a separate utility in order to provide a simple system that would be reliable and operate in a straight-forward independent manner. Mprod includes an objective methodology for determining unknown or uncertain parameters through regression analysis of simulated and measured data by history matching. MFrac is the calculation engine for real-time and replay fracture simulation. MProd MProd is a single phase analytical production simulator developed by Meyer & Associates. step rate interpretation and conventional or “unconventional” pressure decline analysis. A Fracture Design Optimization option enables the user to determine the optimum fracture design (length. MView was intended primarily for use with the MFrac and MinFrac hydraulic fracturing design and analysis simulators. . MView This program provides a data handling system and display module for real-time hydraulic fracturing and minifrac analysis. width.xxxix ment analysis. This allows data interpretation during real-time acquisition. MView. MinFrac.

Since MFast was developed from analytical solutions it has the inherent limitations of steady state injection. time independent fluid rheology and single layer properties. Perkins-Kern (PKN) and ellipsoidal type two dimensional models. Meyer User’s Guide . fluid loss from the fracture is generally diffusion controlled. This simplified three-dimensional simulator provides ease of use with less input Meyer & Associates. but at large times the fluid loss is governed by steady-state or pseudosteady-state leakoff. MPwri has options for conventional (diffusion controlled) and ellipsoidal (non-dif- fusion) fluid loss. MPwri MPwri is a highly specialized simulator for predicting the pressure and geometry of hydraulic fractures associated with waterflooding. Simply stated. At early times. This fluid loss option has a marked effect on fracture geometry with larger leakoff rates at later times as compared to diffusion alone.xl MNpv MNpv provides a tool for forecasting fractured well net present value (NPV) or return on investment (ROI). MFrac-Lite MFrac-Lite is a three-dimensional hydraulic fracturing simulator similar to MFrac but with a limited number of MFrac features and capabilities (i. MFast MFast is a two-dimensional analytical hydraulic fracturing simulator for aiding the fracturing engineer in designing 2D fractures. This simulator provides the capability to compare the fracture geometries for Geerstma-deKlerk (GDK). constant mechanical properties. The program has been designed for use with MProd to automatically determine and compare various NPV fracture scenarios in order to identify an optimum design. fracture efficiency and treatment design. net pressure.. fracture treatment optimization is a methodology used for maximizing well profitability. a lite version). This process requires a comparison of the cost penalties and revenue benefits associated with any proposed treatment scenario. The simulator illustrates the importance of various parameters and provides a fast first order solution to fracture geometry. The program was specifically designed for evaluating the effects of injecting large fluid volumes over long periods and for fracture efficiencies approaching zero.e. Inc. Thermal and poro-elastic effects are also include.

xli data and fewer options to choose from for applications which do not require some of the advanced features in MFrac. gravitational head. MWell was designed for real-time analysis to calculate BHTP’s. screen displays are shown to demonstrate an operation or result. MWell however does provide the capability to simulate a time dependent formation pressures with a user specified table that for inputting the minimum horizontal stress and a time dependent net pressure (pressure above or below the reference minimum stress). Inc. from surface con- ditions but can also be used as a design tool for determining wellbore pressure characteristics prior to the treatment. transport times and hydraulic power requirements in the wellbore. Near wellbore and perforation pressure losses are also calculated to determine the bottomhole treating pressure in the formation. MShale MShale is a Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulator designed for simulating three-dimensional (x-z. MShale accounts for the coupled parameters affecting fracture propagation (and proppant transport) in multiple planes. This simulator is designed for those who do not need the full functionality of MFrac. and discrete type fractures in shales and coal bed methane (CBM). About this Guide This guide assumes the user is familiar with basic Windows operations and terminology. MFrac-Lite uses the same numerical routines as MFrac but without some of the more advanced and user specified options. MFrac-Lite has similar real-time capabilities as MFrac and is designed to be compatible with like features in MFrac. restrictions. . the input or Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. MWell is essentially a subset of the MFrac simulator without the fracture simulation. cluster. MShale is a very specialized fracturing simulator designed to simulate multiple. MWell MWell is a wellbore hydraulics simulator for calculating surface or bottomhole pressures. It is important to realize that depending on the options selected. When practical. y-z. and x-y planes) hydraulic fracture propagation in discrete fracture networks. Discrete fractures in naturally fractured or faulted formations can be modeled by specifying a fracture network grid to simulate fracture propagation in multiple planes (not just perpendicular to the minimum horizontal stress). If the formation is not fracture the reference pressure should be the reservoir pressure.

Selecting options. Minifrac Analysis.” describes how to use MView to setup. “MView.” covers the hardware and system requirements to run the software. performing calculations and viewing program output are discussed. To find information specific to an individual program. installation procedures and program initiation techniques. rate. either via a serial cable or remotely using a modem. refer to the chapter for the program in question. opening and saving files. connect and transfer replay or real-time fracture treatment data. proppant concentration. entering data. Inc. In addition. Program basics. as well as. Acquired Data Visualization. “MFrac. an index is provided at the end of this guide. In addition. “Getting Started. Application to replay and real-time simulation is also presented. What’s in this Guide? This guide begins by covering topics that are general and common to all programs. volume. such as. Chapter 2. To assist you in finding answers to your questions quickly. This includes the procedures for acquiring data from a service company.” begins by explaining the procedures involved in importing.. “MinFrac. Each program chapter is organized to correspond to the typical steps needed to begin working with the software. This chapter also outlines how to send data to MFrac and MinFrac for use as simulation input (e. as well as. formatting and editing injection test data. This chapter begins with a discussion of the program’s options and their influence on the modeling methodology used.” provides detailed instructions for using the MFrac simulator. Each of the data input screens is described with logical steps for data entry. The program’s graphical capability for viewing and analyzing fracturing data is covered and directions for specifying plot data and configuring plot preferences are given.xlii output displayed in the program may vary from the examples shown. instructions for graphical editing of data are discussed. The options associated with the analysis of minifrac data and the techniques used in performing an Meyer & Associates.g. the use and maintenance of program databases. All of the screens depicted in this manual correspond to the Windows convention established by the Microsoft Corporation. Chapter 4. pressure. Chapter 1. entering and editing values in data fields are discussed. This includes the application of shifting and statistical curve fitting functions. performing calculations and viewing the output are covered. …). Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator. This chapter outlines the hardware and system requirements for the Meyer suite of software. Chapter 3. Meyer User’s Guide . Specific instructions for installing and running the software are also given.

This chapter begins with a comparison of the MFrac-Lite and MFrac features. as well as. Rock Properties. “MPwri. This simulator provides the capability to compare the fracture geometries for Geerstma-deKlerk (GDK). Mpwri includes thermaland poro-elastic stresses for large injection volumes. and thermal and water front tracking in each layer. All of the procedures and options available in MNpv are covered in this chapter. “MFrac-Lite. “MNpv. Examples are given to demonstrate MProd’s role in treatment optimization. It describes the available options and the basic procedures needed to run the program.” explains the function and use of MProd. The use of MProd output data is discussed and examples are given to demonstrate the basic program functions. Horner and Regression with history matching. Only the options and data input screens that are different than those in MFrac are presented in the chapter. constant mechanical properties. Chapter 5. Zones. low fluid efficiencies fractures. Analytical Production Simulator. Chapter 9. its use as a standalone production forecast tool for fractured and unfractured reservoirs. . “MProd. A description of all MPwri required input is also given. Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator . Various time functions and pressure derivatives are provided for analyzing rate-pressure data. Inc. The main advantage of this program is the ease of use and ability to provide solutions quickly. The use of MPwri output data is discussed and examples are given to demonstrate the basic program functions. A description of all required input is also given. time independent fluid rheology and single layer properties. All of the procedures and options available in MPwri are covered in this chapter.” provides detailed instructions for using the MFrac-Lite simulator. This includes importing MFrac output data for forecasting fractured well performance. “MFast. The MinFrac analyses include: Step Rate. It is also a great tool for the first time user in that it demonstrates parametric effects how various input parameters affect the fracture propagation process. Produced Water Re-Injection Fracturing Simulator.” explains the function and use of our highly specialized simulator. These include the Options. Since MFast was developed from analytical solutions it has the inherent limitations of steady state injection.” begins by explaining the basic 2D fracture models and the associated input data. Step Down. Economic Analysis. Chapter 7. An Analysis Wizard is provided for the systematic method of selecting and performing minifrac analyses.” outlines economic analysis as part of a treatment optimization method. and Fluid Loss Data dialogs.Lite Version. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Chapter 6. The reader is referred to the MFrac chapter for a description of all other comparable dialogs.xliii analysis are described. Chapter 8. Perkins-Kern (PKN) and ellipsoidal type two dimensional models. An Analytical 2D Fracturing Simulator.

The Main Menu. The correlations are developed in terms of the Fanning friction factor. “Fluid Loss. “Multiple Fractures. Meyer User’s Guide . Refer to the MFrac chapter for descriptions of application features and screens that are not presented within the MShale chapter. “MWell. The general concept and theory are discussed. Appendix A is a supplement to the technical presentations provided elsewhere in this guide. Meyer & Associates. It is provided as a source of information for users who want to develop a better understanding of fracture modeling concepts. “MShale.” provides a technical reference for the analytical and numerical methods used for fracture simulation. Input screens and terminology unique to MShale are discussed in detail throughout the chapter. The Meyer Appendices exist at the end of the mhelp. Appendix A. Appendix C. Appendix B. transport times and hydraulic power requirements in the wellbore. “Wellbore Friction Factor. Multiple parallel and dendritic fractures which may or may not interact are presented. restrictions. “Hydraulic Fracturing Theory. Chapter 11. The reader is referred to the MFrac chapter for a description of all other comparable dialogs.” presents the correlations and methods used to simulate frictional pressure dissipation in the wellbore.” explains the methodology used in the program for simulating the propagation of multiple fractures from multilayer perforated intervals. “Multilayer Fracturing. Inc.” provides a detailed description of the MShale simulator and the features that set it apart from MFrac and the other simulators. Technical Support Documentation Additional technical support documentation and theory may be found in the Manuals directory on both the CD and the install directory. The theory behind various fluid loss options is given.” begins by describing the the utility and application of the software to calculate surface or bottomhole pressures. A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator.xliv Chapter 10.chm file and in pdf format within the Manuals directory. gravitational head. A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator. Appendix E. Appendix D. Options and Input data are discussed in detail.” documents the simulation methods used when modeling far field and near wellbore multiple fractures in a single perforated interval or layer.” outlines the numerical procedures used to model fluid diffusion or leakoff to the reservoir.

Appendix K.” describes some of the fundamental relationships associated with the interpretation of minifrac pressure records and the basic theory implemented in the MinFrac software. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. This appendix sets forth the methodology and documentation of the governing equations for after-closure analysis as originally presented by Gu et al. A summary of the governing linear and radial flow equations are presented along with the graphical method to determine permeability and reservoir pressure from the infinite-acting time period. A summary of the governing waterfront. “Minifrac Methodology. Appendix M. Inc. A discussion of the design criteria. “Discrete Fracture Network Methodology” presents the solution methodology for our Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulator (MShale). “Produced Water Reinjection Theory or Waterflood Theory” presents the solution methodology and governing equations for our hydraulic fracturing produced water reinjection simulator. (1993) and Nolte (1997). “After-Closure Analysis” presents the solution methodology for determining formation permeability after hydraulic fracturing is formulated in this report. thermal front. Appendix H. “Pseudosteady State Analysis of Finite Conductivity Vertical Fractures” presents the solution methodology for pseudosteady behavior of a well with a finite conductivity vertical fracture in rectangular shaped formations based on a new reservoir/fracture domain resistivity concept. Appendix G. “Net Present Value Theory. The theory building internal and external skins and cakes due to particulate matter in the injected fluid is also presented. differences and benefits of each are given. The resulting pseudosteady solution is presented in the form of the dimensionless productivity index ( J D ).and poro-elastic stresses. and ellipsoidal fluid loss equations are presented. . Appendix J. Appendix L. “TSO & Frac-Pack Methodology.” provides a brief overview of the methods used for conducting economic analyses of fracture treatments. The boundary conditions necessary to create multiple fractures and major assumptions are presented along with the governing equations. procedures. Appendix I.” contains a description of the basic theory behind the computational methods used in MProd.xlv Appendix F. thermal. “Production Model Theory. The concepts of fracture Net Present Value (NPV) and Discounted Return On Investment (DROI) are presented.” presents the basic methodologies of TSO and frac-packs. The formulation encompasses a transformed resistivity domain that utilizes an equivalent or effective wellbore radius.

instructions and procedures in the program as shown below: ALL CAPS Represent directories. Inc. Italics Used to emphasize certain points of information. we recommend working through the demo examples provided with the software. These example files demonstrate many of the program’s primary features. menus and options. file names. Depending on your level of experience. and commands. Many of the operational details can be picked up as needed using the on-line Help feature. This approach will provide a thorough understanding of the programs and prepare a base from which more advanced applications can be explored. Meyer & Associates. We recommend starting with the simple analytical 2D fracturing simulator MFast. Working through each of the examples provided with the software will demonstrate the general operation of each program. exploring those topics you are least familiar with in more detail. Secondary options and preferences can then be investigated as time permits. Meyer User’s Guide . Experienced with Meyer Software and Fracturing Browse the contents of this guide. special fonts and/or icons are used to emphasize specific steps.xlvi How to use this Guide The Meyer software has been designed to minimize the time required to become familiar with its use. Symbols and Conventions Throughout this User’s Guide. General Knowledge of Meyer Software and Fracturing Review the contents of this guide for installation and a basic understanding of the general operations and options. we recommend one of the following methods to familiarize yourself with the software: Limited Experience with Meyer Software and Fracture Design If you are just learning fracture design and analysis. we recommend you read this guide from beginning to end to familiarize yourself with the program features. To optimize your time and sample the program features quickly.

xlvii Keycap Bold italics are used to indicate a specific action or command to be taken.” we use the FileOpen convention. Meyer & Associates. . Emphasizes specific information to be entered or a point of interest. MenuCommand To avoid repeating the phrase “Click the File menu and choose the Open command.” MView Program names are written as shown. To Meyer User’s Guide Step-by-step instructions normally start with a bold To. Inc. For example: “Click OK to proceed to the next screen.

xlviii Meyer & Associates. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide .

A Meyer & Associates. Windows Vista. This chapter outlines the hardware and system requirements for the Meyer suite of software. If you are unfamiliar with the Windows operating system. After reading this chapter and installing the software. . and Windows XP SP3. Windows 7. Specific instructions for installing and running the software are also given. you will be ready to begin using the programs. Windows 2003. such as additional RAM and a faster processor may greatly improve the performance of the software.1: Minimum System Requirements. Inc. menus and using a mouse found in your “Microsoft Windows User's Guide. Table 1. Meyer & Associates. We recommend Pentium 4 or better. Computer: Operating System: 1 Intel Pentium III (or equivalent) microprocessor. Additional resources.1 Introduction The Meyer Software is a powerful suite of engineering programs for the design. authorized software protection key. analysis and monitoring of hydraulic fractures. we recommend reading the relevant sections concerning Windows.1 shows the minimum system and hardware requirements for satisfactory installation and performance of the Meyer Software. Inc. This guide assumes you have a working knowledge of the Windows terminology and procedures.Chapter 1 Getting Started The Meyer Software 1.2 System & Hardware Requirements Table 1.” 1.

Meyer User’s Guide . Close any virus-detection application. can require MUCH more than this amount of RAM for Real-Time data sets with a large number of parameters. A CD or DVD drive (to install the software). MView. (32bit Windows applications cannot easily take advantage of more than 3GB of RAM. Microsoft operating systems require vastly more than 256MB of RAM to function.ini switch. Make sure your computer meets the minimum system requirements listed above in Table 1.) Disk Drive: A hard disk with at least 500 MB of free disk space is recommended. Check the amount of space available on the selected drive. For these configurations we recommend 3GB of RAM with the /3GB boot. trackball) is recommended. At least 200MB must be available in the Application Data folder (according to the %AppData% environmental variable). we highly recommend that you perform a traditional installation according to the steps detailed below. Also. Close any open applications. you should first do the following: 1. 2. Optional Equipment: Windows supported printers. 1. Meyer & Associates. note that starting with Windows Vista.2 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Table 1.1. 3. Determine the drive where the software will be installed. Memory: Most parts of the Meyer software require a minimum of 256MB for smooth operation. USB or Parallel port (to install the security key). however. mouse.1: Minimum System Requirements. and/or for large Replay data sets.g. Additional installation instructions are provided in the Readme file on the CD.3 Installing the Meyer Software Although it is possible to run the Meyer applications from the installation CD. Inc. 4. Modem (for remote real-time). Mouse: A Windows compatible pointing device (e. 5. Before Installing Before installing the software.

. click on the View Readme button. 3.1: Install Software Setup Menu The Meyer Setup application is capable of installing all of the main applications and components. Figure 1.1 shows the Install Software Setup screen. 3 Verify that you have the necessary access rights (administrative privileges) to create directories. To Install the Meyer Applications The software can be installed from a CD drive. After inserting the CD. Figure 1. The Readme file contains FAQ’s. Inc. 1.1 will appear. Click Install Software.1. new features and other information that may be important prior to installation or other information that was not available at press time. Click the Next > button and follow the instructions. click the Start button on the Windows taskbar. and click Run. If you want to view the Readme HTML file. 2.3 Installing the Meyer Software 6. Please read the directions below. files and to install device drivers on the designated drive. installation tips. a menu screen as shown in Figure 1. If the Meyer Install Setup screen does not display. Insert the Meyer CD into the CD-ROM drive. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. and then follow the instructions in the Setup program to complete the installation. Type D:\Setup (where D is the letter corresponding to the CD-ROM drive) in the Open box.

6. Repair or Remove After installing the Meyer software. Click the Install > button to begin the installation. Setup will then create the new directory. Change which program features are installed. 5. Some components have sub-components. Remove the Meyer Software from your computer. Choose the setup type option that best suits your needs: 7. The Program Maintenance menu will then be displayed as shown in Figure 1. Recommended for advanced users.. It is recommended that a directory name that does not exist be specified. Choose which program features you want installed and where they will be installed. If you are not authorized to use all of the Meyer application software. click the Finish > button to return to the Install Software Setup Menu.. to install to a different directory. Repair. When the installation is completed. Setup Type. 2. To change selections in the Setup Wizard. highlight the component in the list and click the appropriate desired feature. • Complete. Also select one of the Install this application for options and click the Next > button. and follow the instructions in the Wizard.Modify. To change the sub-component selections. Meyer & Associates. Click the Next > button. Click on the icon in the list to change how the feature is installed. 3. Repair installation errors in the Meyer Software. Type in the Customer Information User Name and Organization. Click Next > to install this folder. Choose a directory where the software will be installed. click the < Back button. Program Maintenance . • Custom. you may wish to exclude these components by clicking “This feature will not be available”.4 Getting Started: The Meyer Software 4. Modify. Simply follow the steps above for starting the Setup program. Repair or Remove the software. Meyer User’s Guide . you can Modify. Click the Next > button. Remove.2 giving you the following options: 1. Inc. Destination Folder. or click Change. and follow the installation instructions in the Setup Wizard. 4. All program features will be installed (requires the most disk space).

long file name support. If a suitable database is found. application directories. they will attempt to find user databases from previous versions of the software. 1.4 General Application Information This section presents general information on the application installation directories. .Program Maintenance Menu These options give you the capability to free up disk space. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. it will be copied (and update if necessary) to the required location so that it is usable by the most recent version of the software. application folder support and other support information. file name extensions. Database Installation When the applications are ran for the first time.4 General Application Information 5 Figure 1. update components to refresh their configurations settings and to repair or reinstall any components which you have inadvertently deleted.1. Inc.2: Install . If any of your user databases are deleted. this process will be repeated.

By having these files in the user profile. For Meyer 2010 the application data folder is “Meyer 2010”.6 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Application Installation Directories The applications store the user databases. some example locations are shown below: • For a user called Bruce on Windows XP. plot configuration files are stored in a sub-folder of the user profile’s Application Data folder. Inc\ Meyer 2010 • For a user called Bruce on Windows Vista. The Windows application data folder is determined by the %AppData% environmental variable. Extension Description adb Acid Database (generic) Meyer & Associates.2: General File Extensions. Inc. Application File Name Extensions General Table 1. which in turn may be found under the Windows application data folder. Locked down environment is also supported. if more than one person uses a computer. 1.” The location of this folder depends on the version of Windows and the version of the Meyer Software you are running. plots. In previous versions of the software. Inc” folder. Inc \Meyer 2010 Application Data Folder Support All working files. Table 1. this was stored in the application folder. Technically. This folder may be found under the “Meyer & Associates. etc. each user will have their own copies of these files. the application data folder might be C:\Users\Bruce\AppData\Roaming\Meyer & Associates. we store this information in the “roaming profile per-user application data folder.2 provides a list and description of general file extensions. in the user profile. our folder might be C:\Documents and Settings\Bruce\Application Data\Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide . user databases.

Table 1. Application Main Data File Plot Template File Units File MFrac mfrac mtp mfu MFrac-Lite mfrac-lite mtp mfu Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. adt Acquired data text file or MACQ output data file aie Acid Import/export file csv Comma separated value file dat Data file dbs Database Files (pipe and rock) emf Exodus export file fdb Fluid database file (vendor) fie Fluid import/export file fpc Fracture plot configuration file key MKey file las Log data file pdb Proppant database pie Proppant import/export file plt Default plot configuration file stp MACQ setup file txt Text file user-db User Database (acid. and proppant) vhd MView Import header file vtp MView Plot template file wrl Virtual Reality Modeling Language file Application File Extension Summary Table 1.3 provides a summary of the Meyer application specific file extensions.2: General File Extensions. . damage. non-Darcy. Inc.3: Application File Extension Summary.1.4 General Application Information 7 Table 1. fluid.

such as aux. con. unit and configuration files. These characters are reserved for Windows. Working Files The Meyer applications use temporary working files not only for input files. The application must not use reserved words. 2. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc.3: Application File Extension Summary. Following is a list of general Windows limitations for long file names: 1.e. database. This allows you to open and run read-only files because the original (including the output) files are only changed when you save them. Most Recent File list. 3. Meyer & Associates. This also allows you to create and run untitled projects without having to save to a file first. 4. The following characters not allowed in a path or file name are < > : “ / \ |. and Window menu. MWell mwell mtp mfu MPwri mpwri mtp mfu MShale mshale mtp mfu MView mview vtp mvu MinFrac minfrac mwz mmu MProd mprod ptp mpu MNpv mnpv ntp mnu MFast mfast atp mtu Long File Name Support All of the Meyer applications use long file names for input. output.8 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Table 1.. Long file name support when displaying an opened file in the title bar. as filenames or directory names. The path and file name cannot exceed 255 characters (i. Windows MAX_PATH). but also for output and other configuration files associated with the input files. and prn.

It is also possible to start an executable file from the Windows File Manager or Explorer. as this can damage the key and/or your PC. A program can also be started by “Running” the main executable module (e. some experimentation with the order and compatibility may be required. If your PC is on a network with a network security key server. make sure the hardware security key is connected to your PC. MFrac. Inc. .5 Starting the Software The Meyer programs can be started using one of several methods. check with your network administrator to ensure that your PC is properly configured. If you are using security keys for other software. If you are using a network security key. WARNING. Your network administrator should install the network security key and configure your PC to access the network security key server. However. 1. during the save operation you will be prompted to use the file Save As command. Any file that does not exist in the Most Recent Used file (MRU) list that is selected/opened will be deleted from the list.5 Starting the Software 9 Read Only Files Read Only input files can be opened. it is not necessary to have an individual security key on your PC. A program can be started from the Windows desktop by double-clicking the associated icon or using the Start menu.1. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.exe) from the desktop File or Start menus. If you have a USB key it must be plugged into the USB port. Do not connect the parallel security key to a serial port.g.. Connecting the Hardware Security Key The security key must be attached to the parallel (printer) port or USB port. Before starting a Meyer application. Last Opened Files The Meyer applications remember the last 12 files opened.

S. Approximately 200 MB is required for program installation. today's date). 4. Additional free space is needed for data. A minimum of 500 MB free space is recommended. updates and upcoming events can be accessed by visiting our home page on the Internet.e. Sufficient disk space is available.http://www. U. our address is Home Page . If the key is loose.com Email . 3. Inc. as this can damage the key or your PC. Eastern Standard Time) at the following numbers. 1. . To send data files or correspond with us via email. Meyer User’s Guide .M. The USB key is connected to the USB port and the parallel port key to the Parallel printer port. any user with a current maintenance contract can obtain Technical Support during regular business hours (8:30 A.M. Do Not connect the key to the serial port. output and databases files. the program may not be able to access it. please check the following: 1. 2.10 Getting Started: The Meyer Software 1. Telephone: (724) 224-1440 FAX: (724) 224-1442 Information concerning our products. Meyer & Associates.info@mfrac. The software protection key is firmly in place to ensure a good connection. The software protection key can be either a USB or Parallel port device.com When requesting Technical Support. The PC system date is set to the current date and time (i.6 Quick Start Program Check List To ensure trouble-free processing and access to the Meyer software. please include the program and version number listed in the About Box.mfrac.5:00 P.7 Customer Support If a question cannot be resolved by referring to the User’s Guide or on-line help..

1. The conventions used for these buttons are summarized in Table 1. Units. define system units and obtain on-line help are discussed. Use it to access the Plot Configuration screen. 1.8 Windows Fundamentals 11 Updating Your Hardware Key . Name Function Browse The Browse button can be used to specify the path in the Directories dialog box. you should not need to use MKey unless specifically instructed to do so by Meyer or for software upgrades. Plot This button is found in the plot frames. you will be given systematic instructions on how to use MKey. MKey. The options and procedures discussed in the following sections are found under the File.4. Inc. Config. In general.8 Windows Fundamentals If you are unfamiliar with the graphical environment of the Windows operating system. and Help menus of a program. MKey is also used to upgrade your device to run new software versions.4: Button Conventions. we suggest reading the first few chapters of the “Microsoft Windows User's Guide.1. Cancel Selecting Cancel at any time during an editing session closes the active dialog box without accepting any changes made during the session. The utility program. In such cases.MKey Utility All Meyer software requires a hardware protection device to run.” Some of the fundamental techniques can be acquired by using any of the on-line Windows Tutorials that are available. The procedures used to open.9 Meyer Program Basics This section covers the essential features of data management for the Meyer programs. save and print files. Clear All Use this button to clear all selected plot choices in a dialog box. . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Button Conventions The Meyer software buttons are used to control many of the program functions. Table 1. allows Meyer technical support to access your key remotely as necessary.

Copy Use this button to send a copy of the plot to the clipboard. OK The OK button is used to close and accept the contents of a screen keeping all changes which have occurred during the active editing session. Clicking one of these topics will display additional information related to a particular parameter. Printer Setup This button.4: Button Conventions. Done This button is used to close the current screen. If you do not want to work with this file. Print Found on the Plot frame. the file last accessed during the previous session is automatically opened. Once Help is accessed. Meyer User’s Guide . this button provides a way of quickly returning to the starting magnification. is used to access the Windows printer properties options. Select All This button can be used to choose all available plot choices in a dialog box. Inc.. this button is used to send the active plot to the Windows specified plotter or printer. Save Units The Save Units button is used to save a template of the current units configuration.12 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Table 1. Meyer & Associates. Opening a File When starting a Meyer program. other data files can be opened quickly and easily using standard Windows procedures. (i. found in the Select Printer dialog box. Help The Help button is used to access the corresponding help information for the dialog box that is open. additional context sensitive topics may be available and will be shown in green. Zoom-Out Zooming-in on a plot is accomplished by dragging a box around the area you want to zoom with the left mouse button. For a framed plot. This provides a way to copy the plot as a Windows bitmap. Load Units Use this button to apply a template of a units configuration. A saved configuration may then be used as a template at a later time. On non-framed plots.e. normal ones) you can zoom-out by clicking the right mouse button to reveal a shortcut menu containing a zoom-out command. File Management The following section describes the File menu commands available within the Meyer programs.

Meyer User’s Guide Type in the complete name of the file in the File Name box and press ENTER. the screen shown in Figure 1. To Open a File. The program checks to see if data has been modified since the last time the file was saved. .4: Program File Open Dialog Box. is presented. Figure 1. Figure 1. the file Open dialog box. If no changes have been made. Otherwise. choose FileOpen. Inc. to open a file. The files in the default data directory are automatically shown first. Use One of the Following Methods: 1. If it has.3 is displayed prompting you to save before the current file is closed. You can select from this list to access one of these files. Meyer & Associates.3: Program File Close Message. as shown in Figure 1.4.1.9 Meyer Program Basics 13 A list of the last twelve data files accessed is always maintained at the bottom of the File menu. The FileOpen dialog box alphabetically lists the available files matching your selection criteria.

5. Saving a File To save a file. choose either FileSave or FileSave As. 4. The Save command stores changes made to the current active file and overwrites the previously saved data. Inc. To save the file in a different directory or to another name. type the first letter of the filename and press ENTER repeatedly until the desired filename is highlighted. or • the file is of a different type. Use the TAB key to move to the Files selection box. Creating a New File To create a new file choose FileNew. The program clears the application screen. To change the directory or drive. a screen will appear as shown in Figure 1. title bar and re-initializes the program input/output data. Click the Files box anywhere but on a filename. Meyer & Associates. When creating a new file. Meyer User’s Guide . If the file is not listed.14 Getting Started: The Meyer Software 2. type in the correct path in the directory field or scroll to and click on the directory you want. After selecting Save As. • the file is on a different drive. select Save As. it is necessary to specify a file name using the Save As command as described below. the Save command saves a file under its original name to the drive and directory last selected. By default. next use the  arrow key to highlight the desired file and press ENTER. 3. it is possible that: • the file is in a different sub-directory. Double-click on the filename.

Selecting a Printer Before a report or plot can be printed. If it is not. Only printers installed under Windows are displayed.9 Meyer Program Basics 15 Figure 1. The screen shown in Figure 1.5: Save As File Dialog Box. Make sure the port specified is correct. Refer to the “Windows User's Guide” if you are unfamiliar with this procedure. follow the instructions given in the Windows Guide to install the necessary driver. Inc. After making this verification or installation return to the application and specify the printer for output. To Select and Set Up a Printer: Select Printer Setup from the File Menu. From the Desktop.6 will then appear. . the printer hardware must be specified and set up properly to work with Windows. Enter the new file name in the field provided or choose an existing file to overwrite. Choose from the list of printers displayed and click OK. If your printer is not among the list displayed.1. select the Printers icon to display the list of available printers. make sure that the correct printer driver(s) are loaded by accessing the Control Panel from the Windows Desktop. First. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The file may be stored in any existing directory by making a choice from the Directories selection box. To accept the new name and directory select OK.

as well as the page orientation and number of copies. When the Properties button found in the Select Printer dialog shown in Figure 1. The example shown in Figure 1.6 is used the dialog box displayed corresponds to the printer device selected.6: Selected Printer Dialog Box.7 is for a HP Laser Jet 4000 Series PCL printer.16 Getting Started: The Meyer Software refer to your Windows User's Guide for instructions or access the Control Panel from the Desktop and select the Connect button to change the setting. Select the Properties button to configure your specific printer. however. Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. All printers have varying printing capabilities. most printers allow you to select the paper size and source. Figure 1.

To create a custom unit template.7: Example Printer Specific Setup Screen. make selections from the categories available and save the modified units system under a new name by clicking the Save button found at the bottom of the Units dialog box. Defining the System Units The Units menu is used to define the units that are applied to the program dialog boxes and output displays. . once the units are set to your preferences.9 Meyer Program Basics 17 Figure 1. In general. All of the Meyer programs use a flexible system of units that are user defined for each variable. The units are not associated with data files. The Meyer software also allows for mixing and matching of input and output unit sets. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. it should not be necessary to enter the units box again. To apply a saved units template. This flexibility makes it possible to customize the units system to suit personal preferences or change the units to correspond with data reports supplied by service companies. All changes to the units are kept for all data files and work sessions. use the Load button also found on the Units screen. Inc. English and metric default templates are provided.1.

8 will be displayed. Meyer & Associates. The dialog box shown in Figure 1.8: Meyer Units System. which lists all the variables currently used in a program. • Input and Output unit group categories to the left and right of the screen. Figure 1. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . The Units screen is divided into the following areas: • Measurement variables.18 Getting Started: The Meyer Software To access the Units menu. and • Command buttons. click the menu name. To list the parameters in alphabetical order (or reverse order) click on the triangular sort marker in the right hand corner of the parameters column.

Simply open the Units dialog box and make the desired changes.9 Meyer Program Basics 19 Setting the Input and Output Units To select the input and output units system. Clicking a Help button directs the help function to information about the current Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. To view the units list. search. Getting Help using Help Buttons Command buttons found within dialog boxes can also be used to access help. A PDF version of the User’s Guide is available by choosing HelpMore DocumentationMeyer User’s Guide (PDF). choose HelpContents and select the desired subject from the list of Help topics provided. the units default to metric units. the units default to the English oilfield units. .1. you may want to start with a predefined units template. Inc. use the TAB key to scroll to a parameter and then use the directional  or  arrows to scroll to the unit item desired. move the scroll box up or down until your choice appears on the list. Unit templates can be applied or changed at any time during an active program session. All units displayed or contained in any open plot will be automatically converted. Accessing Help When information is needed quickly. and favorites tab. To do this. Click again on the new unit you want. click on the Load button and select a template. If you prefer using the keyboard. For English language versions of the software. Additional capabilities are also offered. The corresponding input and output unit categories will scroll simultaneously. or for context sensitive help while using the Meyer applications. use one of the following methods to display the help file: Help through the Menu From the menu bar. however. It is available in CHM (Microsoft HTML Help) and PDF formats. To select a unit. When all the parameters are set to their desired unit click OK or press ENTER. A PDF viewer is required to view the PDF version of the Meyer User’s Guide. Getting Help The Meyer User’s Guide (this document) can be used as a standalone reference. including an index. click the unit to highlight the item. for the Russian version of the software.

Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide . Figure 1.g. Extensive error checking procedures contained in the programs check that any entered parameter is within defined limits.20 Getting Started: The Meyer Software dialog box and its components.). you must respond by either clicking the Change button to return to the data entry dialog to correct the problem or the Ignore button to continue.9 is displayed. Inc. The example shown corresponds to a case where Young's modulus has been entered incorrectly.9: Example Error Checking Message for Young's Modulus. a message similar to the one shown in Figure 1. The Windows’ user interface allows multiple entry points into the data input dialogs.. plotting. and also verifies the existence of data relative to the options that are set. etc. If it does not. Error Checking The error checking routines contained in the Meyer programs provide an extra level of protection when working within the Windows environment. The objective is to avoid taking a step in the program that will cause a problem during the calculations or during any subsequent process (e. When the program posts an error checking message. Data Entry Errors When entering data in any dialog box. the program checks the data after it is entered to ensure that it falls within the limits set by the program. Pressing the F1 key also accesses context sensitive help depending on what dialog or window is currently opened. does not require sequential display and input for the data screens. unlike other environments such as DOS. This protection is required because Windows.

When the Change button is used the program returns to the data field which caused the error and allows you to re-enter a value. it is necessary to correct the error indicated. When a dialog box is closed by selecting the OK. return to the Run menu and initiate the simulation again. Whenever the program encounters a problem. . In order to run the calculations when the Ignore button is used. whether it is out of range or missing data. The program provides a message when an out of bounds error occurs. the program again checks to make sure that the data is within the ranges required and that all rows containing data are complete. Inc. Before continuing with the calculations. Prior to performing calculations. The program will then automatically proceed with the simulation. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.10).9 Meyer Program Basics 21 When an Error Message is Displayed During Data Entry: 1. the program posts a message and terminates the simulation (see Figure 1. When re-entering a value. the program will attempt to use the data entered. This process is repeated for each dialog box that is opened. After the corrections have been made. This procedure is repeated until all errors are corrected. If the Ignore button is selected. the program once again checks the data relative to the options selected. Select either the Change or Ignore button located at the bottom of the message screen.1. Next Page or Previous Page buttons. the out of range values may cause a problem with the calculations. Run-Time Error Checking The next level of error checking occurs once the data has been entered and the Run command has been selected. If another data error is found the program will display another message requiring the correction process to be repeated. The programs use general solutions that are open to very broad ranges of data input. disable the min/ max checking from the Run Options dialog. The ranges limited by the program are typically adequate for handling most cases. make sure that it is within the acceptable limits as posted by the error message tolerance range. 3. 2. It is important to realize that even though the programs do allow you to override the limits.

3..11 is displayed. Select Yes to recover your data. the next time the program is started. If this is not done the program will continuously detect an out of bounds error and not permit the simulation to continue. When a Run-Time Error Checking Message is Displayed: 1. Return to the Run menu and re-initiate the calculations. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc.10: Example Run-Time Error Checking Message. If the program crashes while recovering a data file. See “Run Options” on page 69).11: Recover Unsaved Data File Message. an option to recover the data is provided. Select the OK button located at the bottom of the message screen.” if a problem occurs with one of the data sets or other Windows applications that results in a program “crash”. As a “last ditch effort. the error checking has been designed to cover as much of the program structure as possible. Figure 1. 2. however. For those instances when the Ignore button has been used during data entry it is necessary to disable the min/max error checking in order to continue with the calculations. This is accomplished by selecting the appropriate check box from the RunOptions dialog (e. you should select No the next time the recover message appears.22 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1.g. to prevent the possible loss of data. Return to the appropriate dialog box to correct or add data as required. a recovery mechanism has been implemented in the program. Once again. Meyer & Associates. After a crash the message shown in Figure 1.

Figure 1. . The international text encoding specified under Internation Options determines the source language when converting text to Unicode.1. If a message like the one shown in Figure 1.6 lists the movement keys used to move the active cell within a spreadsheet and to display different sections in the spreadsheet. This section describes the special functionality of these controls and the use of the spreadsheet speed buttons. Working with Spreadsheets and Dialogs Spreadsheet controls are used throughout the software to input tabular data. choose Upgrade to upgrade the file to the current version.12: Program Version Checking Message.9 Meyer Program Basics 23 File Version Checking There is a system in place that compares the data file version for compatibility with data files from previous versions of the program.12 appears. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Inc. an International Options preference will be available. Note that after doing this. If the file was created by an application prior to Meyer 2009. the file will not be compatible with the previous version of the program.5 lists the action keys used to edit data and move the active cell within a selection. Spreadsheet Keyboard Commands Table 1. See “Unicode Compatibility” on page 73 for more information. Table 1.

will undo a current active cell input. Meyer User’s Guide . (Speed button shortcut) CTRL + O Opens/imports a file into the spreadsheet. but in the opposite direction. When a range is selected. Inc. The next cell is selected according to the user preference specified in the spreadsheet options dialog (ToolsOptions. accepts the current entry and moves active cell horizontally to next cell in selection. F2 Enters edit mode. CTRL + A Selects all rows and columns that contain data.6: Movement Keys. CTRL + C Copies selection to the clipboard. (Speed button shortcut) CTRL + + Inserts rows.5: Action Keys. accepts the current entry. The next cell is selected according to the user preference specified in the spreadsheet options dialog. accepts the current entry. CTRL + Z When in edit mode. Down Arrow Moves active cell down one row. TAB When in edit mode. (Speed button shortcut) CTRL + V Pastes from the clipboard to the current selection. Table 1. accepts the current entry and moves active cell horizontally to previous cell in selection.24 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Table 1. (Speed button shortcut) CTRL + D Fill down. Meyer & Associates. CTRL + - Deletes/removes the selected rows. ESC Cancels current data entry or editing operation. Key Description ENTER When in edit mode. (Speed button shortcut) CTRL + S Saves/exports the contents of the spreadsheet. (Speed button shortcut) CTRL + P Prints the spreadsheet. accepts the current entry. (Speed button shortcut) CTRL + T Opens the linear transformation dialog based on the current selection. Key Description Up Arrow Moves active cell up one row... DEL Clears current selection. SHIFT+ ENTER When in edit mode.). SHIFT+ TAB When in edit mode.

CTRL End Goes to last row and last column that contains data. End Goes to last column of current row that contains data.7: Modifying keys. Spreadsheet Mouse Actions Table 1. Left Click in Row or Column Headings Selects entire row or column. Left Arrow Move active cell left one column.6: Movement Keys. Home Goes to first column of current row. Left Corner Left Double-Click Invokes in-cell editing. Page Up Moves up one screen. You can also freeze spreadsheet panes by dragging the pane freezing bar (located above the first spreadsheet row) to the desired location. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Left Click and Drag Selects a range. Left Click in Top Selects entire spreadsheet.9 Meyer Program Basics 25 Table 1. first column.8 lists the mouse actions used in the spreadsheet. Key Description SHIFT + any movement key Extends the current selection. Page Down Moves down one screen. Table 1.7 lists the keys used to modify the action of the movement keys. The previous selected ranges are deselected.8: Mouse Actions. . Table 1. Right Arrow Moves active cell right one column. CTRL Home Goes to first row. Action Description Left Click Moves the active cell to the pointer position.1. Table 1. Inc.

26 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Table 1. and Drag Right Click Opens the right-click menu. Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates.13). All rows above the selected line will become ‘frozen. Freezing Spreadsheet Panes The rows of a spreadsheet can be frozen or locked to the top of the screen while scrolling. The other way to freeze panes is to left click and drag the pane freezing bar to the desired location.8: Mouse Actions.’ and the other lines will scroll normally (See Figure 1. SHIFT + Left Click Extends the current selection. Inc. This is accomplished by right clicking on a highlighted row and selecting Freeze Panes from the right-click menu.

A bold face font within the Spreadsheet Options Dialog identifies a non-default value.. ... Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. It can also be opened by right clicking on a spreadsheet field and choosing Options. from the right click menu.1. from the main application menu and clicking the Spreadsheet Options tab. All of the options within the Spreadsheet Options dialog are global and apply to all of the Meyer applications.9 Meyer Program Basics 27 Figure 1.13: Freezing Spreadsheet Panes Spreadsheet Options Dialog The spreadsheet options dialog is opened by choosing ToolsOptions. Inc..

It is recommend that only files exported from the same control are imported. Prints the active spreadsheet to the currently selected printer (Printer Setup. Button Description Imports spreadsheet file into spreadsheet control. Table 1. The Enter key direction can be set to move the cursor Down.. This allows frozen rows to stand out better from non-frozen rows. Alternate background color When set to ‘User Defined. Meyer & Associates. If this option is set to ‘No’. an ellipse will appear at the end of spreadsheet text that does not fit entirely in a cell. in the File Menu). the text will be truncated.28 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Move selection after enter (direction) This option determines what happens when the ENTER key is pressed while editing a spreadsheet cell. These are the spreadsheet speed buttons. The file should have the. Exports spreadsheet control into a spreadsheet file.9: Spreadsheet Speed Buttons. Active cell border style This allows the user to specify the visual cue that is used to identify the current active spreadsheet cell. Display ellipsis for truncated strings When set to ‘Yes’ (default). Spreadsheet Speed Buttons At the top of dialog boxes that contain spreadsheet controls is a group of small buttons. Up. Inc.’ the background of every other spreadsheet row will be filled using the specified color. Table 1.. or to simply toggle a spreadsheet cell in and out of edit mode if the checkbox is left unchecked. Frozen rows background color When set to ‘User Defined’ the background color of frozen cells will be filled using the specified color.XLS extension and will be in Excel BIFF 4 format. Right. Meyer User’s Guide . If there is more than one spreadsheet control in a dialog box then these buttons affect the one that was most recently active. The file should be in Excel BIFF 4 format with the XLS file extension. Left.9 lists the speed buttons used with spreadsheets.

subtract. select the Data Shift icon and add.14 shows the data shift (linear transformation) screen. Pastes from the Clipboard to the current selection. Data shift can be selected by clicking on . or Young's modulus from actual minifrac results. A table of new and old column values is displayed. Inserts rows at the current selection. Linear transformation provides an easy way to shift and multiply numerical data. Deletes rows of the current selection. Fills down the top cells of the selection to the cells below in a column. To use Data Shift. This is a convenient way to calibrate stress. The New Values are calculated from the Old Values by a simple linear transformation ( y = mx + b ). stress gradient. Cut operation removes the selection and copies it to the Clipboard.9: Spreadsheet Speed Buttons. Figure 1.1. Data Shift provides an easy way to shift numerical data. Copies current selection to the Clipboard.9 Meyer Program Basics 29 Table 1. Copied selections can then be pasted in another selection in this or other spreadsheet controls or in Excel. highlight the numbers you want to adjust. . Selecting OK will replace the old values with the new values. Similar to the copy command below. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The Clipboard selection can come from other spreadsheet controls or Excel. or multiply by a fraction. Inc.

Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide . 2) holding down on the left mouse button. and 3) dragging the column to a given width. To adjust the spreadsheet within the dialog to have equal column widths.15) and resize as discussed above. To resize a dialog. The default dialog and spreadsheet layout can be reset by clicking WindowRestore Default Layout. grab the gripper bar on the lower right corner of the dialog box by holding down on the left mouse button and dragging. Dialog and Spreadsheet Column Sizing All dialogs can be moved and scaled.30 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1. highlight the columns to be resized (see Figure 1. Inc. The dialog size and position is preserved and will be restored the next time you access the dialog.14: Data Shift Screen. The column widths in a spreadsheet can be resized by 1) placing the cursor on the column separation line in the header.

15: Spreadsheet Column Sizing to Equal Widths. Inc.1. Spreadsheets With Movable Columns Certain spreadsheets allow the columns to be rearranged.9 Meyer Program Basics 31 Figure 1. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.16). . To move a spreadsheet column graphically. click and drag the column header to a new location. Columns may also be rearranged or hidden via the Spreadsheet Column Configuration dialog accessible from the context menu of spreadsheets that support the feature (Figure 1. The simulation data windows in all of the applications support this feature.

Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates. Clicking Column Setup.. Figure 1.32 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1.17). Inc. will open up the Spreadsheet Column Configuration dialog (Figure 1.16: Spreadsheet Column Setup Menu..17: Spreadsheet Column Configuration Dialog.

18. When plot windows are open. only one document window is active at a time. printed. There can be any number of plot windows open at any given time. Working with Plots All of the Meyer programs use plots as a graphical method to display information. exported and configured as described in the following sections.1.18: Window Command Menu.9 Meyer Program Basics 33 Columns may be hidden by unchecking the check box and made visible by checking the check box associated with the column. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. zoomed. their position may be adjusted by accessing commands located under the Windows menu as shown in Figure 1. These plots can be moved. Arranging Plot Windows All plots are in separate windows that are located within the main program window. This is indicated by a highlighted title bar and its foreground position in front of all other opened plots. Inc. . however. The columns may also be rearranged using the Move Up and Move Down buttons. Figure 1.

From the Control menu choose Move. In Window 3. 2. Press ENTER. Use the arrow keys to move the plot to its new location.34 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Plot windows can be “cascaded” from the upper left or “tiled” so that each plot window is fully visible. Keyboard 1. Moving Plots Mouse 1. Meyer User’s Guide . Access the available commands from the Window menu (ALT + W). 3. 4.20). sized and arranged relative to each other for comparison. select the Control menu of the plot you want to close. or Arrange Icons (ALT + A) to affect the arrangement of the plots (Figure 1. To cancel the move. 2.x. The pointer changes to a four-headed arrow. Selecting from the list moves the associated window to the foreground designating it as the active window. Plots can be moved.19 illustrates the Tile arrangement for displaying plots. Click the control box or press ALT + SPACEBAR. Any opened report windows will also be listed in the Window menu and will be affected by the Window commands. 5. After the desired plots are displayed. To Close a Plot: 1. Inc. This sub-menu also has a list of all the plot windows that are open. Cascade (ALT + C). Click the title bar of the plot to move and hold the left mouse button down while dragging the plot to its new position.19 and Figure 1. they can be positioned and arranged according to your preferences. Figure 1. Figure 1.20 illustrates the Cascade form of displaying all the plots in a single window. Select either Tile (ALT + T). Plots are treated much the same as any window on the Windows desktop. To Arrange Opened Plots: 1. Select the plot to move. 2. Press ALT + SPACEBAR to open the Control menu. Meyer & Associates. press ESC before you release the mouse button. Release the mouse button.

Inc.1.9 Meyer Program Basics 2.19: The Tile Arrangement. Figure 1. . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. 35 From the Control menu choose Close (C). Select Close All (ALT + L) from the Window menu. To Close All Opened Plots: 1.

4. select Zoom Out from the Plot menu or the right mouse button menu. You may zoom in on a zoomed area as many times as you like. Release the mouse button when the new visible plot area has been defined. Hold the left mouse button down and drag a box around the area to be zoomed. Meyer & Associates. 2. Use the Zoom Out command to return to the previous magnification.36 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1.20: The Cascade Arrangement. or simply press F5. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . 3. Position the cursor cross hair at one corner of the plot area. To Zoom in on a Plot: 1. To return to the previous magnification. Use the Zoom Out 100% (Zoom 100%) to return to the original magnification. Zooming All of the Meyer plots have the ability to zoom in on a specific area.

Select the Print command from the File menu. .21: Program Print Graphics Dialog Box. Figure 1. a message is displayed. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.1.21). Click OK to accept the selections and complete the printing process. 3. use the Scales section of the Plot Configuration box. or simply press F6. The Print Graphics dialog appears listing the available print options (Figure 1. Select the plot option and page orientation. you must first select and configure the printer hardware for operation with Windows. 4. Open the desired plots and configure them according to your preferences. To print. which allows you to select a printer and set its properties. During this time the printing process may be aborted by clicking the Cancel button or pressing ENTER. Printing Plots Plot windows may be printed using any Windows compatible printer. To Print a Plot on a Windows Compatible Output Device: 1. When zooming in on a plot with both left and right axes. 37 To return to the original magnification select Zoom 100% from the Plot menu or the right mouse button menu. To change the left and right scales independently. While the Print Manager is sending the information to the printer. Inc. both axes will be zoomed to display exactly what was in the selected area. This can be done with the Printer Setup command in the File menu. 2.9 Meyer Program Basics 5.

38 Getting Started: The Meyer Software The progress of any printing operation can be monitored and controlled with the Windows’ Print Manager. Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates. Figure 1. the Plot menu can be accessed from the Main Plot menu as shown in Figure 1. Plot Menu All Meyer programs have a Plot menu that is used to create and manipulate plots. The menu commands used to manipulate plots are common to all programs. On each printout.22: Plot Menu Screen from Main Menu. Refer to the Windows User's Guide for complete instructions for using the Print Manager.23 shows the resulting Plot Menu screen by clicking on the right mouse button. the program adds a footer (small identifier) in the lower left corner of each plot that contains the file name and date. Figure 1.22. Inc. If a plot is displayed. An option to hide the footer is also available.

. This will eliminate the need to scale the bitmap after it has been pasted.24 shows the Exporting Plot Menu. bitmap (*. Figure 1.jpg) or Portable Network Graphics (*.9 Meyer Program Basics 39 Figure 1. Inc. Copying to the Clipboard To copy a plot to the clipboard. This bitmap can be pasted into any other Windows program. try to size the plot window to the size of the desired bitmap before copying the picture.1. by saving a enhanced metafile (*. This will place a bitmap of the current selected plot on the clipboard. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.bmp). select the Copy to Clipboard command from the Plot menu. For best results. such as a word processor. Exporting Plots Meyer plots can be exported for use in another program.png) file.emf). JPEG (*.23: Plot Menu Screen from Right Mouse Button Click.

select Enhanced MetaFile (*.png) is also scalable.emf) from the Save File as Type menu. Note that the picture can be stretched without losing quality. to insert the metafile into Microsoft Word.22). Portable Network Graphics (*. A metafile is stored as a series of vectors.24: Exporting Plot Menu. Most figures in this Guide are png files.25. This menu is comprised of the Colors. This will create a standard windows metafile of the currently active plot. Inc. choose Picture from the Insert menu in Word. Then enter a file name for the metafile. which can be imported into many graphics packages and word processors. For example. but a bitmap is a fixed size and does not scale well.40 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1. Meyer User’s Guide . Fonts and Layout attributes as shown in Figure 1. To save a plot as a metafile. Meyer & Associates. It is recommended that metafiles be used whenever possible. which can be scaled to any size. This will insert the picture into your document. Default Plot Attributes The default plot attributes for all plots can be configured by selecting the Default Plot Attributes under the Plot Menu from the Main Menu (see Figure 1. Then specify the metafile that was saved from the Meyer program. since they produce better quality output generally.

Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. frame and grid colors are user specified. frame and grid colors are user specified under the General Colors Menu. see the Plot Configuration section below. however. all plots use the colors selected in this box. . General Colors The default background. Colors The Colors command allows you to specify which colors are used in the plots.25: Default Plot Attributes Menu. For more information on configuring colors. a plot can be configured to have a different set of colors if desired. A color menu will then be displayed as shown in Figure 1. text. Inc. text. To select the default background color click on the color box.9 Meyer Program Basics 41 Figure 1.1. The background. By default. Select the color you want and press the OK button.26.

Figure 1. Curve Attributes To change the default curve attributes click on the Curve Attributes color box.42 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1.27: Default Line & Curve Attributes Selection Screen.27. Meyer User’s Guide .26: Default Color Menu. This will bring up the Line & Curve Attributes dialog box shown in Figure 1. Meyer & Associates. Inc.

Setting the Marker Style to Off turns off the markers for an individual curve. it is impossible to select an exact point size.27. setting the Line Style to Off allows you to plot only the markers without lines connecting them. Choosing a Line Width greater than one will take a longer time to draw the plot. Fonts The Meyer programs support all True Type fonts installed and available in Windows. Likewise. To change the Main Title.9 Meyer Program Basics 43 The attributes of a specific line or curve can be modified by clicking on the button representing the curve. you may modify the ratio of the font size to window size with the Font Size list box. Figure 1. Scale or Legend fonts click on the appropriate selection cell. This will bring up the dialog box shown in Figure 1.1. X-axis Label. Figure 1.29 displays the default Plot Font Selection screen. This will allow you to modify the font and its size.28: Fonts Selection Screen. Y-axis Labels. Clicking on the Font tab will display the font selection screen shown in Figure 1. Line Style and Line Width can be changed. . Inc. From here the Line Color. Marker Style. Since font size is always scaled based on the window size. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. however.28.

Meyer & Associates.30: Layout Selection Dialog Box. Mouse Coordinates.30 shows the Default Layout folder which allows you to specify some basic attributes (Plot Layout. Layout Figure 1. Meyer User’s Guide . All of these attributes may be overridden in any specific plot by choosing the Plot Attributes button in the configuration screen as discussed below.44 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1. Inc. Figure 1. and Left and Right Axes) used to draw plots.29: Default Plot Font Selection Screen.

2.1. Maximize plot area: The plot is drawn such that no empty space is wasted. click the right mouse button and select the desired curve. the elements of the plot can be manipulated with the mouse. the coordinates may be positioned anywhere in the window. . The aspect ratio of the plot will change as the plot window is sized 3. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.9 Meyer Program Basics 45 Plot Layout The different options for determining how the plot is drawn in the window are: 1. Inc. Standard plot layout: The plot is always drawn such that the frame has a constant aspect ratio. Figure 1. By using the Switch Mouse to Arrange Mode command. Allow graphical arrangement: The elements of the plot can be arranged graphically. To view mouse coordinates of multi-axes plots place the mouse cursor on the existing mouse coordinates. Mouse Coordinates The mouse coordinates option allows the coordinates of the current mouse position to be continuously updated on the screen. The aspect ratio of the plot can be user defined. The coordinates are drawn using the same font as the labels on the axes. regardless of the size of the window. When using the graphical plot layout option.31 illustrates the mouse button selection dialog box.

32 illustrates the case of all curves drawn on one axis. When they each have their own scale. Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates. and 4) each curve has its own axis. Figure 1.31: Mouse Coordinate Selection. for example rate and concentration. 3) all curves drawn on one axis. The order of the curves in the legend is the same order of the labels on the axis. This option is most useful when there are different kinds of parameters on the same axis. Inc. Left and Right Axes There are four options for how the curves of an axis (left or right) are drawn on the plot. These options are 1) default.46 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1. there are labels for each curve along the axis.33 shows a plot where each curve has its own axis. Figure 1. 2) like curves share an axis.

9 Meyer Program Basics 47 Figure 1. . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.1. Inc.32: Axes Label – All Curves on One Axis with Maximize Area.

33: Axes Label – Each Curve has Its Own Axis. ghost line) will be drawn while plot slope lines are being moved. Meyer User’s Guide .a.k. as seen in Figure 1. Meyer & Associates. 2.34. The Show Balloon tip checkbox determines whether or not a balloon tip will be displayed while hovering over or moving a plot slope line. contains global preferences for the behavior of plot slope lines. The Show ghost line checkbox determines whether or not a temporary line (a. 1.48 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1. Inc. Slope Lines The Slope Lines section.

Configuration This will bring up the Plot Configuration dialog box described in detail below under Configuring Plots. Then click on the plot at the desired location to create a new text block (clicking and dragging allows you to specify the text block width). Press ESCAPE or click elsewhere in the plot to exit edit mode. and again to enter edit mode. Inc.9 Meyer Program Basics 49 Figure 1.1. To edit an existing text block. Once in edit mode. and CTRL+Z will undo the last change.35. pressing ENTER will go to the next line. click on it once to select it. . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.34: General Plot Slope Line Configuration. Add Text Block A block of text may be added to any plot by selecting Add a Text Block from the Plot menu or the right mouse button menu as illustrated in Figure 1.

35). Meyer & Associates. Figure 1. By double clicking on the block. Inc. or pressing DELETE when a text block is selected. Meyer User’s Guide .35: Adding a Text Block to a Plot. such as colors. and font. can be configured. or selecting configuration from the right mouse button menu (Figure 1. the attributes of the text block. frame.50 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1. A text block can be deleted by using the right mouse button menu. The text blocks can also be moved and sized with the mouse.36 shows the text block configuration dialog box.

Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.9 Meyer Program Basics 51 Figure 1. For more information on zooming. This action displays the configuration dialog shown in Figure 1.37. All of these commands are easily accessible at any time by clicking the right mouse button within a plot window. see the Zoom section above. Inc. For more information on zooming.1. Configuring Plots The attributes of an open plot may be re-configured by either double-clicking the active plot in the main plot area or by selecting the Configuration command from the Plot menu. see the Zoom section above.36: Text Block Configuration. . Zoom 100% This will return the currently selected plot to the original magnification. Zoom Out This will return the currently selected plot to the previous magnification.

10 to close the configuration box. Meyer User’s Guide . To change the text on the plot legend. OK Changes only the current plot in the Plot Configuration screen. When finished editing the configuration.10: Buttons For Closing Plot Configuration Box. Inc. edit the appropriate text in the Plot Labels section at the top of the box. Table 1. Plot Labels To change a plot label. Change Default Applies the changes to this plot and all future plots of the same type that are plotted. see the Legend section below. Cancel Cancels all changes. Meyer & Associates. choose one of the buttons in Table 1. The Plot Configuration screen provides a method for modifying the text.37: Plot Configuration Screen. even in different data files.52 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1. colors and scales as described in the sections below.

individual plots may have their own color scheme. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . Fill in the Draw markers every ith point to specify how often to draw markers. check the Apply to defaults check box. which brings up a palette. turn off the Use Defaults check box. Double-click on the colors in the palette for quick selection. Choose the desired color from the palette and click OK. the default colors. turn this option off. The definition of the different colors is described in Table 1.38.11. To turn off markers for all curves of the plot. General Colors One set of colors.1. To turn off markers for only selected curves of the plot. Then configure the individual colors by clicking on them.38: Individual Plot Attributes. is used for all plots. Figure 1. To change these default colors. Fonts and Layout attributes. To use colors other than the defaults. Inc. General Sub Categories The sub categories of the General section are shown in Figure 1. a value of two will specify to draw a marker at every other data point.9 Meyer Program Basics 53 Markers Turn on the Markers checkbox to see markers on the curve. For example. However. turn this option on and modify the marker type for the curves on which markers are not wanted. This menu is comprised of the Colors.

Text Color All of the labels.39. Curve Attributes The attributes of a specific curve can be modified by un-checking the Use Defaults box and clicking on the box representing the curve. Likewise. Inc. the attributes of any curve can be changed. Figure 1. This will bring up the dialog screen shown in Figure 1.39: Line & Curve Attributes Selection Screen. Marker Style.11: Plot General Colors. select Use Defaults. Meyer User’s Guide . Grid Color The grid drawn inside the frame. setting the Line Style to Off allows you to plot only the markers without lines connecting them.26. Meyer & Associates. From here the Line Color. Frame Color The rectangle that separates the curves from the labels. Clicking Line Color will bring up the color selection dialog as shown in Figure 1. From this box. Choosing a Line Width greater than one will slow down the plot drawing process. Setting the Marker Style to Off turns off the markers for an individual curve. Line Style and Line Width can be changed.54 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Table 1. Area Definition Background Color All the area inside and outside of the plot frame. but not the legends (the legends are drawn with the curve colors). To return to the curve defaults.

This will bring up the scales dialog box as shown in Figure 1. To turn off this feature.9 Meyer Program Basics 55 Fonts The Meyer programs support all True Type fonts installed and available in Windows. it may be desirable to have the X and Y-axes use the same scale. Figure 1. click on the Scales button in the Plot Control. however. Only use this feature when the X and Y scales are in the same unit. Then check X-Y scales have same Aspect Ratio.40. it is impossible to select an exact point size.1. Inc.40: Plot Font Selection Screen. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. To force them to use the same scale. Since font size is always scaled based on the window size. for example the width contour plot in MFrac. leave the checkbox unchecked. Layout See “Layout” on page 44. you may modify the ratio of the font size to window size with the Font Size list box. Clicking on the Font tab will display the font selection screen shown in Figure 1. Scales On certain plots. the Y scale represents depth and the X scale represents fracture length. .41. This will allow you to modify the font and its size. In this plot.

The Increment must be less than the Upper minus the Lower (for positive numbers). Inc. Lower and Increment may be specified for each axis. Y Left and Y Right.56 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1. To temporarily zoom in on a section of the plot. Axes The X and Y axis may be plotted on a linear or log scale. To manually specify the parameters. and Z axes may be configured individually. To have the program automatically pick the appropriate settings. The Upper and Lower define the range of the scale and the Increment defines how often gridlines. Note that the X. however the Y Left and Y Right axes share Auto scale and Linear/ Log buttons. the Zoom feature as described above may be easier to use than manually specifying the scale. Meyer User’s Guide . check the Auto scale box. This is the default. tick marks and numeric labels are drawn. The Upper.41: X-Y Aspect Ratio Selection Screen. Meyer & Associates. turn off the Auto scale box. Select Linear or Log as desired.

1. make sure the Show Legend checkbox is not checked. .do not show units.the code will display units when more than one parameter with different units is present on a given axes.42. Inc. The Legend Control dialog box for the vertical orientation is shown in Figure 1. and 3) Automatic . Figure 1. 2) No .to show the units.the legend will be placed in the vertical position.42: Legend Control Dialog Box . enter the Line & Curve Attributes and set both Line Style and Marker Style to Off. 2) Horizontal . To eliminate showing a given curve.the legend will be place vertically for a single variable on each axes and in the Horizontal position for multiple variables with the option that each has it’s own axis Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.9 Meyer Program Basics 57 Legend The plot legend is used to reference a curve that corresponds or represents a given parameter. click on the Legend button in the Plot Attributes tree view. The legends Show Units option has three radial button choices: 1) Yes . Three options are available for under The legend Orientation also has three radial button choices: 1) Vertical . To hide the Legend. To modify the legend’s attributes. and 3) Automatic .Vertical.the legends will be oriented horizontally.

a dialog box will be displayed that contains all of the legends. described above. This font can be modified like the label fonts. 2) Position with Mouse. After clicking on either of these buttons. If Allow graphical arrangement is checked in the Layout dialog box. To modify the legend font. The Legend Control dialog box for the Horizontal Orientation is shown in Figure 1. Inc.43: Legend Control Dialog Box . To revert to the original legend text. To change the legend text.43. the four corners of the plot and along the right side of the plot. respectively. and 3) Across the Bottom. There are three locations for the Horizontal legend orientation: 1) Across the Top. the legend can be arranged anywhere on the plot and the Legend Control dialog box will be dimmed. click on the Fonts button in the tree view.58 Getting Started: The Meyer Software There are five fixed locations for the vertical legend orientation as illustrated in Figure 1.42. To allow movement of the legend. Meyer & Associates. Figure 1. Choose the desired location with the corresponding radio button. click on the corresponding button at the bottom of the screen. click on the Default button. anywhere on the screen. The left and right buttons allow you to change the text for the curves on the left and right scales. select Position with Mouse. Modify them as desired and click OK. Meyer User’s Guide .Horizontal.

9 Meyer Program Basics 59 For help with the Multilayer Legend Names section see “Multilayer Legends” on page 207.1.44: Grid Selection Screen. click the Gridlines section.44 shows the grid selection screen. Figure 1.45 shows the slope line configuration screen. . The grid is drawn at intervals specified by the Increment section of the X and Y-axes. Slope Lines Slope lines can be added to almost any line plot where the x-axis is the independent axis. Gridlines To draw a grid on the plot. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Figure 1. Figure 1. Inc.

Color Fill With contour plots. This will bring up the contour selection screen as shown in Figure 1. set the plot mouse mode to Select (press F4 to toggle between mouse modes). To manipulate plot slope lines graphically. The plot cursor will change when hovering over a slope line to indicate which operation is available. Inc.45: Slope Line Configuration Screen. Color Filled Contour. it is possible to show a shaded. To change this option. Toggling the Sync slope and curve colors checkbox synchronizes the plot slope line colors to the curve colors. Meyer & Associates. color filled or a plain contour plot. Then choose Shaded. the slope lines can be moved by dragging and dropping the points or lines. Each slope line is associated with a left or right curve specified within the Curve Number column.46. Once in select mode. or Plain Contour. Meyer User’s Guide .60 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1. click on the Contours button in the Plot Attributes tree view.

46: Color Fill Contour Selection Screen. Figure 1. To change a Filled Area Color.46.47 shows the Shaded Contour Color Selection Screen.47: Shading Colors Selection Screen. Figure 1. Figure 1.1. This will bring Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . click on the color or curve you wish to change.9 Meyer Program Basics 61 Figure 1. Shading Colors The shading colors are dependent on the Color Fill Contour Selection shown in Figure 1.48 shows the Color Filled and Plain Contour Selection Screen. Inc.

62 Getting Started: The Meyer Software up a dialog box for interactively choosing the color values for Red. Green and Blue. The number displayed in the legend can also be configured. it is possible to change the chart type. Then choose the desired type of plot from the list. Meyer & Associates. Figure 1.48: Filled Area Colors Selection Screen. Select either Stage Number. Click on the Chart button in the Plot Attributes tree view. Percentage (percent of total) or Unit Values (the value for the stage). This brings up the chart dialog as shown in Figure 1. To return to the defaults for the Filled Area Colors. Chart Type For chart plots. click on the Shading button and select a base color. Meyer User’s Guide . To make all the Filled Area Colors be shades of a certain color. select Area Color from the Default section.49. The values must be in the range of 0 to 255. Inc.

50. . The Real-Time configuration screen.49: Chart Type Selection Screen.1. the Scale X Axis to Real-Time option is not available. Real-Time MView supports additional configuration for real-time data sets.9 Meyer Program Basics 63 Figure 1. Figure 1. To prevent auto-scaling the X axis according to the replay data on the plot. When the Sliding X Axis option is enabled. enable the Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. as seen in Figure 1. Inc. is available when an MView plot con- tains at least one real-time data curve. The Scale X Axis to Real-Time and Scale Y Axes to Real-Time options modify the auto scaling behavior of plots that contain both replay and real-time data.50: Real-Time Configuration Screen The Sliding X Axis option is used to change the auto scaling behavior of the plot such that the last X Axis Size units of time are visible within the plot area each time the plot is rescaled.

Inc.. enable the Scale Y Axes to Real-Time option. select Save Template from the Template pop-up menu that is under the Plot menu as shown in Figure 1. and the plot configuration for each of these open plots. Plot Templates The current state of all the plots on the screen can be saved into a template file. Meyer User’s Guide . To prevent auto scaling the Y axes according to the replay data. To Save a Template Once the windows are arranged properly.51. Any template that is saved can be added directly on the Template menu for easy access. plotted versus time or volume) are also saved. This template can then be recalled later to view the same plots again. even for a different simulation. This makes it easy to recall groups of plots that are always viewed together.g. Any options associated with these plots (e. The template contains the current plot default attributes. Meyer & Associates. identifies opened plots and relative window positions.64 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Scale X Axis to Real-Time option.

52.52: Save Plot Template Descriptive Name. Inc. uncheck the Add to Template Menu check box. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Figure 1. .51: Plot Template Dialog Box. Then specify a descriptive name for the template as illustrated in Figure 1. If you do not want the template to appear in the template menu.9 Meyer Program Basics 65 Figure 1. Click on the OK button and then specify a file name for the template.1.

Figure 1. Organize Template Menu The Organize Template Menu screen allows for user customization of the Template menu.53 shows the current configuration of the menu. Any template that has been saved may be added to the Template menu for easy access as shown in Figure 1. Then click on the Delete button. select Load Template from the Template menu. Meyer User’s Guide . the templates and the order in which they appear in the menu can be configured. Then specify the template file. the template description and file location.53: Plot Template Menu Organization Screen. To add a template Click on the Add button and select the desired template file. The plots saved in the template will appear. To delete a Template select the desired template in the list. To Move a Template Down in the list select the desired template and click on the Down button as many times as needed.53. just select it. Meyer & Associates. Otherwise. Inc. To Move a Template Up in the list select the desired template and click on the Up button as many times as needed.66 Getting Started: The Meyer Software To Recall a Template If the template is listed on the Template menu. Within this screen. Figure 1. Click on the OK button after the menu has been configured.

Simulation Data Windows Simulation Data Windows (Figure 1. and after it has finished running. Figure 1. An application can be identified as having a simulator if there is a Run item in the main application menu. The Simulation Data Windows provide a read only view of the simulation output data while the simulator is running.9 Meyer Program Basics 67 Run Menu for Other Meyer Applications Figure 1.54: Run Menu for Other Meyer Applications. The data columns within these windows can be rearranged or hidden as desired (See “Spreadsheets With Movable Columns” on page 31) Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.1.55) are available in all of the applications that contain a simulator.54 shows the Run Menu for other Meyer Applications. Simply click on the Meyer Application you wish to execute. . Inc.

hold the CTRL key while sizing or moving the Simulation Data Windows. the Show Simulation Data Windows sub menu under Plots provides a full list of available windows and a user interface for opening or closing more than one window at a time. Inc. when a data window is moved or sized too close to another magnetic window. the two windows will ‘snap’ together.68 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Figure 1.55: Simulation Data Windows. select Restore Default Column Layout from the spreadsheet context menu. Right clicking on any of the Simulation Data Window spreadsheets will display a context menu providing additional options. To reset the Simulation Data Window columns to their original positions and original visibility. Meyer & Associates. To override this feature. To open a Simulation Data Window at any time. Meyer User’s Guide . The Simulation Data Windows are magnetic.

from the Run menu. Run Options The Run Options dialog box is shown in Figure 1. beeping after each iteration and min./max. choose Options. they will snap together if they get close to one another. various Simulation Data Windows are opened according to the current Run Options described in the next section. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Figure 1.. These options are used during the program execution (Running) and provide flexibility for auto scaling of plots. Simulation Data Windows are magnetic.1. Holding the CTRL key overrides this feature.56: Run Options Dialog Box. error checking.56 and is available in all applications that contain simulators. To open the Run Options dialog.. .9 Meyer Program Basics 69 When the simulation is started. Inc.

Meyer & Associates.70 Getting Started: The Meyer Software Display the following data windows when the simulator is run When the simulator is run. Show template before running simulator The current state of all the plots on the screen can be saved into a template file. Use this option if you have elected to enter a value that is out of range. Otherwise. To use this feature click the Beep after each time step check box. Scale plots based on the last run while calculating When running a simulation. even for a different simulation. Meyer User’s Guide . This preference is ignored if the ‘Show template before running simulation’ option is checked. Any template that is saved can be shown during running by selecting the Template file using the browse button (The button containing an ellipse. Disable MIN MAX error checking This will disable error checking. the selected windows are automatically opened. See “Plot Templates” on page 64 for additional information. see Figure 1. It is advised to leave this option on. the plots will automatically use the scale of the last simulation. this causes the plot scales to change. This template can then be recalled later to view the same plots again. all open plots are automatically updated each time step. If an output parameter goes beyond the scale of the last simulation. the plots will then automatically rescale. During a simulation. if the option is on. Beep after each time step If desired. MFrac can provide audio feedback on the progress of the calculations by generating a system beep for each time step. Since most output parameters are growing during the simulation. Use this option to prevent the scale from changing so often. Inc.56). Error checking ensures that all input parameters are within the minimum and maximum allowable range when starting a simulation. it is advisable to keep this option off. by clicking on the Ignore button. This may be desirable for complicated simulations when the calculation times are long.

This will bring up the Report Configuration dialog box shown in Figure 1.57.1. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The appearance of the report can be configured as described below. Report Configuration To configure the appearance of on-screen reports. Viewing Reports To view a report. Figure 1. select Report Configuration from the Report menu. . Use the arrow keys or the scroll bars to scroll around the report.57: Report Configuration Dialog Box. A report window will then appear.9 Meyer Program Basics 71 Generating Reports All of the Meyer programs can generate reports which can be viewed on the screen or exported to a file. choose the View Report command from the Report menu and select the report type. Inc.

Save Report as an RTF File To save a report as an RTF file. select the HTML command from the Report menu. The bitmap can be left. click on the Bitmap at top of Report checkbox. either as a text. After selecting desired kind of report. For each. enter a file name for the text file. Font style and Size. To select the font for a text level. Meyer & Associates. From the Font dialog box. There are four different levels of text in reports: the Main Title. Save Report as an HTML File To save a report as an HTML file. an RTF file can only be read by word processors that support RTF files.72 Getting Started: The Meyer Software To include a bitmap. check the Automatically maximize report windows check box. Meyer User’s Guide . select the desired Font. Save Report as a Text File To save a report as a text file. Center or Right. the justification and font may be configured. To make report windows automatically maximized when they come up. click on the appropriate Select Font button. Then click on the Select File button to select the bitmap file. center or right justified. After selecting desired kind of report. An RTF file contains all of the formatting that is in a report window. however. A text file is formatted by spaces and tabs. The Main Text justification is not configurable. Choose the desired justification with the Left. Center and Right radio buttons. HTML or RTF file. Title. Exporting Reports There are three options for exporting a report. enter a file name for the HTML file. The table justification is used to configure how tables are displayed. Subtitle and Main Text. select the Save Report as an RTF File command from the Report menu. Inc. at the top of the report. select the text File command from the Report menu. After selecting desired kind of report. enter a file name for the RTF file. such as a company logo. Select Left.

all of the applications included in the Meyer software suite are Unicode compatible. Figure 1.58.58: Language for non-Unicode programs.10 Unicode Compatibility 73 1. Prior to Meyer 2009.10 Unicode Compatibility Overview As of Meyer 2009. Inc. Pre-Unicode • Meyer User’s Guide Characters were represented by a single byte and interpreted according to the Windows “language for non-Unicode programs” setting. Meyer & Associates.1. . characters were interpreted according to the Windows “language for non-Unicode programs” setting as seen in Figure 1.

Inc. Meyer & Associates. any non-Unicode text loaded from a file is converted to Unicode when the file is opened. A prompt for choosing an international text encoding will be displayed if this conversion process cannot be completed automatically.59: International Text Encoding Prompt If a file is opened with an incorrect international text encoding. reopen the file and try choosing a different international text encoding. Meyer User’s Guide . Unicode • Characters are represented by one or more bytes and interpreted according to the Unicode standard.74 Getting Started: The Meyer Software • Only 256 distinct characters were representable at a given time. Now that the applications are Unicode compatible.59. An example of this prompt is show in Figure 1. the text may appear to be corrupt. This applies to most of the file formats that applications prior to Meyer 2009 were capable of saving or exporting. Figure 1. If this happens. • Many common symbols could not be used in the user interface due to character encoding limitations. • Thousands of characters are representable depending on available fonts and operating system compatibility. • The Windows “language for non-Unicode programs” setting no longer influences how the Meyer applications display characters.

Inc.1. . the file will be interpreted using the Windows “language for non-Unicode programs” setting. Known Issues • Languages that read from right to left are not fully supported.10 Unicode Compatibility 75 Text Files UTF-8 and UTF-16 encoded text files are supported provided that they contain a valid BOM (byte order mark). • Characters outside of the Basic Multilingual Plane (BMP) are not fully supported. If the byte order mark is omitted. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.

Getting Started: The Meyer Software Meyer User’s Guide . Inc.76 Meyer & Associates.

It is how- ever formulated between a pseudo-3D and full 3-D type model with an applicable half-length to half-height aspect ratio greater than about 1/3 (Meyer15). Example files are provided with the software to demonstrate MFrac’s features. Input Required Data Data Menu Meyer & Associates. Select Program Options Data Menu 4. MFrac is not a fully 3-D model. modeling techniques. 5. For a real-time or replay case. Table 2. start MView and import the MView acquired data.mfrac) or create a new File Menu data file. Please refer to the Meyer Appendices and listed references for specific details regarding the governing equations. MFrac accounts for the coupled parameters affecting fracture propagation and proppant transport. Step 77 Program Area 1. .1 Introduction MFrac is a three-dimensional hydraulic fracturing simulator that is designed to be used as an everyday tool. Specify Units (optional) Units Menu 3.1: MFrac Basic Steps. Open an existing MFrac data file (*. Inc.1. An outline of the basic steps for using MFrac is shown in Table 2. 2.Chapter 2 MFrac A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator 2. MFrac also has options for 2-D type fracture models. utility and general data entry procedures. methodology and numerical procedures. This chapter covers the available menu options and basic procedures required to run MFrac.

the menus are accessed from left to right with the exception of the Units and Database menus. 6.2: Table 2. Figure 2.1: MFrac Main Menu. Generate Report Report Menu Menu The MFrac menu bar is shown in Figure 2. Inc.5 Meyer & Associates.2 Data Description Wellbore Hydraulics Zones Treatment Schedule Foam Schedule Rock properties Fluid loss Data Proppant Criteria Acid data Heat Transfer Section 2.2: Description and Location of Menu Items Main Menu Item Description Location File File Management Chapter 1 Options Model Options Section 2. A description of each menu item is described in the following chapters or sections as given in Table 2.1: MFrac Basic Steps.1. Run Simulation Run Menu 7.4 Plots Graphical Presentation Section 2. Generally.78 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Table 2.3 Run Start Simulation Section 2. Meyer User’s Guide . View Plots during or after the simulation Plot Menu 8.

select the Export to Exodus Reservoir Simulator command from the File menu. It is used to establish the primary model options in the program. Make a selection by choosing the desired zone in the list box and pressing OK. & Associates. Inc. Use this file name when importing data into Exodus. The dialog box displayed in Figure 2. To do this. . If there is more than one active zone. select Options from the Data menu by clicking the menu name.2 Options 79 Table 2. Specify the desired file name and press OK.2 will then be presented. To access the Options screen. & Associates Exodus reservoir simulator.T. contact T. the propped fracture characteristics may be exported for use with T.2: Description and Location of Menu Items Reports Generating Reports Section 2. For more information on the Exodus reservoir simulator.T.7 Exporting to Exodus After the simulation has completed. Then MFrac will ask for the file name. Each option relates to a specific aspect of the fracture and proppant/acid modeling approach. 2.2. MFrac will ask which zone to export.6 Databases Fluid Database Proppant Non-Darcy Acid Casing Tubing Coiled-Tubing Rock Properties Section 2. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.2 Options The Options screen is the first input dialog box under the Data menu in MFrac.

click the radio button adjacent to the option preference. The option choice may be changed by using either the mouse or the arrow keys. Any time the options are changed the input data screens will be updated to enable new input or hide data that is not needed. The choices available for each of the General Options are summarized as follows: Meyer & Associates. This hierarchy methodology is used throughout MFrac. select a radio button within the next option section or use the TAB button to move sequentially through the choices. A black diamond will then appear in the center of the button selected. General Options The General Options screen allows the user to specify the type of analysis to be performed. The Options screen determines what information is needed for a particular type of analysis. This “smart-menu” approach. Simply decide the relevant options for a specific simulation and the program will only display those menus and input fields necessary.80 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. Meyer User’s Guide . To select an option.2: Data Options Screen. minimizes data input and prevents unnecessary or misleading data entry. The selections made in the Data Options screen set the scope for all data entered into the MFrac program. Continuing. The specific data displayed in a screen or the existence of a data screen itself varies depending on the options selected. Inc. the current selection for that option is highlighted with a dotted rectangle. These options establish the input data required and specify the nature of the calculations to be performed. Once within a section.

Ellipsoidal (Koning) This option allows for ellipsoidal (2D) fluid loss from the fracture and generally results in lower fracture efficiencies in high permeability formations when large volumes of fluid are injected.. for general fracturing applications where the leakoff distance perpendicular to the fracture face is small compared to the fracture length Carters one-dimensional fluid loss model is adequate. The ellipsoid fluid loss option should be used for cases when the leakoff distance becomes greater than a small fraction of the fracture length. slurry volume or treatment schedule. The difference between these methods only involves the source data input which is handled by MView. This option can be used for most applications and is the most common fluid loss model used for propagating fractures. . Please refer to Chapter 3 for instructions on the use of MView. However. Linear (Conventional) This is the classic linear fluid loss model as proposed by Carter and assumes that the fluid loss is one-dimensional. Reservoir Coupling The mechanisms which control fluid loss from a propagating fracture are discussed in the Appendices. This option requires selection of either the Harmonic Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Either method permits pressures matching.2 Options 81 Simulation Method Design Mode This option is the traditional methodology used for hydraulic fracturing design. the program uses the formation and treatment data in the calculation of associated fracture and proppant transport characteristics.g. the fluid loss behavior is two-dimensional or ellipsoidal. Replay/Real-Time The Replay/Real-Time option is required for replaying or performing real-time fracture analysis using the data collected during a treatment. The program flexibility allows for running in standard mode based on a given input fracture length. This procedure requires the use of MView as the real-time or replay data handler. With respect to MFrac. Inc. geometry prediction and proppant transport simulation.2. there is essentially no difference in the procedures used for performing real-time or replay simulations. produced water reinjection and large scale fracpacks). Typically. Depending on other options specified. for cases with large fluid loss volumes (e. Design Mode refers to the fact that the design engineer must design (and optimize) the fracture treatment.

Replay/Realtime or Auto Design mode. Turning NPV Off enables the simulator to perform in standard Design. This process is accomplished by coupling our analytical production simulator MProd to forecast productivity for each subdivision of the fracture length. When the NPV option is turned On. Real-Time The Real-Time options are only available if the Replay/Real-Time radio button is clicked On in the Simulation Method dialog. Net Present Value The Net Present Value option can only be activated if the Simulation Method is Design Mode. in turn. a maximum fracture length is specified in the treatment schedule. produces output used by MNpv to perform Net Present Value economic optimization calculations. Inc. For this option. MFrac then automatically calculates the proppant distribution and fracture conductivity for a number of incremental fracture lengths up to the maximum value specified. MFrac automatically sets the Treatment Design to Auto Design and the Treatment Type to Proppant. MProd. Meyer & Associates. Synchronizing the wellbore solution with the incoming real-time or replay data enables for very refined calculations of the wellbore and near-wellbore frictional pressure losses. If the Input Concentration button is selected the proppant concentration used by MFrac will be taken from the values specified in the Treatment Schedule. This is the general mode of operation unless an NPV analysis to optimize fracture length is desired. Generally. If MView Concentration is selected the proppant concentration will be taken from the replay/real-time data as sent to MFrac from MView. Meyer User’s Guide . the MView Concentration is desirable unless the actual proppant concentration injected is not available.82 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator or Dynamic Fluid Loss Model. this provides the capability to run the fracture model with a greater time step while still simulating the effects of rate changes on frictional losses in the wellbore and near well region. The Synchronize Well Solution radio button is used to synchronize the numerically calculated time steps for wellbore events with the replay/real-time data. The Ellipsoidal model should be selected for produced water reinjection and high permeability large volume frac-packs. Since the fracture net pressure is not as dependent on the instantaneous rate changes. The purpose of this type of analysis is to optimize the design length and conductivity for propped fractures.

The option is also helpful for modeling leakoff during acid fracturing treatments with alternating pad/acid stages. and 3) CIII . is entered in the Fluid Loss Data screen. . C . When either the Harmonic or Dynamic models are chosen. The fluid loss model options include specifying the total leakoff coefficient (Constant Model) or the C III coefficient and the corresponding components which comprise C I and CII (Harmonic or Dynamic Models). The C I and C II coefficients are then calculated from the input reservoir data and fracture propagation characteristics. If the Include Fluid Loss History check box under Fluid Loss Model option is checked. The three types of flow resistance mechanisms making up C are: 1) CI . The weighting of the individual leakoff coefficients for the Harmonic and Dynamic models is given in Appendix D. When the Fluid Type Dependent check box under Fluid Loss Model option is checked.reservoir viscosity and compressibility effects.leakoff viscosity and relative permeability effects. A detailed description of the components characterizing the Harmonic and Dynamic models is given in Appendix D of the Appendices and in the Fluid Loss Data section of this chapter.2 Options 83 Fluid Loss Model The rate of fluid loss to the formation is governed by the total leakoff coefficient C . Inc. 2) CII . The total leakoff coefficient is then calculated internally as a function of differential pressure.wall building effects. When the Harmonic or Dynamic Leakoff model is chosen the user can input different wall building coefficients ( C III ). This option is useful when large volumes of 2% KCl or treated fluids are in the wellbore prior to pumping the main fracturing treatment. The total leakoff and spurt loss coefficients are then input as a function of depth to characterize fluid loss in the fracture at different intervals. filtrate viscosities. the total leakoff coefficient. the simulator will remember the fluid loss history if the fracture closes and then re-opens. the filter cake coefficient ( C III ) and reservoir diffusivity parameters are input in the Fluid Loss Data screen for each layer.2. This option determines which fluid leakoff model is used. and spurt loss coefficient for each fluid. If Constant is selected. This option should be selected to include the effect of the mini- Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. different total leakoff coefficients (C and Spurt Loss) for each fluid can be entered for the Constant Leakoff model.

The Treatment Type can be either a propped (Proppant) or acid (Acid) fracture.g. Surface and bottomhole pressures. the desired design fracture length or total slurry volume is input in the treatment schedule dialog box. In addition. When Foam is checked. For Replay/Real-Time this option is automatically set to Input. acid fracturing. specific criteria for controlling the proppant scheduling will also be required. transport times and hydraulic power requirements are also calculated. viscosity. Depending on the Proppant Transport Methodology selected. When Input is chosen.84 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator frac on the main fracture treatment and when multiple open/close cycles are generated. In MFrac. the model assumes that the filter cake. Wellbore Hydraulics Model This option determines the wellbore hydraulics model to be used in calculating frictional pressure losses in the wellbore. user specified proppant settling. Treatment Type This selection determines the type of fracture treatment. MFrac will include compressibility effects. etc.). When the Net Present Value Option is On the Treatment Schedule Option is automatically set to Auto Design. The exact data input required will depend on selections made for other options (e. and compressibility effects from the previous fracture remain upon re-opening. Treatment Design Options The treatment design options are only available if the Simulation Method is in Design Mode and the Treatment Type selected is Proppant with no Foam. ramped proppant scheduling. the treatment can accommodate an optional foam schedule by checking the Foam box. The near wellbore and perforation pressure losses are calculated separately below the BHP reference point for each fracture and coupled to the wellbore. Inc. If this option is checked. The default setting is Input for all other cases. the pumping parameters must be entered into the Treatment Schedule screen. Meyer User’s Guide . The available wellbore model options are listed below: Meyer & Associates. restrictions. When Auto Design is chosen. either the pumping schedule can be input manually or determined automatically.. gravitational head.

P. These behaviors are illustrated in Figure 2.3: Fanning Friction Factors Maximum Drag Reduction.3 Figure 2.2 Options 85 None When this option is selected. Empirical The Empirical option is an internal correlation for calculating the frictional pressure loss of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Three distinct types of behavior are possible with the combined correlation used in MFrac. Virk1 (Predicts Minimum Friction) Meyer User’s Guide 1 ----= 19 log  Re s f  – 32.3 and summarized in the explicit expressions for the Fanning friction factor outlined in Table 2. Table 2.S. This option provides a combined correlation that is applicable for a variety of fluids ranging from linear systems to highly non-Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids that exhibit drag reduction due to slip or shear thinning during turbulent flow.2. . the frictional pressure loss is assumed to be zero. however.3: Pipe Friction Empirical Correlations. The wellbore hydraulics output data is also not displayed or written to file.4 f Meyer & Associates. wellbore hydraulics calculations are still performed. Inc.

3: Fanning Friction Factors Transitional Flow. To enable time step size control for capturing various time dependent events. User Database When User Database is selected. is also presented in Appendix E. the expression for friction factor based on Prandtl’s “Universal” Law is modified.2 No Drag Reduction. To include the effects of proppant concentration on friction. the user can specify the number of fracture Iterations and the Maximum Time Step. The relationship used. Fracture Solution These options provide control and flexibility for the time dependent discretization methodology used in the program. Inc. if the proppant concentration wellbore option is selected in the proppant option screen. and casing.3 (Predicts Maximum Friction) 1 ----= A log  Re s f  + B f 1 ----= 4 log  Re s f  – 0. Keck. Meyer User’s Guide . the data Restart Time can also be specified. For Replay/Real-Time analysis. et al. et al. originally described by Keck. See Appendix E for additional information. Meyer & Associates. the friction factor will be adjusted for proppant concentration in a manner similar to the method described in Appendix E for the Empirical option.. annulus.4 f When a value for the Relative Pipe Roughness is entered into one of the Wellbore Hydraulics dialog boxes. et al. MFrac will also automatically adjust the time step size as necessary to control local and global errors. The information in the database does not represent proppant-laden fluid. Iterations The value for the number of Iterations determines the target number of time steps to be used for the fracture propagation solution. This data can be edited and plotted by accessing the database. The base time step used for discretization in the numerical simulation will be the minimum of the values calculated from either the number of Iterations or Max Time Step input. The total or estimated simulation time is then divided by the number of iterations to determine the time step size. Consequently. the program has a built in correlation for slurry rheology.86 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Table 2. Prandtl. the information specified in the fluid database is used for calculating the frictional pressure loss in the tubing.

the number of iterations is most effectively used for design and auto design. If the time step is too large. The Real-Time option of synchronizing the wellbore solution to the input data enables time refinement for wellbore and near-wellbore pressure losses. To simulate events that occur over a very narrow range of time (e. This is very useful for history matching pressure changes due to rate. This provides the capability to limit the fracture time step while still maintaining the time refinement necessary to accurately model wellbore friction. The actual time step may vary depending on other numerical considerations. the Max Time Step constraint may be more applicable..g. The number of actual fracture solution iterations will always be slightly greater than the value specified. . pad/acid). the smaller the Max Time Step the longer it will take the program to run.2 Options 87 For example. Generally.g. a value of 20 to 30 iterations is sufficient. years as in water flooding). Restart Time The Restart Time is used to start or restart a simulation at a time other than the first entry point in the data file for real-time or replay simulations. significant rate and pressure changes may be missed. as stated in the Real-Time options section. This option is nor- Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. the longer the program will take to run. If the Alpha Plots accessed from the Fracture Characteristics Plot dialog box appear erratic. This is especially useful when performing real-time or replay simulations.2. If the governing equations cannot be solved within a specific tolerance. The number of time steps should be increased for cases with order-of-magnitude changes in the injection rate or fluid rheology properties (e. the average time step would be one (1) minute. The maximum time step can also be specified to minimize the time step. Also. For most simulations. if the number of iterations is 100 and the pump time is 100 minutes. Also.g. The larger this value is. rate changes or pressure spikes) the time step size must be small enough to capture the event. It should also be increased if the fracture encounters numerous layers in a given time step (especially with diverse properties) or when the injection times are very large (e. an alternate solution method is used for that time step. the number of iterations specified may be too small. the solution will not be very sensitive to the number of time steps because of the solution technique used. the fracture net pressure is a weaker function of rate than frictional pressure dissipation. Generally. For Replay/Real-Time. Inc.. Max Time Step The Max Time Step can be used to control the program time step..

Meyer User’s Guide . The choices are as follows: Figure 2..88 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator mally used when earlier data is not relevant or multiple injection cycles (i. Heat Transfer When turned On. Inc.. The fluid rheological properties are then calculated from the fluid database as a function of time based on this temperature. The heat transfer solution accounts for conservation of energy and results in simulating the effects of temperature on fluid rheology. the in-situ Fluid Temperature is required. the heat transfer solution can be used to predict the heat-up of the fracturing fluid in the wellbore and the exchange of heat transfer in the fracture to the reservoir during fracture propagation. Meyer & Associates.e. main frac) is to be analyzed. Consequently. If heat transfer is turned Off.e. The Fracture Options provide choices for the fracture geometry model and constitutive relationships that affect the fracture solution methodology (see Figure 2.4: Fracture Options. Enter the time in the replay/realtime data at which the simulation should begin. minifrac) are pumped and only the later time cycle data (i. The fluid rheology properties as a function of time and temperature are specified in the Fluid Database. Fracture Options This group of options is accessed by clicking the Fracture tab found on the Data Options screen. this option provides the flexibility to restart a simulation at the beginning or middle of any injection cycle.4).

5: Horizontal Ellipsoidal Fracture Geometry with an Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio of Unity.. It is similar to the Vertical Ellipsoidal model but with a number of different constraints and constitutive relationships unique for horizontal propagation (e.5.g. . Inc. When the Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio is equal to unity. Figure 2. Vertical Ellipsoidal This model produces a vertical ellipsoidal shaped fracture geometry that intersects the wellbore along the fracture height. formation properties. See Appendix A for a detailed description of each model. an Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio can be specified in the Zones dialog box. 2L) to the total fracture height (  = 2L  H ). The Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio is equal to the ratio of the total length (tip to tip. This fracture also has an ellipsoidal width profile in the vertical and lateral planes. This geometry model is similar to a radial or penny shaped fracture propagating in a horizontal plane. etc. The parametric relationships for the 2-D type models is also discussed. however.).2.2 Options 89 Fracture Geometry This section describes the five geometry models used in MFrac. the geometry reduces to the radial solution illustrated in Figure 2. proppant transport. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Horizontal Ellipsoidal The Horizontal Ellipsoidal fracture is an ellipsoidal two-dimensional planar-type fracture geometry model for propagation in the horizontal plane. rather than restricting the model to radial growth. This value represents the ratio of the major to minor radii. stress orientation.

The major difference between the PKN and GDK models is in the width-opening pressure relationship as shown below: GDK . and length coordinates. This option is most applicable for fractures with length to height aspect ratios less than unity  = 2L  H  1 or for fractures which display slip at the upper and lower boundaries. That is a vertically unbounded geometry with slip at the upper and lower extremities as shown in Figure 2.7.6 shows a vertical ellipsoidal fracture and illustrates the height.. at shallow depths). intersection effects. The major differences are related to orientation.W w  pH  E Meyer & Associates. This model is characterized by a decreasing net pressure with time.6: Vertical Ellipsoidal Fracture Geometry.W w  pL  E PKN . The GDK model typically predicts greater wellbore widths and shorter fracture lengths than the PKN model for fractures with aspect ratios greater than unity. width. GDK The GDK option invokes a constant height fracture geometry model with a vertically constant fracture width.90 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. This model is similar to the Horizontal Ellipsoidal model in appearance only.g. influence of in-situ stresses. Inc. Slip may be an appropriate assumption when rock interfaces are “weak” due to rock competence or when normal stresses may be low (e. Figure 2. proppant transport and a number of other constitutive relationships. Meyer User’s Guide .

L is the half-length. Figure 2. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.2 Options 91 where W w is the maximum wellbore width.7: GDK Geometry. The major difference between the GDK and PKN model is in the width-opening pressure relationship given above. Inc. H is the height and p is the fracture net pressure. The PKN fracture model is most applicable when the total fracture length is greater than the total fracture height (  = 2L  H  1 ).8 shows the PKN fracture geometry profile.2. . PKN The PKN model. the PKN net pressure increases with time for a constant injection rate. Unlike the GDK model. like the GDK model. is also a constant height model but differs by having an elliptically shaped width in the vertical plane (vertically bounded geometry). Figure 2.

Figure 2.92 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. the model approaches a vertical radial-type geometry. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . the model approaches the PKN constant height type geometry. toughness or moduli contrast are entered. See Meyer4 for additional comments on model differences. When no confining stress. It’s all in the width-opening pressure constitutive relationship. This model produces the most realistic geometries and is applicable for all length to height aspect ratios. Meyer & Associates. As illustrated. For large length to height aspect ratios.8: PKN Geometry. the model assumes a bounded geometry at the leading edge (perimeter).9 shows a typical 3-Dimensional fracture geometry profile. The GDK vertically constant width and PKN elliptical width profiles do not control either models characteristic behavior. 3-Dimensional This is a 3-dimensional planar fracture model with both lateral and vertical fracture propagation.

this option must be On. when this option is Off) when closure is simulated with a treatment schedule rate of zero. formulation and solution methodology for our three-dimensional fracturing simulator (MFrac) is presented in the appendices. cross-flow during closure and flowback will not be permitted..e. the program will simulate closure after pumping. since a negative rate must be input into the treatment schedule. Inc. To use a 3-D model effectively. This option must be clicked on to simulate flowback. This method is less rigorous than the alternative (i.2 Options 93 Figure 2. .9: Three-Dimensional Fracture Geometry. To better characterize the formation. the model currently allows up to one thousand (1000) layers for the rock and reservoir properties. Flowback This option provides the user with the capability to allow fluid and proppant to flowback (negative injection rates and/or cross-flow) from the fracture. Simulate to Closure When Simulate to Closure is On. If this option is Off. A detailed explanation. the formation should be characterized sufficiently to adequately describe the rock and fluid loss properties.2. To simulate cross-flow between multilayer fractures. Simulate to closure assumes the spatial fracture compliance factors used during closure remain constant and equal to the values at the end of pumping. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.

especially for fractures that grow into multi-stress layers and close with multiple inflection points. This can happen in soft formations (low Young’s modulus) when the fracture height is large. unless a zero rate is input in the treatment schedule. the upper and/or lower zones may close before the reservoir rock Meyer & Associates. These options may be helpful for interference closure. When Include is checked.94 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator When Simulate to Closure is Off the program will not simulate fracture propagation or lateral proppant transport during closure. Propagation Parameters The options for Propagation Parameters are Default Growth. Fracture propagation will be set to zero during closure if no growth during shut-in is selected. continuity and momentum equations. To maximize compliance precision and propagation accuracy during closure. The pressure distribution in turn will affect the fracture propagation. proppant effects. except for cases when the hydrostatic head difference in the fracture is of the same order of magnitude or greater than the fracture net pressure. Normally this option has little effect on the fracture geometry. No Growth During Shut-in. and Positive Growth Only. turn this option Off and enter a zero rate stage in the Treatment Schedule. Meyer User’s Guide . Low permeability rocks fractured with high efficiency fluids may continue to propagate even after the pumps have shut down. If the Positive Growth Only option is selected the fracture will not be allowed to recede. To model the pressure decline the user may want to select Default Growth or Positive Growth Only. Fracture Fluid Gradient This option is only used for the three-dimensional model and allows the user to Include or Exclude the effect of the fluid gradient on fracture pressure. the pressure distribution within the fracture will include the hydrostatic pressure changes as a function of depth (fracture height). Keep in mind that Simulate to Closure may affect the pressure decline behavior. Simulate to closure may not be an appropriate choice for multilayer fractures which exhibit cross-flow. This option is used to override the propagation rate calculated by the mass conservation. flowback and history matching pressure declines. When fracturing wells with large stress contrasts between the reservoir rock and the bounding layers. Inc. The proppant transport solution during closure can accommodate both simulate to closure and a zero rate stage (shut-in) in the treatment schedule.

Turbulent flow in the fracture may Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Fracture Initiation Interval This option is used to select the manner in which the program initiates the fracture.2. For this option. The choices for fracture initiation are explained below. Normally for conditions where the final fracture geometry is much greater than the initiation geometry.2 Options 95 closes. Perforated Interval When this option is chosen. select Off). like other fracture models.e. This initiation pressure may not be (and usually is not) equal to the minimum horizontal stress in this interval. laminar flow exists in the fracture and this option may not be needed (i. the program uses the entire Perforated Interval as the initial fracture height. This will effect the fracture compliance changing the slope of the pressure decline. on the pressure predicted by a model. For this case. MFrac. The effective closure pressure is then calculated as the minimum fracture pressure necessary to keep the fracture open over the perforated interval. Fracture Friction Model Normally. the classical solution for fluid flow in a rectangular slot (as modified for an ellipsoidal fracture width) is used and the Darcy friction factor takes the form f D = 24  Re 2 where Re is the Reynolds number ( Re = w   and dp  dx = – 1  2 f D   w ) Deviations from laminar flow affect the frictional dissipation in the fracture and. . Stress Interval The Min. Min.. this initial boundary condition becomes insignificant in the solution. Inc. This may not be the interval which contains the lowest minimum horizontal stress. Stress Interval option invokes a routine that uses an initial fracture height equal to ten (10) percent of the total perforation interval. is a fracture propagation simulator which does not simulate the initial formation break down process. the program examines the formation stress profile and identifies the portion of the perforated interval that contains the zone with the minimum closure pressure required to keep the fracture open over this limited depth of the perforated interval. This numerically selected depth interval is then used as the location for fracture initiation. therefore.

b=0. turn this option On. gas) at high rates are pumped. This selection assumes that the fracture surface is a smooth planar feature without roughness. a=0.4: Typical a and b Friction Coefficients.. b=1 Transitional flow 750 < Re < 2000. a=24.44 Turbulent flow 2000 < Re < 30. b=0. The above formulation is based on a power-law Reynolds number to provide the user with insight on the effect of these energy dissipation mechanisms. a=0.000 < Re < 106. These effects can be modeled by increasing the a coefficient or modifying the wall roughness factor discussed below. MFrac does not use apparent viscosity. tortuosity. The relationship used is defined in the expression shown below: Meyer & Associates. To account for these phenomena and improve the ability to predict non-laminar frictional pressure loss in a fracture. b=0. Laminar flow Re < 750.14 Wall Roughness When this option is turned Off. a decrease in fracture length. the friction factor defined in the Fracture Friction Model option will be modified using a Friction Factor Multiplier.g.4 have been developed empirically in accordance with Prandtl's Universal Law of the Wall (see Schlichting3). This will result in an increase in the frictional pressure drop and fracture width. Inc. The approximations for the a and b coefficients in Table 2. a=0.13. as well as. bifuraction and wall roughness) that interrupt and disturb fluid flow can also result in greater energy dissipation. a=0.20 Turbulent flow Re > 106. If this option is used. the Darcy friction factor inside the fracture is used without modification as determined from the selections made in the Fracture Friction Model option. Table 2. To include the effects of roughness (or waviness) on the frictional dissipation.5.08. b=0.035.g.25 Turbulent flow 30. Meyer User’s Guide .. the following friction factor expression is used when the Fracture Friction Model is turned On: f D = a  Re b Irregularities along the fracture face (e.96 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator also occur when very low viscosity fluids (e.000.

2. .10.10: Friction Factor Multiplier Empirical Correlation. Typically. confining stress or rock/reservoir properties are modified to obtain Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.2 Options 97 f D = M f f D where f D = modified Darcy friction factor fD = = Darcy friction factor friction factor multiplier Mf An empirically derived correlation5-8 for determining the Friction Factor Multiplier is shown in Figure 2. the friction factor multiplier. Tip Effects The observed field pressures for some treatments may at times be much higher than the simulated pressure. nearwellbore effects. This discrepancy in measured pressure can be minimized in a number of ways. Figure 2. fracture toughness. Inc.

friction factor multiplier. Off. The possibilities include tip friction due to flow resistance.g. that this type of resistance differs from fracture toughness in its classical application in that over-pressure varies with injection rate and time.0.98 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator a match. When reasonable values have been implemented for wall roughness. an overpressure function can be applied at the tip. This best fit value from matching the net pressure in a minifrac analysis is a good place to start. toughness and other formation properties. however. accounts for the extra pressure required at the fracture leading edge for propagation to occur. rock properties effects (e. Tip effects. The range on the over-pressure factor allowed by MFrac is between 0 and 1. or it may be a consequence of fracture geometry (e. excess pressure can be applied using any of these three mechanisms: 1) Fracture Toughness. Over-pressure. Usually. a default value of zero is used. as it is incorporated in MFrac.e.. remain an area of some controversy and considerable dis- cussion.. Many engineers mistake near wellbore pressure loss for excess net pressure. Inc. In MFrac. one approach is to use the MinFrac program to automatically regress on the tip factor to determine an appropriate value. resistance is resistance). fracture toughness does not.g. If you are having difficulty relating the over-pressure factor to pressure.4 may be justifiable. 2) Critical Stress. tip effects represent a flow resistance at the tip. or 3) Tip Over-pressure. if the pressure discrepancy is due to excess pressure. a value between 0. Keep in mind that when the injection rate changes suddenly. It is important to note.. the fracture net pressure cannot because of Meyer & Associates. whereas. the near wellbore pressure loss also changes instantly. however. in general. Meyer User’s Guide .1 to 0. If this option is disabled. the general effect on pressure is typically the same (i. higher pressure must be applied at the inlet (surface or BHTP) to compensate for losses that occur in the fracture. the Tip Effect option is never suggested unless all other reasonable measures have been taken and the measured injection pressures are still well above the theoretical values predicted by the simulator. tip geometry). This extra resistance at the fracture perimeter (tip) requires additional pressure (energy) to propagate the fracture. when this option is used. Regardless of whether you believe this flow resistance is due to viscosity effects or some other phenomena related to the tip region (e.. As a result. toughness as a function of stress at the leading edge or poroelasticity). The larger the over-pressure factor the greater the increase in the net pressure. In this version of MFrac. complex geometry and/or multiple fractures).g. Plausible explanations for these effects have been proposed.

Figure 2. Figure 2. Fluid dilatancy refers to a shear-thickening fluid. and to our knowledge. The desired effect (i. if the rate drops suddenly and the BHTP follows. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. This is commonly referred to as nonlinear elastic deformation. These options are discussed below.. There has been no published explanation on the effects of rock dilatancy on net pressure in a crack. It is not clear whether these researchers are referring to rock dilatancy or fluid dilatancy... The proppant options specify the proppant transport methodology to be employed.e.2 Options 99 storage (i. fluid dilatancy) or as a result of stress dependent rock properties that may or may not be related to rock dilatancy. The phenomena of tip over-pressure has been referred to as “dilatancy” by some researchers.11 illustrates one possibility.11: Fracture Tip Width Reduction due to Non-Linear Elastic Effects.e. this is not excess pressure but frictional dissipation in the near wellbore region). Proppant Options This group of options is accessed by clicking the Proppant tab found on the Data Options screen.2.e. Figure 2. Rock dilatancy describes volumetric expansion of a material that is rapidly approaching failure and is usually associated with the micro-cracking process. an increase in pressure) can be achieved due to viscosity effects (i. Inc. no correlations exist.12 illustrates the proppant options available. .

of energy and mass conservation. proppant transport calculations will be performed. Inc. For Auto Design. the optimum treatment specified. If Input is chosen for the Treatment Schedule Options. If Off is chosen. no proppant transport calculations will be performed and all other options related to the proppant transport will be dimmed. Depending on the Proppant Transport Methodology option selected. If the proppant transport solution is On and the Proppant Transport Methodology is not on conventional. the program will internally calculate the required PAD and proppant schedule to prevent (or create) a screen-out and achieve. When the Proppant Solution option is turned On.O. Final Proppant Concentration. Maximum Proppant Concentration and Proppant Damage Factor must be entered. the fracture may propagate backward (negative growth) during closure depending on the R. negative growth will not be allowed (this assumes proppant interaction). Consequently. MFrac calculates the geometry and proppant distribution based on the input treatment schedule. If Off is selected.12: Proppant Options. Meyer User’s Guide .100 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. there will be no coupling between the fracture propagation and proppant transport solutions. Meyer & Associates. the Proppant Type. Initial Proppant Concentration. if possible. either the desired fracture length or designed slurry volume must be entered in the Treatment Schedule screen. The program then automatically designs a treatment schedule to satisfy the design criteria.C. Incremental Proppant Concentration. When Auto Design is selected. Proppant Solution The Proppant Solution may be turned On or Off.

The above proppant transport choices are discussed below. When this option is turned Off. When the Net Present Value option is On. With the exception of Conventional. However. The Treatment Schedule screen will then permit only one entry value for concentration. Inc. The proppant transport methodology options are: 1) Conventional. and 4) Frac Pack. Proppant Flowback The Proppant Flowback may be turned On or Off. During the limited entry treatment. they are handled the same as the Conventional (link proppant) option when the treatment schedule is Input. all of the other options couple the proppant transport and fracture propagation solutions. Proppant Transport Methodology The selection determines how the proppant transport model is linked or coupled to the fracture propagation calculations. Perforation Erosion This option allows for perforation erosion during the treatment. This results in a linear proppant ramp with liquid volume. The effect of proppant is to increase the discharge coefficient. 3) Tip Screen-Out (TSO). If this option is turned On the perforation frictional pressure loss will decrease as the mass of proppant through each perforation increases. Please refer to Appendix I for a detailed description of TSOs and Frac-Packs. a uniform proppant concentration is assumed for each stage. This option when selected On simulates the flow of proppant back towards the wellbore. and the hydraulic diameter of the perforation. The increase in the discharge coefficient can be described as a rounding of the perforation. the concentration of proppant will be ramped linearly from an initial value (From) to a final (To) value for each fluid stage in the Treatment Schedule dialog box. .2. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.2 Options 101 Proppant Ramp The ramp option controls the ability to ramp the proppant concentration between a specified range. Limited entry designs require a certain differential pressure across the perforations to ensure that each zone accepts a proportionate amount of fluid and proppant. C D . perforations are exposed to a proppant and liquid slurry. When this option is On. 2) Conventional (link proppant). this option is set to Conventional automatically. The TSO and Frac-Pack options are normally used with the Auto Design option.

During this type of simulation. To simulate a TSO or Frac-Pack please refer to one of the options described below. When the Auto Design option is used. For this option. The TSO option was specifically developed to automatically design a TSO and output the corresponding treatment schedule. BHP). Once a screen-out occurs. If a bridge-out or screen-out condition occurs or exists it will affect the pressure distribution in the fracture and subsequent fracture propagation behavior.102 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Conventional This option disables the link between the proppant transport and fracture propagation solutions. based on user specified criteria (e.e.g. Meyer User’s Guide . for a bridge-out or screen-out the condition of an increasing net pressure will not occur. linked proppant solution methodology used in MFrac (see Appendix I). the proppant transport calculations will not affect the fracture propagation behavior. the following discussion will be directed toward using the TSO option as it pertains to the Auto Design capabilities. the net pressure will continue rising during the remaining part of the treatment to meet the desired design criteria. Average Concentration/Area and Max. the program will automatically design a pumping schedule that optimizes a tip screen-out condition (TSO). the program will calculate incrementally (i. Inc. When this option is used. Initial and Max. the choice of Conventional (Link Proppant) will cause the program to calculate an optimum proppant transport schedule without screening-out. It only differs from the Conventional (Link Proppant) option when the Auto Design feature is used. The resulting change in fracture geometry in turn influences the overall proppant transport. Tip Screen-Out (TSO) This is a specialized form of Meyer & Associates’ proprietary. When this option is selected. The proppant calculations will be performed after each fracture iteration but the results will not be coupled. the linked solution methodology permits continuous proppant transport calculations as the slurry is concentrating in the fracture due to leakoff. Therefore. Meyer & Associates. Consequently. target Frac Length.. at each time step) a unit of fracture propagation followed by the corresponding proppant transport time step. Conventional (Link Proppant) This option links or couples the proppant transport solution with the fracture propagation solution to simulate the effects of slurry transport on fracture pressure distribution and propagation. Inlet Concentration.. This option also couples the proppant transport solution with the fracture solution as does the Conventional (Link Proppant) option when the Treatment Schedule Option is on Input.

Cluster Settling . Max. Once again. Convective Transport . Unlike the Tip Screen-out option described above. the program will automatically determine a pumping schedule to first produce a tip screen-out and then pack the fracture. Like the TSO option. Proppant Concentration (lbm/ft2) in the fracture is second and Maximum Inlet Concentration is last. Inc. the average concentration per unit area.2 Options 103 The program always satisfies the specified length and then. if possible. . Inlet Concentration. Average Concentration/Area and Maximum BHP. Frac-Pack This is a more aggressive variation of the TSO solution technique described above. it only differs from the Conventional (Link Proppant) option when the automatic design feature is used.lowest settling velocity. the Frac-Pack method prevents excessive width growth (ballooning) by decreasing the injection rate after the maximum inlet concentration is attained. A description of each method is as follows: Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. User specified constraints are used as absolute limits and maintain the following priority: Maximum BHP has first priority. Proppant Settling Options Four correlations are available for simulating proppant transport and settling 9-12: Empirical .medium settling velocity. it means that a higher priority constraint was imposed.highest settling velocity. Frac Length. The result is a proppant distribution that approaches a uniform concentration per unit volume throughout the fracture based on the target concentration per unit area specified. User Specified . If any of the specified criteria are not met. Initial and Max. it is also based on the user specified criteria. Please refer to Appendix I for a comparison of the TSO and Frac-Pack Methodologies. When this option is used. The basic premise of this methodology is to control excessive ballooning by matching the injection rate to the leakoff rate once the desired geometry is achieved.2.user defined settling velocity.

500  Re  2. These effects are based on modified density and viscosity correlations. These conditions may occur when large pad volumes.7 Empirical9. Re  500 a b  Re Re f = 0. a convective transport correlation is included. To account for bulk flow effects.44 .8  1 – n  0. A simplified form of the equation is shown below: Meyer & Associates. high proppant concentrations.9 7. et al.5 and X = 3 n-1 n + 2------------3n n Lower Bound12 ( X  1 ) X = 1 X = 1 + 0. Experimental results have demonstrated for certain fluid/proppant combinations that this approach. based on modified forms of Stokes Law.1 0. --------------X + c .2  24. or significant stage density contrasts exist. Inc. The terminology upper and lower bound refers to the X coefficient used in these equations.104 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Empirical This single particle settling velocity correlation is based on the work of Bird.11 Upper Bound12 ( X  1 ) Convective Transport The characteristic dimension that has the most significant influence on the particle settling velocity for classical (Empirical) proppant transport solutions is the particle diameter.0x10 5 where f Re a b c = = = = = friction factor non-Newtonian Reynolds number 1. f = 24. significantly underestimates vertical settling velocity when large fluid bulk gradients exist.9 Extension of this work to non-Newtonian fluids for all flow regimes from Stokes Law to Newtonian flow results in the friction factor equations listed below by Slatery11. Meyer User’s Guide . Wall and slurry concentration (bulk viscosity) effects are included in this option to account for hindered settling.

The single particle velocity. density. This correlation may be most applicable when base fluid viscosity is low and proppant concentrations are relatively high (e.2. These corrections result in an apparent viscosity that is lower than predicted by convection and an effective density that is higher.2 Options 105 2 w  v s = -----------12 a  z where vs w a  z = = = vertical (bulk) fluid velocity fracture width apparent slurry viscosity = potential gradient due to gravity.. The cluster settling rates produced may be higher than convective transport because of the differences in the rheology and density corrections used. This has the result of reducing the drag or wall effects that are calculated.g. The cluster settling formulation is: 2 gd eq v s = ------------------18 a where vs Meyer User’s Guide = vertical (bulk) fluid velocity Meyer & Associates. In addition. calculated for an individual stage using the Empirical method described above. therefore. . Inc. there is no internal particle settling assumed within an individual cluster. The formulations developed for this option are given below. hence higher settling velocity. Cluster Settling Like the convective transport methodology described above. No single particle. Cluster Settling includes the effects of bulk density gradients and can. is superimposed over the bulk settling solution to characterize the complete settling history of the treatment. only the bulk flow is considered. be used to simulate gravity induced flow. when you are pumping a banking fluid). Consequently. with Cluster Settling. and pressure The vertical velocity determined from the relationship shown above is corrected for hindered settling using a power law model substitution for apparent viscosity and effective density approach. Stokes-type settling velocity is included.

75  e – 1 e  ------------------ 1 – 1.2 This correlation uses an expression for relative slurry viscosity to account for the effects of proppant on increased friction. Meyer User’s Guide . Wellbore-Proppant Effects This option controls the methodology used to simulate the effects of proppant concentration on pipe friction. User Specified Settling This option allows the user to input the proppant settling rates manually. When selected an additional column or data box will be displayed in the Treatment Schedule screen that will allow you to enter a Proppant Settling Rate for each stage. Inc.25  2  r =  1 +  0. The relationship is shown below: 1.106 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator d d eq a  s  g w = = = = = = = = particle diameter equivalent or characteristic diameter apparent slurry viscosity proppant void fraction packed proppant void fraction density difference of particulates and fluid gravitational acceleration fracture width and d d d eq =     s  w +  1 –     s  d A power law correlation for apparent viscosity is used for proppant settling.5n –  1 – n   1000 1. The options are as follows: None For this selection. proppant has no effect on the friction factors used in the wellbore hydraulics calculations.5 Meyer & Associates. Empirical This option includes the effects of proppant concentration on pipe friction as originally described by Keck. The value entered will be used as a constant rate of settling for that stage. et al.

The options are summarized below: Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. for proppant-laden fluids is equal to the value of  r . adequate characterization of the frictional dissipation is not possible with the empirical correlation contained in MFrac. .  r =  s   b slurry density relative slurry viscosity friction factor of base fluid friction factor of slurry User Specified For some slurry systems. Fracture-Proppant Effects This option controls the effect of proppant concentration on frictional pressure losses in the fracture. Inc.45 and fs = Mf fb where Mf b r s r fb fs = = = = = = = friction factor multiplier base density relative slurry density. the friction factor multiplier.2.55  r0. For proppant-laden fluids in turbulent flow. the expression shown below is used to estimate the effect of proppant on friction: M f =  r0.2 Options 107 where r n'   = = = = relative slurry viscosity power-law behavior index for base fluid Newtonian shear rate proppant void or particle volume fraction For laminar flow. M. the friction factor multiplier as a function of proppant concentration can be specified in tabular form. If this occurs.

108 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator None For this selection. The procedure involves a correction to the base viscosity to produce a relative viscosity term. Data may then be entered by accessing the various dialog boxes from the Data menu. Meyer & Associates. Inc.3 Data Input Once the Options are selected the scope of a simulation is set. the input screens will vary to enable new input or hide data that is not needed. 2. The values entered are then used to determine the relative viscosity term based on the solids fraction present. Once this is done. the friction factor is calculated based on the Fracture Friction Model selected and the Friction Factor Multiplier (if the Wall Roughness option is activated). Any time an option is changed. The general correlation as a function of proppant void fraction is: r =  1 –    where r   = = = relative slurry viscosity exponent coefficient proppant void or particle volume fraction User Specified For some slurry systems. proppant has no effect on the friction factor calculated in the fracture. If this occurs. Empirical This option includes the effects of proppant concentration on fracture friction based on the empirical expressions shown below. the friction factor multiplier as a function of proppant concentration can be input in tabular form. the specific data displayed in a screen or the existence of the data screen will vary depending on the options selected. Meyer User’s Guide . the option screens determine what information is needed for a particular type of analysis. adequate characterization may not be possible with the empirical correlation contained in MFrac. This approach minimizes data input and prevents unnecessary or misleading data entry. This methodology is used throughout MFrac. Like in the Wellbore Proppant Effects. Consequently. Simply decide what options are relevant to your simulation and the program will automatically display only those menus and input fields necessary. As previously stated. the friction factor is calculated based on the Fracture Friction Model and friction factor multiplier specified (if the Wall Roughness is enabled).

the conditions or case sensitive options for a data screen are noted and an example of the resulting dialog shown. Space is provided for entering the Company Name. Any text can be selected by using the mouse or the keyboard.2. section is included so that descriptive information can be entered. .13: Data Description Dialog Box.13 provides a location for entering information about a simulation. In addition. To enter data. Figure 2. All of the different data screens available within MFrac and the variables contained within them are presented. Well Name.3 Data Input 109 The following sections pertain to the Data menu items found within the main menu. Description The Data Description screen shown in Figure 2. When pertinent. position the cursor at the desired location using the mouse or TAB key. a Comments. Well Location and Simulation Date. Inc. An energy balance Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. All information contained in this dialog is optional. The scroll bar to the right of the Comments section can be used to view all the data entered. Each Data menu item is covered in detail along with a description of the data dialogs and their associated variables. Wellbore Hydraulics MFrac offers an integrated wellbore hydraulics module that couples the fracture with the wellbore to provide additional simulation capability.

110 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator approach is used to calculate the pressure changes due to potential energy. frictional loss and hydraulic power requirements for a treatment design. The flexibility of the model provides the capability to history match measured pressures during real-time or replay treatment analysis. Treatment stage movement in the wellbore is also simulated during pumping. This general solution permits calculations of surface pressure. The capability to model tapered deviated wellbores is also included. General Data The General Wellbore Hydraulics screen is shown in Figure 2. hydrostatic head. kinetic energy.General Tab. Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide .14: Wellbore Hydraulics . Inc. Frac-Pack screen pressure drop.14. BHP in the wellbore. frictional dissipation and restrictions in the wellbore. Figure 2.

Therefore. choose one of the radio buttons found in the Injection Down section of the General Wellbore Hydraulics screen shown in Figure 2.Injection is down the casing.14. Annulus . the user can input the MD at the center of the perforations rather than TVD. 4. Once the frac-pack screen diameter is entered it will be displayed on the wellbore schematic extending from the end of tubing to the end of the casing. This provides the added capability of simulating flow around the screen (pressure loss) and storage volume reduction due to the decreased flow area.Fluid is pumped down the annulus between the casing and tubing. casing. 3. When the fluid reaches the end of the coiled tubing it will flow through the casing to the perforations.For this option. To select the configuration. Numerous configurations are possible. 5. and Crossover Pressure Loss Coefficient must be entered. Casing . 2. . Injection can be simulated down tubing. The Crossover Pressure Loss Coefficient is used to calculate the minor pressure loss associated with the crossover port: Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.Fluid is pumped down the tubing string. check Annulus rather than Casing. Coiled Tubing . the Screen O.3 Data Input 111 Injection Down Performing wellbore hydraulics calculations requires that the wellbore configuration and perforations be described. enable the appropriate check box located in the General Wellbore Hydraulics screen. This provides the capability for locating the perforations on a horizontal section of the casing.2. Inc. To use one of these configurations. flow will be simulated down both the tubing and annulus. When the fluid reaches the end of the tubing it will flow through the casing to the perforations. Tubing . When selecting Frac-Pack Screen. Tubing and Annulus . annulus or both. Horizontal Wells and Frac-Packs Special wellbore configurations are also available for Horizontal Wells and FracPacks using screen and crossover assemblies. Both casing and tubing data must be entered. This option assumes there is no tubing in the wellbore.D. If you only want to pump down the casing/tubing annulus. The different Injection Down configurations are: 1. When Horizontal Well is selected. tubing data is ignored for this option. Both tubing and casing data are required for this option.Fluid is pumped down the coiled tubing.

112 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator 2 s  p = – K ----------2 where p K s v = = = = pressure loss loss coefficient slurry density velocity Typical values for the loss coefficient are between two and ten. This volume is calculated based on the wellbore configuration and includes the surface line volume. volume and staging) are referenced at the well entrance this value should be set to zero.g. Meyer & Associates. Wellbore Volume Reference Depth The Wellbore Volume Reference Depth is the depth used for calculating the volume of the wellbore. Volume On the top of the General tab of the Wellbore Hydraulics dialog box. however. Surface Line Volume The Surface Line Volume is the volume of fluid/slurry in the service line(s) upstream of the well entrance. if all treatment references (measurements and volumes) are upstream of the well entrance. This volume is also used as the wellbore/flush volume in the Treatment Schedule. If this value is exceeded during the simulation a warning message will be displayed. Either the Measured Depth (MD) or True Vertical Depth (TVD) may be entered. This reference depth must be below the bottom of the tubing and above the bottom of the casing. a Volume is displayed. Meyer User’s Guide . This only applies if there is tubing in the wellbore. on Frac Boats). Normally this volume is negligible. this line volume may be significant at times (e. this line volume should be specified.. Inc. however. Maximum BHTP This is the maximum allowable BHTP at the BHTP Reference Depth. If all the treatment parameters (rate. This Maximum BHTP is also used as a design criteria in Auto Design mode to ensure that the optimum design does not exceed this value.

as shown in Figure 2. Figure 2. radius of Curvature. Minimum Curvature. click the Deviation tab found on the Wellbore Hydraulics dialog box.Deviation Tab. To do this. A table for wellbore survey stations will then be displayed.3 Data Input 113 Deviation Data The first step in describing the wellbore configuration is to enter the wellbore deviation survey. Average Angle Method This method models the well path between two stations as being along a straight line whose length is the measured depth difference between the two stations and whose inclination and azimuth angles are the average of the stations’ values. .2. and Tangential. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.15. Balanced Tangential.15: Wellbore Hydraulics . Inc. Wellbore Survey Method The five standard methods for wellbore survey calculations are supported: Average Angle.

For 3D surveys. (see SPE 84246) Radius of Curvature Method This method models the well path between two stations as a circular arc lying on a vertical plane which is then curved along a horizontal circular arc. The input option determines which of the two (inclination angle or TVD) is enter and which is calculated. choose Inclination and Azimuth (3D) (this is the only option available for the Minimum Curvature method). Deviation Input The deviation input option determines what data needs to be entered in the deviation table. Inclination Angle and TVD. like the Average Angle method. For 2D surveys. For 2D inclination surveys you have the option of entering the inclination angle or true vertical depth (TVD). Meyer & Associates. the table has columns for MD . inclination angle and azimuth angle values are entered. It is composed of various columns depending on which input option is selected. and the northing.114 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Balanced Tangential Method This method models the well path between two stations as two line segments. For 3D directional surveys. Tangential Method This method. each having a length that is half the measured depth difference between the stations. models the well path between two stations as being along a straight line whose length is the measured depth difference between the two stations. Inc. but where the arc length is equal to the difference in measured depths of the stations. Minimum Curvature Method This method is a refinement of the Balanced Tangential Method where the two line segments are replaced by a circular arc lying in the same plane as the line segments. but whose inclination and azimuth are those of the second station only. The first segment having the inclination and azimuth angles of the first station and the second segment have those of the second station. easting and TVD values are calculated based on the wellbore survey method selected. Deviation Table The table allows input of the wellbore survey stations. Meyer User’s Guide . The implementation is based on the formulation of Sawaryn et al. the measured depth (MD).

click on the View Deviation Plots button. or want to view the data graphically to check its validity. the table includes the Angle Build Rate feature that allows the deviation angle or angle build rate to be specified. do not check this box. . If the deviation angle is input. Depths Enter Elsewhere In several other places. The second plots TVD versus MD. TVD versus. East. such as the Rock Properties. Make sure that the volume calculated is correct if you are planning to evaluate under. enter the Measured Depth and Section Length for the portion of the casing you want to describe (Figure 2. the user can enter depth values in either MD or TVD. When you are finished entering the deviation data.3 Data Input 115 When using the radius of curvature method. and Zones dialogs. If the angle build rate is specified the deviation angle will be calculated. This is especially important for real-time and replay simulation. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The value calculated is displayed in the upper left corner of the General Wellbore Hydraulics screen and also in the Wellbore section of the Treatment Schedule. This option specifies which of the two values is keep (while the other is recalculated based on the deviation model. three addition plots are included: TVD versus North. choose either the Casing and/or Tubing tabs found on the Wellbore Hydraulics screen. Selecting Allow Casing Overlap enables the user to input both the measured depth and section length. and North versus.or over-displacement conditions. Casing/Tubing Data To enter pipe data. the angle build rate will be calculated. This also applies to reference MDs and TVDs on the General and BHTP Reference tabs in the Wellbore Hydraulics dialog.16). East. For 3D surveys. For Casing. A dialog box will open with a set of tabbed plots: The first is the cross-section that plots the deviation’s TVD versus horizontal displacement. If no overlap exists.2. The third plots the inclination angle versus MD. depending upon your application. Fluid Loss. The program uses the information entered to calculate the pipe volume and/or flush volume.

Like the Casing data. it is displayed in the wellbore configuration diagram located on the left side of the Wellbore Hydraulics screen. The pipe components and their positions are drawn with the same relative scaling.17). For Tubing data. Meyer & Associates. click the corresponding database row and the data will automatically be entered in the casing data table. In MFrac. To specify the OD. Meyer User’s Guide . As each row of data is entered. When you have found the size. Inc.116 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. once the depths have been specified.16: Wellbore Hydraulics . it can either be entered directly in the table or it can be added to the database. however.Casing Tab. it is only necessary to enter the Measured Depth. the entry of Casing and Tubing data is handled in a similar manner. ID and pipe Weight. scroll through the Casing Database. found at the bottom of the Casing screen to locate the correct pipe size. fill in the table with the correct pipe sizes from the Tubing Database. If the data is not present in the database. as no overlap in sizes is allowed (Figure 2.

a Relative Pipe Roughness and Friction Loss Multiplier can be entered independently for each string of pipe. etc. An example of the coiled tubing tab is shown in Figure 2.18. The length of coil on the reel is calculated by subtracting the Measured Depth from the Total Coiled Tubing Length. roughness. . restrictions. joints.3 Data Input 117 Figure 2. due to collars. When using this feature the calculated frictional pressure loss is multiplied by the Friction Loss Multiplier.75 the actual pressure loss reported by the program would be 750 psi. For example. For both the Casing and Tubing.2. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. This parameter modifies the calculated frictional pressure loss. and the option to calculate friction loss (based on the reel core diameter) or to use a user-defined reel friction loss multiplier is available. The Tubing dialog changes when coiled tubing is specified. Inc. Only one set of tubing parameters is applicable.Tubing Tab. if the simulated pressure loss is 1000 psi and the friction multiplier is 0.17: Wellbore Hydraulics . The Friction Loss Multiplier can be used to simulate additional pressure losses.

The friction factor multiplier for the coil on the reel is then calculated from a modified McCann’s correlation (SPE 36345) as given by b f ct = f st  1 + a  d  D   where f ct is the fanning friction factor for the coiled-tubing. The Reel Core Mean Diameter is required input if the User-defined Coiled-Tubing Reel Friction-Loss Multiplier is unchecked.Coiled Tubing Tab.. d is the coil tubing inside diameter.5 and b = 0.e.1 are Meyer & Associates. The Measured Depth is the length of tubing in the well. and D is the reel core diameter (i. Length of Coil on the Reel is difference between the Total Coiled Tubing Length and the Measure Depth. Inc. and the coefficients a = 1. f st is the fanning friction factor for straight tubing.18: Wellbore Hydraulics . The Total Coiled Tubing Length is the total length of tubing on the reel and in the well. mean diameter). Meyer User’s Guide .118 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2.

the expression used for friction factor is modified in accordance with Prandtl’s “Universal” law expression. the user must enter the Reeled-Tubing Friction Loss Multiplier for the coil. the frictional loss multiplier for the tubing on the reel is an additional multiplier to the straight tubing friction factor times the straight tubing multiplier. relative to straight tubing) is given by fm = 1 + a  d  D  b If the User-defined Coiled-Tubing Reel Friction-Loss Multiplier is checked.3 Data Input 119 representative values. In general. Inc. This feature can be used to simulate the effects of various tool or pipe configurations. The reel friction multiplier ( f m . inside diameter and optional Friction Loss Multiplier for each restriction. The table that is displayed requires the measured depth. When a value is entered for the Relative Pipe Roughness. Restriction data is optional and can be entered by clicking the Restrictions tab found on the Wellbore Hydraulics dialog box as shown in Figure 2. Refer to Appendix E for addition information regarding the effect of wall roughness on the friction factor. Restrictions Data The last component included in the wellbore configuration is the description of any restrictions that may exist in the tubing. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. This parameter is applied as an additional frictional pressure loss multiplier for the tubing on the reel. . Pipe roughness is also included in the frictional pressure loss calculation when the Wellbore Hydraulics Model is selected as Empirical.2.19.

Meyer & Associates. If the reference depth is above the tubing and you are pumping down both tubing and casing. Either the Measured Depth (MD) or True Vertical Depth (TVD) may be entered. Meyer User’s Guide .120 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. Three (3) BHTP reference depths can be specified for reporting BHTP in the wellbore.19: Wellbore Hydraulics .20 shows the BHTP reference depth table. Inc. BHTP References Figure 2.Restrictions Tab. the BHTP in the tubing will be reported.

21). click the Profile tab on the Wellbore Hydraulics dialog box to view a graphical representation of the components and wellbore deviation (see Figure 2. .3 Data Input 121 Figure 2. Clicking on the Plot button will open a dialog box to allow reconfiguring. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.20: Wellbore Hydraulics . Inc. Profile After configuring the wellbore components.BHTP References Tab. zooming and printing of the plot.2.

21: Wellbore Hydraulics .Profile Tab. A maximum of ten different perforated intervals or limited entry type fractures can be specified. The methodology and governing equations for multilayer or limited entry fracturing is discussed in Appendix B. Inc.122 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. Meyer & Associates. Zones The Zones dialog box is used to specify the number and location of the perforated intervals and corresponding Zone Data (Figure 2.22). Meyer User’s Guide .

an optional Zone name can be entered in the second column of the table. Top of Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. A zone is Active when the check mark is displayed. the perforation data is entered relative to the true vertical depth (i.22: Zones Dialog Screen. The type of data required to define an interval depends on whether the well and/or the fracture is horizontal or vertical. Perforation and Fracture Intervals For vertical wells with vertical fractures. Inc. regardless of whether the well is deviated or not.3 Data Input 123 Figure 2. . Zone Name To assist in keeping track of the data depth intervals. Active Any zone that is defined in the program can be enabled or disabled for use in simulation of multilayer fractures by double-clicking the left column to display or clear a check mark. the fracture will initiate in that zone.2. If only one zone is active.. Each Active zone represents the possibility of creating a multilayer fracture in that zone. A well is assumed to be a “vertical well” unless the Horizontal check box in the General Wellbore Hydraulics screen is checked.e. This name is only used to help organize the input and output data.

the ratio of the total length (tip to tip) to the total height of the fracture (2L/H)). This data is used to characterize the total gross height of the fracture. The Zones Data screen shown in Figure 2.23 has tabs for Perforations. the center of the perforated measured depth (Center of Perfs MD) is input and the true vertical center of the perforated depth (Center of Perfs TVD) is calculated.e. Multiple Fractures and Near Wellbore. When either the Vertical Ellipsoidal or 3-D geometry options are used in combination with a horizontal well. For the PKN or GDK models. Meyer & Associates. the Zones spreadsheet will contain two additional columns. Bottom of Perfs MD). In these columns you must enter the top true vertical depth of the fracture (2-D Top of Frac TVD) and the bottom true vertical depth of the fracture (2-D Bottom of Frac TVD). When any of the two-dimensional fracture geometry models are chosen from the General Options screen. Bottom of Perfs TVD) or measured depths (i. it is also necessary to enter the TVD for the top and bottom of fracture initiation. The Center of Perfs TVD is dimmed and cannot be edited. Pay Zone. If an Ellipsoidal fracture geometry model is chosen.12). This is the ratio of the major and minor ellipse axes (i.e... A feature to include perforation erosion is also available. even if the well is vertical. Top of Perfs MD. the Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio must also be specified. If a horizontal well is specified in the General Wellbore Hydraulics screen. Inc. additional columns of data are required. To activate the perforation erosion folder you must have Perforation Erosion selected to User Specified in the Proppant Option Dialog (see Figure 2.124 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Perfs TVD. This same convention is used when the Horizontal Ellipsoidal fracture model is specified. open the Zone Data screen for each interval by clicking the Edit button found in the far right column. Meyer User’s Guide . Zone Data After entering the Zones perforated depth information.

Figure 2. Perforations Figure 2.23 shows a dimmed perforation erosion table illustrating that Perforation Erosion was selected to None. . Perforation erosion has been set to User Specified.2. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Inc.3 Data Input 125 Figure 2. The perforation data requirements are discussed below.24 shows the perforation tab screen. This activates the screen for inputting perforation erosion data.23: Zones Data Dialog Tabs.

Cramer17. and Meyer & Associates. These values are entered in the boxes provided at the top of the Perforations screen.24: Zone Data . This information is used to calculate the perforation friction pressure loss. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. and ElRabaa. Perforation Erosion The perforation erosion feature is based on the work of Shah12.Perforation Tab. Limited entry designs require a certain differential pressure across the perforations to ensure that each zone accepts a proportionate amount of fluid and proppant. and Lord18. The effect of the proppant is to increase the discharge coefficient. During the limited entry treatment. perforations are exposed to a slurry of proppant and fluid. Shah. C D .126 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. Number and Diameter of Perforations The Number and Diameter of perforations must also be specified for each perforated zone. This option allows for perforation erosion during the treatment.

25 shows the data required to model perforation erosion.25: Perforation Erosion Data Screen. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The increase in CD can be described as a rounding of the perforation. the discharge coefficient is 0. To calculate Perforation Erosion for limited entry fracturing treatments. the intercept is calculated. Perforation Erosion Rate.3 Data Input 127 the hydraulic diameter of the perforation ( C D1 / 2 D ). Enter an Initial Discharge Coefficient. Figure 2.2. The final discharge coefficient is then calculated. . The discharge coefficient for a sharp-edged perforation entrance is 0. Perforation Erosion Rate. The Final Discharge Coefficient should be set to a larger value than the Initial Discharge Coefficient. Inc. Figure 2. When Final Discharge Coefficient is chosen enter an Intercept along with the Initial Discharge Coefficient.83. When Intercept is selected. select Intercept or Final Discharge Coefficient from the Perforation Erosion dialog box. and Critical Proppant Mass. Final Discharge Coefficient. For a rounded perforation entrance. and Critical Proppant Mass.60.

Note.83.128 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Unless reliable data is available. The upper and lower dashed lines are the theoretical limits for the initial and final hydraulic perforation diameters. After 6000 lbm of proppant has passed through the perforation. Meyer & Associates. These limits are based on Initial and Final Discharge Coefficients of 0.83 discharge coefficient (i. the pressure loss ratio has dropped to less than 60% of its original value. select the Plot icon./1000 lbm and 6000 lbm. As the amount of proppant mass passes through a perforation. The pressure loss ratio is the ratio of the perforation pressure loss after proppant has gone through compared to the base case of no perforation erosion.60 and 0.26 shows a plot of the hydraulic perforation diameter ( C D1 / 2 D ) and pressure loss ratio as a function of proppant mass through each perforation. Typical values for the Perforation Erosion Rate and Critical Proppant Mass are 0. Meyer User’s Guide .83. Figure 2. Figure 2. To view a plot of the Perforation Erosion correlation. set the initial value to 0. if perforation erosion is not selected a 0.e. the hydraulic diameter increases and the pressure loss ratio decreases. respectively.6 and the Final Discharge Coefficient to 0. rounded orifice entrance) is used. Mass.26: Hydraulic Diameter (CD1/2D) & Pressure Loss vs. Inc.004 in..

2.3 Data Input 129 Pay Zone Figure 2. To determine the fracture conductivity in a pay zone. F CD . is calculated from kf wf F CD = --------kr L Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Figure 2. . These values are used to determine an integrated (average) conductivity ( k f w f ) and a dimensionless conductivity over the pay interval. Pay Zone Permeability This is the average pay zone permeability used to calculate an average dimensionless conductivity.27 shows the Pay Zone data screen.27: Pay Zone Data Screen. The associated Dimensionless Fracture Flow Capacity. Inc. a productive interval (pay zone) and average zone permeability must be assigned.

28 shows the multiple fractures input data screen. These depths do not have to conform to the perforated interval. This is not the same as multilayer or limited entry fracturing. Multiple Fractures This section allows the user to specify the number and degree of interaction of multiple fractures in the specific multilayer zone. the propped conductivity and propped fracture length will be zero. If the Proppant Transport Plots show a conductive fracture (propped width and conductivity contours) and the pay zone does not appear on the screen or the pay zone plots show zero conductivity. If the fracture is not propped in this interval.dx  0 k f  x w f  x   where kf wf = average fracture conductivity kf  x  = = = = proppant permeability in the fracture reservoir permeability propped fracture width propped fracture half-length kr wf  x  L A more detailed analysis of the effective conductivity for variable conductivity fractures is given in Appendix L. Pay Zone Depth A pay zone is defined by entering the TVD or MD Depth From (top) and TVD or MD Depth To (bottom) in the boxes provided. Meyer & Associates. Multiple fractures refer to fractures in the far field (not near wellbore) which may or may not be interacting. These fractures may also be parallel or dendritic (tree like).130 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator The average fracture conductivity for long term production is given by kf wf = L 0 kf  x wf  x  dx  L and for short term production or reduced conductivity near the wellbore the following relationship may be more applicable L 1 k f w f = L    ------------------------. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. Figure 2. it indicates that the fracture is not within the pay zone.

2.3 Data Input 131 Figure 2. The individual fracture interaction factors and degrees of interaction as given in Appendix C are Flow Rate Q i =  q Q t where  q = 1  N Stiffness E i =  E E 0 where  E =  N – 1  E + 1 Fluid Loss Vi = Vt  N where Vt = l V0 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.28: Multiple Fractures Data Screen. Inc. .

the stiffness increases by a factor equal to the number of fractures (i. Meyer User’s Guide . Depending on the reservoir properties and vicinity of the fracture system. this value may not be the same as the degree of the stiffness interaction. This parameter can range from 0 to 100%. The degrees of interaction  are the values entered into the program. The default is a single two wing fracture (Number of Fractures equal to one). Fluid Loss Interaction This represents the percent of fluid loss interaction between the multiple fracture system. respectively. the fracture net pressure can be lower for multiple fractures than for a single fracture. respectively. The interaction values for no and full interaction are zero and 100%. Number of Fractures This is the number of multiple fractures (with two wings) to be modeled in a given layer. Depending on the degree of fracture interaction.. the greater the stiffness. full interaction). The default is no fracture interaction. The interaction values for no and full interaction are zero and 100%. For multiple parallel fractures within a fraction of their characteristic height. The closer the fractures are together. The total value for N fractures is given by the subscript t. Meyer & Associates. For tree like (dendritic) fractures the stiffness interaction may be negligible (no interaction). If near wellbore multiple fractures are causing near wellbore pressure losses. Stiffness Interaction This represents the per cent of stiffness interaction between the multiple fracture system. the near wellbore pressure loss table should be used. respectively. This parameter can have a value from 0 to 100%.132 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator  l =  1 – N  l + N The interaction factors and degrees of interaction are given by  and  .e. The individual fracture properties and parameters are identified by the subscript i. The reader is referred to Appendix C for additional information regarding multiple fractures and fracture interaction. Inc. Fracture Interaction Check this box to specify the degree of stiffness and fluid loss interaction for competing fractures.

near wellbore multiple fractures.29. The methodology employed is explained in Appendix C. Up to fifty rows can be specified to define the near wellbore pressure drop as a function of time and rate. fill in the spreadsheet located on the right side of the Zone Data screen. MFrac automatically records “significant rate and pressure changes” and generates a near wellbore pressure loss relationship. To include the near wellbore pressure drop as a function of time. Figure 2. After running the acquired data through MFrac. MFrac has the capability to model time and rate dependent near wellbore pressure drop for each fracture. This pressure drop can represent any near wellbore effect such as tortuosity. etc. The program will then load the corresponding data file to fill in the Near Wellbore Pressure Table.29: Near Wellbore Pressure Loss Screen. perforation erosion. open the Zone Data dialog box and choose the Import RT Button. If no Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Import RT Button When performing real-time or replay analysis using MView.2. . Inc.3 Data Input 133 Near Wellbore Pressure Table The near wellbore pressure loss table is shown in Figure 2.

134 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator significant rate/BHTP changes were encountered or if the data was not run through MFrac. or to add the resulting effects to the calculated perforation pressure losses (near well effects only).If the job duration is longer than the maximum time entered in the table. Figure 2. Inc. a message like the one shown in Figure 2. the last (final) K  t  value will be used Note for limited entry the imported table must be modified to account for the fractional flow rate going into each fracture.30: Import RT Message. choose how it will be applied by clicking one of the radio buttons located below the spreadsheet. The program performs a linear interpolation between successive data points for  K  t  where p  t  = K  t q  t  . The smartmenu system used by MFrac only requests the data needed to perform a specific simulation. Meyer & Associates. Treatment Schedule The data required for the Treatment Schedule screen varies depending upon the selections made in the General. Once a Near Wellbore Pressure Table has been created. The options are: to ignore the table completely.30 will be displayed. This table can be manually changed to incorporate small rate/pressure changes not considered significant or indeterminate by MFrac. The imported near wellbore pressure table includes the total near wellbore pressure loss. Fracture and Proppant Options screens. use the pressure drop as the total near wellbore effects (including perforations). Meyer User’s Guide .

or Total Proppant Mass. Conventional. An option for the proppant staging profile (staging time for increasing the proppant concentration using a power law relationship) may also be selected. or Fracture Conductivity in the pay zone at closure. Inc. The specific data required will also depend on the selection made for the Proppant Distribution Style Option which allows the user to auto design a treatment schedule based on Maximum Proppant Concentration. Frac pack designs allow for the additional options for the rate step down during packing. Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity.Treatment Schedule When Auto Design is chosen for the Treatment Schedule Option. The treatment design will be scheduled from the Input Parameter choices of Maximum Fracture Length. Total Slurry Volume. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. and a rate step down criteria for multi-stage step downs.2.3 Data Input 135 Auto Design . An option is also available to maintain a net pressure increase during the rate step down in order to pack the fracture.e..31). a specific Concentration per Unit Area. a comprehensive Treatment Schedule screen for auto design is enabled that requires variable input depending on the Proppant Transport Methodology (i. . Tip ScreenOut (TSO) or Frac Pack) (Figure 2.

136 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. Meyer User’s Guide . To use this capability. During an auto design simulation. This enables the tabular type Treatment Schedule that contains the Import from Output Data button.31: Auto Design Treatment Schedule Screen. Inc. Meyer & Associates. it is necessary to run the automatic design case and then change the Treatment Schedule Option to Input. Click the button to fill in the Treatment Schedule table using the data automatically generated by the previous MFrac run. the automatically designed treatment schedule is saved into an output file. This treatment schedule can then be imported into a tabular Treatment Schedule screen (Auto Design is Off) for additional editing and simulation using the Import from Output Data button.

the Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity. Those input parameters not found here are in the section “Input of Treatment Schedule” below. Input Parameter Menu The Input Parameter choices are: Maximum Fracture Length. If the TSO or Frac Pack option is selected. Maximum Fracture Length For an auto design based on fracture length (fracture half-length).2. Total Slurry Volume The slurry volume is required input when the Auto Design option is based on the total slurry volume pumped. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Proppant Distribution Style The Proppant Distribution Style can have up to four options depending on the Proppant Transport Methodology.or bridge-out and that the maximum proppant concentration in the fracture will not exceed the maximum value specified in the table. Total Proppant Mass The proppant mass is required input when the Auto Design option is based on the total proppant mass pumped. designs will be created in increments up to the maximum specified Input Parameter value. The resulting fracture length is then calculated from the slurry volume injected. . 3) Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity. (i.e. Total Slurry Volume. The resulting fracture length is then calculated from the proppant mass injected and value for the specific Proppant Distribution Style selected. the user can specify the auto design proppant scheduling methodology based on 1) The Maximum Proppant Concentration. or Fracture conductivity. or the 4) Fracture Conductivity. a treatment schedule will be automatically developed to create a fracture length equal to the Maximum Fracture Length input into the dialog. the Maximum Proppant Concentration option will be dimmed). If Conventional is selected.3 Data Input 137 The following input parameters and their descriptions are specific to the Auto Design Treatment Schedule. proppant design scheduling can be based on target values for the Concentration per Unit Area. If the maximum Proppant Concentration is selected for the Proppant Distribution Style. 2) Concentration per Unit Area. or Total Proppant Mass. the code will design a treatment with the last proppant stage at the final proppant concentration. The auto design will create a treatment schedule so that the stages do not screen. Inc.. If a NPV design is selected. These choices are available for all Proppant Transport Methodology options including NPV optimization.

increase the fracture efficiency (decrease fluid loss) or c) increase the size of the treatment. increase the fracture efficiency (decrease fluid loss) or c) Increase the size of the treatment. Possible remedies: • The fracture width is not large enough. Meyer User’s Guide . • Increase the final proppant concentration. b) increase the fluid viscosity. • The formation permeability may be too high. Possible remedies: • The fracture width is too small. Simulated Dimensionless Conductivity and Fracture Conductivity Simulated dimensionless conductivity or conductivity is lower than the specified Target Value. • Pump a higher permeability proppant.138 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator The target values for the Concentration per Unit Area. Inc. Following are some of the limiting scenarios and numerical results that will prevent achieving (below or above) the target values for Concentration per Unit Area and/or Conductivity based on the Proppant Transport Methodology selected in the options screen: Conventional and Conventional (Link Proppant) Simulated Concentration per unit Area Simulated Concentration per unit Area is lower than the specified Target Value. Solutions a) Select a TSO or Frac Pack design. • Increase the final proppant concentration. Solutions a) Select a TSO or Frac Pack design. Simulated Dimensionless Conductivity or Fracture Conductivity is higher than the specified Target Value. Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity and Fracture Conductivity are limited by the maximum proppant concentration pumped. Therefore the designed fracture length may be too large for the formation (Dimensionless Conductivity only). Simulated Concentration per unit Area is higher than the specified Target Value. Possible remedies: • Decrease the initial and incremental proppant concentrations. Possible remedies: • Decrease the initial and incremental proppant concentrations. Meyer & Associates. b) increase the fluid viscosity.

3 Data Input 139 • The propped fracture may be a monolayer. design on concentration per unit area. Possible remedies: • Increase the final proppant concentration and or/increase the maximum allowable BHTP. Simulated Dimensionless Conductivity and Fracture Conductivity Simulated dimensionless conductivity or fracture conductivity is lower than the specified Target Value. • Increase the final proppant concentration. • Pump a higher permeability proppant. If Frac Pack is selected change to TSO.2. Possible remedies: • Decrease the initial and incremental proppant concentrations. Therefore. Therefore. • The propped fracture may be a monolayer. • If TSO is selected change the mode to Conventional. • If in TSO or Frac Pack mode switch to Conventional. Therefore. Possible remedies:. . • Increase the final proppant concentration and or/increase the maximum allowable BHTP. Simulated dimensionless conductivity or fracture conductivity is higher than the specified Target Value. the designed fracture length may be too large for the formation (dimensionless conductivity only). Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Simulated Concentration per unit Area is higher than the specified Target Value. design on concentration per unit area. • Chose a proppant with a lower permeability. • The formation permeability may be too high. TSO and Frac Pack Simulated Concentration per unit Area Simulated Concentration per unit Area is lower than the specified Target Value. Inc. Possible remedies: • Decrease the initial and incremental proppant concentrations.

• If TSO is selected change the mode to Conventional. press the Edit button to view the fluid properties. the Proppant Database pop-up screen is displayed. If this box is not checked MFrac will automatically design a treatment schedule based on the minimum. Proppant Type When a Proppant Type field is entered.140 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator • Chose a proppant with a lower permeability. If Frac Pack is selected change to TSO Override Internal Concentration Staging Profile If this option is checked the user can specify the rate of proppant ramping or the change in proppant concentration with time. To view the properties that correspond to this proppant code. press the Edit button to view the proppant properties. The specified fluid will be highlighted in the Fluid Database pop-up screen. the Fluid Database pop-up screen is presented allowing the selection of the stage fluid type. the user does not have to input the Minimum Step Down Rate. Select the desired fluid from the list by clicking on it and the fluid code will automatically be entered in the Treatment Schedule. Fluid Type When clicking or using the TAB key to access a Fluid Type data box. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . a treatment design will be calculated to ensure that the fracture net pressure does not decrease during the slow down stages. Next. and maximum concentration at the tip. Maintain Net Pressure Increase This option is only available for Frac pack designs and if Multi-Stage Step Down is selected. click on the Proppant DB button. Choose the desired proppant type from the list. MFrac automatically determines the required pad and stage volumes to create the input Meyer & Associates. the value entered will be used to automatically develop a pumping schedule. maximum. either by clicking on it or using the TAB key. The proppant code will automatically be entered in the Treatment Schedule. To view the fluid properties for the selected fluid type. This is accomplished by designing the slow down rate to always be greater than the leakoff rate. Fracture Length This input field is only available if the Input Parameter selected is Maximum Fracture Length. click on the Fluid DB button. For an auto design based on fracture length (fracture half-length). Next. If this box is checked. If this option is checked. The user will also then be asked to input a Staging Profile Power Law Coefficient.

Based on this volume and other criteria specified in the Treatment Schedule screen. 2. Total Slurry Volume This input field is only available if the selected Input Parameter is Total Slurry Volume. MFrac will automatically reduce the rate once the maximum proppant concentration is reached in order to match the leakoff rate and achieve a stabilized fracture pressure.2. Total proppant Mass This input field is only available if the selected Input Parameter is Total Proppant Mass.e. This input parameter is only required if the frac pack Rate Schedule option of Multi-Stage Step Down Step Down is selected and Maintain net Pressure Increase is not checked. Minimum Step Down Rate This is the minimum slurry rate at which the treatment will be pumped at the end of the job when performing an automatic Multi-Stage Step Down rate Frac-Pack design. When performing an automatic Frac-Pack design. the proppant concentration will begin at 2 lb/gal for the first stage and then proceed with subsequent 2 lb/gal stage increments (i.. Proppant scheduling is optimized based on the proppant type.. this value is used as the initial ramp concentration and increment for staging. Pump Rate This is the slurry rate at which the treatment will be pumped. concentrations and Proppant Transport Methodology option specified. Inc. In other words. MFrac will automatically design the pad volume and proppant staging.. Based on this mass and other criteria specified in the Treatment Schedule screen. When the Proppant Ramp option is turned On... the rate entered is the maximum value that will be used. This value is also used by MFrac as the step increment for proppant scheduling.3 Data Input 141 length based on the other parameters entered in the treatment schedule screen. Enter the total slurry to be pumped for the simulation. if 2 lb/gal is entered. 6. lb/gal). MFrac will automatically design the pad volume and proppant staging. 8. MFrac will automatically reduce the rate once the maximum proppant concentration is reached in order to match the leakoff rate and achieve a stabilized fracture pressure. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. If the frac pack Rate Schedule option of Single Step Down is selected. Initial and Incremental Prop Concentration This is the initial concentration MFrac will begin automatic scheduling. Enter the total proppant mass to be pumped for the simulation. . 4.

. Inlet Concentrations. Inc.g. and Max. Initial and Max. It is used as a limit to determine the inlet concentration schedule based on the selection made for the Proppant Transport Methodology option (i. and Max. Based on this value and the specified Frac Length (or Volume). This input parameter may be used when performing a net present value. Maximum Proppant Concentration (at tip) This value is the maximum volumetric concentration allowed at the fracture tip (e.g. MFrac always designs to the specified length. Initial and Max. conventional. TSO and Frac Pack (or volume for conventional). TSO). to the target dimensionless fracture conductivity in the pay zone as calculated from Meyer & Associates. BHTP. The value required by the program is the average mass per unit area of fracture face (e. All automatic scheduling starts with the Initial Concentration and ends with the Final Concentration.. BHTP. MFrac will automatically determine a pumping schedule using either the tip screen-out (TSO) or frac-pack criteria selected in the Proppant Transport Methodology option. Target Concentration/Unit Area The average target concentration per unit area is required input when the Proppant Distribution Style is selected as Concentration per Unit Area. MFrac will automatically determine a pumping schedule based on the selected Proppant Transport Methodology option. Proppant Concentration determines how the program schedules proppant between these two points. Inlet Concentrations. This target parameter may be used when performing a NPV optimization.. lb/gal) during pumping. if possible. Target Dimensionless Conductivity The Target Dimensionless Conductivity may be input when the Proppant Distribution Style is selected as Dimensionless Conductivity. The Max. and then. this value is used as the final concentration for the ramp.e. lb/ft2) achieved at closure. Meyer User’s Guide . Based on this value and the specified Frac Length (or Volume). automatic tip screen-out or frac-pack design. if possible. and then. Auto Design. When the Proppant Ramp option is turned On. conventional. automatic tip screen-out or frac-pack design. MFrac always designs to the specified length for NPV. to the average concentration per unit area.142 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Final Proppant Concentration This value indicates the final (or last stage) proppant concentration to be pumped by MFrac.

k is the formation permeability.3 Data Input 143 kf wf C fD = --------kL p where k f wf is the average conductivity in the pay zone. and L p is the propped fracture length in the pay. The value required by the program is the target value to be achieved at closure. Target Fracture Conductivity The Target Fracture Conductivity may be input when the Proppant Distribution Style is selected as Fracture Conductivity.=  ------------ t p – t 0 c  tp  – c  t0  where  c t Meyer User’s Guide = = profile power law coefficient proppant concentration at time t Meyer & Associates. Inlet Concentrations. Initial and Max. This input parameter may be used when performing a net present value. k f w f is the variable fracture conductivity with position in the fracture. BHTP. and Max. The target fracture conductivity in the pay zone is calculated from kf wf = Lp 0 k f w f  x  dx  L p where k f w f is the average conductivity in the pay zone. The value required by the program is the target value to be achieved at closure. The proppant concentration as a function of time or volume (for a constant injection rate) will then be increased (ramped) according to the following formula: c  t  – c  t0  t – t0   ----------------------------. . and L p is the propped fracture length in the pay. conventional. MFrac will automatically determine a pumping schedule based on the selected Proppant Transport Methodology option. or Mass). Staging Profile Power Law Coefficient The staging proppant profile power law coefficient is only required input if the Override Internal Concentration Staging Profile option box is checked. Based on this value and the specified Frac Length (Volume.2. Inc. automatic tip screen-out or frac-pack design.

Based on this value and the specified Fracture Length. If a simulation reaches this constraint before achieving the specified fracture length or proppant concentration. Meyer & Associates. Average Concentration/Area and target Average Concentration/unit area or target dimensionless conductivity. Meyer User’s Guide . the General tab and the Stages tab.32. Selecting the message box Cancel button will terminate the simulation. Inlet Concentrations. Two tabs are listed under Treatment Schedule. Maximum BHTP The maximum allowable bottomhole treating pressure is required as a constraint when performing automatic tip screen-out or frac-pack designs. Typical values range from 0.0. The maximum BHTP is used as a pressure limit to prevent excessive ballooning. a message will be displayed indicating that the maximum allowable pressure has been reached. a more intuitive Treatment Schedule is presented. and concave downward for   1 . concave upward for   1 . General Tab The General tab for the non-foam Treatment Schedules is shown in Figure 2.144 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator c  t0  c  tp  t t0 tp = = = = = initial proppant concentration at time t 0 final proppant concentration at time t p time time of initial concentration or pad time of final concentration or end of pumping The proppant ramp will be linear for  = 1 . Selecting the OK button will allow you to enter a new pressure limit. Initial and Max.General Treatment Schedule If Input is selected for the Treatment Design Option. MFrac will automatically determine a pumping schedule using the criteria selected in the Proppant Transport Methodology options. Inc. Input .5 to 2.

rates.32: Input Treatment Schedule – General Tab. .g. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Schedule Type In the Schedule Type dialog box select Surface or Bottomhole to specify whether the data entered (e. whose rate will be used to recirculate the fluid that is at bottomhole out of the wellbore.5 means that the well is 50% filled.2. If pumping from Bottomhole. Along with the Wellbore Volume displayed from the wellbore hydraulics screen. volumes. To indicate a partially filled wellbore. Select Stage Friction Multipliers to enter friction multipliers for each stage. Select Stage Recirculation to allow the selection of stages. A value of 0. specify the Flush Fluid Type. A value of one (1) indicates the wellbore is 100% filled. specify a Wellbore Fluid Type. The General tab contains dialog boxes for Schedule Type and Wellbore. You can also specify whether the well is filled or partially filled prior to injection. enter a fraction (0-1) in the Fraction of Well Filled box. you can specify a Recirculation Volume. Inc. If pumping from Surface. etc.) represent surface or bottomhole conditions..3 Data Input 145 Figure 2. Wellbore The wellbore dialog box is related to the initial condition of the wellbore.

For reference. copy. Meyer User’s Guide . delete and fill down (see Chapter 1 Working with Spreadsheets). This type of treatment schedule uses a spreadsheet type of interface as shown. A toolbar is provided with each spreadsheet screen to control functions such as cut. it is necessary to specify the Flush Fluid Type. Inc. the Wellbore Volume from the wellbore hydraulics screen is displayed. This is useful for setting stages.146 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator An initial portion of the pumping schedule can be recirculated by entering a slurry volume in the Recirculation Volume box. All stages with a total slurry volume less than the Recirculation Volume will be recirculated. Stage Tab The Stage tab for the Input Proppant Treatment Schedule is shown in Figure 2. If necessary. a user specified Treatment Schedule screen is presented. This variety of treatment schedule uses a spreadsheet table for the data input. For reference. paste. When Input is selected for the Treatment Schedule Option. such as in Frac-Packs. a fraction of a stage may be recirculated. If the stage friction multipliers box is selected the Wellbore Fluid Friction Multiplier can be specified. The resulting screen allows specification of the size and pumping parameters for each stage. This is selected in the same way as the Wellbore Fluid Type as described above.33. delete and fill down (see Chapter 1 Working with Spreadsheets). the Wellbore Fluid Type (surface) or Flush Fluid Type (bottomhole) and Wellbore Volume are displayed. insert. When pumping from Bottomhole. Use the toolbar located at the top of the screen to control functions such as cut. Meyer & Associates. paste. insert. copy.

MFrac will automatically calculate the third.33: Treatment Schedule – Stages Tab. It is possible to either enter the rate and volume to calculate the time. additional columns for specifying the ramp increment (i. If the Proppant Ramp option is enabled. Depending on the options.3 Data Input 147 Figure 2. There are other features of the Input Treatment Schedule screen worthy of note. The treatment schedule table has a few variations that depend on the data options. the last column of the table (the Variable Column) displays a variety of parameters. Likewise. To aid in defining the Treatment Schedule. or enter the rate and time to calculate the volume. the list will contain some subset of Total Time. To) are included. changes will be made in the current stage and the next stage. a column is added to enter the Proppant Settling Rate. Use the Variable Column list box to choose the desired parameter. In short. may be modified in the last column. Total Slurry Volume. when the Proppant Settling Model is User Specified. When modifying a total parameter (such as Total Time)..e. Total Liquid Volume. All of these parameters. MFrac will always guarantee that the rate. For example. Changing the Total Time of Stage 1 to 15 will cause both Stage 1 and Stage 2 to have stage times of 15. After entering any two of the first three columns. Stage Mass. consider the case where Stage 1 has a stage time of 10 and Stage 2 has a stage time of 20. such that the total parameter for the next stage remains constant. with the exception of the mass parameters.2. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . Stage Slurry Volume and Stage Liquid Volume. Inc. The following section has a complete list of input parameters and their definitions. time and volume are synchronized. From. Total Mass.

The flowback option should be On to enter a negative slurry rate. Since proppant concentration is entered as the mass of proppant per unit volume of liquid. this column will appear in the table to allow the selection of stages.148 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Recirculate When the Stage Recirculation option is selected on the General tab. Entering or editing the time for a stage will result in an adjustment to the stage volume. Flush and Shut-in. For bottomhole schedules. the time is automatically calculated. Meyer & Associates. out of the wellbore. Meyer User’s Guide . Pad. Stage Liquid Volume This is the liquid volume of the stage. Slurry Rate This is the simulated constant rate at which the slurry will be pumped for a specific stage or volume specified.34 shows the Stage Type in the Treatment Schedule.. In design mode. The stage type option was added to clearly identify the type of stage in the treatment schedule. When a slurry rate and stage volume are input. Prop (proppant). the selected stage is the one that is recirculated out of the wellbore. whose rate will be used to recirculate the fluid that is at bottomhole. Entering a zero rate and volume is equivalent to specifying a shut-in period. For surface schedules. Slug (proppant slug). The following stage types can be entered in the Treatment Schedule: None (blank). a negative rate must be specified. In real-time/replay mode. while the selected stage is injected at the surface. Stage Slurry Volume This is the slurry volume of the stage.e. the calculated pump times displayed include the volume of the proppant. that is recirculated out of the wellbore. Stage Time This is the time required to inject the stage slurry volume at the stage slurry rate. this is the second column of the treatment schedule table. as well as the liquid (i. this is the second column of the treatment schedule table. based on a given slurry rate). For flowback. Acid. it is the fluid that is bottomhole. Prepad. Stage Type Figure 2. Inc.

Acid. The stage type is now an identifier as to whether a given stage can screen-out or bridge-out. In real-time if the proppant type is set to Prop for all stages the model could screen-out due to slight meter reading fluctuations in the proppant concentration during the pad or when pumping a proppant slug. TSO. Flush and Flowback are allowed to screen. Clicking on the Stage Type box will display a pull down box with the choices shown in Figure 2.e.or bridge-out. Flush or Flowback and the Proppant Transport Methodology must be set to an option that links the fracture and proppant solutions (i. choose Conventional (link proppant). Inc. Not only are the stage types cosmetically pleasing.3 Data Input 149 Figure 2. Therefore. Conventional does not link the solutions). or Frac Pack.or bridge-out in the fracture. .. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. All other Stage Types (Pre-pad. and Shut-in) will prevent the proppant from concentrating and bridging in the fracture. The Stage Type identifier only allows a stage type of Blank (none). independent of the stage type. Flush or Flowback to screen. Pad. Prop. the proppant can screen.2. Prop. The only exception is if the proppant type is 0000. The bridge-out and screen-out criteria are also disabled for proppant type 0000.and bridge-out but it will not stop the fracture from propagating. they are functional. Then the proppant will not screen-out. Slug. If the Proppant Transport Methodology is set to Conventional. to achieve a TSO the proppant Stage Type must be of type Blank (none). Prop. Only Stage Types of Blank (none).34: Stage Type Identifiers.34.

150 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Fluid Type When clicking or using the TAB key to access a Fluid Type data box. Choose the desired proppant for the corresponding stage from the list.e. = = = final (damaged) fracture permeability proppant permeability (undamaged from database) proppant damage factor Meyer User’s Guide . Select the desired fluid from the list by clicking on it and the fluid code will automatically be entered in the Treatment Schedule. Inc. Proppant Type When a Proppant Type field is entered. Concentration When the Proppant Ramp Option is Off. To view the properties that correspond to a proppant code in a given row. press the Edit button to view the fluid properties. When the Proppant Ramp Option is turned On. It represents the inlet concentration of proppant per unit volume of liquid to be injected (mass/volume liquid i. the value entered is a constant for the corresponding stage. The proppant code will automatically be entered in the Treatment Schedule. Prop. the Proppant Database pop-up screen is displayed. The bridge-out and screen-out criteria are disabled for Proppant Type 0000 independent of the Proppant Transport Methodology option. To view the fluid properties for a given fluid type either select the corresponding spreadsheet row or wellbore fluid type and then click on the Fluid DB button. This results in a uniform increase (or decrease) in proppant concentration with increasing liquid volume. press the Edit button to view the proppant properties.. either by clicking on it or using the TAB key. the Fluid Database pop-up screen is presented allowing the selection of the stage fluid type. Next. click on the Proppant DB button. lbm/gal liquid). The specified proppant type will be highlighted in the Proppant Database pop-up screen. Next. the inlet concentration is assumed to increase or decrease as a linear ramp in liquid volume between the From and To values. Proppant Damage Factor The reported final permeability of the proppant in the fracture is calculated from: k f = k  1 – DF  where kf k DF Meyer & Associates. The specified fluid will be highlighted in the Fluid Database pop-up screen.

. delete. This multiplier is in addition to the Friction Loss Multiplier in the Wellbore Hydraulics Screen.5). Proppant Settling Rate When the User Specified option is chosen for the Proppant Settling Model. Proppant. and the Friction Loss Multiplier in the Treatment Schedule was 0. Friction Loss Multiplier To activate the Friction Loss Multiplier column feature. and Acid Databases can be accessed from the Treatment Schedule. Therefore. If stage friction multiplier is checked. If the calculated pipe friction for a stage is 1000 psi and a Treatment Schedule Friction Loss Multiplier value of 0. Inc. the Stage Friction Multiplier must be checked in the General tab of the Treatment Schedule dialog box.3 Data Input 151 The final permeability is used to determine the fracture conductivity and dimensionless fracture conductivity. The value entered will be used as a constant for the settling velocity of the associated proppant stage during the simulation. Once the Fluid Database screen is activated you can add. if the base pressure loss was 1000 psi.35 shows accessing the Fluid Database. friction loss multipliers can be specified for each stage in the Treatment Schedule.85 is entered. Figure 2. The following explains how the Friction Loss Multiplier is implemented.2. Database Access The Fluid. edit and plot data as if you had selected the Database menu from the Main Menu tool bar. the Proppant Settling Rate must be entered in the Treatment Schedule. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.85 with a Wellbore Hydraulics multiplier of 0. the resulting pipe friction would be 850 psi.5. the total pressure loss would be 425 psi (1000*0.85*0. copy. This is useful for history matching surface treating pressures.

Acid Frac Treatment Schedule When using the Acid Fracturing option. the treatment schedule replaces the proppant scheduling parameters with the required acid fracturing parameters (Figure 2. Meyer User’s Guide .36). stage volume. etc. The acid parameters and a brief description of each are given below. Meyer & Associates.152 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. The general treatment parameters of slurry rate. are discussed in the “Treatment Schedule Input Parameters” section. Inc.35: Database Access from the Treatment Schedule.

at Inlet This is the acid concentration to be pumped. Acid Conc. This value has the units of mass acid/ mass liquid (i. . Inc. or kg acid / kg liquid). Click on the desired rock/acid system from the list and it will automatically be placed in the column. The Rock/Acid System database list automatically appears when the cursor is placed in this column..2.36: Acid Treatment Schedule Screen.e. The mass of acid in each stage is calculated and included in the output using the following relationship: M a = C i V where Ma Ci V Meyer User’s Guide = = = mass of acid inlet acid concentration stage volume Meyer & Associates. Moving to any other column closes the Rock/Acid System list box. lbm acid / lbm liquid.3 Data Input 153 Figure 2. Rock/Acid System This five (5) character code identifier specifies which data to use from the Acid Frac Database.

proppant concentrations and proppant mass for each stage are calculated from the real-time data. The stage time is then calculated from this total time. The second column of the table is now the Stage Slurry Volume instead of the Stage Liquid Volume. or kg acid / kg liquid).e. the Liquid Volumes may be accessed from the Variable Column. MFrac will calculate the total slurry volume up to the end of that stage. since they Meyer & Associates. the treatment schedule functions differ slightly from the design table (Figure 2. Inc. when a stage slurry volume is changed. The most important difference between design and replay/real-time is that the volume and time values are synchronized with the real-time data. If the Input Concentration option is selected. lbm acid / lbm liquid.. This is done automatically each time a value is changed. For example. since the concentration will be taken from the real-time data. In this case.37). Diffusivity Multiplier The diffusivity of an acid stage used in a simulation is calculated from the following: D = D 0  DM where D D0 DM = = = diffusivity used in the fracture base diffusivity as given in the database diffusivity multiplier Since the characteristic acid diffusivity is rarely understood. The average slurry rates. Real-Time/Replay Treatment Schedule When using the Replay/Real-Time option. This value has the units of mass acid/mass liquid (i. at Equilibrium This is the acid concentration below which no reaction with the formation will occur. then the concentration values must be entered in the table.154 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator  = fluid density Acid Conc. Then it will look through the real-time data and find the total time that corresponds to that total volume. These columns are grayed out. the proppant concentration columns in the treatment schedule will not be editable. Meyer User’s Guide . the diffusivity multiplier is provided as a means of quickly exploring the sensitivity of diffusivity without changing the diffusivity permanently in the Rock/Acid database. If the Real-Time option MView Concentration is selected.

. This process insures that the time and volume values are properly synchronized with the real-time data. Total Time. as more data becomes available. The alternating colors of the Time scale extend through the plot area. This will display an interactive plot (Figure 2.3 Data Input 155 cannot be changed. In this case. MFrac uses a similar process to calculate a new stage volume. the time and rate columns may change in order to maintain the proper synchronization. Horizontal lines extend Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Figure 2. When a stage time is changed. volume and times are synchronized as they are in design mode. This plot allows graphical manipulation of stages. then the rate column is enabled. explore the Graphical Treatment Schedule as described below. If a time or volume value is entered that causes a stage to go beyond the real-time data. That is for a specified slurry volume these values are fixed based on the real-time data. click on the Graphical TS button.2.38) of Total Slurry Volume vs. When doing a real-time job.37: Real-Time & Replay Treatment Schedule Screen. the rate. In general. the slurry volume always takes precedence over time in determining staging. The different stages are represented along the Time and Volume axes by boxes of alternating colors. Graphical Treatment Scheduling To see a graphical picture of the treatment schedule. Inc. To better understand the process of synchronizing with the real-time data.

Figure 2.156 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator from the boxes of the Volume scale to aid in visualizing the stage volumes. Concentrations etc. The others are described below: Meyer & Associates. Graphical Treatment Menu The graphical treatment schedule has its own menu bar at the top of the screen.). the data in the plot is the real-time data from MView. Inc..e. The right axis drop down selection box can now display any parameter sent from MView (i. Meyer User’s Guide . Surface Pressure. the start of the first stage can now be moved like any of the other stages).e.38: Graphical Treatment Schedule Screen.. When using the Replay/Real-time option. BHTP. Rate. Another Graphical Treatment Schedule feature is graphical placement of the restart time (i. Many of the menu commands are standard Meyer menu commands described in Chapter 1. The real-time rate is integrated to get the volume curve.

2. In this case. except it will have one half of the slurry volume. however.3 Data Input 157 The File Menu End Editing without making changes This will end the editing session without keeping any changes made during the editing session. If the current stage is not the last stage. When Neither (the default) is selected. . The new stage will have the same properties as the current stage. The stage numbers of all the subsequent stages will then decrease by one. Delete Stage This will delete the currently selected stage. it will cut the current stage’s volume in half. Pressing the Insert key will also activate this command. This box functions exactly the same as the normal treatment schedule with a few exceptions. A dialog box will allow modification of the new stage. If the currently selected stage is last stage. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. it will only have one row representing the selected stage. Any change in stage volume may be subtracted from the previous or next stage as selected with the Previous. Inc. adding a stage is essentially splitting the current stage into two equal stages. End Editing This will end the editing session and keep all changes made. Pressing the Delete key will also activate this command. none of the other stage volumes will be affected. The Edit Menu Add Stage This will add a new stage after the currently selected stage. Next or Neither buttons. Modify Stage This will allow manual modification of the currently selected stage. the new stage will have exactly the same properties as the current stage. Changing total values in the Variable Column has no effect on other stages. Double-clicking the mouse on a stage while in Select mode will also bring up the modify stage box. A dialog box that resembles the treatment schedule table will appear.

The volume of these stages may not be manipulated graphically. The Select mode is used for selecting and modifying the active stage. Inc. Rate. Select and Zoom. hold down the Control key when dragging the boundary. Concentration or None. The bottom portion of the toolbar displays information about the currently selected stage. When working with a real-time treatment schedule. To keep the stage time (or volume) after the boundary constant. The choices are Rate & Concentration. The stage before and after a boundary will be modified if the boundary is changed. the stage will get a new stage time from MFrac. the time of these stages may. As more real-time data becomes available. Then. It is important to understand that there are two distinct mouse modes. its box on the X axis will extend to the right edge of the plot. the left mouse button can be used to define an area of the plot for zooming. and YR (right) scales is displayed. In this case. When in Zoom mode. When flowback is enabled. In the top left of the toolbar.158 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Undo all changes This will undo all changes made during this editing session. The Right Axis list box is used to change which data is plotted on the right axis. If a stage goes beyond the end of the current real-time data. Meyer User’s Guide . The stage information in the toolbar will be updated automatically while dragging the stage boundary. The mouse can be set to Select stages or Zoom in with the Mouse list box. The Toolbar At the top of the plot is a toolbar. YL (left). To graphically change a stage. all stages will be represented on the Y axis. Also note that a boundary cannot be moved past the boundaries on either side of it. all stages after the first stage with a negative rate stage will not be represented on the Y axis. however. however. the times and volumes will automatically be synchronized to the real-time data. All subsequent stages will not have a box on the X scale. Meyer & Associates. the mouse functions as in any other Meyer plot. Modifying Stages Graphically The real power of the graphical treatment plot is the ability to manipulate the stage volumes and times with the mouse. the current mouse location on the X. click and drag on the desired boundary (either time or volume). those stages which were previously beyond the end of the data may be in the range of available data. only the stage before the modified boundary will change. The mode can be toggled with the Mouse list box or the right mouse button menu. The End Edit button can be used to end the current editing session. Clicking the mouse on any stage will make it the active stage.

Use the radio buttons in the middle of the dialog box to select which one to input. Figure 2. the other will then be calculated.39 shows the Foam Tab. . Foam Input The foam schedule permits entering of either bottomhole foam qualities or surface rates. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The Foam tab includes the additional input data required for foam treatment.39: Treatment Schedule . Foam Tab Figure 2. This option is used in simulating foam treatments of nitrogen and/ or carbon dioxide.3 Data Input 159 Foam Schedule The Foam Schedule is enabled when the Foam option in the General Option dialog box is checked. Inc.Foam Tab.2.

160 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Quality The foam schedule allows for the design of Mitchell. Internal Phase (CO2). Inc. = = foam quality (void fraction) carbon dioxide volume = = foam volume liquid volume = nitrogen volume = = proppant volume total volume Meyer User’s Guide . and Internal Phase (N2) foam quality treatments. These qualities are at bottomhole conditions as defined below: Mitchell  N2 = V N2  V f and  CO2 = V CO2  V f Both External Phase  N2 = V N2  V t and  CO2 = V CO2  V t l Internal Phase CO2  N2 = V N2  V t and  CO2 =  V CO2 + V p   V t l Internal Phase N2  N2 =  V N2 + V p   V t and  CO2 = V CO2  V t l The foam and total volumes are defined as: V f = V N2 + V CO2 + V l Vt = Vf + Vp where  V CO 2 Vf Vl VN 2 Vp Vt Meyer & Associates. Both External Phase.

User Specified: The user specifies the densities directly. When using an equation of state (EOS) the following information is required: 1. 60 °F. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. User Specified: The user specifies the densities for CO2 and N2 at standard conditions. BHTT (Bottomhole treating temperature). CO2 Solubility The carbon dioxide solubility at bottomhole conditions. Van der Waals EOS: Use the van der Waals equation of state. 1 atm. . The user has the following choices: 1. this is the ratio of fully saturated liquid volume to unsaturated liquid volume. 3. required if pumping CO2. Inc. 2. 2.2. 1 atm: The standard conditions are 60 °F. required if pumping CO2. Density The density option specifies how densities for CO2 and N2 at bottomhole and CO2 density at the flow meter are determined. 4. The user has the following options to indicate the standard conditions: 1. Peng-Robinson EOS: Use the Peng-Robinson equation of state. Stages Tab Figure 2. 3.40 shows the Foam Treatment Schedule screen. CO2 Pressure (Flow Meter).3 Data Input 161 Standard Conditions Quantities such as N2 volume & rate and CO2 solubility are given in units at standard conditions. Saturated Liquid Volume Ratio For CO2 in solution. CO2 Temperature (Flow Meter). BHTP (Bottomhole treating pressure). 2.

Meyer User’s Guide . Foam. Inc. This may make it easier to manipulate and visualize the slurry volume and rates in each of the foam stages. CO2. All of the pertinent stage data is now presented in one spreadsheet making it easier to manage the data. The Variable Column now has menu selections to display the N2.41.162 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. Slurry. The foam schedule can also be graphically edited as shown in Figure 2. This foam schedule is very flexible.Stage Tab. If bottomhole rates and concentrations are input the surface values will be calculated and vise versa. Liquid. and Total stage volumes.40: Foam Treatment Schedule . Meyer & Associates.

and Zone Name can be specified to help organize the rock properties table. .3 Data Input 163 Figure 2. The Interpolate Stress Gradient column allows for an interpolated stress gradient over the given layer (explained below). the representative.41: Foam Schedule . this is the true vertical depth (TVD) at the bottom of each zone or layer. The stress gradient is defined as the stress divided by the TVD. Once a zone is defined. If you enter one the other will be calculated. The TVD depth at the bottom of the zone (Depth at Bottom) is the next entry. Poisson's Ratio. Stress Gradient. Young's Modulus.42). Fracture Toughness. By convention. Either the stress gradient or stress can be entered.2.Graphical Editing. Inc. Stress. after MD at Bottom. For each layer an optional Lithology Symbol. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Rock Properties The Rock Properties dialog box provides a table for entering the mechanical properties of the reservoir and adjacent lithologies including in-situ stresses as a function of depth (see Figure 2. Use the Help button located at the bottom of the Rock Properties screen to obtain a description of these parameters or refer to the description of each property given at the end of this section. The MD at Bottom is then calculated from the TVD or if the MD is specified the TVD depth will be calculated. and Critical Stress are entered.

the number of layers or entries to the Rock Properties table may vary. However. at least three layers should be entered to describe the pay zone and the layers above and below. Rows in the table may be deleted using the Delete Rows icon and new rows inserted using the Insert Rows icon. Even for the two-dimensional models.43 shows a list of the available Meyer & Associates. A maximum of one thousand (1000) layers can be specified. MFrac will run with just one layer using a constant value across the entire height. This is illustrated by the highlighted box in Figure 2. Typically. the modulus in the adjacent layers will affect the formation stiffness.42. Meyer User’s Guide . Figure 2. Figure 2. This approach is more appropriate for the two-dimensional models.42: Rock Properties Dialog Box. Depending upon the Fracture Geometry model selected and the data available. as a minimum. The file format for the Import Log can be LAS or text. Inc. Rock Property Data A description of the Rock Property screen parameters is as follows: Lithology Symbols Lithology symbols can be added to each zone or layer by double clicking in the box to the left of the zone name and selecting the appropriate symbol.164 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Options to insert rock properties from our rock properties database (Insert from Database) and to import mechanical rock properties (Import Log) data are also available.

If the TVD is entered. If the value for TVD results in a MD greater than the maximum value specified for the wellbore deviation. Zone An optional zone name can be specified for each layer to help organize the rock properties table.2. This is the measured depth (MD) at the bottom of the zone or layer. MD at Bottom The MD depth at the bottom of the zone (MD at Bottom) is the next entry. This is the true vertical depth (TVD) at the bottom of each zone or layer.43: Select Lithology Symbol Screen.3 Data Input 165 lithology symbols. Figure 2. TVD is calculated. If the MD is entered. TVD at Bottom The TVD depth at the bottom of the zone (TVD at Bottom) is the next entry. Options are also available for the foreground and background colors. the MD is calculated. . Inc. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. a dashed mark (-) will be placed in the column.

Using this switch results in a linear increase or decrease in stress magnitude from the bottom of the overlying zone to the bottom of the specified zone. For linear-elastic deformation. Young’s modulus is a constant with a unique value for a particular material and insitu conditions. for ideal containment to exist. Inc. The stress is assumed to be the minimum horizontal stress for vertically oriented fractures and the overburden stress for horizontal fractures. The modulus represents the material’s ability to resist deformation under load. therefore. pump-in flowback tests. Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates. For more information on the influence of stress on hydraulic fracture propagation see SPE 15240.44). A range of Young’s modulus values for various rock types is given in Table 2.5. the stress will be calculated. the stress gradient will be calculated.166 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Stress Gradient The Stress Gradient is defined as the stress at depth divided by the TVD (Stress Gradient = Stress/TVD). As the stiffness (E) of the rock increases. It is. See Appendix A for more information regarding the sensitivity of this parameter. well logging procedures and in some cases laboratory experiments (ASR & DSCA). a measure of the materials stiffness. Under ideal conditions adequate contrast will exist between the target interval and surrounding layers. Several methods are regularly used in the petroleum industry to estimate the in-situ stresses.4 Young’s Modulus Young`s modulus or the modulus of elasticity is the slope (or derivative) of a stressstrain curve over the elastic portion of the curve. Poisson’s Ratio Poisson's ratio is defined as the ratio of the transverse strain to the axial strain resulting from an applied stress (see Figure 2. Normally. Stress It is generally accepted that one of the most important parameters affecting fracture containment is the in-situ stress. If the stress gradient is entered. If stress is entered. the stress contrast in the adjacent rock layers must be much greater than the fracture net pressure (see Appendix A). These include micro-hydraulic fracturing methods. “Design Formulae for 2-D and 3-D Vertical Hydraulic Fractures”. the fracture width will decrease and the length will increase for a given set of input parameters. Stresses may be input to represent a constant value for a layer or a linear gradient may be used by selecting the gradient check box in the far right column.

25.9 Hard Dense Sandstone 4-7 2.3 Porous unconsolidated to poorly consoli0. . Rock Type Range Range (106 psi) (107 kPa ) Limestone-Reef Breccia 1-5 0.4 .1.5 Limestone-Med. to Fine Grained 4 . the ratio increases and approaches the limiting plastic value of 1/2.3 Data Input 167 Table 2. Inc.5 Dolomite 6 .44: Definition of Poisson’s Ratio.7 .3.4 .5 Medium Hard Sandstone 2-4 1. Poisson's ratio affects the fracture propagation characteristics to a very minor extent. Therefore.5 Limestone-Porous or Oolitic 2-7 1.2 .07 .2. use 0.8 . From parametric studies.5: Ranges of Young’s Modulus. The theoretical value for Poisson’s ratio is 1/4 for any isotropic body with strains below the proportional (elastic) limit.25.11 3 .7. Typical Poisson’s ratios for rock formations are 0.4 Poisson’s ratio Lateral strain Poisson’s ratio  Longitudinal strain w 0 l 0     w l  w  w  l  l w l 0 0 Figure 2. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.1 .13 4. if in doubt.2 dated 0. For strains beyond the proportional limit.

168

MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator
Poisson’s ratio is also used by logging companies to infer in-situ stresses. This
method assumes the rock behaves elastically and that the tectonic stresses are
known or insignificant. The typical relationship is


 Hmin =  ------------   v – p 0  + p 0 +  T
 1 – 
where
 Hmin

v
p0
T

=
=
=
=
=
=

minimum horizontal stress
Poisson’s ratio
vertical stress or overburden
pore or reservoir pressure
component of stress due to tectonics
Biot’s constant

Fracture Toughness
The definition of fracture toughness is obtained from the concept of stress intensity
factor, developed in linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Fracture toughness
is a measure of a materials resistance to fracture propagation. It is proportional to
the amount of energy that can be absorbed by the material before propagation
occurs. The basis for this relationship involves the assumption that pre-existing
defects exist which induce high stress concentrations in their vicinity. These sites
become points for crack initiation and propagation.
If a c represents the area of the “largest” defect, it can be shown that the tensile
strength, T , of the rock can be approximated by

T = K IC  a c
where K IC is the fracture toughness.
In hydraulic fractures, propagation is assumed to occur once the stress intensity factor reaches a critical value. This critical value, related to the propagation resistance
(or energy balance) is assumed to be a material property and is given the name fracture toughness (or critical stress intensity factor). For a crack in the vicinity of a
uniform stress field,  , the stress intensity is

K I =  H 

Meyer & Associates, Inc.

Meyer User’s Guide

2.3 Data Input

169
and for failure to occur we have

 c = K IC  H 
where  is a geometric coefficient and H  is the characteristic fracture dimension.
See Appendix A for more information on stress intensity factors.
Table 2.6 lists some measured values of fracture toughness. The values shown were
reported by van Eekelen13, Thiercelin14 reviewed the testing procedures for determining this parameter in his article, “Fracture Toughness and Hydraulic Fracturing”.
Table 2.6: Fracture Toughness Ranges.
Formation Type

psi-in1/2

kPa-m1/2

siltstone

950-1650

1040-1810

sandstone

400-1600

440-1760

limestone

400-950

440-1040

shale

300-1200

330-1320

Setting fracture toughness to zero will result in the classical hydraulic fracturing
propagation solutions dominated by viscous pressure loss. For very low viscosity
fluids, fracture toughness may be the dominant parameter controlling fracture
growth.

Critical Stress
The Critical Stress is the minimum critical stress (  c min ) for the fracture to propagate in the vicinity of a constant stress field. This parameter may also be thought of
as the apparent tensile strength since it is the critical stress that must be over come
for the crack to propagate (in a uniform stress field).
MFrac uses the maximum of  c or  c

min

to determine the critical stress intensity

at the fracture leading edge (see Figure 2.45). If  c min is set equal to zero, only
fracture toughness will be considered. For illustration purposes, the above discussion was simplified by using a uniform stress field. See Meyer15 for a more general
discussion of the stress intensity factor.

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Figure 2.45: Critical Stress.
Incorporating this parameter allows for modeling a constant critical pressure at the
fracture tip. Using fracture toughness, the critical pressure decreases as the characteristic crack size increases.

Interpolate Stress Gradient
When entering stresses, if a linear stress is desired across the zone, click the Interpolate Stress Gradient box located to the far right of the Rock Properties table.
This places a check mark in the box and instructs the program to use the Stress
Gradient across the zone. The stress in a layer at a true vertical depth of D is
Stress(D)=Stress(TVD)+(Stress Gradient)*(D-TVD). Therefore, the stress at the
bottom of a layer will always be greater than the stress at the top of the layer if the
interpolate stress gradient check mark is selected.

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If Interpolate Stress Gradient is not specified, the stress value for that zone is
assumed constant across that layer.
If the Interpolate Stress Gradient option is checked, the Fracture Fluid Gradient
should also be checked to Include. This will ensure a true total liquid and stress
gradient over a given fracture interval for 3D fracture propagation. Note, that if
the fluid gradient is included in a uniform stress field (i.e. constant stress for all
layers with no stress gradient checks) and assuming all other parameters are
unchanged the fracture will tend to propagate downward due to increasing fracture pressure with depth. The fracture width profile would also be more tear
shaped downward. The inclusion of fluid and stress gradients is more important
as the ratio of the resultant fluid and stress gradient to the fracture net pressure
increases. Thus inclusion of a fluid gradient is only important for low net pressure cases when the hydrostatic fluid gradient in the fracture is of the order of
the fracture net pressure.

Insert from Database
Selecting Insert from Database will bring up the screen shown in Figure 2.46. The
Rock (Lithology) Database is comprised of a Zone Name, Stress Gradient,
Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ratio, Fracture Toughness, and Critical Stress. This
database can be modified by the user.

Figure 2.46: Insert from Lithology Database Screen.
Pressing OK will place the selected lithology properties and icon into the rock properties table.

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Log File Importing
The Import Log option allows the user to import rock properties from a mechanical
property log (or logs). To access this import option select the Import Log button in
the Rock Properties dialog.
Upon entering the Log File Importing dialog, there are 5 tabs that control the
import process. The tabs are designed to be edited in sequential order. The basic
steps in the sequence are described in Table 2.7 below.
Table 2.7: Log File Importing Basic Steps.
Step

Dialog Area

1.

Specify Parameters: common parameters are already
setup for you, just add any special ones that you will be Parameters tab
importing from a file.

2.

Add Data Sources: specify the log files and associate their
Data Sources tab
columns to parameters.

3.

Select the source of the data for each of the rock
properties that will be imported: you can choose a data
Import Properties tab
source parameter, or to generate the data (or to calculate
data for stress or stress gradient from the other).

4.

To generate some of the rock properties (or lithology
symbols and zone names) map values of these properties Property Generation tab
to a data source parameter’s values. (Optional)

5.

Specify Zones: this can be done manual or automatically
from the menu. Also the zone boundaries can be manually Zones tab
adjusted by dragging them.

6.

Import the properties: click the import button to close the
Zones tab
dialog and populate the rock properties table.

The functionality of each screen, and the log file importing process in general is
described below.

Parameters
The first tab is the parameters tab, it contains a single spreadsheet with a Parameters column, and a Unit Type column. It is used to determine what parameters are
available for import or mapping purposes, and associates each parameter with a
unit type. An example parameters setup is shown below (Figure 2.47).

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Figure 2.47: Log File Importing - Parameters Screen.
The parameters spreadsheet is designed to be very flexible, the parameters may be
in any order, have any name, and any unit type found in the drop down combo list.
The parameter name is editable at any time, and the unit type is editable as long as
no data source has been assigned to it yet. If the Unit type is disabled, then it has
already been associated with a data source; if you wish to modify it, you must
remove the association in the Data Sources tab.
Once data is entered into the parameters spreadsheet, the next step is to assign a
data source to some or all of the parameters via the Data Sources tab.

Data Sources
This tab (Figure 2.48) is used to associate data found in one or more files with some
or all of the parameters defined on the previous tab.

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Figure 2.48: Log File Importing - Data Sources Screen.
By clicking the Add... button, a file open prompt will open requesting the selection
of a data file. The default extensions of the files are *.txt, or *.las. To choose a file
with a different extension, choose All Files (*.*) from the Files of Type drop down
list. Once you open the file, Log data will appear in spreadsheet form as shown
below (Figure 2.49).

Figure 2.49: Data Sources - Setup Screen.

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The purpose of the data sources setup screen is to associate the appropriate data columns with a parameter. For example, if column A contains depth information place
an “A” next to the parameter that represents measured depth. Clicking on the drop
down menu listed under Unit allows you to define what units the data is in. A sample plot may be generated by defining the sample plot axes and clicking the View
Plot... button.
Once the columns and units are defined, the sampling criteria can be setup based on
measured depth, or by row number. If the sampling parameter is set to (Row Number), then a minimum, and maximum row along with a row increment determine
which rows are read. If the sampling parameter is set to Measured Depth, a minimum and maximum depth can be entered to quickly find (and use) the rows correlated with those depths. Once this is done, press OK to apply the changes.
To edit existing data sources, select the data source you wish to edit, then click the
Setup... button to re-open the data sources setup screen (Figure 2.49).

To delete an existing data file, select the file you wish to delete, then click the
Delete button (Note: this does not remove the file from your computer). All of the

parameter associations for that file will be removed.
Once the data sources are setup, the next step is the Import Properties tab which is
used to specify the data sources that will be used for the current rock properties
import.

Import Properties
The Import Properties tab (Figure 2.50) contains one spreadsheet. It is where the
properties for the current import are associated with a data source.

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Figure 2.50: Log File Importing - Import Properties Screen.
Each property may be associated with a previously mapped data source (from a
file), set to Calculate for Stress or Stress Gradient but not both, or set to Generate
which allows manual data entry of that particular property. Once the import properties are setup, the next step is the Property Generation tab.

Property Generation
The Property Generation tab is optional. Check the “Enable Property Generation”
check box in the upper left hand corner to use this tab.
Note: If the Property Generation tab is disabled, any parameter set to Generate in
the Import Properties tab will be set to zero when imported.
The Property Generation tab (shown in Figure 2.51) is used to do the following:

Specify the lithology symbols and zone names associated with each zone type

Generate the rock properties that were set to Generate in the Import Properties tab. These properties are generated by a table of zone types that maps zone
types to a range of mapping parameter values. Property values are mapped to
data from a file, such as gamma ray or Pe data.

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Figure 2.51: Log File Importing - Property Generation Screen.
Generating Property Values
To generate property values, do the following:
1.

Choose the mapping parameter from the drop-down menu. The list contains
the parameters you selected in the Data Sources tab. The parameter’s values
are plotted in the display area.

2.

Enter property values in the table for each zone type. Click on a row in the
table of zone types, then do the following:

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a.

Click on a cell in the first column to select the zone’s lithology symbol.
(This step is optional.)

b.

In the next column, enter a zone name. (This step is optional.)

c.

In the Mapping Parameter column, enter the upper range of the mapping
parameter for this zone type. Each row of the table must have a larger
value than the previous row because this value represents the range of values that are mapped to the zone type.

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d.

The rest of the columns in the table contain values for the generated
parameters that were selected in the Import Properties tab. Enter the
property’s value for the zone type.

Inserting zone types from the rock database
As an alternative to entering zone types by hand, you can insert them from the rock
database. This method specifies values for the lithology symbols, zone name, and
the properties that are to be generated. You still need to specify a mapping parameter value.
To insert a zone type from the database:
1.

Select the row in the zone type table where you want to insert the new zone
type. Alternatively, you can click on the zone type on the plot.

2.

Click the Insert from Database button. The Rock Database window appears
as shown in Figure 2.42.

3.

Click on the database entry that you wish to insert into the zone type table.

4.

Click Insert or double-click to insert the new zone type into the property generation table.

5.

Enter the mapping parameter value for the new zone type.

Adjusting the range of mapping parameter values
When you move the cursor over the range boundaries on the plot, you can graphically adjust the range of the mapping parameter values associated with the zone
types.
Adding zone types with the plot
To add a zone type by using the plot, do the following:
1.

Click the left mouse button on a zone to select it.

2.

Choose the Add Entry command from the Edit menu or press the Insert key.
The zone type you selected is split into two zone type and a new zone type is
added to the table.

3.

Edit the zone type’s properties as described in “Generating Property Values”
on page 177.

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Deleting zone types with the plot
To delete a zone type by using the plot, do the following:
1.

Click the left mouse button on a zone to select it.

2.

Choose the Delete Entry command from the Edit menu or press the Delete
key. The zone type you selected is deleted and its row is removed from the
table.

Interpolate generated data
A check box is provided to linearly interpolate generated data between mapping
parameter values. The generated value will remain constant over a given mapping
parameter range if this box is not checked.

Zones
The zones tab contains 5 plots depicting measured depth versus Stress Gradient,
Stress, Young's Modulus, Poisson's Ration, and Fracture Toughness as shown
below. If the Property Generation tab is enabled and contains data, the zones will
be initially generated according to that data.

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Figure 2.52: Log File Importing - Zones Screen.
This is where the zones used for the final import are defined. Zones may be automatically selected via the EditAuto Select Zones menu. The choices for automatic selection are described below.
Auto Select Zones

From Property Generation Tab: This option selects zones based on the mappings defined in the Property Generation tab.

By Threshold: This option selects zones based on a threshold of one of the
current properties (defined in the Import Properties tab). e.g. If a stress
parameter is selected, and a threshold of 100 psi is chosen, a new zone will be
defined every time the stress varies by 100 psi.

By Depth: This option selects zones based on a depth increment along with
minimum and maximum bounds.

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Graphically Editing Zones
Zones may also be graphically edited similarly to the process of editing the mapping parameters in the Property Generation tab.
Import Stress/Stress Gradient Radio Buttons
When data sources for both stress and stress gradient are available, these radio button allow you to choose which one to import (the other will be calculated).
Interpolated Stress Gradient Check Box
When checked, this enables Interpolate Stress Gradient for all zones in the rock
properties table. See “Interpolate Stress Gradient” on page 170.

Importing
Once you have finished editing the log data, press the Import button. This will
import the mechanical rock properties into the Rock Properties table as shown in
Figure 2.53.

Figure 2.53: Rock Properties Table - After Importing from Stress Log.

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If some of the parameters are not selected in the Stress Log (as is toughness in this
case) input this data manually using the fill down speed icon. Figure 2.54 shows a
plot of imported rock properties layered to specification.

Figure 2.54: Plot of Imported Layered Data.

Fluid Loss Data
To model fluid loss from the fracture into the reservoir and surrounding layers,
additional information characterizing the formation and in-situ diffusivity parameters is necessary. The format for the fluid loss data entry is flexible and allows anything from a single layer reservoir to multi-layered zones with diverse properties.
The specific data required by the program depends on which fluid loss model is
selected in the General Options dialog.
It is not necessary for these depths to correspond directly to the depths specified in
the Rock Properties screen, although they may. A maximum of 1000 layers is permitted in both the Rock Properties and Fluid Loss data screens.
Please refer to Appendix D for a detailed description of the individual leakoff coefficients which control fluid loss.

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Constant Fluid Loss Model
When the Constant Fluid Loss Model is chosen, the total leakoff, C , and the Spurt
Loss coefficients for each layer are entered in the Fluid Loss Data screen shown in
Figure 2.55. Normally, this is the best choice for modeling fluid loss and estimating
fracture efficiency when a minifrac has been performed using the same fluid type as
the main treatment. When this model is used, it is not necessary to calculate the
three individual linear flow resistance mechanisms C I , CII , and CIII (see Appendix D). The diffusivity parameters of permeability, porosity, compressibility and
viscosity are not required for this option because they are inherently included in the
total coefficient.

Figure 2.55: Fluid Loss Data Dialog Box - Constant Fluid Loss Model.
The specific data required by the program when using a Constant Fluid Loss Coefficient Model is as follows:

Zones
An optional zone name can be specified for each layer to help organize the fluid
loss data properties table.

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Depth at Bottom
The TVD depth at the bottom of the zone (Depth at Bottom) is the next entry. By
convention, this is the true vertical depth (TVD) at the bottom of each zone or layer.
By convention, the depth entered is the true vertical depth TVD at the bottom of
the interval. The reservoir parameters are assumed to have constant properties
over this interval.

Total Leakoff Coefficient
The total leakoff coefficient is a combination of the C I , C II , and C III leakoff
mechanisms. These leakoff coefficients are discussed in Appendix D. The total
leakoff coefficient is used in calculating the time dependent leakoff velocity and
overall fluid loss based on mass conservation. The general diffusional leakoff
velocity is

 = C t–
where t is time and  is the initial time of fluid leakoff. The total fluid loss volume
to the formation is
t A

Vl = 2 

v dA dt

0 0

= CA t
where  is a fluid loss parameter and A is the total leakoff area (one face) for both
wings. This equation illustrates that the fluid loss volume is proportional to the
leakoff coefficient and leakoff area product.

Spurt Loss
Spurt loss is the “instantaneous” volume loss of fluid per unit area of fracture face
that occurs prior to the development of a filter cake. The volume of fluid loss due to
spurt V sp for both wings is

V sp = 2AS p
where S p is the spurt loss coefficient and A is the leakoff area the pay zone.
For multilayer leakoff, spurt loss is calculated in each layer separately. Please refer
to Appendix D for additional information.

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Harmonic and Dynamic Fluid Loss Models
When either the Harmonic or Dynamic fluid loss models are chosen, the filter cake
coefficient ( C III ) is input for each layer desired. C I and CII are calculated based on
the reservoir parameters input in the Fluid Loss dialog box shown in Figure 2.56.
The parameters required for this option are described below. These properties, like
the Rock Properties, are input as a function of the TVD depth. Also like the Rock
Properties, an optional Zone name is permitted to assist in preparing and organizing
the data.

Figure 2.56: Fluid Loss Data Dialog Box - Harmonic/Dynamic Fluid Loss
Model.
For the Harmonic and Dynamic models the total leakoff coefficient for each zone
is calculated internally by combining C I , C II , and CIII (see Appendix D). This
value is used to simulate leakoff from the fracture to each associated interval as a
function of differential pressure.
The specific data required for the Dynamic or Harmonic Fluid Loss Models is as
follows:

Zone
An optional zone name can be specified for each layer to help organize the rock
properties table.

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Depth at Bottom
The TVD depth at the bottom of the zone (Depth at Bottom) is the next entry. By
convention, this is the true vertical depth (TVD) at the bottom of each zone or layer.

Reservoir Pressure
The reservoir or pore pressure is used in conjunction with the minimum horizontal
stress and fracture pressure to calculate the differential pressure for leakoff. The
leakoff pressure differential is

p loss = p f – p 0 = p f +   Hmin – p 0 
where
 Hmin =
pf
=
p0
p f
p loss

=
=
=

minimum horizontal stress
pressure in the fracture
pore or reservoir pressure
net fracture pressure, p f –  Hmin
differential leakoff pressure

The pressure difference between the minimum horizontal stress and average pore
pressure is, therefore, a critical component in calculating the CI and C II leakoff
coefficients.
For new wells, enter the initial reservoir pore pressure for the productive interval.
This value is typically obtained from either a production log or well test. Variations
in pore pressure versus depth can be inferred and entered based on gradient measurements and/or the fluid saturation changes within the interval (e.g., gas caps,
aquifers, etc.).
When a well has been produced for some period of time, enter the average reservoir
pressure as interpreted from a well test. In all cases, the value entered should be less
than the minimum horizontal stress.

Total Compressibility
The total reservoir compressibility is defined as the total change in the reservoir
volume per unit volume per unit pressure difference. It is the reciprocal of the undrained bulk modulus and is typically expressed as follows:

ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cr

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where
cg
co
cr
ct
cw
Sg
So
Sw

=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

gas compressibility
oil compressibility
bulk rock compressibility
total formation compressibility
water compressibility
gas saturation
oil saturation
water saturation

The compressibility is used to relate the permeability and porosity with pressure
and time using the expression
leakoff pressure differential is
2

p
k  p
=  -----------  2 
t
c t    z 
where
k
ct


z
p
t

=
=
=
=
=
=
=

formation permeability
total formation compressibility
formation porosity
reservoir fluid viscosity
distance
pressure
time

Permeability
The reservoir permeability is the formation property that characterizes its ability to
transfer a fluid through the pores when subjected to a pressure gradient. From
Darcy's law

k dp
q = – ---  
  d x
where
q

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=

flow rate per unit area

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Filtrate Viscosity The filtrate viscosity is the effective leakoff viscosity of the fracturing fluid. An effective permeability to the frac fluid filtrate is used to derive C I . This parameter is used to calculate the CI coefficient for modeling viscosity and relative permeability effects caused by fracturing fluid leakoff to the formation. This viscosity has been reduced from its original state due to the deposition of polymer on the fracture face which forms a filter cake. This value is used in calculating the CII leakoff coefficient for modeling leakoff resistance due to the viscosity and compressibility effects of the in-situ fluids. Reservoir Viscosity The equivalent reservoir viscosity is the total effective viscosity of a multi-phase fluid system at reservoir conditions. The CI coefficient is calculated from the permeability and filtrate viscosity. This is the fracturing fluid which leaks off through the fracture face. in terms of the fluid leakoff viscosity and relative permeability is e = f  kr where  f is the true fluid leakoff viscosity and k r is the relative permeability of the leakoff to the reservoir fluid. Porosity The equivalent reservoir porosity is the fraction of a rock’s bulk volume that is filled with mobile hydrocarbons. Meyer & Associates. This is especially important for a gas reservoir. The values entered should reflect the effective permeability to the mobile portion of the reservoir fluid.188 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator = k =  dp  dx = formation permeability reservoir fluid viscosity pressure gradient The permeability/mobility is used to calculate the C II coefficient in order to model the rate of fluid leakoff into the formation during injection. The effective fluid leakoff viscosity must also account for the relative permeability effect of the leakoff fluid to that of the reservoir fluid. The effective leakoff viscosity. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . The porosity is used to calculate the C I and CII leakoff coefficients used to simulate fluid loss during injection.  e .

The slope of this relationship is proportional to the Wall Building Coefficient (see Figure D. A value of zero (0) represents an infinite filter cake resistance. . This will then display the Time Dependent Fluid Loss screen shown in Figure 2. simply check the ‘Enable Time Dependent Fluid Loss’ check box as shown in Figure 2.57. whereas. spurt loss is calculated in each layer separately.2 in the Meyer Appendices). For multilayer leakoff. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates..g. Spurt Loss Spurt loss is the “instantaneous” volume loss of fluid per unit area of fracture face that occurs prior to the development of a fracturing fluid filter cake. a CIII value approaching infinity (e.3 Data Input 189 Wall Building Coefficient The wall building or filter cake coefficient is equivalent to the inverse of the fracturing fluid leakoff resistance. It reduces the fluid loss rate by increasing the resistance due to leakoff at the fracture face. open the Time Dependent Fluid Loss tab.2. The wall building coefficient is typically acquired by performing either a static or dynamic laboratory test to determine the relationship between volume loss and time.57. Time Dependent Fluid Loss To use time dependent fluid loss. >100 ft/min½) represents no wall building. If time dependent fluid loss is to be modeled. Refer to Appendix D for additional information. The volume of fluid loss due to spurt V sp for both faces of a single wing fracture is V sp = 2AS p where S p is the spurt loss coefficient and A is the leakoff area in the pay zone. This coefficient is used in calculating the total leakoff coefficient C .

While fracturing a naturally fractured formation. A zero slope on the Nolte plot may characterize this period of accelerated leakoff. This will then display the Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss screen shown in Figure 2. enter time dependent multipliers for the leakoff and spurt loss coefficients. If the fracture time is greater than the maximum value in the table.58. the pressure in the fracture may approach the critical pressure.s shown in Figure 2. To use this feature. If pressure dependent fluid loss is to be modeled simply check the ‘Enable Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss’ check box and enter the desired fluid loss multipliers. If the simulation time is less than the minimum value in the table.57: Time Dependent Fluid Loss Data Table.58. The multipliers will be interpolated as varying linearly with the time values in the table. open the Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss tab. This feature allows you to increase or decrease the leakoff coefficient and spurt loss as a function of time. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . natural fractures open and accelerated leakoff occurs. the first multiplier will be used. Meyer & Associates. the last data enter will be used. When the critical pressure of the formation is reached. Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss To use pressure dependent fluid loss. This is helpful for modeling leakoff in naturally fractured reservoirs.190 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2.

the first multiplier will be used. .3 Data Input 191 Figure 2. When the critical pressure of the formation is reached. Fluid Type Dependent Fluid Loss When this option is selected. Inc. the last data enter will be used. The multipliers will be interpreted as varying linearly with the pressure values in the table. A zero slope on the Nolte plot may characterize this period of accelerated leakoff. The pressure (pressure in the fracture) is input as increasing function with row number. different total leakoff coefficients and spurt loss for each fluid can be entered for the Constant Leakoff model. the multiplier will increase as the pressure in the fracture increases. To use this feature. enter pressure dependent multipliers for the leakoff and spurt loss coefficients. If the fracture pressure is less than the minimum value in the table. This feature allows you to increase or decrease the leakoff coefficient and spurt loss as a function of pressure. natural fractures open and accelerated leakoff occurs. While fracturing a naturally fractured formation. If the fracture pressure is greater than the maximum value in the table.2. This is helpful for modeling leakoff in naturally fractured reservoirs. the pressure in the fracture may approach the critical pressure. Normally. When the Harmonic or Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.58: Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss Data Table. for pressure dependent fluid loss.

Meyer User’s Guide . the program requires additional information to characterize the proppant transport process. When this occurs.59 illustrates the Fluid Loss Data screen (Harmonic or Dynamic Model) with Fluid Type Dependent Fluid Loss selected in the General Options dialog box. Meyer & Associates. Figure 2. Figure 2. Fluid loss data for up to fifty different fluids can be stored in this table even if the fluid type is deleted from the treatment schedule.Fluid Type Dependent Fluid Loss. The option is also helpful for modeling leakoff during acid fracturing treatments when alternating pad/acid stages are pumped. Only the fluid types currently listed in the Treatment Schedule will be displayed. wall building coefficients.59: Dynamic Model . CIII.60).192 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Dynamic Leakoff model is chosen the user can input different fluid filtrate viscosities. Proppant Criteria The Proppant Criteria screen is enabled when the Proppant Solution option is turned On (Figure 2. and spurt for each fluid. Inc. This option is useful when large volumes of 2% KCl or treated fluids are in the wellbore prior to pumping the main fracturing treatment.

The following parameters are required input for the Proppant Criteria Dialog. Minimum Number of Proppant Layers to Prevent Bridging This value determines the proppant bridging criteria. . In MFrac. a bridge-out is assumed to occur if the average fracture width integrated over the fracture height is less than the Minimum Number of Proppant Layers to Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The average diameter is the value input in the database record for each proppant.60: Proppant Criteria Dialog Box. One layer of proppant is defined as a thickness equal to the average proppant diameter. Inc.3 Data Input 193 Figure 2.2. This is typically determined from a sieve analysis according to API standards. It is the minimum number of proppant layers in the fracture at which bridging occurs.

194 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Prevent Bridging. due to embedment is given by w e =  1 –    c e where  is the proppant porosity and  is the proppant density. A typical minimum concentration per unit area ranges from 0 to 0. Typically. w e . Non-Darcy Effects The equation to describe non-Darcy flow is a form of the Forchheimer [1901] equation Meyer & Associates. In other words. As the closure pressure (stress) increases. This value is used to interpolate the proppant permeability from the Proppant Database. a value of 1. Embedment Concentration/Area This is the proppant embedment concentration per unit area. the fracture width must be greater than the bridging criteria in order for the proppant to pass through.2 lbm/ft2 (1. In other words.e. Minimum Concentration/Area for Propped Frac This is the minimum concentration per unit area in the fracture below which the propped fracture is not included in the reported propped length. the Closure Pressure on the Proppant is used to determine the proppant permeability from the Proppant Database. Closure Pressure on Proppant This is the effective closure pressure on the proppant during production. The amount of embedment depends upon the proppant and formation type. the proppant pack permeability decreases.. The effective closure pressure on the proppant is equal to the minimum horizontal stress minus the fluid pressure (i. in the fracture at closure ( c e = c s  w e ) has units of proppant mass per unit area where c s =  1 –   is the proppant concentration of embedment and w e is the embedded width.0 kg/m2). The lost propped width. below this concentration after embedment is included. Meyer User’s Guide . bottomhole flowing pressure) in the fracture. c e . Inc. the fracture will not be reported as being “propped”.5 to 3 is used. Using interpolation.

A value must be entered in the dialog. This is the same as assuming  = 0 . a non-darcy beta coefficient correlation is selected from the Non-Darcy proppant Database drop down menu. Clearly the first term in this equation accounts for viscous effects and the second term for inertial or minor loss effects. the equation simplifies to Darcy’s law. Inc. and the  factor.  . cm-1. Input Beta Coefficient The non-darcy beta coefficient is user specified and assumed constant. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. b .. Beta Coefficient If this option is selected. etc. User Database. .). and c are constants. atm-s2/gm etc. ft-1. The generalized correlation for the beta factor in terms of the fracture permeability k f and porosity  is of the form a  = ---------b kf  c where a . Holdith [1976] reports that the original form of the second term on the right hand side of 2 Eq.e.) and  is the non-Darcy flow factor or simply  factor with units of L –1 (e.g. If the second term on the right hand side is omitted.2. +     dx kf 2 where k f is the permeability of the porous media with units of L (i. A number of correlations for the beta factor (inertial coefficient) are provided in the data base.3 Data Input 195 – dp  2 = ---.. The Non-Darcy Effects options are given below: Darcy Only Non-Darcy effects will not be considered. The effect of immobile water saturation. Thus nonDarcy flow describes the flow regime that does not obey Darcy’s law. can be incorporated by modifying the porosity to be the effective porosity (  e =   1 – S w  ). by Forchheimer was a which was replaced by Cornell and Katz [1953] by the product of the fluid density. md or ft2. S w . The beta coefficient will then be calculated throughout the fracture as a function of proppant permeability and porosity.

with transient conduction and convection in the reservoir. The wellbore data is taken from the Wellbore Hydraulics screen. heat exchange calculations can be performed in the wellbore and fracture (Fluid Inlet: Surface).196 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Heat Transfer An analytical heat transfer model is included in MFrac that combines thermal convection in the fracture. When the Heat Transfer option is used. The model is useful in high temperature reservoirs when the fracture fluid rheology is temperature dependent. it can predict the heat-up of the fracturing fluid within the wellbore and/or the exchange of heat between the fluid and the reservoir during fracture propagation. When the Surface radio button is selected. or only in the fracture (Fluid Inlet: Bottomhole). It couples the heat transfer.61: Heat Transfer Dialog Box. Figure 2. The program will use this value as the initial temperature of the fluid and then simulate the heat-up or cool-down of the fluid within the wellbore and fracture. Inc. fluid flow and fracture propagation expressions to characterize the time-dependent fracture temperature profiles. This is the temperature of the fracturing fluid at the surface. the Fluid Inlet Temperature must be input. The surface option uses the wellbore configuration to determine the wellbore heat transfer coefficients needed for the simulation. These calculations can be linked to an option for simulating the heat exchange between the fluid and the wellbore in order to provide a complete thermodynamic model for the system. The radio buttons labeled Surface and Bottomhole shown in Figure 2. Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide .61 can be used to make this selection. When the Heat Transfer option is turned On in the General Options screen.

heat transfer and acid reaction. we recommend entering the static temperature at the middle of the perforations.2. as well as. the program does not allow the acid transport to be mixed with Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.. . Average Porosity and Mean Formation Temperature. The program contains an internal database of values for various reservoir conditions. The Reservoir Lithology represents the primary rock type in the region to be fractured. just as they are for fractures using proppants. diffusion and convection). such as fracture geometry models. the rate of reaction. wellbore hydraulics and production forecasting remain available for acid fracturing. Inc. All of the other options in MFrac. foam and binary foam. The heat transfer coefficients and parameters used in the calculations are based on the Heat Transfer dialog box selections. The modeling approach uses a numerical implementation that involves control of the acidizing process by mass transfer (i. With this option.e. The choices are water. The general idea for these selections is to characterize the bulk rock that will be exposed to the fracturing fluid. choose the Bottomhole radio button located on the Heat Transfer dialog box. For most cases.3 Data Input 197 To only perform heat transfer calculations in the fracture. Reservoir Lithology. In-situ Fluid. At the present time. bottomhole fluid temperature versus time can be imported from another source or entered manually. These conditions are determined based on the selections for Base Fluid. The Average Porosity and In-situ Fluid that occupies the pores characterize the fractured zone. select shale. This selection will disable the surface calculations in the simulation and enable a small spreadsheet on the Heat Transfer screen. Acid Data The optional acid fracturing module offered in MFrac provides a comprehensive model for simultaneously calculating hydraulic fracture geometry. oil. as it typically represents a good average. leakoff. The properties contained in the internal database are as follows: Frac Fluid Conductivity Frac Fluid Density Leakoff Fluid Density Power Law Nusselt Number Frac Slurry Heat Capacity Frac Fluid Heat Capacity Rock Conductivity Rock Heat Capacity Pore Fluid Conductivity Pore Fluid Heat Capacity The Base Fluid category should be input to represent the base fluid of the fracturing fluid used. In extremely heterogeneous reservoirs or when detailed lithology is not known. The Mean Formation Temperature is the average bottomhole static temperature for the fractured interval. The database assigns dry rock values based on the lithology selection and then modifies it depending on the porosity and in-situ fluid type entered.

are disabled when the acid frac option is selected.. This enables the following data to be entered: Figure 2. This may be important for accurately predicting the anticipated production from a design. the deposition of insoluble residue). therefore. The final conductivity of the etched fracture is calculated from: kf wf final = k f w f   1 – DF  where kf wf final kf wf DF Meyer & Associates. = final damaged conductivity in the fracture = = undamaged fracture conductivity etched width conductivity damage factor Meyer User’s Guide . the Acid Data dialog box shown in Figure 2. Inc.62 replaces the Proppant Criteria screen.g.198 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator proppant transport. All of the screens related to propped fracturing. When Acid is specified for the Treatment Options selection found in the General Options screen. Conductivity Damage Factor This allows the conductivity of the fracture simulated by the program to be adjusted for incomplete clean-up (e.62: Acid Data Dialog Box.

Rock Embedment Strength The rock embedment strength is defined as the force required to push a steel ball bearing into a rock up to a distance equal to the radius of the ball divided by the projected area of the bearing.8.000 Cisco Limestone 40.3 Data Input 199 Minimum Conductivity for Etched Length The minimum conductivity is the cut off value below which the etched fracture is not included in the etched fracture length. below this concentration the fracture will not be reported as having conductivity. closure stress and embedment strength.000 Edwards Limestone 53. Rock Type Rock Embedment Strength (psi) Desert Creek B Limestone 42. In other words.000 to 90.000 San Andres Dolomite 50. Typical values range from 0 to 100 md-ft (30 md·m).8: Rock Embedment Strengths.000 Bloomberg Limestone 93.000 Caddo Limestone 38.000 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . For more information see Nierode and Kruk16.000 Capps Limestone 50.2.Buda Limestone 20. As the closure pressure (stress) increases the etched width decreases. Table 2.000 Canyon Limestone 50. The effective closure stress on the proppant is equal to the minimum horizontal stress minus the fluid pressure in the fracture. Inc. Typical measured embedment strengths on dry carbonate rocks are shown in Table 2. Acid Fracture Closure Stress This is the effective closure pressure on the etched width during production.000 Austin Chalk . This value is used to determine the final fracture conductivity based on the theoretical ideal conductivity.000 to 175.000 to 85.

9 Chalcedonic 15580 2.0 Meyer & Associates. grained 18480 2.200 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Table 2. Many values.60 5.9 Table 2.8: Rock Embedment Strengths.7 Porous.000 Exposure to certain fluids.000 Clearfork Dolomite 49.000 Rodessa Hill Dolomite 170.000 to 200.000 San Angelo Dolomite 100. Inc. In-situ Acid Temperature This is the temperature of the acid in the fracture.vugular 19320 2.67 1. can have a softening effect on some rock types.2 to 2.000 Novi Limestone 106.6 Reef Breccia 4960 2.4 Med. Carbonate Type Average Compressive Strength (psi) Average Specific Gravity Average Porosity (%) Fine grained 11660 2. may be an over estimation of a rocks true embedment resistance. Typical values are 2. Meyer User’s Guide .71 3.44 13.000 Wolfcamp Limestone 63. Currently it is used as a constant.8 as given in Table 2.000 to 145.68 4.35 15.000 Greyburg Dolomite 75. Indiana Limestone 45.000 to 160. Carbonate Specific Gravity The specific gravity of the carbonate (rock) is used to calculate the mass and volume of the etched rock dissolved. such as the ones reported above.000 Penn Limestone 48. particularly reactive ones. This value is used to modify the diffusivity coefficient.4 Oölitic 14420 2.9: Typical Rock Specific Gravities.

it is time to perform calculations. To start the simulation. when the calculation process is initiated. Up to this point. Calculation Menu Bar Most of the Calculation Menu Bar commands are also in the main menu bar and are described elsewhere in this guide. which is  e =  +  1 –  F where   F e = = = equivalent void fraction void fraction created by reaction fraction of insoluble fines 2.4 Run/Performing Calculations 201 Table 2. Inc.0 Stylolitic 11530 2. MFrac has checked the validity of the data contained in every dialog box opened during the active session.79 36. This extra level of error checking is designed to prevent calculation errors due to missing or “bad” data.9: Typical Rock Specific Gravities. It affects the equivalent etched rock porosity. MFrac checks to ensure that the minimum data requirements are met and that the data entered is within acceptable limits. the Simulation Data window and all open plots will be updated to show the current state of the simulation. Reef Head 3080 1. the commands specific to the Calculation Menu Bar are described below. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.4 Run/Performing Calculations Once all of the required data relevant to the options selected have been entered. however. however.9 Fraction of Non-Reactive Fines This is the fraction of insoluble material in the carbonate rock that will not react with the acid. it is possible that some input parameters may not have been checked. To avoid problems. This will bring up the Simulation Data window and the Calculation menu bar. select the Run command from the Run menu.73 3. since you are not required to view every data screen sequentially prior to performing calculations. During the simulation.2. .

10 contains an explanation of these symbols. a message box will be displayed to save the simulation results up to the current point. Below is Simulation Data Window information specific to MFrac. The utility of this option is to simulate closure after one stops monitoring real-time data.202 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Stop Menu The Stop! menu item stops the current simulation. Selecting this command will allow MFrac to start simulating closure immediately. It cannot accept fluid or proppant. Inc. The Fracture Characteristics window contains a system of symbols to indicate the zone status during the simulation. Simulate Closure This command is only available in the Replay/Real-time simulation mode. ignoring all real-time data beyond the current time step. Table 2. Symbol Meyer & Associates. The legend appears at the bottom of the window when this option is checked. Closed The fracture is closed and is not propped. Pressing Alt+S will also invoke the Stop command. It can still take fluid and proppant. Screened-out The fracture has screened-out at the tip. After stopping. No Frac A fracture was never initiated in this zone. Meyer User’s Guide . This is especially true for fractures which have large closure times (high efficiencies). Simulation Data Windows For general information regarding Simulation Data Windows See “Simulation Data Windows” on page 67. The status legend may be toggled on and off by right clicking on the window then clicking the Status Legend menu item.10: Simulation Data Screen Symbols. Packed The fracture is packed all the way to the wellbore. Meaning Description Open The fracture is open and propagating. Table 2. At one time this fracture was open.

the plots contain the results of the last simulation that was saved. click off the check box or use the Clear All button. 2. providing an animated view of the fracturing process. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The specific plots that are available will be directly controlled by the options selected in the General. More information on Multilayer plots is given below. During a simulation. 3. To obtain these plots you must activate the option and then rerun the simulation. click on the Multilayer tab at the top of the screen.4. When not simulating. The Plot menu appears listing the available plot groups. Choose from the list of groups. To Create a Plot: 1. The associated group selection dialog appears (see Figure 2. Use the Select All button to view all the plots for the group. Plots from any number of categories may be viewed at the same time.63). Then select the desired layers. Select Plot from the main menu. For more information on running a simulation. To disable a plot. Fracture and Proppant Options tab dialog boxes for the last saved simulation. Viewing Plots The plots that are contained in MFrac are divided into categories that can be accessed by different commands in the Plot menu. The MFrac plots are grouped into different categories as described below.5 Plots . Inc. 4. If this is a Multilayer case. These plots have all the characteristics of Meyer plots as described in Chapter 1.5 Plots .Graphical Presentation 203 2. This section describes the plotting facilities that are specific to MFrac. see Section 2. if Heat Transfer is disabled by “unselecting” it in the General Options screen. Once the desired selections have been made. click OK to view the plots. 5. Groups that are unavailable due to the options selected will appear dimmed. .Graphical Presentation MFrac provides a vast selection of plots that can be produced to illustrate the simu- lation results.2. these plots will not be available in the Plot menu. For example. Select the desired plots by clicking the adjacent check boxes. the plots will update after each time step. It is important to note that changing an input parameter does not affect a plot until the simulation has been run again.

The first section of plots are various pressures versus time. Each category is summarized below. Plot Categories The plots in MFrac are grouped into different categories. Meyer User’s Guide . Wellbore Hydraulics These plots are used to display the results of the wellbore hydraulics model and real-time pressure matching. For these plots. Fracture Characteristics These are plots of general fracture characteristics. there are check boxes for Replay/Real-Time. The volume selection button is the total slurry volume pumped. each of which are accessible with the Plot menu.204 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. height and width. Some of the plots may be plotted versus time or volume. BH Rate.63: Plot Selection Dialog Box Example. Leakoff/Rheology These plots display the leakoff rate and fluid rheology as a function of time. Inc. such as length. Sur- Meyer & Associates.

Clicking these boxes will show the corresponding curves on the graph.5 Plots . Clicking the Replay/Real-Time box shows the corresponding real-time pressure data.Graphical Presentation 205 face Rate. the Real Calc Surface from BHP plot is a plot of the calculated surface pressure from real-time bottomhole data using the wellbore model. This is the difference between the measured and simulated BHP. etc. The last two plots correspond to the near wellbore pressures losses and BHP in the wellbore and fracture for each multilayer. Similarly. .2. The Nolte slope for each fracture is also plotted to give a graphical representation of height growth. The measured net pressure plots for real-time or replay analysis are (of course) not measured values but calculated from the BHTP differences and fracture net pressure: p m = BHTP m –  = BHTP m – p f +  p f –   = BHTP m – p f + p f where BHTP m = BHTP – p fric + p grav and BHTP = BHTPm = pf p f p Meyer User’s Guide fric = = bottomhole treating pressure at the gauge depth measured bottomhole treating pressure in frac fracture pressure net fracture pressure. BH Concentration and Surface Concentration. A number of net pressure plots versus time in linear and log-log coordinates are provided to represent the familiar net pressure slope as given in the Nolte plots. Inc. These can be used for real-time pressure matching. if it is available. The Real Calc BHP from Surface plot is a plot of the calculated BHP from real-time surface data using the wellbore model. Diagnostic The BHP Difference Plot is used for real-time pressure matching. p f = p f –  = frictional pressure loss in wellbore and near wellbore Meyer & Associates.

slurry volume and proppant concentration versus fracture length can be plotted. the plot will update with each realtime time step. It is important to note that this plot always corresponds to the current input data. Net Present Value The conductivity. concentration and mass are plotted versus time or bottomhole volume. To graphically edit the treatment schedule. The second section pertains to the treatment of the bottomhole and individual fracture(s). rate. Input Treatment Schedule This is the same plot as the one shown by pressing the Graphical Edit button in the treatment schedule. When doing a real-time case. This category is divided into two parts. Meyer & Associates. The volume. Meyer User’s Guide . bottomhole volume or surface volume. Acid Transport The plots contained in this category illustrate the generation of etched fracture length and conductivity for an acid fracturing stimulation. Bar charts of surface treatment may also be plotted. The first section pertains to the surface and bottomhole treatment. concentration and mass may be plotted versus time. The bottomhole stage bar plots show the total bottomhole treatment and how much went into each individual layer. click on the Edit button. rate. Proppant Transport A variety of plots are available to show the placement of proppant during and at the end of the simulation. hydraulic power. Heat Transfer These plots depict the changes in temperature as a function of time and position in the fracture as predicted for a particular simulation.206 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator p grav p m  = gravitational head in the wellbore = = measured net fracture pressure minimum horizontal stress Treatment These plots show the fracture treatment. The volume. liquid volume. Inc.

The different layers will be represented on the plot legend as configured with the Multilayer legend option. which is accessible from the Plot menu. The choices are summarized below: Depth scale is not continuous . The first layer will always be at the top of the plot. regardless of over- lapping layers. the larger scale will force the fracture outlines to be smaller. Inc. For best results use Each zone always has its own depth scale for horizontal wells and Depth scale is not continuous for vertical wells. it is possible to see the data for each active layer using the Multilayer Selection box. Each zone always has its own depth scale . If the layers are far apart. regardless of any overlapping. This is particularly useful for a horizontal wellbore where all fractures are around the same TVD. The selection box has a list of all the available active layers. the legend contains both the name of the variable and the name of the layer.Graphical Presentation 207 Multilayer Plots When simulating multiple active layers.Each zone will have its own depth scale.When two layers are significantly far apart. you can choose to apply the selection to just the active plot or to all open plots. There are various options which may be config- Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . When two layers are overlapping. When using the Multilayer tab. For plots that have a Y axis depth scale. Multilayer Selection Any combination of the active layers can be selected for a plot.The depth scale will be continuous. the selections will be applied to all plots started with that dialog box. Continuous Depth Scale . Toggle the selection of the layers by clicking on them. This allows for a more detailed view of each layer. When using the menu options. Selecting the desired layers is accomplished using the Multilayer dialog box. the plot shortcut menu or by clicking on the Multilayer tab in a plot dialog box. there is another option available when the depth scales of different layers overlap or are significantly far apart. a break in the Y axis will be drawn on the plot. no break is drawn and the data for one layer may be drawn on top of the other.5 Plots . At least one layer must be selected. Multilayer Legends For plots that do not have a depth axis.2.

Layer Name. #2 Length). variable Name .This is the name of the layer followed by the name of the variable (i.208 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator ured in the Legend section of the Plot Configuration box. Composite plots refer to the configuration of displaying more than one figure in a given plot.e. Upper Frac Length). The following options. Composite Plots A number of composite plots are available in MFrac. but show the legend when more than one layer is plotted. Inc.e.. Meyer & Associates. Upper Frac).This is the name of the layer (i.This is only the variable name (i. This is used to hide the legend when only one layer is plotted. Length). Meyer User’s Guide .. There is also an option at the top to Hide Legend when there is only one layer. Similar plots are available for proppant transport display. Consider an example of a length curve for layer number two (2) named “Upper Frac”. Figure 2. followed by the variable name (i.This is the layer number. Variable Name . Layer Name only .. length versus time. This is useful for plots of only one variable. Figure 2. width and width contours. with examples in parenthesis are available: Layer Number.e. Variable Name Only .64 illustrates a composite width contour plot that contains the stress. for example..65 shows a composite plot of the rock properties table.e. This is useful if only one of the active layers is selected for plotting.

.64: Composite Plot . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Figure 2. Multi-Axes Plots Following are a few examples of Multi-Axes Plots with various options for plot Layout and configuration.Graphical Presentation 209 Figure 2.65: Composite Plot .Rock Properties Data.Width Contours.5 Plots . Inc.2.

Three-Dimensional Plots To display a 3D plot select Three-Dimensional from the Plot Menu as shown in Figure 2.66: Multi-Axes Plot . Meyer & Associates.68.67: Multi-Axes Plot . Rate etc. Inc. Figure 2.BHTP.Wellbore Friction & Gravity.210 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. Meyer User’s Guide .

Mozilla. Inc. The dialog menu has options for Plot. Internet Explorer.2.. In the web browser (e. a VRML plug-in must be installed with your web browser. These features are mostly related to options for a propped fracture. Figure 2. This virtual reality plot is saved in a VRML at the location shown at the bottom of this menu. and Titles. You can download the free Cortona VRML plug-in at: http://www. If acid is selected some of these items will be dimmed.Graphical Presentation 211 Figure 2. Show Options.g.parallelgraphics. etc.69 displays the dialog menu for creating Three-Dimensional Plots. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Shading.68: Three-Dimensional Plot Menu Selection. In order to view these 3D plots. . Internet Explorer).5 Plots .g. After installing the plug-in and registering the WRL file type you may have to restart your computer.) go to Folder OptionsFile Types and Register the WRL Extension with a web browser (e.com/products/cortona/ After installing the 3D VRML plug-in you must register the 3D WRL file type generated by MFrac/MPwri with the web browser so that the browser can find the plug-in..

the wellbore will be included in the 3D plot output. Wellbore Scaling Factor Since wellbore width is often extremely small compared to fracture height and fracture length. Meyer & Associates. Show Wellbore By checking this option.212 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. this option will orient the wellbore parallel to the fractures. Wellbore Below is a list of options found under the Wellbore section of the Three-Dimensional Plots screen.69: Three-Dimensional Plot Dialog Menu. Values to the left result in a smaller wellbore whereas values to the right result in a larger wellbore. a scaling factor is used when drawing the wellbore. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . Parallel to Fractures For horizontal wells.

Figure 2. Cortona) will work. Figure 2.Graphical Presentation 213 Three-Dimensional Plot Examples To illustrate the functionality of the three-dimensional plots a few examples are presented below.72 shows the 3D plot from the top view.70 shows a single fracture with the Meyer Logo.5 Plots .2. It is not necessary to have MFrac to view a 3D plot any VRML plug-in (e.g.Single Fracture.. . These 3D plots can be shared with anyone on the Internet. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.71 shows a multilayer 3D plot with lithology and wellbore selected. Figure 2. Figure 2.70: Virtual Reality 3D Plot . Inc.

214 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. Meyer User’s Guide .72: Virtual Reality 3D Plot .Opening View. Meyer & Associates. Inc.Top View.71: Virtual Reality 3D Plot . Figure 2.

6 Generating Reports After the calculations have been successfully performed. When it is not necessary to view all of the data.73 displays the Report Menu for the Multilayer (limited entry) case. These reports summarize the various solution tables presented in the Full Report. In many cases.2. Figure 2. with or without input data. The Report can also be saved as an HTML file. as well as the calculation solutions. average values are pre- sented together with fracture geometry and proppant transport information at the Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . Figure 2. The Report Generation dialog shown in Figure 2. various options are available for viewing the results and creating reports. The Full Report contains all of the simulation results corresponding to the options that were selected in the Options dialog boxes. Working with reports is the same in all Meyer programs as described in Chapter 1. you may select a pre-formatted Summary Report. Inc.73: Report Menu . It contains all of the input data.Multilayer Case. Viewing a Report To see the results of a simulation select View Report from the Report menu.6 Generating Reports 215 2.74 will then be presented with the Full Report option enabled as a default.

or to diagnose a potential problem in a design refer to the Full Report or choose Selected Sections. Meyer & Associates. the report may be viewed by clicking the OK button. If there is more than one active layer. Figure 2. Choosing the Selected Sections item enables the previously dimmed list contained in the Report Generation dialog. Inc. Once the selection(s) are made. Select the desired layers from the list. This capability allows you to view a portion of the complete report without displaying any undesired information.74: Report Generation Dialog Box . To acquire specific information about the development of a simulation. Once again. The summary is useful in comparing simulations and making an overall assessment of a particular design. These sections represent the components of the Full Report and can be selected individually or together as a group.MFrac. clicking on the Multilayer tab will allow you to choose which layers to include in the report. Meyer User’s Guide .216 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator end of the treatment simulation. some of the sections will remain dimmed depending on the simulation options that have been used.

Acid Transport Solution This table displays the acid concentrations and etched width characteristics as a function of position. the input data will have the same form as the input screens. In most cases it will exactly match the input table. BHP. Proppant Transport Solution This table shows the propped fracture characteristics as a function of length. Delta P Gravity. the layer name and output tables are given. Then for each selected layer. Tables relating to the wellbore will be first. depending on the options.6 Generating Reports 217 Explanation of the Report Output For reports that have input data. Fracture Wellbore Hydraulics Solution This table has the wellbore hydraulics output parameters for a given layer as a function of time. Surface Pressure and Hydraulic Power as a function of time. This table represents what was actually pumped in the simulation.2. The stage numbers are intermixed with the rows of the table. . Fracture Propagation Solution This table shows various fracture characteristics as a function of time. Each of the output tables is summarized below: Treatment Schedule Pumped This table will have the title Surface Treatment Schedule Pumped or Bottomhole Treatment Schedule Pumped. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The output data (simulation results) will be presented in a variety of tables. allowing visualization of where the stages are within the fracture. depending on the option selected in the treatment schedule. Acid Schedule Comments This table shows where the different acid stages are at the end of the treatment. Inc. Fracture Treatment Schedule This table displays what was actually pumped into a layer. Wellbore Hydraulics Solution This table will show Delta P Friction.

Fluid Leakoff Output This table shows the fluid leakoff rate and rheology as a function of time. The System Databases supplied with MFrac cannot be edited or Meyer & Associates.g. The databases contained in MFrac are comprised of System Databases and a User Database (see Figure 2. MFrac offers several program databases provided by numerous industry suppliers. The output shows both real temperature and dimensionless temperature versus position. While these databases are offered as an integral part of the program. Proppant Design Summary This table shows the propped fracture characteristics for the selected layers at the end of the job and at closure.75). 2. Temperature vs. Meyer User’s Guide . etc. Meyer and the database suppliers make no guarantee or expressed warranty as to their use or accuracy. Inc.218 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Summary of Etched Characteristics This table gives a summary of the etched characteristics. Position (End of Pumping) Various fracture temperatures versus position and time are tabulated.7 Program Databases To simplify database input. The mixed mean fracture temperature as a function of time is also tabulated.) as a function of the created and propped fracture length.. treatment volumes. conductivity. width. Fluid Database A complete fracturing fluid database and database management system is provided with MFrac to simplify entry of fluid rheology information. Heat Transfer Solution This table shows the heat transfer solution as a function of time. Sand Transport Summary Table This table shows the proppant transport characteristics (properties of each stage) at the end of the job and at closure. Automated NPV Design The automated NPV design table lists the calculated propped fracture characteristics (e.

A new blank record can be created with the Add button. . To exit the fluid database dialog box.7 Program Databases 219 changed. Once a fluid has been inserted. Figure 2. Selections may be deleted from the User Database by clicking the Delete button. Any fluid record contained in the User Database can be edited by selecting the fluid name and clicking the Edit button or double-clicking on the fluid. To use the data from the System Databases. the screen shown in Figure 2. When either the Add button or the Edit button is used to create or edit a fluid.2. select the desired System Database from the list box at the top of the screen. This action copies the selected fluid data from the System Database to the User Database. select a fluid from the System Database list and press the Insert button located in the center of the dialog box (or double-click on the database fluid). Inc.76 appears permitting the rheology and friction data to be Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. click on the Done button. To do this.75: Fluid Database Dialog Box. This is to prevent users from loosing the original data provided to Meyer by various participating service companies. it must first be copied into the User Database. Next. its position relative to the other fluids in the list can be adjusted by using the Up or Down arrow buttons.

viewed. The fluid specific gravity is used in the proppant transport solution and for 3-D fracture propagation solution (energy equation for height growth) when the fluid gradient is clicked on. by default certain characters are automatically used to denote specific service company data (e. Meyer & Associates. seven (7) character name used to identify the fluid data. D. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. a blank screen is presented providing a template for the entry of data. For a new fluid. Specific Gravity The Specific Gravity of the fluid at bottomhole conditions must also be entered for each fluid in the space provided. however.76: Fluid Database Edit Screen. H).g. Fluid Code and Name Each database record contains rheological information the program requires for simulation. The Fluid Code and Fluid Name appear in the pop-up screen presented when the Fluid Type field is entered in the Treatment Schedule dialog. B. modified or plotted. The Fluid Code is a unique.. Figure 2. The Fluid Name is a free format field to describe the fluid composition. Any character may be used for this code.220 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator entered.

Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. This apparent viscosity.7 Program Databases 221 Shear Rate . as the shear rate increases the apparent viscosity decreases for n  1 and in the limit as the shear rate approaches zero the apparent viscosity goes to infinity. Use the Previous << and Next >> buttons to switch between temperatures. The apparent Viscosity Plot should only be used for relative comparisons. can be displayed by pressing the Viscosity Plot button. at the specified shear rate. Typical n and k fluid rheology parameters as a function of time and temperature are shown in Figure 2. Clearly. Apparent viscosity is not used in the Meyer software calculations. and  is the shear rate. The apparent viscosity app as a function of the fluid rheology parameters and shear rate is  app = k n – 1 where k is the consistency index. At least two (2) entries must be made for each temperature to define the properties for a range of time.79 illustrates the apparent viscosity at a given shear rate as a function of time and temperature. Rheology Data The Rheology Data section found in the database record is used to specify the n and k of the fluid system as a function of Time and Temperature.78. Inc.Viscosity at The Viscosity @ Shear Rate is used to calculate the apparent viscosity of the fluid at this shear rate. n is the flow behavior index. .2. Figure 2.77 and Figure 2.

77: Flow Behavior Index (n’) Plot.Figure 2. . Figure 2.78: Consistency Index (k’) Plot.

When available. Friction Data In addition to the Rheology Data section. the fluid database also provides a section containing characteristic friction data for various pipe sizes.2. Hydraulic Diameter The hydraulic diameter is defined as: 4A D h = ------P Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.7 Program Databases 223 Figure 2. . This data is only used when the Wellbore Hydraulics Model Option is selected as User Database. This information has also been provided by the respective service companies. the pressure loss data is entered as a function of the pumping rate and Hydraulic Diameter. Inc.79: Apparent Viscosity Plot.

= D D where D = pipe inside diameter For an annulus.224 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator where = = = Dh A P hydraulic diameter cross-sectional area wetted perimeter For a circular pipe. Meyer User’s Guide . MFrac calculates the fluid velocities and uses the appropriate friction data from the database. 2 A = D  4 P = D and 2 4  D  4  D h = ------------------------.= D – d D+d where D d = = casing inside diameter tubing outside diameter The program assumes that the data entered is specified as a function of hydraulic diameter. When simulating annular flow. Meyer & Associates. Data specifically generated for an annular configuration should be input based on the hydraulic diameter. 2 2 A = D – d   4 P = D + d and 2 2 D –d D h = -----------------. Inc.

Inc. it may be plotted for verification using the various plot buttons. The spline fitting function may be disabled by clearing the check box found at the bottom of the plot dialog. After the data is entered.2.80: Frictional Pressure Loss Plot. When plotted. . the plot attributes can be changed by selecting the Plot Configuration button. The frictional pressure loss as a function of rate is input into the table. Use the Previous << and Next >> buttons to access the pressure loss values for additional hydraulic diameters.7 Program Databases 225 Pressure Loss Table Up to ten friction tables with corresponding hydraulic diameters can be entered. To generate a hard copy. Once the data has been entered. Figure 2. a curve is generated through the data points using a cubic spline fit. located on the bottom of the screen. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. it can be plotted for verification using the Friction Plot button which is configured in a similar manner to the rheology plots (see Figure 2. The more rate and pressure loss fields entered the better the interpolation will be.80). After creating a plot.

Copy a record or Add a new record to the list by choosing the appropriate button.226 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator click the Print button located on the tool bar. You can Edit a record. they can be repositioned by using the Up and Down buttons. Inc. Figure 2. The first screen presented is the Proppant List dialog shown in Figure 2. to zoom out you must click the Zoom out button or press F5. Just like in the Fluid database.81: Proppant Database Dialog Box. Delete a record. Meyer User’s Guide . The System Databases contain data supplied by most of the major proppant manufacturers and suppliers. Meyer & Associates. click on the Close button. To enter the Proppant Database select the Proppant Database command from the Database menu.81. Once proppants have been copied from the System Database. however. This plot can be zoomed like other Meyer plots. To exit the proppant database dialog box. a User Database can be built by copying proppants from the program’s System Databases. various proppant suppliers have provided us with their databases. Proppant Database To characterize the many different proppants available in the industry.

4 2650 Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.2.2 2550 Sand 2. The Description of the proppant is displayed with the Proppant Code in the report for all proppants used. .11: Specific Gravity of Proppants. specific information is required. seven (7) character identifier. The specific gravity of a proppant is based on the grain density. the proppant data screen appears as shown in Figure 2. A description of these properties is given below. The Proppant Code is a unique. Inc.7 Program Databases 227 Proppant Database Parameters When the Edit button is selected.11.55 159. Table 2. Specific Gravity This is the ratio of the proppant density to the density of water. For each proppant entry in the database.82: Proppant Database Edit Screen.82.65 165. Typical values are shown in Table 2. used in the Treatment Schedule to indicate which proppant data to use in the simulation. Figure 2. The screen displays a proppant’s database record. Proppant Type Specific Gravity Absolute Density Absolute Density (lbm/ft3) (kg/m3) Resin Coated Sand 2. not the bulk density of the proppant.

The + and . monolayer criteria and as a reference value for bridge-out determinations. porosity.72 169.6 3150 Sintered Bauxite 3. Each concentration is associated with a proppant data table on the right. The proppant data table can be sorted by column by clicking on one of the fixed column headings. conductivity.228 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Table 2. The concentrations must be greater than zero. It is used to determine the proppant settling velocity. Proppant Data Table The proppant data table associates permeability. Meyer User’s Guide . Concentration List The Concentration list on the left contains concentration (per area) values.buttons under the concentration list are used to add and remove entries. ISP-Lightweight 2. propped fracture width. “Bridging-out” is assumed to occur if the average fracture width integrated over the fracture height is less than the value entered for the No.0 3700 The proppant Specific Gravity is used in the calculation of the proppant settling velocity. width. Inc.8 2720 Intermediate Strength 3. for each concentration. Calculations within the proppant data table are performed according to the following equation: C a – C ae  = 1 – --------------------w where  = porosity.15 196. and other associated values. and (if embedment is enabled) embedment concentration with closure pressure.11: Specific Gravity of Proppants. Average Diameter This is a weighted average value as determined from a sieve analysis according to API standards.70 231. gravitational and perforation pressure losses. respectively. of Prop Layers to Prevent Bridging. That is. must be entered in the proppant data table. as well as the pipe frictional. Meyer & Associates. at least one closure pressure.

2. The fracture model linearly interpolates the propped width based on the closure pressure and concentration (per area). the permeability is assumed to be constant. This mass balance equation provides limits to the valid range of values of the various parameters in the table. equal to the permeability computed for the minimum or maximum concentration listed) Width This is the propped fracture width.e.(i. then by concentration. and w = measured width. Conductivity This is the fracture conductivity. Values in the table that are not valid will be displayed in a bold/red font. The variation of fracture conductivity with position is then used to calculate an equivalent dimensionless fracture conductivity at the start of pseudo-radial flow in the specific pay zone. C ae = embedment concentration (per area). Permeability This is the proppant pack permeability at specified concentrations as a function of Closure Pressure. The proppant transport model elementally tracks the proppant displacement and calculates the effective propped width and height as a function of position in the fracture.7 Program Databases 229 C a = concentration (per area). Entering a value for conductivity will cause the permeability to be recalculated.  = proppant particle density. A parameter value will not be recalculated if the value used in the calculation is not valid. The fracture permeability is assumed to vary with concentration and closure pressure throughout the fracture. For concentrations beyond the those listed. If a closure pressure is beyond the minimum and maximum closure pressures in the table the associated values of the minimum (or maximum) will be used. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Inc. Conductivity values in the table will be calculated by multiplying permeability times width. the width is linearly extrapolated assuming a constant porosity and embedment concentration. . The Fracture and proppant transport models compute property values associated with a specific closure pressure and concentration (per area). first by linearly interpolating table values by closure pressure. For concentrations beyond the those listed.

Inc.230 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Porosity This is defined as the void fraction between sand grains (i. Proppant Database Plots The proppant database plots can be viewed by clicking the Plots button on the proppant database editor screen.32 Embedment Concentration This is the concentration (per area) of the proppant that is embedded into the formation.12: Porosity of Proppants Mesh Size Sphericity Porosity (fraction) 6-8 angular 0. otherwise the width will be recalculated. The plot on this page shows how the simulator interprets the proppant data for each closure pressure. values enter in the embedment concentration column of the table will be used to calculate values of porosity. choose the Plot versus Concentration tab. Entering porosity values will caused the embedment concentration to be recalculated if embedment is enabled. The screen has three tab pages as described below. Meyer User’s Guide . (Figure 2. If the box is not checked.32 20-40 round 0. After specifying up to ten (10) closure pressures. liquid volume to slurry ratio of the settled bank). Table 2. If the Enable Embedment box is checked..35 40-60 round 0. Meyer & Associates. Typical proppant porosity values for low closure stresses are shown in Table 2.82.e. The porosity values in the table will be calculated based on the equation presented above. shown in Figure 2.83) is used to specify the closure pressures at which the permeability (or conductivity) and porosity versus concentration plots are evaluated. See “Closure Pressure on Proppant” on page 194.36 10-20 angular 0. then the embedment concentration will be assumed to be zero for all of the proppant data tables.12.36 10-20 round 0. the Closure Pressures page. Closure Pressures Selection The first page.

. By default.7 Program Databases 231 Figure 2. There are three options: (1) plot porosity curves. the permeability is plotted versus concentration (per area).83: Proppant Closure Pressure Selection Screen Plot versus Concentration This page plots curves based on the list of closure pressures on the previous page.84) Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. (see Figure 2. (2) plot conductivity instead of permeability. Inc.2. and (3) include the proppant code in the plot’s title.

Concentration Plot versus Closure Pressure This page plots curves based on the list of concentrations on the editor screen. and (3) include the proppant code in the plot’s title. (2) plot conductivity instead of permeability. Meyer User’s Guide . By default. Inc. the permeability is plotted versus closure pressure. (see Figure 2.232 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2.85) Meyer & Associates. There are three options: (1) plot porosity curves.84: Proppant Plot vs.

To exit the non-Darcy database dialog box. (Note: This Non-Darcy database is also used in MProd. .2. click on the Close button. Copy a record or Add a new record to the list by choosing the appropriate button.) Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Just like in the Fluid database. Once beta correlations have been copied from the System Database.7 Program Databases 233 Figure 2. You can Edit a record.85: Proppant Plot vs. The first screen presented is the Non-Darcy List dialog shown in Figure 2. Closure Pressure Non-Darcy Database To enter the Non-Darcy Database select the Non-Darcy Database command from the Database menu. Inc. a User Database can be built by copying non-Darcy beta correlations from the program’s System Database. The System Database contains correlations for the beta factor as used in the petroleum industry. they can be repositioned by using the Up and Down buttons. Delete a record.86.

Inc.87. seven (7) character identifier. The Description of the Non-Darcy Equation is displayed with the Reference Code in the report for correlation selected.86: Non-Darcy Database Dialog Box. used to indicate which beta correlation to use in the simulation.234 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. the non-Darcy proppant data screen appears as shown in Figure 2. Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates. The screen displays a non-Darcy database record. The Reference Code is a unique. Non-Darcy Database Parameters When the Edit button is selected.

b . and c are the input constants. The System Databases supplied with MFrac cannot be edited or changed. and the units for permeability. The power coefficients b .2. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.88). and c are dimensionless. The databases contained in MFrac are comprised of System Databases and a User Database (see Figure 2. .7 Program Databases 235 Figure 2. The a coefficient has units consistent with the permeability power constant. b .87: Non-Darcy Database Edit Screen. Inc. The generalized correlation for the beta factor in terms of the fracture permeability k f and porosity  is of the form a = ---------b kf  c where a . Acid Database An acid fracturing database and database management system is provided with MFrac to simplify entry of acid information. This is to prevent users from loosing the original data provided to Meyer by various participating service companies.

Meyer User’s Guide . Next. Figure 2. select the desired System Database from the list box at the top of the screen. Selections may be deleted from the User Meyer & Associates. The objective of the Acid Frac Database is to simplify the manner in which specific data is entered in the program to describe physical processes. it is the thermodynamic and mass diffusion relationships used to characterize the reaction between acid and rock. To use the data from the System Databases. Inc. its position relative to the other acids in the list can be adjusted by using the Up or Down arrow buttons. select an acid/rock system from the System Database list and press the Insert button located in the center of the dialog box (or double-click on the database fluid). In this particular case. it must first be copied into the User Database. Any acid record contained in the User Database can be edited by selecting the acid name and clicking the Edit button or double-clicking on the acid.88: Acid Frac Database. This action copies the selected acid/rock data from the System Database to the User Database.236 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator An Acid Fracturing Database is included to describe the rock/acid physical characteristics and mass transfer mechanisms. Once an acid/rock has been inserted. To do this. A new blank record can be created with the Add button.

When either the Add button or the Edit button is used to create or edit an acid/rock system. This code must be a unique string of five (5) characters or less.89: Acid Database Edit Screen. the Acid Frac Database is accessible from the program Database menu and the Treatment Schedule. Figure 2. For a new acid.7 Program Databases 237 Database by clicking the Delete button. To exit the acid database dialog box. viewed or modified. Each Reference Code can be associated with a Rock/Acid System description to define the content of the record.2. each entry must have the following Characterization Parameters: Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. the screen shown in Figure 2. This information is only used for reference and for future selection. .89 appears permitting the acid/rock data to be entered. Like all of the databases. Inc. The Reference Code and the description are displayed in the pop-up which appears whenever the cursor enters the Rock/Acid System column in the Treatment Schedule. Along with the information described above. Description of the Acid Database Parameters The Reference Code is the identifier used in the Treatment Schedule to indicate which Rock/Acid System data to use in the simulation. a blank screen is presented providing a template for the entry of data. click on the Close button.

Acid Molecular Weight This is the molecular weight of the base acid used. Inc..5.465 (H = 1.457). Dissolving Power The governing acid transport relationship used by MFrac based on the rate of creation of volume (R. therefore.5) specific gravity of the solvent (i.238 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Acid Specific Gravity Enter the specific gravity of the base acid extrapolated to a concentration of 100% (Note: A 100% acid concentration does not exist. The heat of reaction is the associated energy per unit mass of acid that reacts. on the acid spending rate. This information is only used for volumetric conservation. = = = = = total volume loss per unit area per unit time leakoff in the carbonate leakoff in the non-carbonate leakoff due to worm holes change in volume due to diffusion Meyer User’s Guide .C Volume) is as follows: V· l = 2v yl  l + 2v yp  1 –  l  fl + V· w + 2V   l – 2V· R  l where V· l 2v yl  l 2v yp  1 –  l  fl V·  w 2V·   l Meyer & Associates. water) concentration of the base acid Heat of Reaction The heat generated from the reaction of the acid with the rock has an effect on the temperature in the fracture and.O.e. For 100% HCl (hydrogen chloride) use a specific gravity of 1. This value is used to determine the specific gravity of the dilute acid mixture as demonstrated in the following expression:  mixture =  acid C acid +  solvent  1 – C acid  where  mixture  acid  solvent C acid = = = = specific gravity of the mixture specific gravity of acid (1.). Cl = 35.008. The molecular weight or atomic weight of HCl is 36.

 ----. it is necessary to convert the entered volumes to an equivalent mass.2. cal/g-mole gas law constant.e.7 Program Databases 239 2V· R  l = change in volume due to the reaction products Because the internal acid fracturing calculations are based on the rate of creation of mass (rather than volume). The dissolving power facilitates this conversion. the rate of reaction can be described by the following equation: V = k  Cs  n where V K Cs n = = = = flux or reaction rate (g-mole/cm2sec) reaction rate coefficient (units depend on n) acid concentration at the fracture surface reaction order (dimensionless) The Reaction Order represents the variation in reaction kinetics as a function of acid concentration. and the intercept equal to ln  K  . theoretically yields a straight line with the slope equal to the reaction order. Inc. T o activation energy..987 cal/g-mole Meyer & Associates. The Reaction Rate Coefficient is a measure of the reactivity of the acid/rock combination at one specific temperature. A log-log plot of the flux versus the concentration at the wall. Reaction Order and Reaction Rate Coefficients When an acid comes in contact with rock. .– --- R  T o T where K T K T o Ea R Meyer User’s Guide = = = = adjusted reaction rate coefficient at T reaction rate coefficient at the reference temperature. It is the mass of rock dissolved divided by the mass of acid used (mass of rock/mass of acid). It is generally accepted that the reactivity (i. n . reaction rate coefficient) will increase exponentially with temperature according to the Arrhenius equation shown below: Ea 1 1 K T = K T o exp -----. Both of these values are determined experimentally by measuring the acid or product concentrations as a function of time while controlling the environmental conditions of a specimen. 1. Cs .

E a .240 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator If the reaction rate coefficient is determined for a series of temperatures. The Activation Energy. When turbulence is encountered diffusion typically increases. Standard reaction parameter units are used throughout MFrac. The following formulation is used: ED 1 1 D T = D To exp ------. respectively. There are currently several organizations investigating new methods for characterizing acid diffusion. diffusivity. Just like the reactive rate coefficient. W is the fracture width and D is the diffusivity. Notice the similarity to the Nusselt number. Unfortunately. ----. T o Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. The required unit for the reaction rate coefficient is (g-mole/cc)1-n-cm/sec. and the Reference Temperature. therefore. has historically been difficult to measure in the laboratory. then a loglog plot of KT vs. 1  T will produce a straight line with slope equal to E a  R and the inverse log of the intercept equal to KT 0 . The units for the Activation Energy and Reference Temperature are Kcal/g-mole and degrees Kelvin. Normally in acid fracturing. Diffusivity The ability to quantify the total mass transfer in the system is directly related to the ability to characterize the diffusivity (diffusion coefficient).– --- R To T where DT DT o Meyer & Associates. T o . The mass transfer coefficient is calculated from the Sherwood number. when laminar flow exists. as it relates to acid fracturing. the diffusion coefficient also varies as function of temperature according to the Arrhenius equation. = = diffusivity at temperature T diffusivity at the reference temperature. are input in order to provide a basis for adjust- ing the reaction rate for variation in temperature. N sh : Kg W N sh = ----------D where K g is the mass transfer coefficient. the diffusivity is equal to the molecular diffusion.

T o . the acid transport model can be coupled to the heat transfer solution. click on the OK button. E D . The Weight is never used by MFrac. The required units for the Diffusivity are cm2/sec. These are tables with three columns: OD (outer diameter). as they relate to diffusion are required to characterize the effect of temperature on the diffusivity. and the Reference Temperature.90 illustrates the tubing database dialog. The result is a fully coupled approach for determining mass transport as a function of temperature. You may add.2. Inc. Weight and ID (inner diameter). Casing. it is only provided as a reference. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Many common pipe measurements have been provided.7 Program Databases ED R = = 241 activation energy for diffusion. cal/g-mole gas law constant. Like the Reactive Rate Coefficient. Figure 2. Casing and Tubing Databases To aid in defining the wellbore configuration. . the associated Activation Energy must be input in Kcal/g-mole and the Reference Temperature entered in degrees Kelvin. Using this relationship.987 cal/g-mole A separate Activation Energy. When finished editing the database. Tubing and Coiled Tubing databases are provided. modify or delete rows in the table as you would in any other Meyer table. 1.

modify or delete rows in the table as you would in any other Meyer table. When finished editing the database. zone name. click on the OK button. Poisson’s Ratio. Inc.90: Tubing Database. You may add. Young’s Modulus. Meyer User’s Guide . and critical stress. Figure 2. stress gradient. Rock Properties Database To aid in inputting rock property data a Rock Properties Database has been provided.91 shows the rock properties database table. fracture toughness. The database table includes a lithology symbol. Meyer & Associates.242 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2.

Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Lithology symbols can be added by placing the mouse cursor to the left of the Zone Name and double clicking the left mouse button.92 allows the user to calculate the theoretical proppant permeability and non-Darcy beta factor. Proppant Calculator The Proppant Calculator Dialog screen displayed in Figure 2.8 Tools The Tools menu provides the user with options and analytical tools for calculating or determining scientific parameters. The Rock Database is accessible from the Rock Properties dialog box by selecting Insert from Database icon. MFrac and MProd also have a Proppant Calculator for determining the proppant permeability and beta factor based on proppant properties. all applications have a Tool Spreadsheet option that allows the user to customize the spreadsheet.91: Rock Properties Database Screen.2. Inc. 2. Currently. .8 Tools 243 Figure 2.

e.. Inc.  . etc. by Forchheimer was a which was replaced by Cornell and Katz [1953] by the product of the fluid density. If the second term on the right hand side is omitted.92: Proppant Calculator . and the  factor. atm-s /gm etc. Holdith [1976] reports that the original form of the second term on the right hand side of 2 Eq. Clearly the first term in this equation accounts for viscous effects and the second term for inertial or minor loss effects. ft . 2 cm . +     dx kf 2 where k f is the permeability of the porous media with units of L (i.). The generalized correlation for the beta factor in terms of the fracture permeability k f and porosity  is of the form Meyer & Associates. the equation simplifies to Darcy’s law..Data Input Screen Beta Correlation The equation to describe non-Darcy flow is a form of the Forchheimer [1901] equation – d  2 (p) = ---. Meyer User’s Guide .) and  is the non-Darcy flow factor or simply  factor with units of L -1 -1 –1 (e.244 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Figure 2. md or ft2.g. Thus nonDarcy flow describes the flow regime that does not obey Darcy’s law.

2. liquid volume to slurry ratio of the settled bank).35 40-60 round 0.13. can be incorporated by modifying the porosity to be the effective porosity (  e =   1 – S w  ). and c are constants. Inc. S w . Typical values of porosity for proppants are shown in Table 2.e.8 Tools 245 a  = ---------b kf  c where a .  s .13: Porosity of Proppants Mesh Size Sphericity Porosity (fraction) 6-8 angular 0. Sphericity Sphericity is a measure of how spherical (round) an object is. It is used in calculating the theoretical proppant permeability. Table 2. A number of correlations for the beta factor (inertial coefficient) are provided in the database. The effect of immobile water saturation.32 20-40 round 0..36 10-20 angular 0. . Proppant Property Data Following is a list of the proppant property data that is required to calculate the proppant permeability and Non-Darcy beta factor: Proppant Porosity This is defined as the void fraction between sand grains (i.36 10-20 round 0.32 Proppant Diameter This is a weighted average value as determined from a sieve analysis according to API standards. b . is defined as Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. It is used to calculate the propped fracture permeability. The sphericity.

13.  s tetrahedron 0. Table 2.72 169.65 165. Table 2.15.840 sphere 1.6 3150 Sintered Bauxite 3.246 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator 6V p 6  s  ---------.0 Specific Gravity This is the ratio of the proppant density to the density of water.671 cube 0.15: Specific Gravity of Proppants. The specific gravity of a proppant is based on the grain density. Proppant Type Specific Gravity Absolute Density Absolute Density (lbm/ft3) (kg/m3) Resin Coated Sand 2.14: Sphericity of Common Objects Object Sphericity.15 196.910 half-sphere 0.70 231.55 159. not the bulk density of the proppant.4 2650 ISP-Lightweight 2.806 dodecahedron 0.8 2720 Intermediate Strength 3. Typical values are shown in Table 2.0 3700 Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide .2 2550 Sand 2. Inc.= ----------dp as dp Sp where as Vp Sp dp = = = = specific surface area of a particle particle volume particle surface area characteristic diameter of the particle Typical values of Sphericity for various shapes are shown in Table 2.

Concentration/Area and Propped Width This is the effective concentration per unit area in the fracture. 62.43 lbm  ft or 1g  cm 3 ). from the equation given below 3 2 –2   dp s  dp s k f = --------------------------------2  1 + --------------------------  1 – DF   3  1 –  w f 72 m  1 –   Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.and damage factor. is given by C a =  o  1 –  w f 3 where  o is the reference density of water at 4 C (i. Inc. is calculated in terms of the proppant diameter.2. proppant sphericity. d p . propped fracture width. wf .  . DF . porosity. k f . Ca .  .  . The propped fracture width in terms of the concentration per unit area is w f = C a    o  1 –    Proppant Damage Factor The proppant damage factor is defined as DF = 1 – k f  k where kf k DF = = = fracture permeability proppant permeability (undamaged or theoretical) proppant damage factor The permeability in the fracture k f is used to determine the fracture conductivity and dimensionless fracture conductivity as given by k f = k  1 – DF  Calculated Fracture Permeability The theoretical fracture permeability..e. proppant specific gravity. The concentration per unit area. and propped fracture width. .  s . as a function of the proppant porosity.8 Tools 247 The proppant Specific Gravity is used in the calculation of the proppant density. wf .

5. 21.: “Design Formulae for 2-D and 3-D Vertical Hydraulic Fractures: Model Comparison and Parametric Studies.” presented at the 54th Annual SPE Technical Conf. 1992. No. and Matson. July 1975.R. Meyer User’s Guide . AIChE Journal.. SPE Production Engineering.: “Drag Reduction Fundamentals”. Vol.248 MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator where  m  25  12 for   0. Hudson. 2. Huit.” paper SPE 15240. 6.: “A New Method for Predicting Friction Pressures and Rheology of Proppant Laden Fracturing Fluids”. no packing in a slot as   1 ) is w f2 k f = -----. The effect of immobile water saturation. p 259. 4. Vol. 3. 1956.” AIChE Journal.. B.S. can be incorporated by modifying the porosity to be the effective porosity (  e =   1 – S w  ). Beta The Beta factor is calculated from the proppant property data and selected beta correlation. P. Meyer. et al.: “Fluid Flow in Simulated Fractures.K. Meyer & Associates. 2. Boundary Layer Theory. McGraw-Hill. Midland. P.. Virk. 2. and c are constants. R.  1 – DF  12 where  m = 3  2 (see Bird [1960]). Feb. May 1986. 1992. Schlichting. A number of correlations for the beta factor (inertial coefficient) are provided in the database. J. H. R. The permeability for open slot flow (i.5 .9 References 1. b .e. TX. J. Sept. NY (1955). Keck. The generalized correlation for the beta factor in terms of the fracture permeability k f and porosity  is of the form a = ---------b kf  c where a . S w . 4.: “Fracturing Horizontal Wells. Inc.

” SPEJ (Feb.B.2. N. W. B. 10.. Meyer. No.” OGJ.: “Etude des écoulements d'eau dans les roches fissurées et leurs influence sur la stabilité des massifs rocheux. OK. D.. R. D. 13. Shah.F. Casper.N. 17. p.M. S. . D. 5-132.: “Fracture Toughness and Hydraulic Fracturing. vol 26. Nierode. Shah. 12. Lightfoot. 15. Warpinski.” paper SPE 19329. A. & Geomechanics. Cramer. 1959. presented at the SPE Production Operations Symposium.: “Generalized Drag Coefficients Applicable for All Flow Regimes. Sept.A.R. 1973..: “Hydraulic Fracture Geometry: Fracture Containment in Layered Formations. doctoral thesis. Rock Mech. 11. pp 177-183. Thiercelin.. 9.” paper SPE 9330. and Acidized Fracture Conductivity.E. B.N. 16. 1968.: “New Perforation Pressure Loss Correlations for Limited Entry Fracturing Treatments”. May 1997.” Int. presented at the SPE Rocky Mountain Regional Meeting. WY. Bird. NY. J. Meyer. El-Rabaa. C. Transport Phenomena. M.: “Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulation on Personal Computers: Theory and Comparison Studies.: “Measurment of Width and Pressure in a propagating Hydraulic Fracture. van Eekelen. 1980..C.: “The Application of Limited-Entry Techniques in Massive Hydraulic Fracturing Treatments”. and Lord..D. Stewart. 1986. Inc.N. page 204. 1989. Slatery.: “Proppant Settling Correlation for Non-Newtonian Fluids Under Static & Dynamic Conditions.: “An Evaluation of Acid Fluid Loss Additives.R.” Bull. Retarded Acids. 3.9 References 249 7. 1989. E. Oklahoma City. de la Direction des Etudes et Recherches. March 1987.R. K.” paper SPE 4549. J./ Oct. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. 14. Wiley & Sons Inc. S. and Kruk. 1965. H. J. 1985) pp 46-84. Oct. Series A. University of Wisconsin..” SPEJ (June 1982) pp 341-349.. 18. No3/4. Louis.L.E. 8.

MFrac: A Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator Meyer User’s Guide .250 Meyer & Associates. Inc.

000 lines of data.600 lines of data in a file. MView is a data handling system and display module for the real-time and replay analysis of hydraulic fracture treatments and minifrac analysis. this software is intended for use with MFrac (a hydraulic fracturing design simulator) and MinFrac (a minifrac analysis simulator). All data manipulation in MView is done through the use of data sets. Each data set may have up to two hundred (200) different parameters. All data sets share the same list of parameter 251 Meyer & Associates.700.. Inc.). MView can process a maximum of 1.209.209. an MFrac file (.600 lines of data.mpwri) or real-time data from the serial port.g. For example. MView can accommodate up to two hundred (200) data channels and simultaneously allows selection of up to two hundred (200) parameters for processing. channel C can be assigned to more than one parameter. but can read or import virtually an unlimited number of lines of data (limited only by memory) from a file. if a data file has 1. A maximum of five data sets may be used at a time. A channel can also be specified for Multi-parameters (e. A data set is a group of related data that may come from a text file.209. or select a range of data (start row to end row) with less than or equal to 1.600 rows of data.1 Introduction This chapter is a guide to the use of MView. it would be necessary to set the Sample every box to 20 or higher. an MPwri file (.209. If there are more than 1. This is discussed below in the Data Set dialog. Developed as a data handling system and display module for real-time hydraulic fracturing. This chapter explains the basic procedures for using MView.600 lines or less of data are actually used for the analyses. but can also be used as a general data collection and display program. .mfrac).Chapter 3 MView Acquired Data Visualization 3. it will be necessary to adjust the Sample every box so that 1.

bpm). To import a data file into an MView data set. It is important to realize that MFrac. and MView are always in constant communication with one another. they automatically share any Real-Time or Replay data set.Graphically Editing Data. types and units by accessing the Parameters dialog box from the main menu. Meyer & Associates. An outline of the basic steps for using MView is shown in Table 3.6 “Creating Plots. The first step in using MView is to specify the parameter names. MView allows manipulation of the data contained in the plot using statistical and editing functions. they can be viewed by selecting the View Plot command from the Plot menu. all the standard configuration and exporting functions of all Meyer plots are available. Meyer User’s Guide . After the plots have been built. by choosing the Build Plot command from the Plot menu. MinFrac. go to the Data menu and select Data Sets. Inc. bottomhole and surface pressure.” It is important to realize that MFrac. The contents are defined by associating a parameter with a channel (or column) of data in the file. proppant concentration. they automatically share any replay/real-time data set. This command will display all of the data that has been imported and allow a choice of which parameters to include in a plot. MView provides a means of sharing the real-time or replay data set with MFrac and MinFrac for use as simulation input. In addition. specify the file name and format of its contents. In addition. MView allows the construction of up to six plots for simultaneous display. and nitrogen or CO2 injection rate. When these programs are open.252 MView: Acquired Data Visualization names. rate) and units (ft. MinFrac and MView are always in constant communication with one another. This is described in Section 3. any number of data sets can be merged into a single file with a single time scale and any number of them can be plotted together. This data can include the parameters: pump rate. Once a group of parameters has been specified. it is possible to construct composite plots. Data sets may be edited or saved as text files. When these programs are open. which includes unit types (length.1. There are many functions available for processing the data sets. Whenever a plot is open. Sharing a data set with MFrac and MinFrac can be done after the data sets are setup by choosing Simulation Setup from the Simulation menu. After data has been imported into MView.

Send real-time/replay data to MFrac and/or Simulation Menu MinFrac 12. Specify Parameters Parameters Menu 3. Real-Time Data Window Real-TimeAcquisition Tool Bar MACQ (data file) Setup MACQ -Start button MView .1: MView Basic Steps Step Program Area 1.1.2 Parameters 253 Table 3. 5. 3. Build Plots Plot Menu 13. the menus are accessed from left to right as shown in Figure 3. View Plots Plot Menu 14.1. Start the Acquisition Toolbar (for real-time data) 7. Specify the Acquisition Output File 8. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.Real-Time Menu 11. Start Data Acquisition 10.2 Parameters The first step in using MView is to create a list of the parameters to include in the analysis. Figure 3. Inc. Simulate in MFrac and/or MinFrac MFrac and/or MinFrac Menu The MView menu bar is shown in Figure 3.3. Open an existing MView data file (*. 4.mview) or File Menu create a new data file 2. Setup the Communications Parameters 9. Generally. .1: MView Main Menu. Import Data into Data Sets Specify data files Associate columns of the file with parameters Data Sets command from the Data Menu 6.

Meyer User’s Guide . Therefore. Enter a descriptive name in the text box under the Parameters column. Meyer & Associates. Inc. any parameter to be imported from either the acquired data.2. To Specify a Parameter: 1. MView will display data using the selected units of the parameter list. To create a list of parameters. Figure 3. This will display the screen shown in Figure 3.254 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Creating a Parameter List Generating a parameter list means cataloging the different parameters to be included in the analysis. simulated data or any text file. must be in the parameter list. choose Parameters from the Main menu.2: Parameters Dialog Box.

a set of parameters can be recalled and applied to an MView session by using the Load Units button. the Unit Type to No Units.3. 2. Enter a unique name in the Unit Set Description box located at the top of the Parameters screen. Press the Reset button located at the bottom of the Parameters screen. a list of the available units corresponding to the Unit Type will be in the adjacent Output Unit list box. Choose the desired unit. Browse to select the saved parameters file containing the extension mvu. 3.mvu). 2. 3. This is useful when working with frequently used configurations in order to avoid creating the same list repeatedly. Open the Parameters screen from the main menu and click the Load button located in the lower left corner. This will display the Save As screen. Once saved. Inc. click the OK button. choose No Units.2 Parameters 255 2. By default. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. If the desired unit type is not present in the list.. This will set all of the Parameter Names to blank. This will display the Open screen. 2. Enter a name for the file in the space provided and click OK. To Apply a Parameters Template: 1. 3. Repeat this process for each Parameter Name. Select a corresponding Unit Type for the parameter using the list box provided to the right of each Parameter Name. After selecting the template file. Using Parameter List Templates The current set of parameters can be saved for future recall. . Click the Save button located in the lower left corner of the Parameters screen. After the Unit Type has been selected. and the Output Unit list box to blank. To Save a Parameters Template: 1. 4. default. parameter files contain the extension mvu (e.g. To Reset the Parameters: 1.

mfrac). Data Set A). refer to the instructions below that correspond to the data file type. To import a data file into a data set. viewed and edited. C. choose the desired data set by clicking the corresponding tab in the Data Sets box (e.3: Data Sets Dialog Box. Replay). B.256 MView: Acquired Data Visualization 3. Samplefile. This file may be either a real-time file that is transmitted to MView or it can be an acquired data set that was provided by a service company after the treatment was performed (i. The remaining four data sets (A. spaces or tabs).3 Data A key aspect in the analysis of fracturing data is the manner in which data files of various types are accessed. Up to five different data files can be imported for simultaneous display.3) may be either text files (delimited with commas. The Reference Name is used as the data set’s unique identifier and is displayed on each data set tab.. Design).e. Figure 3. Inc. Real-Time/Replay. For details on importing data files.g. The first of these data sets may be setup as a real-time or replay file to be used as input for an MFrac and/or MinFrac simulation.g. Data Sets The Data Sets dialog box is used to import data from files for display or use in a simulation (Figure 3.. Meyer & Associates.g... e.3). Notice that a Reference Name can be entered for each data set (e. This chapter outlines the data handling capabilities of MView and provides instructions for importing and manipulating data sets. Meyer User’s Guide . and D in Figure 3. or MFrac or MPwri output files (with the extension “mfrac” or “mpwri”.

separate the columns by colons. If you have a data file with time in the format (HH MM SS) separated by spaces you can import the file into Excel or other spreadsheet program. Inc.3. If real time data is being sent in a time format separated by spaces. MView and MACQ no longer support the unconventional time format of Hours Minutes Seconds format (HH MM SS) separated by spaces. in MACQ under Acquisition Setup check the Time Box to “Add the computer’s time to the start of each data line”.4. When it is cleared. When the box is checked. 4. The real-time data set may be set up before or after the data is flowing. Enter a descriptive Reference Name in the space provided.3). Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. 3. 2. and save the new format. Select the desired file and click OK. Instructions for setting-up and controlling the flow of real-time data is covered in Section 3.3). the data set is used. Then click on the Replay radio button located near the center of the screen (Figure 3. Importing a Replay Data File To Import a Replay Data File: 1. by selecting Data Sets from the Data menu and click on the left-most tab. Enter a Reference Name in the space provided. 4. . Then click on the Real-Time radio button located near the center of the screen (Figure 3. Open the Data Sets dialog box. 3. 2. RS232). Click on the Setup button and follow the instructions below for Setting up a Text File. the data set is omitted from all plots.g. The standard format is Hours Minutes Seconds separated by colons (HH:MM:SS). After checking the Data File box. Open the Data Sets dialog box by selecting Data Sets from the Data menu and click on the left-most tab. Be sure to click on the Data File check box which is used to enable or disable a file setup from the active session.3 Data 257 Importing Real-Time Data To Import Real-Time Data: 1. click on the Ellipses (Select File button). Connect your computer to a data acquisition system that is capable of transmitting data through a serial connection (e. “Real-Time Menu”.. A file browse dialog box will then be displayed.

258 MView: Acquired Data Visualization 5. The bottom-left side of the screen has the list of Parameters.4). the only difference is that data files imported from a data set tab other than the first tab cannot be used to export simulation data to other applications. MView will display the Data File setup screen (Figure 3. Importing data from a Text File The procedure for importing data from a text file is the same as importing a replay data file. the top has a spreadsheet that contains the data from the data file. Note that text files and real-time data must contain data lines delimited with either tabs. or commas. Inc. UTF-8 and UTF-16 encoded text files are supported provided they contain a byte order mark (BOM). If the data file contains text headers. spaces. Click on the Setup button and follow the instructions below for Setting up a Text File. Setup Once the data source has been defined and the Setup button has been clicked. The Parameter names are those that are entered in the Parameters screen. we recommend that you use single word phrases.g. The primary purpose of the Setup screen is to associate these columns with a parameter name and unit type. When reading a data file. If you must use more than one word. Meyer & Associates. Surface-Pressure). MView will interpret and display these delimiters as column breaks. This will keep the headers aligned properly with the correct column of data. try hyphenating the words to prevent unwanted column breaks (e. Meyer User’s Guide .. Each column of data displayed in the spreadsheet is labeled with a column letter.

Thus. Data may be shifted in order to superimpose data trends during analysis or to synchronize events. 4. Any parameter may be shifted by selecting the Shift Value field and entering a value for the shift. If there are no Parameter names displayed. Choose the appropriate input unit for the parameter from the drop-down list in Unit field. values. Enter the column letter or a formula of column letters (see the explanation below) in the corresponding Formula field. . To filter out unreasonable parameter values.4: Data Setup Dialog Box. specify Filter Min. Note that this is the unit of the data in the spreadsheet.3. click and drag the column letter from the spreadsheet to the desired column box. Inc. to the right of the Parameter name. it may not necessarily be the same unit as specified in the Parameters screen. choose the input unit that the shift and filter values (and formulas for other parameters) will use. 2. To Associate Column Data with a Parameter: 1. 3. Alternatively. If the column is a time column with the format HH:MM:SS. To use this option move the cursor to the filter fields and type in both Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. and Filter Max. it is possible to have different input and output units. Graphical shifts can also be performed on a plot when it is displayed. The shift value will be added to the value in the data file.3 Data 259 Figure 3. close the dialog box and return to the Parameters screen to set up parameters.

. but a formula of columns may be used. Character strings. MView can select a maximum of 1.700. / (division). The input unit selected for this parameter is the unit that the other formulas will interpret the columns values to be in. from row to row). In addition to the arthematic operations. If column A was in hours. specify the sampling frequency by entering a number in the Sample every box. if column A was time then delta(A) is the change in time. if column A is in minutes and column B are in barrels per minute. such as column headers. enter a 5 in this box. In the example above. For example. All lines of data that contain a parameter which is out of its range will be ignored.209.260 MView: Acquired Data Visualization the minimum and maximum filter values. the range of interpretable data is indicated by the Start and End Row listed in the Row Selection portion of the screen (Figure 3.000 Meyer & Associates. there are two special functions. Meyer User’s Guide .600 lines of data.. if a data file has 1. To sample the data contained in the spreadsheet. must be entered using the input unit selected in the Unit field.0 * A)). * (multiplication). Row Sampling For text files. to use every fifth data point. For example: 1.(subtraction). Building on the example for the delta function: if column B is the flow rate. then the formula would have to be modified to the convert from hours to minutes: sum (B * delta (60. For example. it will be necessary to adjust the Sample every box so that 1. Inc. The sum function calculates the cumulative value of the contained expression.600 lines of data in a file. The delta function calculates the difference between the value of the contain expression at the current iteration and the previous one. Care must abe taken to ensure that the correct units are selected. then it needs to be associated with a parameter as a single column if it is to be used in other formulas.600 lines or less of data are actually used for the analyses.e. On the first iteration delta evaluates to 0 (zero). then the following would calculate the cumulative volume: sum (B * delta (A)). then barrels should be the input unit selected for the parameter associated with the forumla.209. and Filter Max. HH:MM:SS or HH:MM). and ^ (exponentiation). If column A is a clock time (e. For example. The formula may contain arithmetic operations on column letters and numbers using the following operations: + (addition). These values may be changed as desired. delta and sum.g. but can read or import virtually an unlimited number of lines of data (limited only by memory) from a file. If there are more than 1.4).5 * A * (B + C). that operate between iterations (i. sum (B * delta (A)). The operations may be grouped using () (parantheses). Formulas Not only can a single column be associated with a parameter.209. are ignored and can be included in the selection of rows. The Filter Min.

Completing the Setup When you are finished associating data columns with Parameters. MView provides a quick method of generating X-Y plots using any of the columns of a file. 5.4). it will not be reflected in the original data file. similar to setting up text files. If any change is made to the data from within MView. make sure to choose the Replay radio button located near the left side the screen (Figure 3. Once a selection has been made. To preview the data in the Setup screen.mpwri): 1. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . Preview Plot When importing data it is sometimes difficult to determine which column of data corresponds to which parameter type. or select a range of data (start row to end row) with less than or equal to 1.5). Choose which type of data you want to import. To assist in this situation. 3. type or drag the column labels of the desired parameters to the boxes found in the View Plot portion of the dialog box (Figure 3. it would be necessary to set the Sample every box to 20 or higher. Before browsing to select the data file. When an MFrac output file has been chosen MView automatically adds a list box adjacent to the Select File button (Figure 3.600 rows of data. Then select the desired file and click the OK button to return to the Data Sets screen.5 (e. click on the OK button. rate and proppant concentration vs. 2. Click on the Setup button. This will bring up the MView Data Setup box (Figure 3.3 Data 261 lines of data. click on the View Plot button to display the plot. Then the data will be imported into the MView data set. Associate rows in the list on the right of the screen to parameters on the left side of the screen. see Figure 3. 4. Enter a Reference Name in the space provided.g. choose MFrac Files from the List Files of Type box. If you choose the left most tab.. Importing an MFrac or Mpwri Data File To Import an MFrac File (*.3). Fracture Characteristics or Proppant Transport. time).3.mfrac) or MPwri (*. Inc. Choose one of the tabs located at the top of the screen.6).g. This list box contains three choices: Wellbore Hydraulics.. One X parameter and two Y parameters may be included (e. Check the Data File check box and then click the Select File button.209. Data Set A).

6: Data Setup Dialog Box .MFrac Output File. Meyer & Associates.5: Data Sets Dialog Box . Meyer User’s Guide .MFrac File. Click on the OK button to import the data. Inc. Figure 3. Figure 3.262 MView: Acquired Data Visualization 6.

click the Save As.g. but not edited. The wellbore hydraulics results are contain in the Wellbore Hydraulics item list. it can easily be applied to another data set by choosing the Load.. if the simulation is run again. From the list. After data has been imported from an MFrac output file. a box listing the current data sets is displayed... demo.6. When the Edit Data command is used from the Data menu. choose the desired data set and click the Edit button. This will present a screen for entering a file name and location for the template..g. A spreadsheet containing the data will be presented. Editing Data The Edit Data command in the Data menu allows some basic spreadsheet editing of a data set.3. select the Refresh button in the data sets screen. . to update the information in MView. refer to the Graphically Editing Data part of Section 3. there will be no change in the data in MView.3 Data 263 When importing an MFrac File it is possible to configure the units for previewing plots by selecting the Units button. Once saved.mfrac file. Setup template files are automatically given the extension VHD (e.vhd). there will be more than one fracture (and/or proppant) characteristic zone. Re-running MFrac will automatically update the *. To save a setup as a template. button located at the bottom of the Setup dialog box. it may be saved as a template. Real-time data may be viewed. The same Parameters must be defined when a template is loaded as when the template was saved. Choose a directory and enter a name in the Save As dialog box. To analyze Fracture Characteristics or Proppant Transport. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. button and selecting a file name with the extension VHD (e. demo. select the desired zone #.. Click the OK button.. the data in MView is independent of the file. Thus. However. Once a template is created.vhd). When importing a multilayer MFrac File. a template may be recalled and applied at any time. This will re-import the data from the output file.mfrac file after running before selecting the Refresh button. Setup Templates If the same basic data setup is used repeatedly from job to job. There is no longer any need to save the *. For more advanced editing. using the same setup as the last time the data was imported. Inc.

you may either attempt to correct it by re-typing the data or completely removing the row. Enter a name and location for the text file and click OK. If a problem is discovered. Select the desired row by clicking on the row number. Select the desired data cell by clicking on it. The shifts applied to data may also be edited by clicking on the Edit Shifts at the bottom of the screen. 2. Save Data as a Text File After a data set has been imported or transmitted from the data acquisition system. The saved file will be UTF-8 encoded. The edit function allows data to be viewed either with the defined shifts applied or disabled. Select the desired data set and click the Save As Text button located at the bottom of the screen. 2. The entire row will be highlighted. To Delete a Row of Data: 1. Press the ENTER key when finished. 3. Select the Save Data as Text File command from the Data menu. To Re-Type Data: 1. The data that is viewed and edited is not the original text or MFrac file. To Export a Text File: 1. The original data file is never changed by MView. A list of the active data sets will be displayed. 2. but rather a copy kept in memory by MView. which can be edited. Inc. Type the new value.264 MView: Acquired Data Visualization The edit command allows you to view the entire data set and inspect it for inconsistencies or potential problems. it can be exported as a text file with the parameter names and units as column headers and data points as rows. This will provide a list of parameters and their shifts. all changes made during the active editing session will be lost. Meyer & Associates. If the cancel button is used. This choice is made by selecting either the View Data with Shifts or View Data Without Shifts radio buttons found at the bottom of the spreadsheet. Meyer User’s Guide . Use the Delete Row button located at the bottom of the spreadsheet to remove the highlighted row. If you make a mistake and remove the wrong data use the Cancel button to avoid saving the mistake.

values. if the range for data set A is 0-100 minutes and 50-150 minutes for Data Set B the smallest common range is 50-100. A Time Step will also be suggested based on the existing data. 4. 3.. values for the selected match parameter and displays them in the Range section of the screen. select the time parameter to base the match on. Notice that by adjusting the time step value. From this screen. it is possible to have more than one.” In order to merge the data you will need to return to either the Setup or Edit Data dialog boxes to synchronize the data by applying a shift. Normally. There is an option to specify what is written to the data file when interpolation is impossible in the Preferences dialog box. there is just one time parameter. Answer accordingly when MView asks if shifted or unshifted data should be written to the text file. Any data set which does not have time values within the selected range will not be completely interpolated. the following message will appear “There is no parameter of time for which these files have increasing data. Merge Data Sets There may be times when the data needed for an analysis exists in two separate files and you would like to merge them into one file with a single time scale (e. The shifted values. Select the Merge Data Sets command from the Data menu. any parameter that is defined as a Time Unit Type and has data in all selected data sets will appear in the list. and Max. MView provides the capability to merge any number of data sets into a single set of data. For example. Use the Smallest Common Range or Largest Range buttons to automatically set the Min. however. are always used when merging data files. when active. To Merge Data Sets: 1. When finished. surface pressure and bottomhole pressure). and Max. the function can also be used to apply filtration to data files and affect the delta time between data points. Inc. The error message may also occur if you have used different parameters for time. Any of these values may be changed. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The program scans the selected data sets and determines the Min.3 Data 265 4. Select the data sets to be merged by checking the adjacent box next to each data set name. Consequently. These files cannot be merged.g. A list of available data sets will be displayed.3. If the time range for each of the files is not overlapping or if the times are not increasing. . 2. click the OK button to display the Merge Data Sets dialog box. while the largest range is 0-150.

choose the OK button to display the File Save box. Enter or choose a location and name for the file and click OK. The selected data is written to the file along with the parameter names and units as column headers. etc. After making selections.. Select which of these parameters to include in the composite file by highlighting them and clicking the Add button. then the line of data will be rejected. but the current data line only contains 4 columns). check this box in the Preferences screen. Use this option to eliminate duplicate data lines for any file except real-time data. Meyer User’s Guide . replay files. Ignore consecutive identical lines in data files This option is the same as the option described above. there will be a beep when the program has detected and ignored real-time data that fell outside of the range specified in the Filter section of the data setup screen. This can occur when the sampling rate of the data acquisition is much faster than the cycle time for the sensor it is connected to. These preferences are described as follows: Ignore consecutive identical Real-Time lines Some data acquisition systems transmit and save data with duplicate data lines or rows.. When this occurs. By turning off this Meyer & Associates. it applies only to imported files (e. but they consume the computer’s resources and cause MView and MFrac to use redundant data.e. column 5 is mapped to a parameter. however. Likewise. These duplicate data points do not necessarily cause problems. To view and use all duplicate data.266 MView: Acquired Data Visualization 5. 6. the acquisition system records duplicate sensor values until the sensor updates. Beep when filtering real-time data that is out of range If this option is on. MView lists all of the active parameters in the Possible portion of the dialog box. you might want to reconsider the filtration range defined. disable this option. Inc.g. If this option is used and numerous beeps occur. parameters may be eliminated from the Selected list by using the Remove button. Preferences MView allows the selection of certain preferences that provide some variation in the program control. To filter these duplicate data segments from the incoming real-time data stream.). Filter lines with invalid column selections If this option is on and a data column is mapped to a parameter and that column does not exist (i.

4 Real-Time Menu The Real-Time menu contains commands used to control the receipt of real-time data from a data acquisition system as illustrated in Figure 3. A common example of this type of data transfer would be the capture of data from the service company acquisition system via an MView cable link on location. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The procedures used for setting-up various types of real-time data links are outlined below. Figure 3.3.7. the line will be accepted and parameters associated with invalid columns will receive a value of zero for those lines. In addition to receiving data. or remotely using a modem. 3. MView is also capable of emulating real-time data transfer internally without the use of a second computer or acquisition system. someone’s office). MView can receive real-time data either through a serial cable (Direct Connect).. it is conceivable that the process of sending data in a daisy-chain fashion could continue repeatedly as many times as needed.g. Inc. MView can also transmit the data that it receives. In this manner. This provides a means of sending treatment data from the field to other remote locations (e. When used. The Add Log Entry and Recover Real-Time Data options in the menu are only enabled when real-time data set is being received from MACQ (Meyer Data Acquisition).7: Real-Time Data Menu. A second copy of MView could then be run remotely and linked to the location copy of MView via modem. then stop is included to facilitate training and demonstration of MView in real-time mode. this type of setup permits real-time simulation and analysis from virtually anywhere telephone service exists (cellular or otherwise). The Test Mode: Send a text file instead of Real-Time data. network.4 Real-Time Menu 267 option. .

Figure 3. Meyer User’s Guide . 2.268 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Acquisition Toolbar To receive data from a remote data acquisition system. If data is appended to an existing file. The data is displayed (with minimal processing) on the main screen as it is received. To Acquire Real-Time Data: 1. MACQ will attempt to respect the current file’s encoding and line endings. and data coming in from the input port will be ignored during that time. The purpose of the Meyer Data Acquisition (MACQ) program is to acquire realtime data. Inc. Otherwise.8: Real-Time Acquisition Toolbar. data is not saved to the ADT file. The main MACQ screen is shown in Figure 3. serial. or modem connection. the file will be encoded as UTF-8 Meyer & Associates. Click the Setup button located on the main screen to configure the Input port and Output port. The data is logged (as an ADT file specified by the user) and sent to MView for further processing. When the system is paused. either through a TCP/IP. the Meyer Data Acquisition application) must be activated by selecting the Acquisition Toolbar command from the Real-Time menu. The last 100 lines received are displayed in the data viewer. While paused. and is not sent to MView or the output port. a message will appear to indicate that the program is in Paused mode.8. the Acquisition Toolbar (a. Click on the File ellipse button and specify an output file for the acquired data.k.a.

3. make sure to click the Start button to initialize the modem. Help Use this button to access the help file. MView).4 Real-Time Menu 269 (with BOM). If the button is disabled. select the Acquisition Toolbar command from the Real-Time menu in MView. The default file extension is “adt” (other commonly used extensions are “dat” and “txt”). the toolbar is minimized or ends up in the background behind other open applications (e. Continue When in paused mode.g. Pause The Pause Button can be used to temporarily suspend data collection without terminating a session. click on the Dial button to dial a remote computer. a File Save dialog box is displayed. To bring the toolbar back to the foreground.3. If transmitting by modem.2: Acquisition Toolbar Components File Data that is received in real-time is always written to a file on disk. Double clicking on spreadsheet cells within the log window will open the contents of the cell in a separate window (useful for displaying error detail that may otherwise be truncated). . Enter a new filename or choose an existing file with extension ADT (*. Normally. Click on the Start button to enable data acquisition.adt) to append or overwrite. this button is accessed before the data acquisition system begins collecting and sending data. When it is selected. Dial When using a modem to transfer data. clicking on the Continue Button will resume data collection. The individual components of the MACQ user interface are described below: Table 3. Setup Use the Setup button to configure the Input and Output ports. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.. It also provides a backup of the raw data and is used for restarting or appending the data file in the event the acquisition is stopped or in the case of a system crash. 4. once data acquisition has been setup. the Dial Button causes MView to dial an entry from the phone book and connect to a remote site using the setup parameters specified in the current setup. Inc. This file can then be imported into MView for replay analysis after the job. Start Use this button to start MView data collection. Log Use this button to open the Meyer Data Acquisition log window. No data will be received while pause is selected. The log window contains a chronological log of MACQ operations. The toolbar File Button is used to specify the name of the acquisition file. Normally.

9.ADT) in the form HH:MM:SS.. This data will reside in the first column of the saved data file (*. Input and Output Ports Depending on whether you want to configure data Input (reception) or Output (transmission) choose the Setup. Inc.Include Computer’s Time To include a column containing the computer’s time for each row of data. Keep in mind that data transmission (Output) is only used to pass along the real-time data to another computer.11). Time . This action will either display the Communications Setup Input (Figure 3. The Acquisition Setup dialog box is shown in Figure 3.270 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Setup The Setup button allows the user to configure the communication links for the input and output ports. Meyer & Associates.9: Acquisition Setup Dialog Box.. Meyer User’s Guide .10) or Output dialog box (Figure 3. button associated with the port you wish to configure. check the box located at the top of the screen entitled Add the computer’s time to the start of each data line. Figure 3.

Figure 3. Inc.3. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.Input Port Dialog Box.10: Communication Setup .11: Communication Setup .Output Port Dialog Box.4 Real-Time Menu 271 Figure 3. .

The default is one (1). For most data. Normally. Stop Bits. For input ports. the next step is to set the communication parameters for the transfer. Bits Per Second. choose Send to another computer via serial port. sampling rates of 9600 is more than adequate.3: Definition of Communication Parameters. and Flow Control. this is a male DB-9 pin connector found on the back of the computer.g. Table 3. However. Inc. Data Bits. The Ignore First Line of Data option for the Input port (Figure 3. These settings should match the settings of the data acquisition software that will be sending data to MView. for most cases.12) may be helpful if the first line of data is normally bad. 3. 5. For an output port. 2. the option determines how text is encoded before it is sent. Stop Bits This value determines how many bits are used to mark the end of a transmitted character. Use a null modem cable to connect the two computers. For input ports.272 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Configuring a Serial Link To transfer data through a serial link from one computer to another. To Setup a Communication as Input or Output: 1. Bits Per Second The Bits Per Second specifies the serial port transfer rate. MView requires that each line ends in either a carriage return or a carriage return followed by a line feed. RS232). Meyer & Associates. Click the OK button to complete the setup. the International Text Encoding determines how text that is received is interpreted. Parity. Parameter Definition COM Port The COM Port refers to the serial port used for data transfer. choose Receive text from the serial port. Meyer User’s Guide . Continue with the setup by choosing the appropriate COM Port. A definition of each of these parameters is given in Table 3. 4..2. connect the computer to a data acquisition system that is capable of transmitting data through a serial connection (e. Once the cable connection is made. For an output port. Specifying an extremely high baud rate may result in the creation of “garbage” characters in the data. this option should be set to False.

12) or Output dialog box (Figure 3.13) will be displayed. Normally. Depending on whether you want to setup a Modem Connection for data Input (reception) or Output (transmission). XON/XOFF (software flow control) uses a character-based technique. Odd. Inc. Flow Control This setting determines how MView handles buffer overflows. this is done to receive data from the field for real-time display or simulation. None. The selections are Even. Odd. Make sure to use the correct Data Bits setting that corresponds to the selected parity. while 7-bits are used with Even parity. Normally. This parameter controls what happens if the receiving computer's buffer becomes too full to receive more data. Parity This value controls the parity of the currently specified COM Port. MView must be configured to use a modem. Mark and Space are rarely used unless required by the transmitting software.3: Definition of Communication Parameters.4 Real-Time Menu 273 Table 3. Keep in mind that data transmission (Output) is only used to pass along the real-time data to another computer. 8-bits are used when Parity is set to None.3. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Setting-up a Modem Connection To send data to or receive data from a remote location. either the Communications Setup Input (Figure 3. while hardware flow control uses an RS-232 Ready to Send and Clear to Send methodology. Data Bits This is the number of bits or size of each data package that is sent between two computers. If parity is set to None and you see “garbage” on the screen try changing to Even. . Mark or Space.

Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. Meyer & Associates.Input Modem Dialog.12: Communication Setup .274 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Figure 3.

Inc.3. refer to Table 3. Stop Bits. For an output port. or leave the value blank to use a default initialization string. These settings must be consistent with the system you are communicating with. 2. Please refer to “Troubleshooting Modem Problems” below for more information.Output Modem Dialog.13: Communication Setup . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. To Set-up a Modem for Transferring Data In or Out: 1. Check the modem’s documentation for a valid string. choose Send text to another computer via modem.2. . Data Bits. The Output port also has an option Upon connection. Bits Per Second. choose Receive text from the serial port. For a definition of each of these parameters. For an input port. Options are available for the modem to Auto Answer and/or Redial if the connection is lost.13). 4. The Modem Initialization String is sent to the modem when the port is started. continue with the setup by choosing the appropriate COM Port. 3. send all data that was acquired during off-line time (see Figure 3. Parity and Flow Control. Once an initialization string has been entered.4 Real-Time Menu 275 Figure 3.

Meyer User’s Guide . and receives data. For input ports. Input Port 1. MACQ will only accept one TCP/IP connection at a time. Meyer & Associates. Configuring a TCP/IP Connection Unlike modem connections that can initiate from either side of the connection (i. and sends data. it can be thought of as a TCP/IP server.276 MView: Acquired Data Visualization 5. A drop-down combo control is populated with some suggestions when the Host Name field is selected.e. This is the host name that MACQ will connect to. MACQ will connect and send a single line of data indicating that the connection is already in use. Select Send text to another computer that will connect via TCP/IP from the Output Communication Setup screen. For an output port. Specify a TCP port to listen on in the Port Number field (possible values are from 1 to 65535). Select Receive text from a TCP/IP data source from the Input Communication Setup screen. The output port always listens for connections. 6. The input port always connects to a remote host. and then disconnect. If a connection attempt is made while a client is already connected. 3. TCP/IP connections behave differently. the Disconnect button becomes available in the user interface. either side can dial). It is up to the end-user to provide their own authentication/encryption using mechanisms such as IPsec or SSH. Output Port 1. MACQ TCP/IP connections are not authenticated or encrypted. the International Text Encoding determines how text that is received is interpreted. Once a client is connected to the Output port. 2. Specify a destination address in the Host Name (or IP address) field. Click the OK button to complete the setup. 3. Specify a local interface to bind to in the Host Name (or IP address) to receive connections field. Specify the TCP port to connect to in the Port Number field. 2. it can be thought of as a TCP/IP client. Inc. the option determines how text is encoded before it is sent. Selecting Disconnect will disconnect the current client and return the port to listening mode.

UTF-8 is the recommended setting. listen on 0.0. and modem connections. “[2001:db8::abc:123]”.0. [::] Listen on all IPv6 interfaces. Firewalls TCP/IP connections may be blocked by various software and/or hardware firewalls between the local and remote machine (including software firewalls running on the machines themselves). Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. the international text encoding determines how text that is received is interpreted. Figure 3.4: Special Addresses (Output port) Address Description * (or blank) Listen on all IPv4 and IPv6 interfaces (i.0.4 Real-Time Menu 277 Special Considerations MACQ TCP/IP connections support IPv6 connections. . serial port.g.3. If a port is started. Inc. it should be used when both sides are running Meyer Data Acquisition. and the sheer number of possible firewall configurations. Due to the security implications. IPv6 addresses must be enclosed in brackets. However.0 and [::]) 0. e.0 Listen on all IPv4 interfaces. This feature is predominantly used to ensure that any comments (non-data lines) in the input/output stream are preserved when they are sent or received. International Text Encoding An international text encoding is required for TCP/IP. firewall related issues are outside the scope of this User’s Guide. but connections are not getting through. The following addresses also have special meaning when specifying a network interface to bind to within the Output port configuration screen: Table 3.e. For output ports the international text encoding determines how text is encoded before it is sent. a firewall might be blocking the connection. For input ports.0.14 shows the International Text Encoding screen with UTF-8 selected.

and choose the OK button. the configuration can be saved as a template using the Save button found in the Acquisition Setup dialog box (Figure 3. Specify the data sampling rate (Send a line every). Working with the Phone Book To Add.g. then periodically check for new data that may have been appended to the file by another process.9). Meyer & Associates.9).stp). click the “-” button to delete an entry. Saving a Real-Time Setup As with the Data Connection and Parameters setup within MView. the current configuration will be kept between work sessions. this command allows you to simulate the real-time process by reading a text file from your computer and transmitting the data as if it were being sent by a remote data acquisition system.. once the RealTime setup has been completed. Select the file to replay with the Select File button.15. When activated. To recall a saved setup at a later date use the Load button found in this screen. Click the “+” button to add an entry. Click on the Phone Book button located in the Acquisition Setup dialog box (Figure 3. and to edit an entry click in the spreadsheet cell. then stop option at the top of the Input Communications Setup disables port communications completely. It is not necessary to use the templates. Modify or Delete Phone Book Entries: 1. MACQ will read all of the data in the specified file as fast as possible. Inc. The saved template file will have the extension STP (e. Meyer User’s Guide . demo.278 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Figure 3. The Periodically check a text file for data option is also available. This will bring up the dialog box shown in Figure 3. 2.14: International Text Encoding Simulating a Real-Time Data Transfer Choosing the Test Mode: Send a text file instead of Real-Time data.

16. If the initialization is successful. the toolbar Dial button will be enabled. connected or otherwise (e. an error message will be displayed. MView will ask if you want to answer the phone. etc. Inc. .3.4 Real-Time Menu 279 Figure 3.16: Modem Dial Selection Dialog Box. Making a Modem Connection After properly configuring the modem. Choose the target location from the list displayed and click the Dial Modem button found in the dialog box. If another computer dials your computer’s modem. Answer yes to answer the phone and establish communication.g. busy. This will initialize the modem. When the Dial button is enabled.. To connect. it can be used to dial a phone book entry. click the Dial button to present the Modem Dial Selection dialog box shown in Figure 3. click the Start button found on the Acquisition Toolbar.). If the initialization is not successful. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Figure 3. The program will display message screens to indicate that it is dialing.15: Phone Book Dialog Box.

consult the modem’s manual or contact the modem’s manufacturer for assistance. Setting the baud rate lower will solve many problems. try initializing the modem using no Modem Initialization String. Real-Time Data Window When real-time data is received. try turning off any compression features of the modem. If this still does not work. the modem still does not connect. Figure 3. Meyer User’s Guide .18 shows a typical display of raw data. the modem must be in verbose mode.17: Real-Time Data Window Menu Raw Data View If the Raw Data View is selected. Meyer & Associates. the data that is passed to MView can be displayed during the transmission by using the Real-Time Data Window (see Figure 3. consult the modem’s manual for the proper initialization string. The raw data is the data exactly as it comes over the serial port. Inc. it is important to realize that the amount of data that is actually being sent over the modem is quite minimal (usually only one line of text each second).280 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Troubleshooting Modem Problems If the modem will not initialize. Figure 3. before MView parses it. 3. follow these guidelines: 1. In general.17) command from the Real-Time menu. adding “V1” to the initialization string will put the modem in verbose mode. for best results. try to simplify everything as much as possible. 2400 Baud should be more than sufficient for most cases. For most modems. Also. If there are still problems. First. If you cannot connect without a modem initialization string try typing something as simple as “ATZ”. If after trying the steps listed above. Thus. 2. the raw data is displayed without column headers.

Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.19. Translated Data View When the Translated Data View is selected.4 Real-Time Menu 281 Figure 3. Inc. . the data contained in the View List is displayed using the Parameter name as a column header as shown in Figure 3.18: Raw Data View.3.

Figure 3. Meyer User’s Guide .19: Translated Data View.20 shows a real-time digital data view.282 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Figure 3. The appearance and configuration of this display is determined by the settings chosen in the Configure Real-Time Data Window dialog box. Meyer & Associates. Digital Data View Figure 3.20: Digital Data View. Inc.

4 Real-Time Menu 283 Once the Digital Data View window is opened. To view a parameter it must be added to the View list. If the desired parameter does not appear in the Possibilities list. Select a parameter or multiple parameters from the Possibilities list and click the Add button.. return to the Setup Data screen and add the parameter to the data set (e.g. access the Configure View dialog box by choosing the Configure Real-Time Data Window command found on the RealTime menu. Double-clicking a parameter will also add it to the View list. Figure 3.21: Configure Real-Time View. it displays the active real-time parameters in the Possibilities section of the screen. associate the parameter with a channel). Configuring the Real-Time Data Window To configure the Real-Time Data Window. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.3. Inc. To Add a Parameter to the View List: 1. When the Configure View dialog box (Figure 3. its position and size can be manipulated like any standard window.21) is opened. .

The Configure View dialog box can also be used to specify whether to view the data with any specified shifts applied or not. for both the caption and data.22: Configure Real-Time View . The caption can also be Left. Center or Right justified.22.284 MView: Acquired Data Visualization 2. Add Log Entry The Add Log Entry menu allows the user to add text to a log file during real-time data acquisition. If this menu option is selected. The data is right justified to ensure that the decimal place remains in the same position for easy of reading the display. The fonts. To use scientific notation check the Scientific check box. a time stamp with the current realtime data stream will be saved in a user specified data file. 4. The Text Color and the number of Decimal Places can be different for each selected parameter.Properties Dialog. 3. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. click on the Use Shifts check box. To use the shifts. The text color and decimal format of a highlighted Selection parameter can be changed by clicking on the Properties button. To view the headers in the text color specified by the parameter’s properties. The Selection parameter order can also be changed by using the Move Up and Move Down buttons on highlighted items. check the Use colors for titles box. can be specified independently by choosing either the Caption Font or Data Font buttons. This will bring up the dialog as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3. Meyer & Associates.

When MView restarts. If real-time data is cleared inadvertently. it would only have the real-time data collected since the last (second) start. 2. try not to run unnecessary applications (e. If the entire system crashed as a result of a power failure. 5. Recover Real-Time Data If for some reason (system crash) MView must be restarted during a real-time session. activate the Acquisition Toolbar and open the same file that you were working with before the crash. they can occur during power failures. do you want to recover it?” Answer yes. This will display the file open dialog box and pre-set the file extension to *. System crashes are rare. the program will provide a message indicating that “a temporary file exists. *. 4. Inc.g. . it is possible to recover the data that has already been recorded before MView was shut down. Choose append to save the data already acquired and click the start button on the toolbar as quickly as possible to prevent any further loss of data. Next. If MView was collecting data. but the Acquisition Toolbar did not. This will cause the program to re-read all the data up to the point that the connection was lost or the crash occurred. it is always recommended that you minimize extraneous use of the system. To be safe. 3. however. just restart MView. During real-time applications.. To recover the data collected during the first session..3. or if you overload the system resources and create an unstable situation.. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Once the acquisition has been restarted. restart Windows and MView. Select the name that was given to the data file from the Acquisition Toolbar (e. it may be recovered using the Recover Real-Time Data command described below. solitaire) during real-time acquisition. command will clear all of the currently loaded realtime data.ADT.g. If for some reason only MView crashed.4 Real-Time Menu 285 Clear Real-Time Data The Clear Real-Time Data. select the Recover Real-Time Data command from the MView’s Real-Time menu.. A message will inquire if you want to append or overwrite the data contained in the file. but suddenly shut down and then started back up again.ADT) and choose OK. use the following steps: To Recover from a System or Program Crash: 1.

e.23: MView Real-Time status bar. After successfully connecting to a data source.5: Status Bar Data Lines Received The number of lines received from MACQ or by recovering real-time data. Surface Pressure. Lines Filtered The number of lines that have been rejected due to filtering or because they are otherwise invalid. Concentration. the next step is to use the data to perform replay or real-time analysis. each file contains the same number of columns each with the same type of data).3 and 3. MView can send the real-time or replay data to MFrac and/or MinFrac for analysis.4. At this point you will be back to where you were when the crash occurred. Meyer User’s Guide . 3. N2 Rate. Sending Data To MFrac and/or MinFrac To send data to MFrac and/or MinFrac make sure that. you have setup a Parameter for Time and Slurry Rate. Bottomhole Pressure. Concentration Total Suspended Solids Meyer & Associates. The Recover Real-Time Data command may also be used to load a real-time data set without having to open the Acquisition Toolbar (MACQ). as a minimum..5 Simulation Setup The process of using MView to import replay or real-time data is described in Sections 3. Figure 3. If these parameters are not configured. minus the data lost during any Acquisition Toolbar down-time. This is particularly useful when a user has multiple replay files that contain the same data format (i.23 is located at the bottom of the MView window. Real-Time Status Bar The MView real-time status bar as seen in Figure 3. CO2 Rate.286 MView: Acquired Data Visualization 6. and filtered. translated. a warning message will be displayed. Lines Translated The number of lines processed (this includes applying userdefined filters and shifts). Table 3. Inc. It contains the number of real-time data lines received.

If the wellbore volume is incorrect. select the parameter to use from the list.25.24: Simulation Setup Dialog Box. all rate parameters will be shown in the Rate list box. Additional parameters can also be sent to MFrac for display and staging by accessing the Additional Parameters tab as shown in Figure 3. the transport time for any portion of the treatment will be wrong and the chronology of the job will be misrepresented. make sure that the wellbore volume is adequately described within MFrac.3. When there are multiple parameters with the same unit. Likewise. they are optional and only used if available. When using surface data. Other than Time and Rate. . however. Inc. etc. a parameter can be disabled by choosing Not Available from the list.24. You must indicate for all rate and concentration data whether the data was measured at the Surface or Bottomhole. and Concentration Oil-in-Water (OIW) may also be used for simulation. Checking the Send box will send this parameter data to MFrac Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.5 Simulation Setup 287 (TSS). MView will automatically place all configured parameters with units of pressure in the Bottomhole Pressure list box. To send real-time or replay data from MView to MFrac and/or MinFrac choose Simulation Setup from the Simulation menu to display the screen shown in Figure 3. This information is required so that MFrac initializes the data at the correct time. Figure 3.

g. Composite or multi-component plots may be useful for creating parameter match plots (e. comparing plausible scenarios (e.25: Simulation Setup Dialog Box .6 Plots As soon as data is available in a data set(s).g. In MView. fonts. graphical editing) are automatically updated in MFrac and MinFrac. this command will display all data sets and their available parameters. When selected. the programs will be in constant communication with each other. Inc. Whenever a plot is opened. best case/worst case) or simply depicting data trends in order to document the quality control of a treatment. Once you have selected which parameters to pass from MView to MFrac and/or MinFrac. simulated pressure). measured vs. this process is referred to as “building a plot” and is accomplished by choosing the Build Plot command from the Plot menu. it can be used to construct plots to assist in the analysis. Meyer User’s Guide . you must first specify the data to be displayed in the plot.Additional Parameters. line styles.) and graphically edited. Once the desired plots are built..288 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Figure 3.. It is also possible to export the produced graphics to include them in a customized report. Any changes that are made to the data in MView (e.. Meyer & Associates. 3.g. it can be configured (colors. Before a plot can be displayed. they can be viewed by selecting the View Plot command located on the Plot menu. etc.

Figure 3. If more than one parameter is plotted on an axis.6 Plots 289 Building Plots After the data sets have been imported and setup. the legends and affected axis name will be changed to their default settings.3. The first time you build a plot or create a new plot. This screen is used to choose which parameters from the different data sets are to be included on a plot. Once a plot is selected.26: Build Plot Dialog Box. and at least one parameter must be assigned to a Y-Axis. Inc. In order to build a valid plot. the default axis caption will be blank. . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. the Parameters spreadsheet reflects the available data channels associated with the selected Data Set or Data Sets. the Build Plot dialog shown in Figure 3.26 can be accessed from the Plot menu. The plot description will be displayed in a dark red and bold faced font along with an error message if the settings are invalid. the legends. The default settings are obtained from the Parameter text preceded by the Data Set Reference Name.If an axis parameter is changed. axes names and the plot title are set to the default Parameter text for a given Data Set. a parameter must be assigned to the X-Axis.

under Data Sets highlight the data set box from which the desired data set parameters are to be selected. Enter a title for the plot within the cell in the Name column. or by clicking the Rename button. Repeat the above process to build other plots. they may be viewed. Use the Build Plot command from the Plot menu to access the Build Plot screen. From the Parameters drop down menu associate the parameters with a given Axis. To view the built plots. Click the OK button to finish building the plots. To add data to a plot.290 MView: Acquired Data Visualization To Build a Plot: 1. the plot can be previewed by clicking the Preview Plot button. Meyer & Associates. Choose the plots to display by clicking the adjacent check box and then click the OK button. 6. multiple Y parameters may be used. The Clear All button under the Parameters spreadsheet can be used to clear all the parameter associations for a given data set and plot. access the View Plot selection screen as shown in Figure 3. 5. 4. The selected plot(s) will be presented using all of the data that is available.27 by choosing View Plot from the Plot menu. Once the plot parameter selections are made. Viewing Plots After the plots have been built. If a plot contains real-time data. however. This can be accomplished by double clicking within the cell. the real-time data will appear as the data is acquired. Meyer User’s Guide . Select a plot by highlighting one of the plot rows located near the top of the screen or add a new plot by clicking the Add button. Only one X parameter may be chosen per data set. 2. 7. 3. Inc. This screen will contain all of the built plots. The Delete button under the Plots menu can be used to delete a plot.

interpolating. the changes that occur as a result of the editing are automatically reflected in MFrac and MinFrac. Graphical editing allows you to manipulate or process the data contained on a plot using statistical or editing functions (moving point(s). choose Graphically Edit Data from the Plot menu. it is possible to edit the data using MView’s Graphical Edit feature.3. This capability provides a powerful tool for processing poor quality data and permits operations such as graphical data shifts. it will automatically be maximized and the Graphically Edit toolbar and menu will be added at the top of the plot (Figure 3.28). however.27: View Plot Dialog Box.6 Plots 291 Figure 3. The plot will continue to be displayed. Graphically Editing Data Whenever a plot is displayed. . When graphically editing the data sent to MFrac or MinFrac for use as simulation input. The plot must remain maximized during the graphical edit- Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. or smoothing data). To graphically edit the active plot. Inc. averaging.

The editing functions under the Range menu will only be applied to the active range Meyer & Associates. Make this selection using the list box located on the left side of the toolbar.e. This is accomplished by selecting the desired function from the second list box on the toolbar. The Graphical Edit mode requires that all X axes parameters be increasing or constant (i. The next step in the graphical edit process is to choose the curve to be edited.28: Graphical Edit Screen.. For example. Because only a limited number of mouse buttons are available to work with. This selection can be changed at any time during the editing session by accessing the list box. non-decreasing) sequences. All editing operations are only applied to the Active Curve. The possible choices are: Select Range.0. select End Editing from the File menu.292 MView: Acquired Data Visualization ing session. or manually edit the data using the Edit Data command in the Data menu. they may not be graphically edited. if there are time values of 1. To end the graphical editing session. Select Range The Select Range mouse function is used to choose a range of data for processing. 2. either choose a different parameter as an X axis.0. Meyer User’s Guide . Drag Single Point and Drag Single Point (Y only).5 and 3. Select Single Point.0. The function for each of these selections is defined below. In this situation. 1. Zoom. Inc. MView allows toggling the function of the left mouse button as you work with the graphical editing feature. Figure 3.

Click and drag to define a zoom area on the screen. there are no limitations as to where the point can be dragged. With respect to the Y coordinates. Whenever the mouse is clicked on the plot area.3. try zooming in before selecting the point. especially for only shifting in the Y direction. Select Single Point To work with single points rather than a range of data. Drag Single Point This mouse function is used to reposition a single point by dragging it from its current location to a new location. The arrow keys can be used to expand or contract the range. choose this mouse function. The arrow keys can be used to drag the currently selected point. When data points are spaced relatively far apart. . After the range is specified. To return to the normal magnification. This feature works well for time-based plots when you want to change the magnitude of the parameter. a point cannot be dragged beyond adjacent points on the X axis. The up and down arrow keys may be used to drag the point up or down. The X and Y coordinates of the selected point are displayed at the top of the screen.6 Plots 293 on the active curve. The X and Y coordinates of the selected point are displayed at the top of the screen. The selected range is shown as a box on the plot and the starting and stopping values are displayed at the top of the screen. choose Zoom Out from the Plot menu or press the F5 key. Click the point to be moved and then hold the mouse button down while dragging it to a new location. However. the program will select the closest data point on the active data curve. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. If it is difficult to select a specific point. a function from the Range menu can be selected. This mouse mode permits the range of the active curve to be defined by dragging a box around it. but not the time for each data point. The arrow keys can be used to change the selected point along the curve. this function may provide better control of the drag function. Zoom This mouse function allows the normal zooming of all Meyer plots as described in Chapter 1. access the Zoom Out command in the shortcut menu (right mouse button). The X and Y coordinates of the selected point are displayed at the top of the screen. Drag Single Point (Y only) This mouse function limits the point drag function to movement relative to the Yaxis only. Inc. The left and right arrow keys may be used to change the currently selected point.

Set to Value Use this command to set all data point in the range to a specific constant value. Range Menu The functions provided in the Range menu provide statistical operations that can be applied to the active range of data on the active curve. Meyer & Associates. Inc. This menu also lets you delete a group of data points directly or filter the data points based on a specified maximum standard deviation. The dialog box shown in Figure 3.29: Range Menu . The name of the active curve is in the title bar of the dialog boxes that are displayed after selecting a Range menu item.Set Range to a Value. MView tracks the operations performed on a data set so that you can undo (or redo) in series to trace forward or backwards through the editing steps. Either a constant value can be specified or it can be selected graphically using the Graphically Choose button. Figure 3. This helps you to determine if you are working on the proper curve. Meyer User’s Guide . Deleting points from a curve cannot be undone.29 will then be displayed. Edit Menu Whenever a change is made to data it can be undone by selecting Undo from the Edit menu. The specific operations contained in the Range menu are summarized as follows.294 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Graphical Edit Menu Bar When in the Graphical Edit Mode the menu bar changes to include commands for working with data as described below.

Y1 and X2. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. even though X values may be specified that are not on the borders of the range. If Graphically Choose is selected. Add Shift This command can be used to shift a range of data relative to its current Y coordinates. This shift value will be added to the current data (new = old + shift.Linear Interpolation. Inc.30) allows you to specify an X1. .3. the interpolation line will be displayed as the mouse is moved around to select point two. use this command. Thus. must be selected.30: Range Menu . all points in the range will be affected.Y2 or to define them graphically. Linear Interpolation This will linearly interpolate each point in the range. two points on the graph. relative to X and Y or only X. the Y value will be set on this line. point 1 and point 2. The Linear Interpolation Screen (Figure 3. Then for each point in the selected range. this function will allow you to enter a Shift Value or select it graphically (Figure 3. To shift an entire curve.6 Plots 295 Set to Average To replace a portion of data with the statistical average. Figure 3.31). choose the Show Statistics command found on the Range menu. When used. To view the value calculated and used as the average. After selecting point one.) Note that this shift is completely different from the shift that can be entered in the Data setup screen or under the Shift menu. use the commands found in the Shift menu. These coordinates are used to define a line.

it will delete all corresponding points in all parameters of the data set.Add Shift. if a point is bad.Smooth. This box will interactively show the valid range as you change the number of deviations. Remove Points n Standard Deviations from the Average This command allows you to remove bad data points in the current range. It will delete all points in the selected range for all parameters in the data set.31: Range Menu .296 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Figure 3. This cannot be undone. Inc. each point in the selected range that lies beyond this valid range will be deleted. Select this command to display the Smooth Data dialog box shown in Figure 3. This cannot be undone. Remove Points This will delete all of the points in the selected range. Smooth When data is very erratic it can be smoothed with the Smooth command.32: Range Menu . Use it with caution. Even though it is using the Active Curve to determine if a point is bad or not. Meyer & Associates. Use the horizontal scroll bar to adjust the level of smoothness. A dialog box will ask how many standard deviations around the average are acceptable. After clicking OK. even if these parameters are not on the current plot. Meyer User’s Guide .32. The number of deviations does not have to be an integer. Figure 3.

Range Stop The stopping point on the X scale of the selected range. Inc. These are the same shifts that are set in the data sets setup screen.6 Plots 297 Show Statistics This command displays the information in Table 3. . Average The average value of all points of the active curve in the selected range. Point Menu The commands in the Point menu apply only to the currently selected point on the active curve. Remove Point This will remove the currently selected point from the active curve. the opposite happens. Max The maximum value of the active curve in the selected range. Drag Single Point or Drag Single Point (Y only). set the mouse function to Select Single Point. If the active curve is on the right scale.6 about the selected range. If the active curve is on the left scale. It will also remove all other points in the data set that correspond to this point.3. To see or choose the currently selected point. Value Definition Range Start The starting point on the X scale of the selected range.6: Definition of Statistics of the Active Range. Shift Menu The Shift menu allows a graphical means of shifting an entire parameter of a data set. Standard Deviation The standard deviation of all points of the active curve in the selected range. Set Values Choose set values to manually type in a new X and Y value for the selected point. This cannot be undone. Min The minimum value of the active curve in the selected range. Show Derivative This command will show the derivative of the active curve within the selected range. the derivative scale is on the right and all curves on the right scale are hidden. Table 3. Note that the X value cannot be before the previous point’s X value and cannot be after the next point’s X value. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.

Options are available to turn the shift on or off. Meyer User’s Guide .298 MView: Acquired Data Visualization Shift Active Curve This allows access to the shift value of the active curve. Meyer & Associates. Inc. Shift Active Curve’s X Data This is the same as Shift Active Curve. set the shift value manually. except it applies to the parameter that is used for the X axis. or choose the shift value graphically.

The term minifrac is commonly used to describe any type of injection test performed in a reservoir to obtain characteristic information associated with the hydraulic fracturing process. All of the available options and the basic procedures used for running the software are covered in this chapter. This process results in the ability to approach an optimum treatment design. as part of the design optimization process. . These tests typically involve periods of intermittent injection followed by intervals of shut-in and/or flowback.Chapter 4 MinFrac Minifrac Analysis 4. As with any well test. MinFrac is a comprehensive tool that implements the latest fracture injection and pressure decline theory. 299 Meyer & Associates. to calibrate the fracture model input data and redesign the treatment. pressure and rate are measured throughout a minifrac and recorded for subsequent analyses.1 Introduction This chapter is a user’s guide for the MinFrac program. Please refer to Appendix F for specific information regarding the governing equations. MinFrac for Windows was developed to aid the fracturing engineer in analyzing the data recorded during a minifrac treatment. MinFrac is considered a “state of the art” simulator by the petroleum industry. The principles of fracturing pressure analysis have been discussed extensively in the literature during the past several years1-9. Tests such as these are usually applied. Inc. The evolution of this technology has resulted in procedures that permit the interpretation of injection and fall-off pressures in order to characterize the basic fracturability of a reservoir. modeling techniques and numerical procedures used in the MinFrac Analysis Software. With the many types of analyses and superposition derivatives available.

Open an existing MinFrac data file (*. Meyer User’s Guide . History Match Data c. Fracture Options Menu Data Input a. User Specified Closure –go to step 7 Meyer & Associates.minfrac) File Menu or a new file 2. Inc. Graphical c. General b. Specify Units (optional) Units Menu 3. Step Program Area 1. Edit Imported Data Data Menu 4.1: MinFrac Basic Steps.300 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis An outline of the basic steps for using MinFrac is shown in Table 4. 5. Import Data File d. Data Options a.1. Table 4. Fracture Model • Description • Base Data • Leakoff Data • Closure Data (User Specified) b.

fracture dimensions and leakoff coefficients prior to designing a full-scale fracture treatment. net pressure.1 Introduction 301 Table 4. Most minifrac analyses are based on Nolte's equations and do not account for the effects of fluid rheology or the conservation of momentum. Output Menu Simulation (base data) Simulation (history match data) View Report Export Report Report Configuration Manage Points Methodology Minifrac analysis provides a method of estimating fracture efficiency. These types of analyses. c. 7. Analysis Wizard • Select Analysis • Follow Wizard Steps… b. Step Down • Select Ranges • Select Points • Pressure Table • Diagnostic Plot d. Analysis a. as originally formulated by Nolte1-5 and modified by Castillo6 quantify the fracturing process as estimated from the measured pressure decline data. ISIP. Regression • Select Ranges • Select Points (Analysis) • History Match f. . After Closure • Select Ranges • Select TC • Select Points (Analysis) Analysis Menu Output a.4. b. d. 6. e.1: MinFrac Basic Steps. Step Rate • Select Ranges • Select Points • Pressure Table • Diagnostic Plot c. closure pressure. Horner • Select Ranges • Select Points (Horner Plot) e. The measured pressure Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. f. Inc.

pay zone height. The numerical results are used in conjunction with the measured pressure decline data to history match a number of fracture characteristics such as fracture height. For more information about minifrac theory. The equations of mass conservation. continuity. The main advantage of this technique is that mass and momentum are both satisfied. fluid efficiency and leakoff coefficient. please review the following definitions. only the width-opening pressure relationship and pressure decline data were used to estimate minifrac characteristics. From the numerically simulated fracture geometry. you can determine which fracture model more closely represents the measured pressure response and formation permeability. Neglecting momentum can result in unrealistic estimations of fracture characteristics and fluid leakoff coefficients that are critical to the design of the main fracture treatment. interference closure. refer to Appendix F. time dependent leakoff and fluid rheology are simulated. the important effects of flowback. The energy balance method does eliminate some of the anomalies in minifrac analysis. However. Inc. width-opening pressure. 1992) reported a new minifrac methodology that solved the governing conservation of mass and momentum equations for power-law type fluids using the 2-D fracture propagation equations-of-state. Lee7 improved upon this by including Biot's energy balance equation for two-dimensional type fractures geometry models. pressure. The solution technique does not assume the fracture width is proportional to the measured pressure. Meyer and Hagel8-9 (1988. momentum and constitutive relationships for fracture propagation models are formulated based on the methodology of Meyer10-12. Meyer User’s Guide . If you are uncertain about the terminology. Meyer & Associates. Instead. this method does not fully account for viscous driven fractures. Up until 1987. Young's modulus and spurt loss. Refer to these references and Appendix A for a detailed description of the model assumptions and solution technique. Definitions The following basic concepts are critical to the use of the MinFrac Program. In addition.302 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis decline data is simply used in place of solving the momentum equation. Closure time can also be more accurately estimated from these parametric studies. the governing mass and momentum equations are coupled with the measured closure time to predict fracture propagation characteristics.

Each of these parameters have their own unique definition.G. This instantaneous value provides a reference point for determining the total leakoff coefficient relative to a given volume of fluid injected and fracture geometry model. Fracture closure pressure is also necessary in defining net pressure during injection: net fracturing pressure. For a minifrac.e. as well as. The fluid efficiency. Fracture Efficiency Fracture efficiency is defined as the ratio of the fracture volume to the volume of slurry injected. the least principal stress (  min ). The fracture efficiency is approximately equal for all models. it can be used as a reference to determine the fracture closure time. changes as a function of volume injected. or fracture closure pressure/depth to formation) or even the fracture propagation pressure. The fracture closure pressure is an important parameter that is generally obtained from the decline pressure(s) following a minifrac or stress test. F. is a function of the fluid efficiency and the fracture area1-13. For example. The total leakoff coefficient that is calculated for each model. Many of these definitions of course are used inappropriately and refer more to the extension or propagation pressure than to the closure pressure. This is more commonly referred to as the minimum horizontal stress or least principal stress. Once the fracture closure pressure is known. the minimum horizontal stress (  Hmin ).. the frac gradient (i. is the difference between the pressure in the fracture. The fracture net pressure at the end pumping is p net = ISIP – pclosure . therefore. since it is only a function of the pressure decline slope and closure time. This has become a standard way of reporting the leakoff charac- Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. which in turn is used to find fluid efficiency. This change depends on the rate of creation of fracture area. This coefficient is generally expressed in units of ft  min . p net . the fluid efficiency of interest is generally the efficiency at the end of pumping. p net = p fracture – p closure ). p fracture . The correct definition of fracture closure pressure as used throughout this guide is the pressure in the fracture at the point of closure. Total Leakoff Coefficient The leakoff coefficient obtained from a minifrac is the total leakoff coefficient ( C ). the leakoff characteristics of the fracturing fluid and reservoir.4.e.. and the closure pressure (i. . Inc.1 Introduction 303 Fracture Closure Pressure The fracture closure pressure ( p c ) has been given many names by the petroleum industry. it is often referred to as the instantaneous shut-in pressure ( ISIP ).

Rate changes and fluid property changes have predictable influences on the expected pressure response during a minifrac as well as the propped fracture treatment. If actual changes in p gauge differ from expectations. A change in either one (i. if bottomhole pressure is available during a minifrac by placing a gauge close to the perforations. Fracture Geometry Models Understanding the types of two-dimensional (2-D) models used in the interpretation of a minifrac treatment is critical to the data analysis process. The assumptions that are part of a numerical model solution are what dictates whether a particular fracture geometry model is applicable to a given reservoir. Each 2-D model solves the fracture geometry with inherent assumptions about how hydraulic fractures propagate. For additional information about the fluid leakoff models and minifrac leakoff refer to Appendices D and F.e.e..304 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis teristics of a fluid in a given reservoir. This process allows the engineer to decide whether the appropriate model(s) is being used. For example. p gauge ) and model combination provide a unique understanding of the current fracturing process. p gauge . Deviations from the expected pressure response can be analyzed for probable causes. These mechanisms are broken down into numerical relationships that are coupled in the MinFrac program using the Harmonic fluid loss model as defined in Appendix D. Pressure During Injection The magnitude of the injection pressure and the rate of change of pressure may be as important as all other dependent parameters obtained from a minifrac treatment. should bring about a predictable change in p gauge .. therefore. Meyer & Associates. For more information regarding the 2-D models used in MinFrac. Inc. plausible explanations may be considered. rate or fluid properties). Meyer User’s Guide . then the measured pressure. When this occurs. and to decide whether the signal (i. can be expressed as follows: p gauge = p net + p perf + p near wellbore +  min Each of these p components has their own dependency on rate and fluid properties. please refer to Chapter 2. the significance of the deviation should be weighed against it's influence on the desired outcome of the propped fracturing treatment. The total leakoff coefficient is actually a combination of all the mechanisms acting to prevent fluid loss to the formation.

Regardless. particularly in cased and perforated wellbores is discussed by Warpinski14. Inc.15. the bottomhole pressure at the end of each rate interval is then plotted versus rate to identify a change in slope. These types of tests involve larger volumes of fluid than a test designed solely for the purpose of determining in-situ stress. For this reason. This guide is not meant as a primer to these procedures. All of these methodologies are grouped here as minifrac analyses. refer to the references cited. as well as characteristic fluid loss. it is generally accepted that the ISIP is a reasonable estimate of the minimum horizontal stress and.1 Introduction 305 Determining Closure The method chosen to identify fracture closure will depend on the test procedure and on the quality of the acquired data. In lieu of achieving a stabilized pressure.3 Pump-In/Decline Unlike the discrete measurements associated with Micro-Frac Testing described above. Step Rate Test A step rate test is used to determine the fracture extension pressure that is typically considered the upper bound for the minimum horizontal stress or closure pressure. is a form of closure pressure. The resulting ISIP can be determined by plotting the acquired pressure versus the square root of time. a list of the industry accepted methods is given below along with a brief description of each.4. however. For additional information on each of these methods. This change or “break” indicates the start of fracture extension that is theoretically equal to the magnitude of the closure pressure plus the fracture friction and propagation resistance. After break-down. Micro-Frac Test This type of test is used to measure the in-situ stress in discrete intervals within a zone. To obtain representative stress data. it is essential that the volume of fluid pumped create a fracture of significant dimensions. each flow rate is maintained until a stabilized pressure is achieved. it has been proposed that periods of equal time for each flow rate be used. When performed properly. Ideally. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. fluid is pumped at increasing flow rates in a stair-step fashion. . The procedure involves isolating a narrow interval using packers in order to pump a minimum volume of fluid (usually low viscosity) to break-down and initiate a hydraulic fracture. therefore. un-isolated injection tests performed through the entire perforated height provide estimates of the state-of-stress over the total interval affected by the fracture. a “pump-in” test is usually preceded by a step rate test to ensure that the propagation pressure is obtained and a fracture is created. The problems associated with using this type of test.

g. The return rate is typically controlled using a manifold assembly containing operable valves (e. This type of test uses constant rate flowback immediately following the injection to increase the deflation rate of the fracture. depending on the relative relationship between the physical properties of the fracture and the reservoir. data beyond the point of pseudo-radial flow is not used to evaluate closure time. That is. low permeability resulting in long closure times). normally. A low-rate flow meter is also beneficial in monitoring the flowback rate and may allow digital acquisition of the data for subsequent analysis. the flow is pseudo radial and therefore. the increased time required for a fracture to close due to natural pressure decline can make the identification of closure extremely difficult. The objective is to affect the pressure response in such a way as to develop a characteristic curvature (S-shaped) that reverses from positive up to positive down (see Figure 4.. When this scenario is likely.. a plot of pressure versus square root of time is a good place to start.. For high permeability wells. various graphical methods are used to identify the closure event.1). Flowback is designed to match the order-of-magnitude rate of leakoff. negative or so subtle that it is not detected. For this time function. a Horner plot is sometimes used to identify pseudo-radial flow. To “pick” the closure time. The utility of this plot is based on the concept that if a semi-log straight line is observed. different X-axis functions) to interpret the closure event. Meyer User’s Guide . Once the pressure and time data is acquired. the fracture is closed during the remaining portion of the test. a Pump-In/ Flowback test may be required. the change in slope may be either positive. as it is in many low permeability reservoirs. Meyer & Associates.e. Different situations require different diagnostic plots (i. Diagnostic plots involving numerous time and characteristic functions can be produced to identify fracture behavior.g. Pump-In/Flowback When fluid loss is extremely low. When conditions result in an inability to identify closure (e. the closure identification process may be augmented by using a Pump-In/Flowback procedure. gate valves) or an adjustable choke. The point at which the fracture closes should be marked by a distinct change in slope. This procedure usually involves trial and error to determine the proper flowback rate. Unfortunately.306 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis The basic principle of this type of injection test is to create and propagate a fracture in order to monitor the natural pressure decline following shut-in. Inc. initially. pressure should decline along a straight line indicating linear flow in the fracture.

Once this point of acceleration is identified. concave up with respect to time). due to leakoff and flowback. During the first stage. the fracture is assumed to be closed. therefore. The resulting trend represents the rate-of-change in the pressure Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. dp  dt as a function of time is another method of determining closure. dominates the pressure response producing a pressure trend that appears similar to natural decline (i. the point at which the fracture is closed8.1: Idealized Flowback Pressure. The second stage of the pressure decline behavior is characterized as a transition from a fracture that is fully open to one that is partially closed. fracture deflation..1 Introduction 307 Figure 4. This produces a characteristic acceleration in the rate of pressure decline as the wellbore pressure is reduced. Inc. Using flowback to close a fracture is based on an interpretation of the closure process that produces at least three distinct stages of pressure versus time behavior.16. The identification of this point is typically made using a plot of the derivative ( dp  dt ) to illustrate the change of pressure with respect to time. Each stage represents a change in characteristic behavior.e. The maximum point on the derivative plot represents the maximum rate-of-change in the pressure decline and. Derivative Method Analyzing the derivative. described as follows. The fracture continues to close and the communication between it and the wellbore is choked as a result of decreasing conductivity and corresponding flowback rate. The restriction caused by fracture closure reduces the wellbore recharge rate resulting in an increase in the relative wellbore deflation rate. .4. It is this process that initiates the desired curvature reversal.

Natural Decline Flowback P P P tc dP dP dt dt Time Time P P dP dP dt dt Root Time Root Time Figure 4. Meyer User’s Guide . the derivative plot can be used to identify the closure by observing a characteristic change in the shape of this relationship. Basic Concepts The fundamental methodology implemented in the MinFrac Program is discussed by Nolte1-5. The basic concepts essential to using MinFrac and understanding the results are discussed below for each type of analysis: Meyer & Associates.2 for an example of the desired trends.2: Idealized Pressure and Derivative Trends for Time and Slope. Inc.308 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis with respect to time. Castillio6. Depending on the type of data (i. Refer to Figure 4. flowback or natural decline).. and Meyer8.e.

. Regardless. This suggests that the fracture is already closed and that data beyond the point of influence need not be considered in the evaluation of closure. As the injection rate decreases. This analysis is performed after fracture propagation has been established. the pipe friction needs to be entered for analysis credibility. problems with anomaly high pressures which may cause a near wellbore screen-out). it has been proposed periods of equal time for each flow rate can be used. The Horner plot provides a lower bound of the minimum horizontal stress or closure pressure.e. After breakdown. This analysis is used to determine near wellbore pressure loss effects (i. If a semi-log straight line is observed and the line can be extrapolated to a reasonable value of reservoir pressure. the bottomhole pressure at the end of each rate interval is then plotted versus rate to identify a change in slope. This change or “break” indicates the start of fracture extension that is theoretically equal to the magnitude of the closure pressure plus the fracture friction and propagation resistance.1 Introduction 309 Step Rate Analysis A step rate test is used to determine the fracture extension pressure. Step Down Analysis The step down analysis is used to calculate perforation and near wellbore friction losses. In lieu of achieving a stabilized pressure. Horner Analysis The Horner plot is used to determine if pseudo-radial flow developed during pressure decline. the pressure will also decrease as a result of perforation and near wellbore pressure losses. The relationship between the decreasing rate and pressure results in a determination of near wellbore pressure losses. Inc. If the step down analysis is performed using surface treating pressure.4.. This is typically considered the upper bound for the minimum horizontal stress or closure pressure. fluid is pumped at increasing flow rates in a stair-step fashion. radial or pseudo-radial flow may be affecting the decline behavior. each flow rate is maintained until a stabilized pressure is achieved. Then during shut down the rate is decreased in a stair-step fashion for a short period of time while the pressure stabilizes. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Ideally.

This process can be repeated as many times as desired. 6. Applicable fracture model (history match and net pressure). Once the events. Fracture net pressure. 3. A . 8. The specific methodology used is given below: 1. Meyer & Associates. Closure etc. p = ISIP – p c . a statistical procedure can be invoked to automatically determine closure. 3. A regression technique is used to minimize the difference between the model results and the measured data. Graphically identify the major events that occurred during the treatment cycle (e.).g. f pad 7.310 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Regression Analysis Regression Analysis is a procedure whereby time dependent rate-pressure data during fracture propagation and shut-in is analyzed to determine information regarding fracture characteristics. 9. Fraction of PAD. parameters can be selected and history matches performed comparing the theoretical response to the actual measured data for each fracture model contained in the program. 2. Closure pressure. When satisfied with the combination of history-matched responses and parameter optimization for the fracture geometry models. 5. calculation of the fracture geometry and associated fluid loss parameters can be made. In addition. Initiation. based on the best-fit geometry model. 4. Instantaneous shut-in pressure. 2 min   1 –   and f pad max  1 –   1 +  . Inc. Parametric uncertainty (history match).. Meyer User’s Guide . including closure time. These plots are used in the determination of closure. have been identified. Closure time. t c . p c . ISIP .   G  t c    2 + G  t c   . Diagnostic plots can be generated using a variety of time functions. Fracture efficiency. 2. ISIP . Fracture area. The following information can be determined from a properly conducted Regression Analysis: 1.

e. C .4. if the fracture area is known. Table 4.. In simple terms. .2 lists a number of other time functions also used in MinFrac. During closure the user may perform a minifrac analysis with a time function that gives the best fit pressure decline match with an inflection point at closure. fracture closure). the derivative plot can be used to identify the closure by observing a characteristic change in the shape of this relationship.e.. it may not be a “unique solution”.2: MinFrac Time Functions.e. P = ISIP – p . Depending on the type of data (i. The time function Nolte purposed was the Nolte G time (i. Derivative Method The Derivative Method is one of the methodologies for determining inflection points (i. The resulting trend represents the rate-ofchange of pressure with respect to time. Analyzing the derivative. and  is a time function. flowback or natural decline). if one can find a time function where the rate of pressure decline with respect to a time function is a constant during fracture closure. Leakoff coefficient. P = GdP  dG ). Log/Log Slopes* Time Scale Definition Storage Fracture Radial Flow Data Time t Data - - - Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Table 4. Although this time function may give the best fit. This concept is formulated below: dP ISIP – p    =  d  ISIP – p  =  d d or dP d p    = ISIP –  Where p is the pressure.1 Introduction 311 10. Nolte1-5 was the first to implement this concept. dp  dt as a function of time is a method of determining closure. Inc. the closure time would be indicated by a deviation from the measured and theoretical pressure declines.

F is a time function and p* is the straight line intercept at F = 0. The apparent Meyer & Associates...312 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Table 4.2: MinFrac Time Functions. the late time portion of the curve should follow a straight line. Permeability and Reservoir Pressure As discussed above. k  1  m ). Meyer User’s Guide . Following is a brief summary of the after closure analysis.  2 1 1/2 12 =  t  tp  12 12 =  t – tp  –1 12 12 Data Start of Pumping Time = INIT . Time t = t Data – INIT - - - Delta Time t = t – t p 1 1/2 1/4 Nolte Time tD = t  tp – 1 1 1/2 1/4 Root Theta’ Time  2 1 1/2 Root Delta Time t 2 1 1/2 Root Nolte Time 1  2 = t  t – 1 tD p 2 1 1/2 Nolte G Time G = f  t t p ... Data End of Pumping Time = EP Pumping Time.e. Inc. General Equation The general form of the after closure pressure response is p – p* = m  F (4-1) where m is slope. The permeability k can be calculated from the slope m of the straight line (i. See the Meyer Appendices for additional information on these functions. if the pressure p is plotted against F in Cartesian coordinates. t p = EP – INIT . late time period or radial solution). After Closure Analysis The purpose of the after closure analysis is to determine the formation permeability and reservoir pressure from the pressure response of a fractured (or unfractured) well during the infinite-acting time period (i.e. A detailed formulation and description of the governing equations is presented in Appendix K.

4. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.3 illustrates the use of Eq. Inc. (4-3) by overlaying the derivative function to help identify the intercept (reservoir pressure) and late time slope (permeability). The general relationships are given below. Figure 4. (4-1) with respect to the time function. . we find dp  dF = m (4-2) or dp p = p* + F ------dF (4-3) Therefore at late time (small values of F ) the measured pressure data should overlay Eq.1 Introduction 313 reservoir pressure p* can be found from the intercept of the extension of the straight line with the F = 0 axis. Taking the derivative of Eq. Diagnostic Plots and Derivatives Diagnostic plots similar to those used in the regression analysis using the Nolte G function can be used to help identify radial flow (pressure transient). (4-3) in Cartesian coordinates.

the pressure should overlay the following equation dp p = p – p* = F ------dF Meyer & Associates. Nolte .FR Linear Plot. F is generated.4)of net pressure p = p – p* vs.3: After Closure Analysis .Surface Pressure vs.314 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. Inc. If a plot (see Figure 4. (4-4) Meyer User’s Guide .

.e. Another important derivative is the log slope. Taking the natural log of Eq. Inc. That is d-------------------ln  p   1 as F  0 d ln  F  Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Nolte . the net pressure curve in log space should also overlay the derivative function for radial flow.4.4: After Closure Analysis .Delta Pressure vs. (4-4) we find dp ln  p  = ln  F -------  dF (4-5) Therefore.FR Linear Plot. Eq. Taking the natural log of Eq. (4-6) also illustrates that if ln  p  is plotted versus ln  F  . the log-log slope will approach unity for large times.1 Introduction 315 Figure 4. ln  p – p*  = ln  m  ).. (4-1) we find ln  p – p*  = ln  m  + ln  F  (4-6) where for F = 1 the slope is equal to the net pressure (i.

7. Figure 4. Figure 4.6. Nolte. A complete description of the options is presented in this section.2 Options This section describes the various options available in MinFrac.6) and Data options are as shown in Figure 4.5. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. Menu The Meyer MinFrac menu bar is shown in Figure 4.FR LogLog Plot Please refer to Appendix K for a detailed formulation and description of the governing equations.6: MinFrac Main Menu. Meyer & Associates.5: After Closure Analysis . 4. The Menu layout (see Figure 4.Delta Surface Pressure vs.316 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis as shown in Figure 4.

. The default menu selection of the radio button is Graphical Technique – Use real-time data from MView opening a new file.4.7: MinFrac Data Menu. select the DataOptions menu. The dialog box displayed in Figure 4. These options establish the General technique. To access the Options screen. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.2 Options 317 Figure 4. The specific data displayed in a screen or the existence of a data screen itself varies depending on the options selected.8 will then be presented. The selections made in the Data Options screen set the scope for data used in MinFrac.8: Options Screen. Graphical and Fracture options. Figure 4. Inc. The Options screen determines what information is needed for a particular type of analysis.

This option is not recommended. since the user is required to specify the pertinent regression data of closure time. Graphical Technique . pressure. Figure 4. choose one of the Graphical Technique options. etc. To use MinFrac to perform calculations only. Meyer & Associates. Inc.9 shows the General Options screen. To take full advantage of MinFrac’s ability to process acquired pressure and rate data.Use data from a text file Select this option to import data from a text file directly into MinFrac. Meyer User’s Guide . This option is used to perform parametric studies with different scenarios for various closure times and hence fracture efficiencies. Selecting the Graphical Technique option configures the program for graphically analyzing the data from an actual minifrac treatment. select the User Specified Closure option. The third choice is to simply perform minifrac closure and geometry calculations.318 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis General Options The General Options screen allows the user to specify the type of Graphical or user specified technique used to perform the analysis.9: General Options. Figure 4. This data can be replay data from a text file or Replay/ Real-Time data sent by MView.

Inc. This is the recommended method. all of the plots will update automatically when real-time data is acquired.10 shows the Graphical Option choices. Derivative. specific information regarding the minifrac must also be entered. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. In addition to the reservoir data. User Specified Closure If the complete pressure and rate data records are not available to analyze. or if closure time is to be determined by another method. For User Specified Closure the following information is required: • Injection rate • Volume injected or injection time • Closure time • Closure pressure Graphical Options The Graphical Options are only fully available if a Graphical Technique option is selected in the General Options box. When using this option.4. .2 Options 319 Graphical Technique . select User Specified Closure.Use real-time data from MView Select this option to use the real-time or replay data from MView for the graphical analysis. Figure 4. Mouse Button and Wizard steps. The Graphical Options provide choices for the User Specified Pumping Data. This selection will disable all data input that corresponds to graphical analysis and simply present data dialog boxes that require characteristic reservoir and fracture data.

Meyer User’s Guide . The program is capable of obtaining these from the rate and pressure versus time graphs by using the event selections to start or end a time interval for processing.10: Graphical Options. the data set can be supplemented by using the calculation facility contained in this dialog. User Specified Pumping Data Interpretation of a minifrac treatment requires that the rate and volume of fluid injected be defined. This set of options is provided for occasions when a complete data set is not available for analysis. For those instances. The Graphical option allows you to decide where specific information for the analysis will be obtained. when data is missing from the imported file. choose Nothing (All data taken from graph). The data contained within a time interval (e. it must be entered in this dialog or calculations cannot be performed. These may be defined graphically (recommended if rate data is available) or manually. the injection rate and volume or some complemen- Meyer & Associates. as well as the period of pressure decline. These variables are necessary to determine fluid efficiency and the leakoff coefficients for each fracture model. For example. When this occurs.g.. Inc. To enter all data graphically. between Initiation and End of Pumping) must contain sufficient data to identify the injection period.320 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. when only the bottomhole pressure and time records are available. Select the option that corresponds to how you want to enter the data.

etc. To avoid this situation. Percentage of (MAX-MIN) used to find the derivative at each point The Derivative Option allows you to enter the percentage of the data between the MIN and the MAX values used to calculate the derivative. Therefore. Inc. However. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. This will allow the actual data values to take precedence over those input manually in this data screen. end of pumping time. If the values entered in the Graphical Calculation Options dialog are input prior to importing the actual data records and subsequently these values are specified graphically. or rate and time must be input in order to continue with the analysis. . the only time this box should be unchecked is if you want the wizard to step you through (very slowly) every detail of the procedure. Use right mouse buttons to select points The default is to select points with the left mouse button. Changing them to obtain a different set of results will change the entire analysis. since many data pressure values stay constant over a few time steps. Minimize number of wizard steps The Wizard Analysis allows the user to step through the different analyses systematically.). It is recommended to leave this box unchecked. closure time.4. a three-point method would result in many data points having a derivative of zero. Consequently. it will be necessary to return to this option screen and reset the option to: Nothing (All data taken from graph). For example.2 Options 321 tary combination of time and volume.e. To select points with the right mouse button. a value of 12% indicates that for each point. The wizard also has an option (see the Wizard screen) to have a description of the next step visible or hidden in the regression plots. consecutive points are not used. Keep in mind that these options are global for a given interpretation. when possible. This is important because of the link between these values and those that may be obtained graphically (i. check this box. ISIP time. Derivative This option pertains to the three-point method used to calculate the derivative in the regression plots.. the derivative is calculated using 12% of the total range defined between the MIN and MAX selections. data within 6% on either side of a calculation point is used. The injection time found in the calculator portion of this dialog is considered to be t. The description and procedure for doing the analyses is beneficial for first time users or as a refresher.

Also.322 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis It is recommended that this box be checked. The Fracture Options provide choices for the fracture geometry model and constitutive relationships that affect the fracture solution methodology. unchecked). Figure 4.e. Meyer User’s Guide . Fracture Friction Model Normally. Fracture Options Clicking the Fracture tab found in the Options screen will access this group of options. if you have to click next a number of times to proceed to the next step in the regression analysis. laminar flow exists in the fracture and this option may not be needed (i. Inc.11: Fracture Options Screen. the classical solution for fluid flow in a rectangular slot (as modified for an ellipsoidal fracture width) is used and the Darcy friction factor takes the form: f D = 24  Re 2 where Re is the Reynolds number ( Re = w   and dp  dx = – 1  2 f D   w ) Meyer & Associates. Figure 4. you may have this box unchecked. For this case.11 shows the Fracture Option choices..

14 Wall Roughness When this option is turned off (not checked). a=0.5. a decrease in fracture length.2 Options 323 Deviations from laminar flow effect the frictional dissipation in the fracture and. .44 Turbulent flow 2000 < Re < 30. as well as. b=0. If this option is used..g. a=0.3.g.. turn this option on. therefore. a=24. on the pressure predicted by a model. b=0. the following friction factor expression is used when the Fracture Friction Model is turned on: a f D = --------bRe Irregularities along the fracture face (e. This will result in an increase in the frictional pressure drop and fracture width.08. b=0. bifuraction and wall roughness) that interrupt and disturb fluid flow can also result in greater energy dissipation. b=0.035. gas) are pumped at high rates.20 Turbulent flow Re > 106. To account for turbulent flow and improve the ability to predict non-laminar frictional pressure loss in a fracture. The relationship used is defined in the expression shown below: Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. a=0.000. Inc. Laminar flow Re < 750.4.25 Turbulent flow 30. the Darcy friction factor inside the fracture is used without modification as determined from the selections made in the Fracture Friction Model option. Turbulent flow in the fracture may also occur when very low viscosity fluids (e. tortuosity. b=1 Transitional flow 750 < Re < 2000. a=0. Table 4.000 < Re < 106. Typical values for the a and b coefficients have been developed empirically in accordance with Prandtl's Universal Law of the Wall17 as shown in Table 4. These effects can be modeled by increasing the a coefficient or modifying the wall roughness factor discussed below. This selection assumes that the fracture surface is a smooth planar feature without roughness. the friction factor defined in the Fracture Friction Model option will be modified using a Friction Factor Multiplier.3: Typical a and b Friction Coefficients. To include the effects of roughness (or waviness) on the frictional dissipation.13.

Figure 4. fracture toughness. Inc.324 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis  = M f fD f D where  fD = modified Darcy friction factor fD = = Darcy friction factor friction factor multiplier Mf An empirically derived correlation18-21 for determining the Friction Factor Multiplier is shown in Figure 4. Typically. Tip Effects The observed field pressures for some treatments are at times much higher than the simulated pressure.12: Friction Factor Multiplier Empirical Correlation. near wellbore effects. Meyer User’s Guide . This discrepancy in measured pressure can be minimized in a number of ways. the friction factor multiplier. confining stress or rock/reservoir properties are modified to obtain Meyer & Associates.12.

in general. This best fit value from matching the net pressure in a minifrac analysis is a good place to start. or it may be a consequence of fracture geometry (e. Inc. When reasonable values have been implemented for wall roughness.. over-pressure varies with injection rate and time.g. rock properties effects (e. The larger the over-pressure factor the greater the increase in the net pressure. one approach is to use MinFrac to automatically regress on the tip factor to determine an appropriate value.e. Keep in mind that when the injection rate changes suddenly. fracture toughness does not.g. a value between 0. . higher pressure must be applied at the inlet (surface or BHTP) to compensate for losses that occur in the fracture.. remain an area of some controversy and considerable discussion. It is important to note. however. If this option is disabled.4. In this version of MinFrac. As a result. Tip effects.1 to 0. if the pressure discrepancy is due to excess pressure. a default value of zero is used. Usually.e. resistance is resistance). tip effects represent a flow resistance at the tip.4 may be justifiable. the near wellbore pressure loss also changes instantly whereas the fracture net pressure cannot because of stor- Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. an overpressure function can be applied at the tip. The possibilities include tip friction due to flow resistance. the Tip Effect option is suggested when the measured injection pressures are well above the theoretical values predicted by a classical model (i. when this option is used. Many engineers mistake near wellbore pressure loss for excess net pressure. In MinFrac. accounts for the extra pressure required at the fracture leading edge for propagation to occur. friction factor multiplier. Regardless of whether you believe this flow resistance is due to viscosity effects or some other phenomena related to the tip region (e. toughness and other formation properties. Over-pressure. However..g..0. and 2) Tip Over-pressure..2 Options 325 a match. that this type of resistance differs from fracture toughness in its classical application. The range of the over-pressure factor allowed by MinFrac is between 0 and 1. complex geometry and/or multiple fractures). tip geometry) the general effect on pressure is typically the same (i. Plausible explanations for these effects have been proposed. toughness as a function of stress at the leading edge or poroelasticity). as it is incorporated in MinFrac. This extra resistance at the fracture perimeter (tip) requires additional pressure (energy) to propagate the fracture. Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics). excess pressure can be applied using two mechanisms: 1) Fracture Toughness. If you are having difficulty relating the over-pressure factor to pressure.

e. the fracture will close on the proppant before all of the fluid leaks off.326 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis age (i. Meyer & Associates. There has been no published explanation on the effects of rock dilatancy on net pressure in a crack. no correlations exist. and to our knowledge. an increase in pressure) can be achieved due to viscosity effects (i.11).e. this is not excess pressure but frictional dissipation in the near wellbore region). Figure 4. This exists when the Propped Fraction entered in the Fracture Model Options dialog box is set to 1 (see Figure 4. If the fracture is partially filled with proppant. Inc.e. For this scenario. Figure 4. The phenomena of tip over-pressure has been referred to as “dilatancy” by some researchers. Proppant Effects Analysis of the pressure decline from a fracture containing proppant (i..13 illustrates one possibility.. The limiting case occurs if the fracture is 100% packed with proppant. Meyer User’s Guide . Rock dilatancy describes volumetric expansion of a material that is rapidly approaching failure and is usually associated with the micro-cracking process. if the rate drops suddenly and the BHTP follows. This is commonly referred to as nonlinear elastic deformation. The propped fracture volume corresponds to the reduction in fluid required to leakoff before the fracture closes. It is not clear whether these researchers are referring to rock dilatancy or fluid dilatancy. fluid dilatancy) or as a result of stress dependent rock properties that may or may not be related to rock dilatancy.. the fracture closure time would be equal to 0 (see Appendix F).13: Fracture Tip Width Reduction due to Non-Linear Elastic Effects. Fluid dilatancy refers to a shear-thickening fluid..e. interference closure) requires special considerations. The desired effect (i.

. The Closure Data command is only activated if the User Specified Closure option has been previously selected. the entire volume in the fracture at the end of pumping must leakoff into the reservoir before the fracture actually closes (unless it does not close totally). This section explains the Data menu input screens.3 Data Input 327 If there is no proppant in the fracture. Use the Data menu commands to input data (see Figure 4.14 provides a location for entering miscellaneous information about the specific analysis being performed. This case corresponds to a value of 0 for the Propped Fraction. Likewise.3 Data Input In addition to the actual treatment records imported for use by the program. which greatly reduces the required data input. Description The Data Description screen shown in Figure 4. Inc. the History Matched Data command is not enabled unless the Graphical Technique is used.4. The input data requirements are presented below. The fracture closure time and pressure can be obtained using the methodology given in Appendix F. 4. All analyses are performed with 2-D fracture geometry models. other parameters characterizing the reservoir physical and mechanical properties are required.7). Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.

Inc.MinFrac. Meyer User’s Guide . Base Data The Base Data dialog box shown in Figure 4. Meyer & Associates.328 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4.14: Description Dialog Box . Each of these data items are discussed below.15 provides the information necessary to describe the rock properties. fluid rheology and fracture parameters.

4.13 4.7. As the stiffness (E) of the rock increases. It is therefore a measure of the materials stiffness. See Appendix A for more information regarding the sensitivity of this parameter. Young's Modulus Young`s modulus or the modulus of elasticity is the slope (or derivative) of a stressstrain curve over the elastic portion of the curve.4.6 Dolomite 6 . Table 4. to Fine Grained 4 .11 2. Meyer User’s Guide Rock Type Range (106 psi) Range (107 kPa) Limestone-Reef Breccia 1-5 0.9 Meyer & Associates. Young’s modulus is a constant with a unique value for a particular material and insitu conditions.15: Base Data Dialog Box. For linear-elastic deformation. The modulus represents the materials ability to resist deformation under load. A range of Young’s modulus values for various rock types is given in Table 4.4: Young’s Modulus for Various Rock Types.5 .14 .8 .3 Data Input 329 Figure 4. . the fracture width will decrease and the length will increase for a given set of input parameters. Inc.3 Limestone-Porous or Oolitic 2-7 1–5 Limestone-Med.

dense Sandstone 4-7 2. Fracture toughness is a measure of a material’s resistance to fracture propagation. This critical value. Hard. For a crack in the vicinity of a uniform stress field. it can be shown that the tensile strength. If a c represents the area of the “largest” defect.1.330 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Table 4. See the MFrac chapter for more information.4: Young’s Modulus for Various Rock Types. Inc. In hydraulic fractures. These sites become points for crack initiation and propagation.35 . the stress intensity is K I =  H  and for failure to occur we have  c = K IC  H  where  is a geometric coefficient and H  is the characteristic fracture dimension. Meyer User’s Guide .8 .2.4 Fracture Toughness The definition of fracture toughness is obtained from the concept of stress intensity factor. propagation is assumed to occur once the stress intensity factor reaches a critical value. It is proportional to the amount of energy that can be absorbed by the material before propagation occurs. T . related to the propagation resistance (or energy balance) is assumed to be a material property and is given the name fracture toughness (or critical stress intensity factor). Meyer & Associates.1 . developed in linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM).  . See Appendix A for more information on stress intensity factors.4 .2 Medium Hard Sandstone 2-4 1.5. The basis for this relationship involves the assumption that pre-existing defects exist and induce high stress concentrations in their vicinity.8 Porous. of the rock can be approximated by T = K IC  a c where K IC is the fracture toughness.2 0. unconsolidated to poorly consolidated 0.

” Table 4. For very low viscosity fluids. The theoretical value for Poisson’s ratio is 1/4 for any isotropic body with strains below the proportional (elastic) limit.16). For strains beyond the proportional limit. fracture toughness may be the dominant parameter controlling fracture growth. From parametric studies.3 Data Input 331 Table 4.5: Fracture Toughness Values for Various Rocks. the ratio increases and approaches the limiting plastic value of 1/2. Thiercelin23 reviewed the testing procedures for determining this parameter in his article. Typical Poisson's ratios for rock formations are 0. Poisson's ratio affects the fracture propagation characteristics to a very minor extent. use 0. Inc.25. “Fracture Toughness and Hydraulic Fracturing.25. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. if in doubt. The values shown were reported by van Eekelen22.5 lists some measured values of fracture toughness. .4. Poisson’s Ratio Poisson’s ratio is defined as the ratio of the transverse strain to the axial strain resulting from an applied stress (see Figure 4. Therefore. Formation Type psi-in1/2 kPa-m1/2 Siltstone 950-1650 1040-1810 Sandstone 400-1600 440-1040 Limestone 400-950 440-1040 Shale 300-1200 330-1320 Setting the values of fracture toughness to zero will result in the classical hydraulic fracturing propagation solutions dominated by viscous pressure loss.

This may or may not be equal to the hydrocarbon pay thickness used to estimate production. The total leakoff height is also referred to as the net pay zone thickness. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . Poisson’s ratio is also used by logging companies to infer in-situ stresses. This method assumes the rock behaves elastically and that the tectonic stresses are known or insignificant.332 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Poisson’s ratio Lateral strain Poisson’s ratio  Longitudinal strain w 0 l 0     w l  w  w  l  l w l 0 0 Figure 4. The typical relationship is   Hmin =  ------------   v – p 0  + p 0 +  T 1– where  Hmin = =  v = p0 T  = = = minimum horizontal stress Poisson’s ratio vertical stress or overburden pore or reservoir pressure component of stress due to tectonics Biot’s constant Total Leakoff Height This is the total or net permeable height penetrated by the fracture for leakoff.16: Definition of Poisson’s Ratio. Meyer & Associates.

The total fracture height is not used for the ellipsoidal geometry model. and n is the flow behavior index (dimensionless). Flow Behavior Index  n  Rheological characterization of non-Newtonian fluid is required to calculate the frictional dissipation in the fracture. Spurt Loss Coefficient Spurt loss is the “instantaneous” volume loss of fluid per unit area of fracture face that occurs prior to the development of a filter cake. This model is typically defined as:  w = k n where  is the wall shear rate. the model reduces to the standard radial or penny shaped solution. k is the consistency index. This parameter is one of the most difficult to estimate and is one of the most important input parameters used in the analysis of the minifrac treatment for the PKN model. Any value greater than one will produce an elliptical profile and corresponding fracture area.  w is the wall shear stress. For example.3 Data Input 333 Total Fracture Height This is considered the total fracture height for the PKN and GDK fracture models. Consistency Index  k   See the explanation of the flow behavior index above. These 2-D models have fixed fracture heights by definition (see Chapter 2). an Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio of two (2) results in a fracture half length that equals the total height of the fracture. If this value is equal to unity (1). Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio This is the ratio between the length of the major and minor ellipse axes. MinFrac has an option to history match on fracture height for the PKN model. Inc.4. . The volume of fluid loss due to spurt V sp for both faces of a single wing fracture is V sp = 2AS p Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Fracturing fluids are most often characterized by the power law model.

This parameter is used to calculate the hydrostatic head required to adjust surface pressures to bottomhole pressures. Each of the data items in this screen are described below. Flowback Rate The flowback rate is simply the average negative return flow rate following a period of injection. Flowback Time (after ISIP) Because flowback data is rarely available in digital form. this is the difference between the time flowback began and the time of the ISIP. This rate is applied in the calculations beginning at the Flowback Time (after ISIP) described above and continues until closure. Meyer & Associates. The reader is referred to Appendix D for additional information regarding fluid loss. This value. pressure decline) is required to calculate the hydrostatic head. For any injection interval. is needed when bottomhole pressure is not available. the starting time for flowback must be specified.17 is provided for the additional reservoir data needed to calculate the leakoff coefficients and permeability of the fractured interval. along with the Total Vertical Depth described above. To include flowback in the calculations. Leakoff Data The Leakoff Data screen shown in Figure 4. Meyer User’s Guide .334 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis where S p is the spurt loss coefficient and A is the leakoff area in the pay zone. Inc.. there is no graphical option associated with this event. Enter the shut-in time from the ISIP. Wellbore Fluid Specific Gravity The specific gravity of the fluid occupying the wellbore during shut-in (i. Total Vertical Depth Enter the true vertical depth (TVD) to the center of the perforations.e.

4. Inc. See Chapter 2 and Appendix D for additional information. Average Reservoir Fluid Pressure The average reservoir pressure is the fluid pressure in the pore spaces. Total Reservoir Compressibility The total reservoir compressibility is defined as the total change in the reservoir volume per unit volume per unit pressure difference. This value must be less than the fracture closure pressure.17: Leakoff Data Dialog Box. If it is not. a warning message will be displayed. . It is the reciprocal of the undrained bulk modulus and is typically expressed as follows: ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cr where cg co cr ct cw Sg So Sw Meyer User’s Guide = = = = = = = = gas compressibility oil compressibility bulk rock compressibility total formation compressibility water compressibility gas saturation oil saturation water saturation Meyer & Associates.3 Data Input 335 Figure 4.

Frac Fluid Leakoff Viscosity   e  Enter the effective viscosity of the fracturing fluid filtrate. This is the portion of the fracturing fluid which passes through the fracture face.336 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis The compressibility is used to relate the permeability and porosity with pressure and time using the expression 2 p k p =  ----------- 2  t c t   z where ct k p t z   = = = = = = = total formation compressibility equivalent reservoir permeability pressure time distance equivalent reservoir viscosity equivalent reservoir porosity Equivalent Reservoir Porosity    This is the fraction of a rock’s bulk volume that is filled with mobile hydrocarbons. This value is used to calculate the CII leakoff coefficient. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide .e. environmental consequences (i. This parameter is used to calculate the CI coefficient for modeling viscosity and relative permeability effects caused by the fracturing fluid. Its viscosity has been reduced from its original magnitude due to the deposition of polymer on the fracture face to form a filter cake. Equivalent Reservoir Viscosity   r  The equivalent reservoir viscosity is the total effective viscosity of a multiphase fluid system at reservoir conditions. as well as. This is especially important Meyer & Associates.. This value is used to calculate the CI and CII leakoff coefficients. The effective fluid leakoff viscosity must also account for the relative permeability effect of the leakoff fluid to that of the reservoir fluid. Refer to Appendix D for information on the leakoff models contained in the program. stress and temperature). which models the leakoff resistance due to the viscosity and compressibility effects of the in-situ fluids.

a CIII value approaching infinity (e. Filter Cake Coefficient  C III  The wall building or filter cake coefficient is equivalent to the inverse of the fracturing fluid leakoff resistance. The wall building coefficient is typically acquired by performing either a static or dynamic laboratory test to determine the relationship between volume loss and time.. . no imported data file). A value of zero (0) represents an infinite filter cake resistance. volumes and closure time. it is necessary to enter specific information regarding injection rate. The slope of this relationship is proportional to the Wall Building Coefficient (see Figure D.. Closure Data When using MinFrac with the User Specified Closure (i. This coefficient is a component in calculating the total leakoff coefficient C. The filter cake reduces the fluid loss rate by increasing the resistance due to leakoff at the fracture face.4. The effective leakoff viscosity. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.3 Data Input 337 for a gas reservoir.  e .18.e. whereas. The items contained in this dialog box are defined below. in terms of the fluid leakoff viscosity and relative permeability is e = f  kr where  f is the true fluid leakoff viscosity and k r is the relative permeability of the leakoff to the reservoir fluid. This data is entered in the Closure Data dialog box shown in Figure 4. >100 ft  min ) represents no wall building.g. Inc. in addition to the reservoir and leakoff data described in the preceding sections.2 in the Meyer Appendices).

Determining a definitive closure time can be difficult for some data sets.. The recommended procedure is presented in Section 4.338 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. Injection Rate (2-wings) The average injection rate is required when the actual rate data is not available. an estimation of fluid efficiency is determined.18: Closure Data Dialog Box. is the difference Meyer & Associates. Pumping Time The total pump time is needed to calculate the volume of fluid injected during a treatment. This value is the delta time after ISIP to closure. such as the dimensionless total time. The fracture propagation characteristics are also predicted by coupling the closure time with the governing mass and momentum equations. The value required is the total time of injection (i. This value is also needed to calculate certain required time functions.  (see Appendix F). p net .4. The net fracturing pressure. Closure Pressure Fracture closure pressure or the minimum horizontal stress is needed to define the net pressure during injection. Closure Time (after ISIP) This is perhaps the single most important parameter required for the calculations.e. the difference between the start and end of pumping). The injection rate is also used to couple the closure time to the fracture propagation solution (see Appendix F). Inc. Make sure the product of this value and the Pumping Time is equal to the volume pumped. Meyer User’s Guide . From closure.

e. To reset all values to the base data press Reset to Base Data. For reference. The individual fracture model data values used in the regression can be viewed and edited by accessing the History Match Data dialog shown in Figure 4. error is minimized). Figure 4. This screen is not updated until after the first regression is performed. For more information on History Matching. p closure .e. Each subsequent regression analysis then uses the History Match Data contained in this screen. History Match) the selected parameters are optimized to minimize the error between the measured and calculated pressure decline. p fracture . uses regression analysis to compare and improve the theoretical pressure response with the actual measured data. The regression parameters can be selected from the Regression Analysis window.4. These values are also reported in the History Match section of the report. the History Match is performed).. p net = p fracture – p closure ). Inc.e.e. The values displayed or entered in this dialog box are the values used each time a new regression is started (i. the regression is complete.. and the closure pressure. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.19: History Match Data Dialog Box.. . This process.19. this screen contains the values entered in the Base Data dialog box. During the regression (i. (i. the original Base Data values are shown on the right hand side in the dialog box.3 Data Input 339 between the pressure in the fracture. see the Regression Analysis section. These values can be determined by performing a minifrac analysis as discussed below.. History Match Data The Graphical Technique can be used to process treatment data and evaluate different model parametric effects when adequate information is available. referred to as History Matching. When the best fit is achieved (i. The first time you regress on a data set.

selecting a file and importing the parameters. The dialog box shown in Figure 4. Inc. Meyer & Associates. There are two steps to importing a data file. Meyer User’s Guide . use the OK button to finalize the selection. the Import Data function can be accessed by selecting the DataImport Data File menu.File Open Dialog Box. select Import Data File. Import Data File If the Graphical Technique – Use data from an ASCII text file is selected. an ASCII file must be imported into MinFrac before graphical analyses are performed. refer to the appropriate part of the Base Data section.340 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis For information on the individual parameters in this screen.20: Import Data . Figure 4. 2. 3.20 will be presented. Once a file is highlighted. When using this option. The screen shown in Figure 4. Selecting a Data File To Select an ASCII Data File for Importing: 1. From the Import menu.21 will be presented. Browse to select the file to import.

3 Data Input 341 Figure 4. MinFrac can select a maximum of 86. . enter a 5 in this box. The other option is to adjust the Data starts at row and Data ends at row values to limit the number of selected rows to a maximum of 86.400. If there are more than 86. The file should be an ASCII file with columns of data separated by commas. Inc. specify the sampling frequency by entering a number in the Sample every box. For example. To sample the data contained in the spreadsheet. Any text in between rows of data will also be ignored.4. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.400 lines of data from a file. spaces or tabs. to use every fifth data point. Text headers at the top of the file will be ignored.21: Import Data Format Screen. it will be necessary to adjust the Sample every box so that 86.400 lines of data in a file.400 lines or less of data are actually imported.

To Edit Imported Data: 1. If this option is dimmed. 2. When you are finished editing the file use the OK button to close the editing window and accept all changes. Inc. The dialog box shown in Figure 4. Then click on the Delete button. Meyer & Associates.22 will be displayed containing the current data. Note any changes made here will only affect the imported data. From the Main menu. select the DataEdit Imported Data menu. select the desired rows by clicking on the row numbers. To delete row(s) of data. no changes will be made to the original ASCII file. 4. To copy a selection to the Clipboard.22: Edit Imported Data Dialog Box. Click on a row or record to change and type the correction. data has not yet been imported. the data may be viewed and edited. 3. Figure 4. Press ENTER to accept the changes. Then click on the Copy button. select the desired rows by clicking on their row numbers.342 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Edit Imported Data After a data file has been imported successfully. 5. Meyer User’s Guide . Use the Cancel button to abort and discard the changes made.

Horner. a general Select Ranges procedure is presented first.4 Analysis 343 A more powerful method to edit data is to use the graphical editing features in MView (see Chapter 3). The Analysis Wizard is a step by step tool for performing all types of different analyses. begin an analysis using the commands under the Analysis menu. A detailed description of all the analyses is presented below for continuity. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Since each analysis begins with the Select Ranges menu. A minifrac analysis to find fracture efficiency and closure pressure can be performed without knowledge of the specific fracture model. 4.23 shows the Analysis menu in MinFrac. Step Rate. The analysis menu and methodology for performing minifrac analysis has evolved over the years. . and After Closure. Regression. The fracture data found in the Data menu is used for history matching and model dependent parameter optimization.4 Analysis The main purpose of MinFrac is to graphically analyze time dependent rate and pressure data associated with minifrac treatments. To use MinFrac as a graphical tool for processing minifrac data. Step Down. The different types of analyses available displayed under the Analysis menu are Analysis Wizard. After importing all the data. Inc.4. Figure 4. Figure 4. This section summarizes the options and features involved in performing graphical analyses. choose one of the Graphical Technique options.23: Analysis Menu.

Meyer & Associates. The radio buttons in the Select Ranges dialog box are used to indicate which pressure to use in the analysis if both are available.344 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Select Ranges By default.25 is only displayed if both surface and bottomhole pressure data are available. when multiple injection cycles have been recorded). Figure 4.25: Select Ranges Dialog Box for Pressure. Meyer User’s Guide .. Figure 4. This command provides the capability to work with a limited range of data (i. Inc. An example is shown in Figure 4.24 shows a typical Select Ranges menu item for the Step Rate Analysis. After making your selections.26. The dialog box as shown in Figure 4. MinFrac uses the entire range of imported time and pressure data for an analysis. Figure 4.e.24: Select Ranges Menu. click the OK button and a plot of the data will be generated.

This is accomplished by using the left mouse button. The Range Menu has two options: Extend Range to the End of Data and Edit Selections. The absolute position of the selected range can be viewed and edited by choosing the Range Menu button as shown in Figure 4.4. Inc. .26: Select Ranges Plot.27. Remember the color filled region outlines the range used for the analysis. To make a selection slide the mouse to the left or right edge of the highlighted data range. Notice that the Start and Stop position is continuously displayed in the upper lefthand corner of the plot dialog (or where you graphically place the box). Then drag the highlighted edge horizontally to bracket a segment of time on the plot. The plot created using the Select Ranges procedure includes all of the imported data.4 Analysis 345 Figure 4. The purpose of this plot is to graphically define a range of data to use for analysis. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.28). Click and hold the mouse button while dragging the vertical edge to the desired position. This displays a dialog box containing the coordinates of the selected range (see Figure 4. Release the button to fix the position of the highlighted edge.

The RangeExtend Range to End of Data menu defines the end of the range to be the end of the data.Edit Selections Dialog Box. This is useful for working with real-time data when the end time of the data is continually increasing. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc.28: Range . Meyer & Associates.27: Range Menu Items. Figure 4.346 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4.

Regression. . and After Closure).29: Analysis Wizard Menu. The purpose of the Wizard is to organize and step the user through an analysis. Step Down. Figure 4. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The Wizard’s systematic menu methodology will step you through the analysis and will not allow you to access a dependent procedure until the previous step has been performed. systematically follow the Wizard steps. Select Analyses After selecting the AnalysisAnalysis Wizard menu. This Analysis Wizard section is a “How to use the Wizard” presentation.4. the Select Analyses dialog box will be displayed as shown in Figure 4.4 Analysis 347 Analysis Wizard The Analysis Wizard is a systematic method for selecting and performing minifrac analyses. Horner. The details on performing a specific analysis are discussed in the individual analysis sections presented below. To utilize the many menus and features in the Wizard. Figure 4. This is a great way for novice users to begin or for experienced users to set up a Wizard template for performing analyses consistently. The Wizard allows for all the analyses under the Analysis menu (Step Rate. Inc.29 shows the AnalysisAnalysis Wizard menu. The AnalysisAnalysis Wizard menu consists of two parts: Select Analyses and Wizard Window.30. Informational help screens are provided at the top of each Wizard step to guide you in performing a particular analysis.

31. The select analyses Save Analyses and Load Analyses buttons can be used to save and load a file.Edit Selections. Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide .30: Analysis Wizard . Add. Proppant and Acid database dialogs. The Analysis WizardSelect Analyses menu is setup very similar to the MFrac Fluid. The buttons at the bottom of the screen are used to Edit.Select Analyses Dialog Box. Figure 4.31: Analysis Wizard . To add a selection to the Select Analyses menu select the Add button.348 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. Inc. This makes it easy to setup the MinFrac Wizard with standardized template analyses. Delete or move the Selected Analyses Up or Down in the Menu. Select the OK button to enter the Wizard Window or Cancel to exit the Analysis Wizard. Selecting the Edit or Add buttons will bring up the menu shown in Figure 4.

33. Next.Regression Options.32). the Report Options will be dimmed unless the Analysis TypeReport menu is selected. select the Data Source drop down menu and choose either surface or bottomhole pressure. After Closure. Nolte G time). Likewise.. Regression Options If you choose Analysis TypeRegression the Regression Options will be highlighted (see Figure 4.” button which opens the Right Axis Derivatives dialog as shown in Figure 4. and Report. Horner. Regression Options and Report Options. The allowable choices are given in the drop down menu (see also Table 4. click the corresponding check boxes if you want to see the Delta Pressure Log-Log and/or Linear analyses. If both the surface and bottomhole pressures are available for analysis.g. Analysis Type The analysis type provides a drop down selection box as shown in Figure 4.g. Step Down. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.4.. . The Regression Plots can display multiple Right Axis derivatives and are selected by clicking the “. Select the Regression Options Time Axis (e. ISIP-GdP/dG). To generate a report as one of your Wizard Window tabs select Analysis TypeReport. Next select the Right Axis derivative for Pressure (e. Each of these analyses is discussed below in detail.2). The Analysis Types available are Step Rate. Figure 4.31.32: Edit Analysis .4 Analysis 349 This Edit Selection menu consists of the Analysis Type. Inc.. Regression.. The Regression Options are only highlighted if Analysis TypeRegression is selected.

Meyer & Associates. Inc. Report Options If you choose Analysis TypeReport the Report Options will be activated as shown in Figure 4. If you want to perform a history match analysis check the History Match box. Meyer User’s Guide .34.34: Edit Analyses .Select Axis.33: Edit Analysis . Figure 4.350 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. The Report Options specify which items you want to include in the report.Report Options.

At the bottom of the Wizard Window is a set of selection buttons as shown in Figure 4.35: Analysis Wizard . At the top of the Wizard Window. Plot configuration and point selection features are also described at the top right corner of each plot. Please refer to the specific analysis in question when using the Select Points menu.4 Analysis 351 Wizard Window After selecting OK in the AnalysisAnalysis WizardSelect Analyses menu. The number of folder tabs corresponds directly to the number of analyses selected in the Analysis WizardSelect Analyses menu. Figure 4.Wizard Window.36. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The Select Points menu is discussed below for each analysis. the Wizard Window will be displayed as shown in Figure 4.4.35. . descriptive text informs the user of any actions or steps to be taken.

Hide Description Checked.Select Buttons at Bottom. < Back.37.352 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. Inc. To hide the descriptive text above the plot check Hide Description. Meyer User’s Guide . The Select Analyses button will return you to the AnalysisAnalysis WizardSelect Analyses menu (see Figure 4. Figure 4. The < Back and Next > buttons are used to navigate through each step of an analysis.37: Wizard Window . The options at the bottom of the Wizard Window are. After a step is completed you will be allowed to proceed to the Next > step. This will enlarge the viewable plot area as shown in Figure 4. The Back and Next buttons are addressed Meyer & Associates. Next >.36: Wizard Window .30). Select Analyses and a check box to Hide Description.

38: Wizard Window . options in this menu. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.39 shows the next tab of Sqrt Delta time plot with the Select Points menu selected. Figure 4. Figure 4. The main menu Tool Bar will also change depending on the analysis type. edit etc. hide. Inc.4. From the Select Points menu the user can perform all the point. The Select Points menu for the Regression Analysis is discussed below in the Regression Analysis section. Any time you are in the Wizard Window. each of the tabs will be displayed at the step last viewed..38 shows the second Wizard Window tab for this example.Nolte G Time Plot with Axes Selected.4 Analysis 353 in the next section where a complete regression analysis in the Analysis Wizard is presented. Notice the drop down Axes menu selection to change the right axis derivative function. . line. Figure 4.

39: Wizard Window .354 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. The full report menu features are available in the Main Tool Bar. Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates.40 shows the Report tab based on the Report Options selected. Figure 4. Inc.Sqrt Delta Time with Select Points Menu.

. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The steps the Wizard takes you through are identical to the steps required to do this analysis in the AnalysisRegression menu. Wizard Window Example Following is an example session using the Wizard to perform a Regression Analysis. Inc.4 Analysis 355 Figure 4.41 shows the Nolte G time Wizard Window the first time it is opened. Descriptive text is shown above the Wizard Plot to help the user select the pump time and pressure decline cycles. Figure 4. The first step is to Select Ranges.40: Wizard Window .4.Report.

41: Wizard Window . Here the Wizard asks the user to select the Min/Max Range Bar. Selecting the Next > button will change the Wizard Window to the plot shown in Figure 4. Inc.Select Ranges. Please refer to the Regression Analysis section describing the Select Points menu Min/Max Range Bar.42. Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates.356 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. This can be done from the Select Points menu.

Inc.43 shows the Wizard Window for the Select PointsAutomatically Find Points menu. The instructions at the top of the Wizard Window describe the Select Points menu. The next step is to do the Regression Analysis to find closure by choosing the Select Points menu. Figure 4.4 Analysis 357 Figure 4.4.42: Wizard Window .Select Min/Max Range Bar. The scroll bar can be used to show additional comments. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. .

Select Points. Figure 4. Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates.44 shows the next item in the Analysis Wizard Select AnalysesEdit Analyses menu (see Figure 4.358 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. This is the Nolte G time in log coordinates. Inc.43: Wizard Window .31).

Delta Pressure Log Coordinates.44: Wizard Window . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Figure 4. Inc.45 shows the Next > step of the Delta Pressure in linear coordinates with the right axis derivative of GdP/dG. .4.4 Analysis 359 Figure 4.

PKN and Ellipsoidal) a drop down parameter selection menu is available. The pressure decline line as predicted by each of the two-dimensional fracture models is shown on the plot.Delta Pressure Linear Coordinates. Choose the parameter to history match on and then press the History Match button. Inc. Meyer & Associates.360 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. Meyer User’s Guide .45: Wizard Window .46. The history match Wizard Window is shown in Figure 4.31). The final item selected in the Analysis WizardSelect AnalysesEdit Selections menu is to history match the decline data (see Figure 4. For each of the fracture geometry models (GDK.

4. Regression. and Report windows.46: Wizard Window . Step Down.4 Analysis 361 Figure 4. The Wizard allows you to create your own methodology of performing Step Rate. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The user has total control on which regression plots to place in the Wizard Window. The Wizard is a tool. systematically follow the menu.History Match. Figure 4. .47 shows the AnalysisStep Rate menu. After Closure. Step Rate Analysis A step rate test provides a means for determining the fracture propagation or extension pressure. which will help minimize the complicated procedures by systematically performing an Analysis. To perform a step rate analysis. Horner. Since the propagation pressure (dynamic condition) is typically on the order of a few hundred psi (several hundred to several thousand kPa) greater than the closure pressure (static condition). the value determined from this type of procedure yields an upper bound for closure.

Meyer User’s Guide .Dimmed. Select Points. Consequently. Inc.49 shows a typical Select Ranges plot.47: Step Rate Menu. The AnalysisStep Rate menu consists of four parts: Select Ranges.362 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. this menu step-by-step methodology will not allow you to access a dependent procedure until the previous step has been performed. Figure 4.48. The first time you perform a Step Rate test with a new data file all of the menu items will be dimmed except for the Select Ranges as shown in Figure 4. Figure 4. Pressure Table and Diagnostic Plot.48). Select Ranges Using the graphical method described above in this section. Meyer & Associates. The reason these menus are dimmed is that Select Points. select a range of data to analyze by activating the AnalysisStep RateSelect Ranges menu (Figure 4.48: Step Rate Menu . Pressure Table and Diagnostic Plot are all dependent on Select Ranges. The menu command items for the Step Rate analysis are described in the sections below.

click the Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.50: Step Rate . To choose a time.Select Points Menu.4 Analysis 363 Figure 4.51.Select Ranges Menu. click on the Step RateSelect Points menu item as shown in Figure 4. Slide the bar horizontally to align it with the time values to be used in the analysis. Inc. Select Points To select the data points for the step rate analysis.4. Once the Step Rate plot is displayed the mouse pointer changes to a vertical bar. This will bring up a plot as shown in Figure 4. . Figure 4.49: Step Rate .50.

You can also erase selected points by clicking the mouse button on an existing point.52: Step Rate .Select Points Edit Menu.Select Points Plot. To erase all of the data points use the Select PointsErase All menu. To edit or erase the selected points click on the Select Points menu shown in Figure 4.51: Step Rate .364 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis left mouse button.52. The Select PointsEdit Selections menu can be used to display and edit the coordinates (Figure 4.53). Meyer User’s Guide . Figure 4. Inc. Two markers will be displayed corresponding to the selection. Figure 4. Meyer & Associates. one on rate and the other on pressure.

Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Figure 4.4 Analysis 365 Figure 4. Pressure Table To perform a meaningful Step Rate Analysis from the surface (or bottomhole) the frictional pressure drop in the wellbore and across the perforations and the net fracture pressure should be accounted for in the calculations. To input the wellbore friction and perforation losses. .4.53: Step Rate .Edit Selections Dialog Box.Pressure Table Menu.54: Step Rate . and net fracture pressure dependence on rate select the AnalysisStep RatePressure Table menu (see Figure 4. After selecting the Pressure Table menu. Inc.55 will be displayed.54). the table shown in Figure 4.

The extension pressure (surface or bottomhole) is then calculated from the equation: Extension Pressure = Pressure – DP Fric – DP Frac – DP Perf Ideal. As the net pressure increases the calculated Extension Pressure will decrease. Next is the ideal perforation pressure loss (DP Perf Ideal) as a function of rate.60 for a sharp orifice entrance and 0. Discharge Coefficient. In this case a value of zero was entered for the fracture net pressure. The perforation pressure loss is calculated from the Specific Gravity of Fluid and the Number.60. Meyer User’s Guide .366 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Figure 4. Inc. The fracture net pressure (DP Frac) is then specified in column four. Once the fracture begins to propagate the net pressure may be relevant to the analysis. For surface pressure the frictional pressure loss as function of rate should be specified. respectively.55 shows the step rate pressure table with the selected rate and pressure points in the first two columns. Since this case was with bottomhole pressure data the DP Fric in the wellbore was set to zero. Then the wellbore pressure loss (DP Fric) is entered.55: Step Rate .Pressure Table. Typical values for the discharge coefficient are 0. If no proppant has passed through the perforations select the lower discharge coefficient value of 0. and Diameter of the perforations. Figure 4. Meyer & Associates.83 for a rounded entrance.

Inc. Figure 4. Two lines may be placed on this plot to determine the extension pressure by locating two points per line.56).57: Step Rate . .57 will be presented.56: Step Rate Diagnostic Plot Menu.4. The active point is selected from the Select Points menu (see Figure 4.Diagnostic Plot. A diagnostic plot like the one shown in Figure 4.4 Analysis 367 Diagnostic Plot When you finish editing the Pressure Table. choose the Step RateDiagnostic Plot menu (see Figure 4.58). Figure 4. The Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. To position a point on the plot click the left mouse button.

58. The relationship between the decreasing rate and pressure results in a mechanistic approach for determining near wellbore losses. This analysis is performed after fracture initiation and propagation has been established.Automatically Find Points. 2A and 2B. two lines are positioned by regression to a best fit of the data.368 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis points are labeled 1A. 1B. When the Select PointsAutomatically Find Points menu is selected. An alternative to manually selecting the points and line positions is to perform the selection automatically by regression. the pipe friction needs to be entered. This method develops an intersection that many use as an upper bound to the extension pressure. Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide . Figure 4. Inc. The intersection point of the two lines is generally considered the upper bound of the closure pressure. During shut down the rate is decreased in a stair-step fashion for a short period of time while the pressure stabilizes. If the step down analysis is performed using surface treating pressure. the pressure also decreases as a result of perforation and near wellbore pressure losses. The intersection of the Y-axis at a rate of zero may also be taken as a minimum value of the extension pressure. As the injection rate decreases. Step Down Analysis The Step Down Analysis is used to calculate perforation and near wellbore friction losses.58: Step Rate . This point may be a better representation of the true extension pressure (minimum horizontal stress). as shown in Figure 4.

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Figure 4.59 shows the AnalysisStep Down menu. To perform a Step Down analysis systematically, follow the menu steps.

Figure 4.59: Step Down Menu.
The AnalysisStep Down menu consists of four parts: Select Ranges, Select
Points, Pressure Table and Diagnostic Plot. The first time you perform a Step Down
analysis with a new data file all of the menu items will be dimmed except for the
Select Ranges as shown in Figure 4.60.
The reason these menu items are dimmed is that Select Points, Pressure Table and
Diagnostic Plot are all dependent on Select Ranges.

Figure 4.60: Step Down Menu - Dimmed Steps.
The menu command items for the Step Down analysis are described below.

Select Ranges
To select ranges click on the AnalysisStep DownSelect Ranges menu.
Using the graphical method described above in this section, select a range of data to
analyze by activating the Select Range Menu. Figure 4.61 shows a typical select
range plot.

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Figure 4.61: Step Down Analysis - Select Ranges.

Select Points
To select the data points for the Step Down analysis, click on the AnalysisStep
DownSelect Points menu shown in Figure 4.62. As illustrated for a new data file,
the Pressure Table and Diagnostic Plot menus are dimmed since Select Points has
not been performed.

Figure 4.62: Step Down - Select Points Menu.
After accessing Select Points a plot will be displayed as shown in Figure 4.63. If
this is the first time you entered Select Points no markers will be on the curve.

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Figure 4.63: Step Down - Select Points Plot.
Once the Step Down plot is displayed the mouse pointer changes to a vertical bar.
Slide the bar horizontally to align it with the time values to be used in the analysis.
To choose a time, click the left mouse button. Two markers will be displayed corresponding to the selection: one on rate and the other on pressure. The program will
automatically find a zero rate and associated pressure point.
To edit or erase the selected points click on the Select Points menu. The Select
PointsEdit Selections menu (Figure 4.64) can be used to display and edit the
coordinates (Figure 4.65). To erase all of the data points select Erase All. You can
also erase a set of selected points by placing the mouse pointer on the existing point
and left clicking the mouse button.

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Figure 4.64: Step Down - Select Points Edit Selections Menu.

Figure 4.65: Step Down - Edit Selections Show Picks.

Pressure Table
To perform a meaningful Step Down Analysis from the surface (or bottomhole) the
wellbore losses, calculated perforation friction, and the net fracture pressure must
be accounted for in the calculations.
To input the wellbore friction and net fracture pressure dependence on rate select
the AnalysisStep DownPressure Table menu (see Figure 4.66).

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Figure 4.66: Step Down - Pressure Table Menu.
After selecting the Pressure Table menu, a table will be displayed as shown by Figure 4.67.

Figure 4.67: Step Down - Pressure Table.
Figure 4.67 shows the selected rate and pressure points in the first two columns.
The Delta Pressure is the next column which is calculated by subtracting the Pressure at a given rate from the ISIP (i.e., Delta Pressure =Surface Pressure-ISIP).
The user-specified values for frictional pressure loss in the wellbore (DP Fric) and
fracture net pressure (DP Frac) go in the next two columns. The change in the
wellbore friction and net pressure from the ISIP (zero rate value) is then calculated
and placed in the Change DP Fric+ DP Frac column.
The total near wellbore loss including perforations (DP Total NW) is then calculated from the difference between Delta Pressure and Change DP Fric+ DP Frac.

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The ideal perforation pressure loss (DP Perf Ideal) as a function of rate is calculated from the Specific Gravity of Fluid and the Number, Discharge Coefficient,
and Diameter of the perforations. Typical values for the discharge coefficient are
0.60 for a sharp orifice entrance and 0.83 for a rounded entrance. If no proppant
passes through the perforations select the lower discharge coefficient value of 0.60.
For surface pressure the frictional pressure loss as a function of rate should be specified. The fracture net pressure may be relevant to the analysis if it is rate/time
dependent. In this case a value of zero was entered for the fracture net pressure.
Entering a variable value for net pressure will change the calculated near wellbore
pressure loss. If the fracture net pressure is assumed to be relatively constant, it will
not effect the analysis.
The Apparent Number of Perfs is given in the last column. This is the equivalent
number of perforations that would have to be open to match the Total Near Wellbore Pressure loss (DP Total NW).

Diagnostic Plot
When you finish editing the Pressure Table, choose the AnalysisStep
DownDiagnostic Plot menu (see Figure 4.68). A diagnostic plot similar to the
one shown in Figure 4.69 will be presented.

Figure 4.68: Step Down Diagnostic Plot Menu.

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Figure 4.69: Step Down - Diagnostic Plot.
The diagnostic plot shows the Total Pressure Loss, Perforation Only and Near Wellbore Only losses. The data points displayed by the markers are the calculated total
and near wellbore pressure losses as given in the Pressure Table (see Figure 4.67).
The near wellbore power coefficient (Alpha) for this case is shown to be 1.21018.
The total near wellbore pressure loss is calculated from the following equation:
2

p Total = p Perfs + p NW = K Perfs  Q + K NW  Q

where
p Total =
p Perfs =
p NW =
K Perfs =
K NW
Q

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=
=
=

total pressure loss
perforation (ideal) pressure loss
near wellbore pressure loss
perforation coefficient
near wellbore coefficient
injection rate
near wellbore power coefficient

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The near wellbore pressure loss and Alpha coefficient (  ) curve is calculated from
a regression analysis. If the near wellbore pressure loss is much less than the perforation or total pressure loss there probably is not a near wellbore problem (like this
example). If the alpha power coefficient is near two, it may be a condition where
not all the perforations are opened.
As discussed, the near wellbore pressure loss calculation is a combination of many
factors, pipe and perforation friction, and fracture pressure. If the flow in the well is
laminar the wellbore friction power coefficient may be near unity not 1.8 or 2.0.
Consequently, many apparent near wellbore problems with a low power coefficient
may just be the uncertainty in the laminar wellbore pressure loss. The flow rate in
the wellbore may be turbulent at the high rate values but as the rate decreases to
zero the Reynold’s Number will be in the laminar region.

Horner Analysis
For some reservoirs it may be desirable to evaluate the decline data for production
effects (i.e., high permeability reservoirs) to determine the lower bound for fracture
closure. Normally, plotting pressure versus the log of Horner time will help identify
the onset of pseudo radial flow (i.e., fracture closure). This time function is typically defined as  t p + t s   t s , or t   t – t p  where t p is the pump time and t s is the
shut-in time that is equal to t – t p .
The Horner plot provides a lower bound, first estimate of closure pressure.
Figure 4.70 shows the AnalysisHorner menu. To perform a Horner analysis, follow the menu steps.
The Horner menu consists of two parts: Select Ranges and Select Points. The first
time you perform a Horner analysis with a new data file Select Points will be
dimmed as shown in Figure 4.70. Again, the reason this menu is dimmed is because
Select Points is dependent on Select Ranges.

Figure 4.70: Horner Menu - Dimmed Steps.

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The menu command items for the Horner analysis are described below.

Select Ranges
To select the Horner range click on AnalysisHornerSelect Ranges menu (see
Figure 4.71).

Figure 4.71: Horner Menu - Select Ranges.
Using the graphical method described above in this section, select a range of data to
analyze. Figure 4.72 shows a typical select range plot.

Figure 4.72: Horner - Select Ranges.
For the Horner and Regression analyses two ranges must be selected. A range from
the initiation to end of pumping (Pump Time) and a range from the end of pumping
to the end of the pressure decline data (beyond closure) must be specified.

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After the range cycles have been selected the Horner plot can be generated. This
analysis is only reliable if the fracture closes.

Select Points
To display the Horner Plot, click on the AnalysisHornerSelect Points menu
shown in Figure 4.73.

Figure 4.73: Horner - Select Points Menu.
After accessing the AnalysisHornerSelect Points menu a plot of the data will
be displayed as shown in Figure 4.74. If this is the first time you entered Select
Points no lines will be on the graph as illustrated. The pressure data is only plotted
from the Select Ranges data from the end of pumping to the end of the selected
range data (stop).

Figure 4.74: Horner - Raw Data Plot.

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Straight lines may be drawn on this Plot with the use of the Select Points menu.
Two points may be selected on the graph, 1A and 1B and a line will be drawn
between them. To select the points, choose the desired point from the Select Points
menu. Then click on the graph with the left mouse button. The coordinates of the
selected point are shown under the Select PointsEdit Selections menu.
To manually enter coordinates for the points, click on the Select PointsEdit
Selections menu. To click and drag the points that are already on the graph, click on
the Select PointsDrag Points menu. The mouse coordinates can also be shown
on the plot to pin point the start of pseudo-radial flow.
Figure 4.75 shows a typical line placement after closure. The deviation of the
straight line from the Horner data (Horner time of about 0.15 and pressure of about
5200 psi) signifies the start of pseudo radial flow and represents the lower bound
for the closure pressure.

Figure 4.75: Horner Plot - Lower Bound for Closure Pressure.
The Horner plot is used to determine if pseudo-radial flow developed during the
test. If a semi-log straight line is observed as shown in Figure 4.75 and the line can
be extrapolated to a reasonable value of reservoir pressure (4400 psi), radial or
pseudo-radial flow may be affecting the decline behavior. This conclusion suggests
that the fracture is already closed and that data beyond the point of influence need
not be considered in the evaluation of closure.

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Regression Analysis
The main purpose of a minifrac analysis is to provide a method of estimating closure pressure, near wellbore effects, fracture dimensions, fluid efficiency, and leakoff coefficients prior to designing and pumping the main treatment.
The various methods to estimate the upper and lower bounds of closure pressure are
the Step Rate and Horner analyses as addressed above. Near wellbore pressure
losses can be determined from a Step Down analysis as presented. These analyses
provide alternate ways to help identify the fundamental characteristics of wellbore
friction, perforation and near wellbore losses and closure pressure.
The following information can be determined from a properly conducted analysis:
1.

Instantaneous shut-in pressure, ISIP .

2.

Closure pressure, p c .

3.

Closure time, t c .

4.

Fracture efficiency,   G  t c    2 + G  t c   .

5.

Fraction of PAD, f min   1 –  

6.

Fracture net pressure, p = ISIP – p c .

7.

Parametric uncertainty (history match).

8.

Applicable fracture model (history match and net pressure).

9.

Fracture area, A , based on best-fit model.

2

and f max   1 –     1 +   .

10. Leakoff coefficient, C , if the fracture area is known.
The derivative method is one of the MinFrac methodologies for determining inflection points (i.e. fracture closure). As discussed in Section 4.1, the derivative plot
can be used to identify closure by observing a characteristic change in the slope.
Figure 4.76 shows the AnalysisRegression menu. To perform a Regression Analysis, systematically follow the menu.
The Regression menu consists of three parts: Select Ranges, Select Points, and History Match. The first time you perform a Regression analysis with a new data file

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Select Points will be dimmed as shown in Figure 4.76. The reason this menu is
dimmed is because Select Points is dependent on Select Ranges.

Figure 4.76: Regression Menu - Dimmed Items.
The menu command items for the Regression analysis are described below.

Select Ranges
To select the Regression range click on AnalysisRegressionSelect Ranges
menu (see Figure 4.76).
Using the graphical method described above in this section, select a range of data to
analyze. Figure 4.77 shows a typical select range plot. As illustrated this is the same
range as used for the Horner Plot (see Figure 4.72).

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Figure 4.77: Regression - Select Ranges.
For the Regression analysis two ranges must be selected. A range from the initiation to end of pumping (Pump Time) and a range from the end of pumping to the
end of the pressure decline data (beyond closure) must be specified.
After the ranges have been selected the regression plot can be generated.

Select Points
To display the regression analysis select points, click on the AnalysisRegressionSelect Points menu shown in Figure 4.78.

Figure 4.78: Regression - Select Points.

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After accessing the AnalysisRegressionSelect Points menu a plot of the data
will be displayed as shown in Figure 4.79. If this is the first time you entered Select
Points no lines will be drawn on the graph as illustrated. The pressure data is only
plotted from the Select Ranges data from the end of pumping to the end of the
selected data range (stop).

Figure 4.79: Regression - Data Time Plot.
Figure 4.79 shows the pump time cycle (shaded area) and the pressure decline cycle
in data time. The solid bar at the top of the plot is the Min/Max Range Bar. This
bar defines the range of data to be used for performing the regression analysis. This
bar is discussed below.
Figure 4.80 shows the Main Menu bar after selecting the AnalysisRegressionSelect Points menu. This Main Menu bar allows you to use all of the Select
Points and Axes menu features. The Main Select Points menu is shown in Figure
4.81.

Figure 4.80: Select Points - Main Menu Bar.

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Figure 4.81: Select Points - Regression Main Menu.
The Select Points and Axes Main Menu Bar features are discussed below.

Select Points from Main Menu Bar
The Select Points from the main menu bar is used to graphically choose specific
time events. These time events can then be dragged, hidden and edited. Lines can
also be manually or automatically placed on the plot to determine inflection points.
Shut-in/Closure/Select Line Points
This menu is used to manually specify or change the Shut-in (ISIP) and Closure
(TC) times.
Straight lines may be drawn on this Plot with the use of the Select Points menu.
Two points make up a line (i.e., 1A and 1B). To select the points, choose the desired
point from the Select Points menu. Then click on the graph with the left mouse
button. The coordinates of the selected point are shown under the Select
PointsEdit Selections menu. Points can also be chosen using the F7 and F8 function keys. The currently selected point and line slopes are reported in the Slope
Information Box.

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Automatically Find Points
A statistical method is available for evaluating the pressure decline plot. Using linear and nonlinear regression to fit the data, an estimate of the closure pressure can
be obtained. The technique is performed in the active plot space using the time
interval specified by the Min/Max Range Bar. MinFrac uses a statistical function
that fits two discrete curves through the data between the Select Ranges data. The
first curve has the form of a straight line (i.e., y = mx + b ) and is assumed to pass
through the portion of data immediately following the minimum value of the Min/
12

Max Range Bar. The second curve has the form of y = ax + bx + c , and is
assumed to pass through the data that begins immediately after the early straightline portion of data and before the maximum time range selected. This nonlinear
regression methodology minimizes a difference function to fit both curves.
The intersection of the resulting curves represents the fracture closure pressure.
This statistical technique is based on the MinFrac Methodology given in Appendix
F. The basic premise is that there is some function or functions that linearizes the
pressure decline (e.g., P = GdP  dG where P = ISIP – p ). This technique thus
characterizes the deviation from a straight line on a pressure versus time plot to
help determine when an inflection point occurs.
A Regression Analysis is in the current space coordinates of the plot (i.e., uses the
same time scale and pressure scale as the plot). Thus, if the X-axis changes, the
regression results will be different. The TC that is found by the regression will
always be in the range defined by the Min/Max Range Bar.
To Use the Automatic Closure Method:
1.

First define the Min/Max Range Bar by graphically arranging it on the screen.
This is done by Clicking on the left or right edge of the Min/Max Range Bar
with the left mouse button and while holding down the button drag the left or
right edge to the desired position. Keep in mind that the Min/Max Range Bar
defines the range of data that is used in the regression.

2.

After the points are selected, select one of the time and pressure functions
given in the Axes menu. The Axes menu is discussed below.

3.

To begin the regression, click the Select PointsAutomatically Find Points
menu.

4.

When the regression is complete, a message box similar to the one shown in
Figure 4.82 will be displayed. This message is provided to update the ISIP.
The theoretical or calculated ISIP is estimated from the projection of the early
time decline data back to the y-axis. Choose Yes to use the calculated ISIP.

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During and after the regression, the TC curve is displayed on the plot. To hide these
lines, choose the Select PointsHide Lines menu.

Figure 4.82: Regression - Automatic Find Points and Update ISIP.
Figure 4.83 illustrates the Select PointsAutomatic Find Points method for the
Nolte G function in linear coordinates.

Figure 4.83: Regression - Nolte G Time Linear Analysis.
Figure 4.83 shows the calculated time of closure and regression data. The regression data displayed is the Pump Time, Delta TC (closure time after pumping), ISIP
and Closure Pressure, BH (bottomhole) Closure Pressure, Efficiency (after spurt),
Residual (difference between pressure data and line fit), and Slope 1 and 2 (of line
1 and 2).

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Put TC at the intersection of line 1 and line 2
This will place the time of closure (TC) at the intersection of the two lines. This is
done automatically for Automatically Find Points.
Drag/Hide Points and Lines
Numerous options are available to drag or hide points and lines on the graph.
Edit Line Slopes
The edit line slopes screen allows the user to specify a slope for any of the four (4)
slope lines. The slope value is calculated based on the X-axis and the left Y-axis.
Select Slope Lines
The select slope lines screen is used to show or hide slope lines.
Edit Selections
The Select PointsEdit Sections menu allows you to edit the data points for Shutin, Closure and the line points (1A, 1B, 2A, 2B, 3A, 3B, 4A and 4B). Figure 4.84
shows the Edit Selection dialog box.

Figure 4.84: Regression - Edit Selections Dialog Box.

Axes - Main Menu
The Axes menu is used to vary the X and Y-axes coordinates. Figure 4.85 shows the
Axes menu after selection of the AnalysisRegressionSelect Points menu. The
X-axis is the time function (Time), the left Y-axis is the pressure coordinate (Pres-

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sure), and the right Y-axis is the Derivative coordinate. The regression select
AxesTime, AxesPressure and AxesDerivative menus are discussed below.

Figure 4.85: Regression - Axes Main Menu.
Axes Time
The AxesTime menu is shown in Figure 4.86. This is the time function to be used
on the X-axis.

Figure 4.86: Regression Axes - Time Menu.
The pressure data may be plotted versus a variety of time functions. As presented,
Table 4.2 lists the formulas used to calculate the different time scales

Axes Pressure (Left Y- Axis)
Pressure or Delta Pressure may be plotted on the left Y-axis. Delta Pressure is
defined to be p  tp  – p  t  . When in the Delta Pressure mode, the plot axis can be
either log-log or linear coordinates.

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Figure 4.87: Regression Axes - Pressure (left axis).
Three options are available from the AxesPressure menu:
AxesPressurePressure
Pressure on the left Y-axis and the X-axis time function are in linear coordinates.
AxesPressureDelta Pressure (Log-Log)
Delta Pressure on the left Y-axis and the X-axis time function are in log coordinates. Please refer to Appendix F regarding the Delta Pressure theory.
AxesPressureDelta Pressure (Linear)
Delta Pressure on the left Y-axis and the X-axis time function are in linear coordinates.

Right Axes Derivative (Right Y- Axis)
The right axis can be used to plot a number of derivative functions as illustrated in
Figure 4.88.

Figure 4.88: Regression Axes - Derivative Menu.

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Select the AxesDerivativeNone menu, to turn off the right axis.
To plot a derivative(s), choose any of the following derivative options from the list
menu:

Linear [dy/dx]

[xdP/dx]

[ISIP-xdP/dx]

Semi Log [dy/d(log x)]

Semi Log [d(log y)/dx]

Log [d(log y)/d(log x)]

For Nolte G time derivatives, the nomenclature will use the G symbol (i.e., ISIPGdP/dG).
The derivative is calculated using the formula for the option selected, where y is the
current pressure curve (Pressure or Delta Pressure) and x is the current time function. A modified three-point method is used to calculate the derivative, as described
in the Options section. The derivative is plotted for the data defined by the Min/
Max Range Bar at the top of each plot.
When using a log scale on the Y-axis, it is impossible to plot a negative derivative.
To remedy this situation, check the Plot absolute value of derivative from the
AxesDerivative menu. Then the absolute value of the derivative will be plotted.

Example Regression Analysis
Following are a set of regression analyses using the different Axes options.
Figure 4.89 shows a Nolte G plot in linear coordinates. The right axis displays the
ISIP-GdP/dG derivative. As illustrated, this derivative helps identify closure as
shown by the deviation from the measured data.
Note the time of closure will always be slightly after the derivative curve deviates from the data (to the right of deviation).

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Figure 4.89: Nolte G Time Plot - Linear Coordinates.
The calculated regression data is shown within the Information Box. You can edit
which data is displayed in the information box by choosing Plot  Select Information Lines as seen in Figure 4.90.

Figure 4.90: Select Information Lines

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Figure 4.91 shows the corresponding Delta Pressure plot in log coordinates with the
GdP/dG derivative function. The same deviation pattern is also illustrated in the
graph.

Figure 4.91: Delta Pressure Nolte G Time - Log Coordinates.
Note: for the Nolte G function the GdP/dG derivative should normally be used
with the Delta Pressure plots and the ISIP-GdP/dG derivative with the Pressure
plots. This also applies to the generic plots (i.e., Pressure use ISIP-xdP/dx, and
Delta Pressure uses xdP/dx). In log-log coordinates, the slope, d  log y   d  log x  ,
may also be used.
Figure 4.92 shows the Delta Pressure plot in log coordinates. The slope,
d  log y   d  log x  , is presented. From Table 4.2 the slope in log space should be
unity for the fracture and 1  2 for radial flow. Values of two represent storage.
Slopes greater than two represent other anomalous effects. As illustrated the slope
is near unity up to the time of closure (TC) and then drops to around 1  2 . The early
time data derivative is not critical since some water hammer is present.

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Figure 4.92: Delta Pressure - Log Slope.
Figure 4.93 shows the Delta pressure (ISIP-p(t)) in linear coordinates with the GdP/
dG derivative on the right axis. As illustrated the time of closure is slightly to the
right of the derivative deviation from the Delta Pressure curve.

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Figure 4.93: Delta Pressure Plot - Linear Coordinates.

History Match
To display the history match, click on the AnalysisRegressionHistory Match
menu shown in Figure 4.94.

Figure 4.94: Regression - History Match.
History Matching allows for specifying a dependent parameter for each fracture
geometry model. Then regression is performed by systematically varying the
dependent parameter to achieve the best match with the measured decline data.
During the regression calculations, the dependent parameter is continuously
updated and displayed along with a graphical representation of the simulation. To

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evaluate parameter sensitivity or other parametric variations different regressions
can be performed.
To History Match Data:
1.

2.

Make sure the Base Data and Leakoff Data have been entered, and the closure
time (TC) has been selected from the AnalysisRegressionSelect Points
menu.
Choose the regression parameter for each model using the GDK, PKN and
Ellipsoidal list boxes found in the toolbar.

3.

After choosing the models and dependent variables for regression, click the
History Match button to History Match on the selected parameters (see Figure

4.95).
4.

View the History Match Data and make any desired changes. For successive
regressions another data parameter must be changed to get a different regression solution. If nothing is changed from one regression to another, MinFrac
will have already minimized the error, and therefore, cannot improve on the
match (i.e., the program will have nothing to do).

5.

After performing a history match, the calculation results can be viewed by
selecting the DataHistory Match menu as shown in Figure 4.96 (see also
Figure 4.19).

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Figure 4.95: Regression - History Match Solution.

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Figure 4.96: History Match - Data Dialog Box.

After Closure Analysis
The purpose of an after closure analysis is to determine the formation permeability
and reservoir pressure from the pressure response of a fractured (or unfractured)
well during the infinite-acting time period (i.e., late time period or radial solution).
The following information can be determined from a properly conducted analysis:
1.

Reservoir pressure, p i .

2.

Formation permeability, k .

Since the after closure analysis plots and procedures are very similar to the discussion of the Regression Analysis redundant explanations of various steps and the
Wizard will not be reiterated.
The menu command items for the After Closure Analysis are described below.

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Select Ranges
The AnalysisAfter ClosureSelect Ranges menu item, as seen in Figure 4.97 is
used to specify a specific data range.

Figure 4.97: After Closure - Select Ranges Menu

Select TC
The Time of Closure (TC) is specified within the Select TC dialog box (Figure
4.99), and can be opened by clicking the AnalysisAfter ClosureSelect TC
menu item (Figure 4.98).

Figure 4.98: After Closure - Select TC Menu

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Figure 4.99: After Closure - Select TC Dialog Box

Select Points
To select the data points for the After Closure analysis, click on the Analysis
After ClosureSelect Points menu item as shown in Figure 4.100.

Figure 4.100: After Closure - Select Points Menu
The Select Points plot is used to graphically select data points for the after closure
analysis. Two data points are required to generate data.

Example Regression Analysis
Following are a set of after closure analyses using the different Axes options as discussed in Appendix K.

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Figure 4.101 shows a Nolte After Closure plot in linear coordinates. The right axis
displays the p*  x dp  dx derivative. As illustrated, this derivative helps identify
the correct slope and p* value as shown by the deviation of the derivative from the
measured data

Figure 4.101: After Closure Analysis - Surface Pressure vs. Nolte - FR Linear
Plot.
Figure 4.102 shows the Delta Pressure plot in linear coordinates with the xdP  dx
derivative function. The same deviation pattern is also illustrated in the graph.

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Figure 4.102: After Closure Analysis - Delta Surface Pressure vs. Nolte - FR
Linear Plot with the xdP/dx Derivative.

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Figure 4.103: After Closure Analysis - Delta Surface Pressure vs. Nolte - FR
Log-Log Plot with xdP/dx derivative.
Figure 4.104 shows the corresponding Delta Pressure plot in log coordinates with
the log-log derivative function. As illustrated the log-log slope asymptotes to one
for pseudo-radial behavior.

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Figure 4.104: After Closure Analysis - Delta Surface Pressure vs. Nolte - FR
Log-Log Plot with the Log Slope Derivative.

4.5 Output
When the closure time has been determined and all of the required reservoir information has been entered, calculations can be performed to determine fracture and
reservoir characteristics (leakoff coefficients, etc.). The methodology used to model
fracture characteristics and fluid leakoff behavior is outlined in Appendix F.
The Output menu is shown in Figure 4.105. There are two main Output section
items, simulation results and viewing the report.

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Figure 4.105: Output Menu.

Simulation Calculations
There are two types of simulations that MinFrac can do, Simulation using Base
Data and Simulation using History Match Data as selected from the Output menu.

Base Data Calculations
The Base Calculations are accessible from the OutputSimulation using Base
Data menu. This will run the simulation for all the models using the Base Data.
When using the Graphical Technique, some of the input data will be taken from the
imported data, as specified in the OptionsGraphical calculation menu. Then a
summary of the simulation results will be shown for the GDK, PKN and Ellipsoidal
models as shown in Figure 4.106.

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Figure 4.106: Output - Simulation Using Base Data.
Table 4.6 contains a description of the output data.
Table 4.6: Output Data.
Parameter

Description

Vol. Fluid Inj.

Volume of fluid injected into the fracture

Length

Half length of the fracture

Height (wellbore)

Height of the fracture

Max. Well Width

Maximum width at the wellbore

Avg. Well Width

Average width at the wellbore

Avg. Frac. Width

Average width throughout the fracture

Net Pressure

Fracture net pressure

Efficiency

Fracture efficiency

Closure time - Delta

Time from the ISIP to closure

% error

% error in closure time

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Ct Total leakoff coefficient CI Leakoff fluid viscosity effects CII Reservoir compressibility and viscous effects CIII Filter cake coefficient Permeability Reservoir permeability History Match Calculations When using the Graphical Technique. the data in the History Match dialog box will be substituted for the Base Data. This will run the simulation like the Base Calculations.closure pressure) will be the same for all models. Consequently.406 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Table 4. The fracture efficiencies will also be approximately equal for all models.107. A summary of the History Match results for the GDK. PKN and Ellipsoidal models is shown in Figure 4. The parameters used for history matching are the ISIP. closure time and closure pressure. the History Match Calculations are accessible with the OutputSimulation using History Match Data menu. the history matched net pressures (ISIP. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide .6: Output Data. except where applicable. The same set of simulation results will be displayed. Meyer & Associates.

. The history match solution matches the calculated net pressure (ISIP-Closure Pressure). From history matched parameters. A fracture model is required to calculate the leakoff area.Simulation Using History Match Data. the individual leakoff coefficients for each fracture model can be calculated based on the leakoff area. Inc.106). Since all fracture models will have about the same fracture efficiencies or leakoff coefficient and area product (based on mass conservation). Although all fracture models will give a history-matched solution for various dependent parameters (within reason). The model with the most reasonable history matched parameters should be the model of choice. Remember that minifrac analysis only gives insight into the fracture efficiency. This is not so for the base data output (see Figure 4.5 Output 407 Figure 4. do not use a leakoff coefficient calculated for a GDK model in the PKN model unless the leakoff areas are the same. Figure 4. it is up to the design engineer to evaluate/ determine if this is a reasonable solution. Consequently.107: Output . the calculated leakoff coefficient is strongly dependent on the fracture model.4.107 shows that the net pressures are the same for all three geometry models. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.

Therefore. Meyer User’s Guide . The order of the Time of Closure (TC) points can be changed using the Move Up and Move Down buttons.108 shows the View Report dialog box.108: Output . if CIII is dominant. Figure 4. the calculated permeability uncertainty will be high. Simulation using History Match Data is not available when using the User Specified Closure option. Meyer & Associates. Reports MinFrac can generate reports similar to the other Meyer Programs. MinFrac will inquire if Base Calculations and/or History Match Calculations are to be included in the report. Before generating a report. Inc. Figure 4.View Report Dialog Box.408 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis The estimated reservoir permeability is calculated from the leakoff coefficients as discussed in Appendix F. Only the rows marked active will be displayed in the report.

Inc. pp 22-30.6 References 409 For more report options.” Oil and Gas Journal. 571-582. 1979. Hagel. M.” SPE 16916.: “Study of the Effects of Fluid Rheology on Minifrac Analysis. Nolte. 6. Petroleum Society of CIM. B.: “Interpretation of Fracturing Pressures”. 10. Sept.. Nolte. K.W. select Configuration. R. K. Smith.) Manage Points The Manage Points dialog (OutputManage Points.” SPE 8341 presented at the 54th Annual Technical Conference.L. W. Nolte. R.: “Utilizing Mini-Frac Data to Improve Design and Production. May 1987. G. 1979. 1987. Las Vegas. Any changes made within the Manage Points or View Report dialog will be reflected in the other dialog boxes and maintained per minfrac file.. 1988.. K. July 22 and July 29. G. 3.” SPEPE (Feb. SPE 16417.. 1985. B. Feb. 5. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.: “Frac model in 3-D . J.. 8. from the Output menu (See “Report Configuration” on page 71.: “A General Analysis of Fracturing Pressure Decline With Application to Three Models. 4.6 References 1. June 17.. SPEPE. M. 2. SPE 8297. Meyer.) can be used to delete unwanted points or to change the order of existing points. 1992. Meyer.4. Sept. K. 1988). Calgary June 1988. Nolte. 4.R. “Simulated Mini-Frac Analysis”. K.: “Modified Pressure Decline Analysis Including Pressure Dependent Leakoff”. July 1. Sept.” CIM paper 92-40 June.S.: “Fracture Design Considerations Based on Pressure Analysis”.” (SPE 12941) JPT (Dec. Lee. 7.: “Determination of Fracture Parameters from Fracture Pressure Decline. B.4 Parts.. Castillo. and Meyer. 1986).B. M.: “Application of Fracture Design based on Pressure Analysis. W. 9. Nolte. Hagel. 31-41.G.G. . G.

” paper SPE 19329 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting. 15. B.: “Design Formulae for 2-D and 3-D Vertical Hydraulic Fractures: Model Comparison and Parametric Studies. A. Rifle. Huit. No3/4. H. M. 14.” SPEJ (June 1982) pp 341-349. Louisville. Symposium on rock Mechanics. Inc.: “Fluid Flow in Simulated Fractures. Precise Hydraulic Fractures. pp 259.” Int. 12. TX. Smith. vol 26. Louis. Series A.: “Fracturing Horizontal Wells.” paper SPE 15240 presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Technology Symposium.: “Hydraulic Fracture Geometry: Fracture Containment in Layered Formations. 24-27. Rock Mech.R.R. Nierode. 23. L. J. C. Vol. P. NY (1955). R.S. Gidley. 1968. Colorado. Meyer. Boundary Layer Theory. Schlichting. Thiercelin. S. J.” SPE Monograph Vol.K. 2. Midland.” JPT (March 1985) pp 527-536. Mesa Verde Group. H. 1989. 21.. N. 12. Meyer User’s Guide . 22.: “Etude des écoulements d'eau dans les roches fissurées et leurs influence sur la stabilité des massifs rocheux.: “Stimulation Design for Short. Morgantown. College Station. J. 16.B.” SPEJ (June 1985) pp 371-379. 18.” Proc. de la Direction des Etudes et Recherches. 1989. Cased Holes.: “Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulation on Personal Computers: Theory and Comparison Studies. TX (June 1983) pp 773-786. 13. Warpinski. May. B. van Eekelen. W... E. 3. 1821.” SPEJ (Feb. McGraw-Hill. 1992.” AIChE Journal. pp 177-183. R. 1986. and Matson.” Bull. R. & Geomechanics. 1989. Warpinski. Hudson. Holditch. 24th U.: “Investigation of the Accuracy and Reliability on In-Situ Stress Measurements Using Hydraulic Fracturing in Perforated.: “Fracture Toughness and Hydraulic Fracturing.. and Veatch. 20. p.S. Meyer & Associates.: “Measurement of Width and Pressure in a propagating Hydraulic Fracture. 17. 1956. KY. Warpinski. J. Sept. N. 1985) pp 46-84. R.A. Chapter 14..: “In-Situ Stress Measurements at U. Oct. DOE's Multiwell Experiment Site.410 MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis 11. No.” presented at the 54th Annual SPE Technical Conf. Meyer.R. N. 19. M.: “Recent Advances in Hydraulic Fracturing. D. 5-132.

.4. Inc.6 References Meyer User’s Guide 411 Meyer & Associates.

412 Meyer & Associates. MinFrac: Minifrac Analysis Meyer User’s Guide . Inc.

and/or 4) wellbore skin. For an unfractured well. The procedure is implemented by parametric optimization to minimize the error (standard deviation) between the measured and history matched results. This chapter explains the options available and basic procedures for running MProd. 2) permeability.1 Introduction MProd is a single phase analytical production simulator developed by Meyer & Associates. An objective methodology for determining unknown or uncertain parameters by regression analysis of measured data through history matching is available. 4) fracture length. 3) reservoir aspect ratio. Detailed information regarding the methodology and basic theory is presented in Appendix G. Production Simulation. and/or dimensionless fracture conductivity. width. A Fracture Design Optimization feature enables the user to determine the optimum fracture design (length. it can also be used to explore the production potential of unfractured reservoirs. the user has an option to history match on the following parameters: 1) reservoir drainage area (closed system). For the fractured well. 413 Meyer & Associates. Inc. and Fracture Design Optimization. The capability to compare the output (numerical simulated results) with measured data is also provided. MProd has options for Production Simulation. the user has an option to history match on one or all of the following parameters: 1) reservoir drainage area (closed system). 3) reservoir aspect ratio. The history matching process allows the user to history match on various parameters depending on whether the well is unfractured or fractured. 2) permeability. allows the user to input typical production data to simulate well performance for fractured and unfractured wells.Chapter 5 MProd Analytical Production Simulator 5. . History Match Production Simula- tion. Appendix L provides a detailed explanation of the theory and optimization methodology. Although the program was designed primarily for hydraulic fracturing applications. Inc. conductivity) that will maximize production for a given amount of proppant mass.

Select a Simulation Option a) Production Simulation b) History Match Production c) Fracture Design Optimization Data Menu Input Data a) Production Simulation Formation Data Variable Fracture Conductivity Fracture Characteristics NPV Fracture Data (if NPV) Gas PVT (if gas) Production Data Measured Data (if option is on) Well Data b) History Match Production Formation Data Fracture Characteristics History Match Parameters Gas PVT (if gas) Production Data Measured Data (if option is on) Well Data c) Fracture Design Optimization Formation Data Fracture Characteristics Proppant Data Design Optimization Well Data Data Menu 4. can be imported by MNpv to perform economic analysis.mprod) or File Menu create a new data file 2.1: MProd Basic Steps Step Program Area 1.414 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator MProd is integrated and fully compatible with MFrac to provide full feature optimization. Specify Units (optional) Units Menu 3. Open an existing MProd data file (*. An outline of the basic steps for using MProd is shown in Table 5. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. in turn.1 Table 5. Meyer & Associates. Output produced by MFrac can be used by MProd. The numerical results of MProd.

2 Options This section outlines the flexibility of the MProd program and describes the parameters that define the conditions and intended use of the software.1 will then be presented. The Options dialog box is typically the first input screen used in the MProd program. Its function is to establish the primary model options that will be employed. The option selections determine the scope of the MProd program. Generate Report Report Menu 5. The options establish the input to be entered and the nature of the calculations to be performed. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The dialog box displayed in Figure 5.2 Options 415 Table 5. The parameters selected are global for the current file you are working with. Each section deals with a different aspect of the modeling approach. The first step in performing a simulation is establishing the options that will be used. Inc.1: MProd Basic Steps 5. Run Simulation Run Menu 6. This is accomplished by accessing the Options dialog box from the main menu. select Options from the main menu by clicking the menu name. They remain with the file and are saved and recalled with the data.5. To access the Options screen. . View Plots Plot Menu 7.

Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide . The Options screen determines what information is needed for a particular type of analysis. The specific data displayed in a screen or the existence of a data screen itself varies depending on the options selected. Simply decide the relevant options for a specific simulation and the program will only display those menus and input fields necessary. Any time the options are changed the input data screens will be updated to enable new input or to hide input that is not needed. Inc.1: Data Options Screen. This “smart-menu” approach minimizes data input and prevents unnecessary or misleading data entry. This methodology is used throughout MProd.416 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Figure 5. An explanation of the choices available for each of the Program Options are summarized in the following section.

5. For the fractured well. This procedure is implemented by parametric optimization to minimize the error (standard deviation) between the measured and history match results. History Match Production Simulation Data This option should be selected if one wishes to history match actual measured data with simulated data.2 Options 417 General Options The General Options screen allows the user to specify the type of analysis to be performed. 3) reservoir aspect ratio. Inc. Depending on the Simulation Options selected different general options and dialogs will be displayed. The fluid and formation properties are input and the code will simulate the projected production rate or bottomhole treating pressure based on the specified boundary condition. If the Overlay Measured Data option is checked the user will be prompted in another dialog to either enter the measure rate or bottomhole flowing pressure versus time. This data will then be overlaid on the numerical simulation results. the user has an option to history match on the following parameters: 1) reservoir drainage area (closed system). Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. 2) permeability. The choices available for each of the General Options are summarized as follows: Simulation Options This section describes the fundamental options available for running MProd. we will identify which sections are applicable for the different options. Overlay Measured Data If Production Simulation is selected the user has an option to overlay measured data for comparison. The production simulation option also provides the capability to compare the output (numerical simulated results) with measured data. The history matching process allows the user to history match on various parameters depending on whether the well is unfractured or fractured. Production Simulation This option allows the user to input typical production data to simulate well performance for fractured and unfractured wells. The numerical procedure uses an objective methodology for determining unknown or uncertain parameters (through regression). the user has an option to history match on one or all of the following parameters: 1) reservoir drainage area (closed system). For an unfractured well. . and/or 4) wellbore skin. Throughout this User’s Guide.

Fracture Design Optimization Fracture Design Optimization is not a new concept but has received great attention in the last few years as attributed to concept of “Unified Fracture Design” as pre- Meyer & Associates... This option is useful if you have no idea what a reasonable history match value for the parameters may be.e. Normally. 3) reservoir aspect ratio. This is necessary in case the code has not fully converged within some reasonable number of iterations (i. User Estimate Given a minimum and maximum range for a history match parameter. the code will provide an estimate of the best parameter values to minimize the error between the measured and history matched data. the solution is non-linear). A report is then available that lists the best and worst fit parameters based on the associated error. maximum value for a parameter must be specified. If you are trying to get a quick estimate of the history match parameters (especially a large number) you may want to put in fewer iterations and then refine your minimum and maximum ranges in the history match parameters dialog.418 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator 2) reservoir permeability. Inc. 4) fracture length.g. This option is useful if a reasonable history match value cannot be readily estimated. Number of Iterations This is the maximum number of iterations the code will perform prior to exiting with a last best fit parameter. and/or dimensionless fracture conductivity. Since the history match algorithm uses a methodology of steepest descent. The user must be aware that if the solution is not dependent on a given parameter the code may select any value in the minimum/maximum range depending where it initializes or estimates the starting point (e. estimated. the user must also provide an estimate of the best parameter values to minimize the error between the measured and history matched data. The user must also select the Maximum Iterations allowed for the regression analysis. a minimum. 20 to 50 iterations are sufficient for a reasonable solution. Meyer User’s Guide . The initial estimate for a given parameter can either be Internally Estimated or User Defined. Internal Estimate Given a minimum and maximum range for a history match parameter. a short term well test may not be able to accurately determine the drainage area or aspect ratio).

proppant properties. the Number of Subdivisions is specified within that section instead. width. and number of sub-divisions for the dimensionless conductivity are required. This concept. If the Optimum Fracture Performance Curves are activated. the range (minimum. length. conductivity. The Number of Subdivisions between the minimum and maximum proppant masses.2 Options 419 sented by Econimides. maximum). concentration/area. The additional diagnostic plots are discussed in Appendix L. however. This option also allows for the addition of Optimization Diagnostic Plots option for McGuire and Sikora Type Curves and Optimum Fracture Performance Curves. penetration ratio. and desired proppant mass pumped to optimize productivity. the code will add additional points. Inc. Selecting this option. is used to generate a smooth curve. The main idea of Fracture Design Optimization is to provide the user with an optimum fracture design (length. Valko and others. The numerical results provide the user with the optimum design characteristics for fracture width. To provide a curve of optimum fracture characteristics versus proppant number or mass. additional values of proppant number (mass) are used. input into the Design Optimization data table. was first addressed by Prats in 1961. Appendix L provides a detailed explanation of the theory and optimization methodology. a pseudosteady state analysis will be performed based on the formation data. Number of Sub-divisions The number of data points used to provide a smooth curve of fracture optimization parameters is the Number of Sub-divisions plus one.5. McGuire and Sikora Curves If the McGuire and Sikora Curves are activated. dimensionless conductivity. A description of the required input is given below. These optimum values can then be used as input into MFrac for auto scheduling the optimum design. If the number of sub-divisions is less than the number needed between each table sequence. Optimization Diagnostic Plots Optimization Diagnostic Plots for McGuire and Sikora Type and Optimum Fracture Performance Curves may be selected by checking the Active check box for each. conductivity) for a given proppant mass that will maximize production. . productivity index and productivity ratio. Nor- Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.

• Infinite Reservoir . • Closed System . The horizontal option provides solutions for the production and interference of multi-stage/multi-cluster fractures in a horizontal well and production from an un-fractured perforated or open-hole horizontal wellbore. The well can be located anywhere in the closed system by describing the Reservoir Drainage Area and Dimensionless Well Locations found in the Formation Data dialog box. and number of sub-divisions. maximum). Meyer & Associates. The vertical well orientation option provides production solutions for un-fractured and vertical fractures intersecting a vertical wellbore. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . The Fracture Design Optimization curves for each of the proppant masses (and proppant numbers) entered in the Design Optimization Data table will be presented as constant proppant numbers as a function of dimensionless conductivity and productivity index (and productivity ratio). and number of sub-divisions and 2) Proppant Number range (minimum. maximum).This case models the performance of a well located in an infinite (unbounded) reservoir. the Design Optimization Data table minimum and maximum proppant numbers will be used. If the proppant minimum and maximum values are not within the minimum and maximum values in the Design Optimization Data table. then an infinite reservoir with a modified oil compressibility should be used. will provide a set of diagnostic plots versus dimensionless conductivity and proppant numbers as presented in SPE 95941. To generate these curves the user must input 1) Dimensionless Conductivity range (minimum. If production is below the bubble point.420 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator mally 100 sub-divisions (101 data points) is sufficient to generate a smooth curve as presented in Appendix L (see also SPE 95941). Drainage area aspect ratios can be as large as 100. The method of images is used to generate rectangular drainage shapes for closed systems. Reservoir The Reservoir can be either a Closed System or an Infinite Reservoir. if activated.This case describes a square or rectangular. bounded reser- voir. Optimum Fracture Performance Curves The Optimum Fracture Performance Curves. Well Orientation The well orientation can be either Vertical or Horizontal.

To ensure that the Base and Stimulated Cases are not identical the user is prevented from selecting the same case in both drop down menus.5.Multi-Case This solution models the performance of finite conductivity vertical fracture for multiple cases. Unfractured well skin factors can be specified and will be used in both cases. Fractured . horizontal.Single Case This solution models the performance of finite conductivity vertical fracture penetrating a combination of vertical. Thus vertical fractures of various lengths and conductivities for different areas. Options for base and stimulated wellbore skin factors are available in the well data dialog. closed and infinite reservoirs. .The base case is that of an unfractured well with a base skin (Vertical . If the well orientation is horizontal the simulator will model the productivity from an unfractured horizontal wellbore.No Frac (base skin)) and the Stimulated case is for an unfractured well with a given stimulated skin (Vertical No Frac (stim skin)). The selections are: No Fracture This case models the performance of an un-fractured well or wellbore that has not been hydraulically fractured. skins etc. can be simulated and compared. No Fracture • Vertical and Horizontal Wellbore Orientation . Inc. Base and Stimulated Cases The Base and Stimulated Cases from which fractured and unfractured solutions can be compared is dependent upon the Well Orientation and Solution selected. MProd provides three (3) alternatives to describe the un-fractured and fractured reservoir solutions. Fractured . These options are not applicable for pseudosteady-state analyses as used with the Fracture Design Optimization Option. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.2 Options 421 Solutions The Solution options are only applicable when the Simulated Options of Production Simulation or History Match Production Simulation Data is selected. This option allows for productivity comparisons of numerous scenarios of fractured wells and fractured well optimization based on NPV.

for liquid production above the bubble point.No Frac (stim skin)). when the fluid type is specified as gas. Conversely. Inc. Fracture . MProd is an analytical.No Frac (base skin).The Base Case is that of an unfractured well with a base skin (Vertical .No Frac (stim skin). • Horizontal Wellbore Orientation . Meyer User’s Guide .Multi-Case The Base Case drop down menu is dimmed for this option. Only the Stimulated Case can be specified. iii) Horizontal .No Frac (stim skin). The productivity index is based on the stimulated wellbore skin not the base skin. single phase reservoir simulator capable of modeling the diffusion of a homogenous liquid or gas through porous media.No Frac (stim skin)). The Fluid Type option is used to specify the primary fluid produced from the reservoir to direct the calculations through the appropriate algorithms. ii) Horizontal . it is important to accurately describe the properties of the fluid. Either Oil and Water. the gas phase is assumed to be highly compressible.Darcy. Meyer & Associates.No Frac (base skin)) and the Stimulated Case is for an unfractured well with a given stimulated skin (Vertical . or iv) Vertical fracture .422 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Fracture . The algorithms used will vary depending upon the fluid type selected.Darcy.Single Case • Vertical Wellbore Orientation .The Stimulated Case is selected from a drop down menu consisting of the following options: i) Vertical . • Vertical Wellbore Orientation . In general. or iii) Vertical fracture .The base case is selected from a drop down menu consisting of the following options: i) Vertical . • Horizontal Wellbore Orientation .No Frac. The Stimulated case has options ii-iv. This option is not applicable for pseudosteady-state analyses as used with the Fracture Design Optimization Option. Fluid Type The formation Fluid Type option is only applicable when the Simulated Options of either Production Simulation or History Match Production Simulation Data is selected. These basic differences obviously influence model behavior.No Frac. To predict both pressure and rate changes through the reservoir.The Stimulated Case is that of an unfractured well with a given stimulated skin (Vertical . the oil or water phase is assumed to be slightly compressible. or Dry Gas can be specified. ii) Vertical .

5. a table of Gas Viscosity and Z-Factor as a function of pressure must be entered. a separate Gas PVT Table must be entered. This option specifies whether the simulation will be based on a specified rate or pressure production. the Gas Specific Gravity and Reservoir Temperature are required in the Formation Data dialog box. internal correlations are used to generate the PVT data for the Fluid Type specified. The values input for these parameters will be used as constants for the simulation. The correlation used for gas viscosity is as originally described by Lee & Gonzalez3. mixing constant rate and pressure production is not permitted. the Gas Gravity. It is also necessary to enter a Reservoir Temperature in the Formation Data dialog. This option is not applicable for pseudosteady-state analyses as used with the Fracture Design Optimization Option. the Total Reservoir Compressibility and the Equivalent Reservoir Viscosity must be entered in the Formation Data dialog box. an additional option is available for selecting whether internal or user-specified fluid property correlations are to be used. When Rate is selected. Inc. production will be simulated at constant rate or a series of variable rates depending on the data entered. . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. For this combination of options. Refer to the description of the Internal PVT Table option later in this section for further explanation. are determined using the correlation originally described by Vazquez and Beggs1. For oil. the oil solution GOR and formation volume factor versus pressure. For these same conditions. Specifying Pressure results in the simulation of a constant bottomhole flowing pressure or series of variable bottomhole flowing pressures. Since the simulator uses superposition. Internal PVT Table For liquids.2 Options 423 Regardless of Fluid Type. When the Internal PVT Table is On. This table contains a list of the Gas Viscosity and Z-Factor as a function of pressure. If the Internal PVT Table is Off. Oil gravity and bubble point pressure must be entered. If the Fluid Type is gas and the Internal PVT Table is turned Off. if the Internal PVT Table is turned Off. and the Fluid Type is gas. When the Fluid Type is gas and the Internal PVT Table is On. the oil viscosity versus pressure is estimated based on the work of Beggs and Robinson2. Production Boundary Condition The Production Boundary Condition option is only applicable when the Simulated Options of Production Simulation or History Match Production Simulation Data is selected.

the properties are assumed to be the same as the reservoir fluid.2: Data Options Screen .Fracture Tab The choices available for each of the Fracture Options are summarized as follows: Non-Darcy Effects The equation to describe non-Darcy flow is a form of the Forchheimer [1901] equation Meyer & Associates. Figure 5.424 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator The convention for rate is positive for production and negative for injection. If a negative rate is specified in the production table.2 allows the user to specify the type of analysis to be performed. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . Fracture Options The Fracture Options screen displayed in Figure 5.

2 Options 425 – dp  2 = ---.) and  is the non-Darcy flow factor or simply  factor with units of L –1 (e. +     dx kf 2 where k f is the permeability of the porous media with units of L (i. the equation simplifies to Darcy’s law. ft-1. . Input Beta Coefficient The non-darcy beta coefficient is user specified and assumed constant. a non-darcy beta coefficient correlation is selected from the Non-Darcy proppant Database drop down menu. User Database. Thus nonDarcy flow describes the flow regime that does not obey Darcy’s law. The effect of immobile water saturation. and c are constants. The generalized correlation for the beta factor in terms of the fracture permeability k f and porosity  is of the form a  = ---------b kf  c where a . atm-s2/gm etc. Inc. A number of correlations for the beta factor (inertial coefficient) are provided in the database. md or ft2. b . Clearly the first term in this equation accounts for viscous effects and the second term for inertial or minor loss effects. can be incorporated by modifying the porosity to be the effective porosity (  e =   1 – S w  ). Beta Coefficient If this option is selected. Holditch [1976] reports that the original form of the second term on the right hand side of the 2 above equation by Forchheimer was a which was replaced by Cornell and Katz [1953] by the product of the fluid density. The Non-Darcy Effects options are given below: Darcy Only Non-Darcy effects will not be considered. A value must be entered in the dialog..e. and the  factor.). The beta coefficient will then be calculated as a function of proppant permeability and porosity. S w . This is the same as assuming  = 0 . If the second term on the right hand side is omitted.g.5.  . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. cm-1.. etc.

e. If the Include Horizontal Choked Skin is checked the user will be prompted to input a Choked Skin Multiplier.35 40-60 round 0.32 Fractured Well The Fractured Well check box to Include Horizontal Choked Skin is only available if the Well Orientation is Horizontal.32 20-40 round 0.36 10-20 angular 0. It is used to calculate the propped fracture permeability. Meyer & Associates.. Proppant Property Data Following is a list of the proppant property data required to calculate the NonDarcy Beta factor: Proppant Porosity This is defined as the void fraction between sand grains (i. Since for inertial flow (non-Darcy) both the fracture permeability and fracture width are required. The theoretical proppant permeability may also be determined by using the Proppant Calculator under Tools Menu.426 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Permeability Options The fracture Permeability Options are given below: Input Fracture Conductivity The fracture conductivity ( k f w f ) is user specified. Width. liquid volume to slurry ratio of the settled bank). Inc. Calculate Fracture Permeability.36 10-20 round 0. or Conductivity This option provides the user with greatest flexibility in inputting and calculating an unknown any combination of fracture permeability. or conductivity are specified.2: Porosity of Proppants Mesh Size Sphericity Porosity (fraction) 6-8 angular 0. This option is only available if the Darcy Only option is selected. Meyer User’s Guide .2. Table 5. Typical values of porosity for proppants are shown in Table 5. width. This option is required for Non-Darcy flow.

Please refer to the description of the MultiCase (NPV) Fracture Data Source option for more information on this topic as presented below. The Multi-Case Fracture solution allows the simulator to calculate a series of automated runs based on a variety of fracture geometries. User Specified). the simulator will run in standard mode simulating the production response of a well and reservoir with or without a fracture.Multi-Case (NPV) The Fracture . The choked skin multiplier allows the user to modify the magnitude of the choked skin used in the solution to simulate the fluid flow restriction from a vertical fracture into a horizontal wellbore.2 Options 427 Choked Skin Multiplier The inadequate contact between a vertical transverse fracture and the horizontal well resulted in a restriction that can be quantified by a choked skin effect as given by kh h  h 1 h  S ch = --------. A multiplier of zero represent the case of no choked skin.5. depending on the Stimulation Case selected.Multi-Case is Selected. Inc. Fracture .e. The fracture characteristics for a Vertical Well Orientation may be identified by either specifying a MFrac file or by inputting a table of fracture data directly (i..ln  -------- – --.Multi-Case solution is only applicable when the Simulation Option of Production Simulation is selected.ln  -------- – --k f w f  2r w 2 x f C fD  2r w 2 where the above equation has been placed in terms of the dimensionless fracture conductivity. This option is not applicable when the simulation option is set to History Match Production Simulation Data.--------. A multiplier of unity results in a choked skin equal to the base choked skin. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. or Fracture Design Optimization.= ---. . When Fracture . To enable the user to modify the above equation a choked skin multiplier  m is introduced S ch m where =  m  S ch S ch m is the modified choked skin used in the simulator.

As previously stated.428 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator If Multi-Case (NPV) is Selected. Once the data is imported it can be modified. width. a Variable Fracture Conductivity dialog will be activated with input for fracture height. the MProd and MFrac versions of the software must be compatible. a series of fracture designs (Multi-Case) with variable propped fracture length and fracture conductivity can be input into a table. data may be entered by accessing the various dialogs available under the Data menu.Multi-Case (NPV) Solution Option is Selected. The file must have been created in MFrac with the NPV option set to On. and dimensionless conductivity as function of fracture position. The numerical results for the multi-case can then be compared in the report or graphically to determine the effect of fracture length and/or conductivity on production. there are two available methods for specifying the fracture characteristics for the production simulation. permeability. the options selected determine what information is needed for a particular type of analysis. conductivity. the output produced can be read by the MNpv program to perform economic calculations. Also. Variable Conductivity This option allows the user to input a spatially varying fracture conductivity. Select MFrac File and browse for an MFrac file that contains NPV output data. 2. This option is not available if the Fracture . They are: 1.3 Data Input Once the options are selected and the scope of a simulation is set. Meyer & Associates. Therefore. If the NPV option was not used to create the fracture output file. This procedure can be used to design the economically optimum treatment. 5. Choose User Specified and the Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Data dialog will be enabled from the Data menu. If the option is checked.Multi-Case (NPV) Solution is selected. Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Data Source When the Fracture .mfrac” file containing NPV data. The User Specified option will be selected and dimmed when the Well Orientation is Horizontal. an error message will be displayed. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . the specific data displayed in a screen or the existence of the data screen itself will vary depending upon the options chosen. Use the import button provided in the NPV/Fracture Data dialog to read the data from any MFrac “. When the Multi-Case (NPV) option is used.

the screens will vary to enable new input. In addition.5. Space is provided for entering the Company Name.3 provides a location for entering information about a simulation. Each Data menu item is covered in detail along with a description of the data dialogs and their associated variables. Well Location and Simulation Date. All of the different data screens available in MProd and the variables contained within them are presented. All information contained in this dialog is optional. Inc. The following sections pertain to the Data menu items found by selecting Data from the program's Main menu. Well Name. Simply decide what options are relevant to the simulation and MProd will only display those menus and input fields necessary.MProd. Figure 5. a Comments section is included so that descriptive information can be entered. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.3: Data Description Dialog Box . Any time an option is changed. .3 Data Input 429 This approach minimizes data input and prevents unnecessary or misleading data entry. the conditions or case sensitive options for a data screen are noted and an example of the resulting dialog is shown. This methodology is used throughout MProd. or hide data that is not needed. Description The Data Description screen shown in Figure 5. When pertinent.

Dimensionless Well Location (x=0. oil gravity. If the Well Orientation is selected as Horizontal and the Solution is selected as Fracture . bubble point pressure).e. For example. Inc.Multi-Case the Reservoir Drainage and Reservoir Aspect Ratio are input in the Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Characteristics Stages/Cluster tab. the conditions for data entry are indicated. As you become familiar with this data screen.y=0)). you will notice that many of the parameters will appear or disappear as the program options are changed. Meyer User’s Guide .. Each of the items found in the Formation Data dialog screen are explained below. Meyer & Associates. This allow for greater flexibility when comparing multiple transverse fracture solutions in a horizontal wellbore for closed systems. Figure 5.430 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Formation Data The Formation Data dialog box (see Figure 5.g.4) provides a location for entering most of the reservoir properties needed to perform a simulation. The Dimensionless well location for the Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Characteristics when the Well Orientation is horizontal is assumed to be at the reservoir center (i.4: Formation Data Dialog Box.. will result in the elimination of the variables related to the oil PVT (e. The Reservoir Drainage Area and the Dimensionless Reservoir Aspect Ratios are only required if the Reservoir is a Closed System. If necessary. changing the Fluid Type from oil to gas with the Internal PVT Table option enabled.

The other positions can be achieved by using the convention summarized in Figure 5. The reservoir volume is obtained by multiplying the area times the pay zone thickness (see Figure 5.X Direction and Dimensionless Well Location . The aspect ratio should.5). Dimensionless Reservoir Aspect Ratio This data is only required if the Reservoir is selected as a Closed System. This is the area of the reservoir to be produced.5: Definition of the Reservoir Drainage Area. It usually represents. For a hydraulically fractured reservoir. This is the ratio of the reservoir half-length ( X L ) and half-width ( YH ) illustrated in Figure 5.3 Data Input 431 Reservoir Drainage Area The Reservoir Drainage Area is only required in this dialog if the Reservoir is a Closed System. Concerning the reservoir's spatial relationship with the wellbore and fracture. Inc. be greater than or equal to one (1) so that the fracture parallels the long axis of the block. Entering a value of one (1) for this parameter corresponds to a square drainage area. . therefore. Entering X and Y values of zero centers the well on the axis.Y Direction. can be approximated by a rectangular shape. A rectangle is defined by entering the Dimensionless Reservoir Aspect Ratio ( X L  Y H ). This is accomplished by specifying two Dimensionless Well Locations parameters titled Dimensionless Well Location . described above. Dimensionless Well Location In MProd. the fracture azimuth is always assumed to parallel the X L orientation.6. The values input must range between -1. in map view. An aspect ratio of four (4) represents a rectangular area with a length 4 times greater than its width. the wellbore can be positioned anywhere within the defined drainage area. MProd currently assumes that the drainage area. Any fraction of the Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.6.0.5.0 and 1. Figure 5. the lateral extent of the reservoir drained by a particular well.

Initial Reservoir Pressure To simulate pressure behavior in the reservoir.. the Total Pay Zone Height or net pay thickness is the portion of the formation that contains the mobile hydrocarbons. For example. enter 50 ft. Total Reservoir Compressibility The Total Reservoir Compressibility is defined as the total change in the reservoir volume per unit volume per unit pressure difference. Figure 5. this value should be entered as the sum of the individual permeable zones.432 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator total reservoir dimension can be used to position the wellbore within the rectangular coordinate system used. Together with the drainage radius and effective porosity. it defines the effective reservoir drainage volume.6: Wellbore Positioning within the Drainage Area. In all instances. For new wells. This value is typically obtained from either a production log or well test. if the pay zone lies between 8500 and 8600 ft. Total Pay Zone Height By definition. enter the average reservoir pressure as interpreted from a well measurement. When a well has been produced for some period of time. If the productive rock is discontinuous or made up of intermittent layers of permeable and impermeable material. It is the reciprocal of the undrained bulk modulus. but only 50 ft. of the interval is permeable. the initial conditions must be characterized. This value is only required when the Fluid Type is oil or water and can be estimated using the following relationship: Meyer & Associates. enter the initial reservoir pore pressure for the productive interval. Meyer User’s Guide . for the Total Pay Zone Height. Inc. the value entered for the Initial Reservoir Pressure should be less than the minimum horizontal stress in the pay zone.

5. as illustrated in the following expression: k D = ----------c t where ct k   Meyer User’s Guide = = = = total reservoir compressibility equivalent reservoir permeability equivalent reservoir viscosity equivalent reservoir porosity Meyer & Associates. gas. .– --p Zdp where cg p Z = = = gas compressibility initial reservoir pressure gas Z-factor Please refer to SPE Monograph 5. D. water and rock compressibilities.3 Data Input 433 ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cr where cg co cr ct cw Sg So Sw = = = = = = = = gas compressibility oil compressibility bulk rock compressibility total formation compressibility water compressibility gas saturation oil saturation water saturation When the Fluid Type is gas. “Advances in Well Test Analysis” and Appendix D for typical oil. This information is extremely important in order to accurately characterize the reservoir diffusivity. Inc. the compressibility is calculated internally using the following relationship: 1 1 dZ c g = --.

it is always advisable to “calibrate” the rate of diffusion by performing a well test or adjusting the parameters shown above in an attempt to history match the flow rate for some period of time. or Equivalent Reservoir Permeability (as well as.+ ------. Inc. The reservoir permeability is the formation property that characterizes its ability to transfer a fluid through the pores when subjected to a pressure gradient. = total system mobility = = = = = = = = equivalent reservoir permeability relative permeability to gas relative permeability to oil relative permeability to water equivalent reservoir viscosity gas viscosity oil viscosity water viscosity Meyer User’s Guide . the reservoir permeability. reservoir viscosity) must match the system mobility for a multi-phase system. Equivalent Reservoir Permeability As shown in the above equation. The total flowing mobility is --k k ro k rg k rw = k  ------. From Darcy's law: k dp v = – --dx where k = = v fluid mobility fluid velocity dp dx pressure gradient = MProd is a single-phase simulator.+ -------  o g w  t where --k t k k rg k ro k rw  g o w Meyer & Associates.434 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator When possible. therefore. the permeability is an important parameter in determining the reservoir diffusivity.

. the equivalent reservoir porosity must be used to satisfy the diffusivity relationship given in the explanation of Total Reservoir Compressibility above.5 API = ------------. the mobility should be reasonably accurate for a multi-phase system. Bubble Point Pressure During a decrease in pressure. For a multi-phase system. the equivalent permeability and reservoir viscosity must match the system mobility for a multi-phase system. correlations will be applied to characterize the fluid behavior. Inc.3 Data Input 435 Provided the distribution and relative saturations of the fluid phases remain fairly constant throughout the reservoir by entering appropriate “equivalent” values. at stock-tank conditions). When oil is selected. this value can be determined with reasonable accuracy from well logs and/or core measurements. The definition of API is as follows: 141. Equivalent Reservoir Viscosity The Equivalent Reservoir Viscosity is only required when the Internal PVT Table is disabled and the Fluid Type is oil or water.– 131. Equivalent Reservoir Porosity The reservoir porosity is the fraction of a rock’s bulk volume that is filled with mobile hydrocarbons. as is typically the case during production. enter the specific gravity of the dry gas. For gas production.e. . The equivalent reservoir viscosity should represent the total effective viscosity of a multi-phase fluid system. As stated above. enter the specific gravity of the solution gas (i.5 o Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Gas Specific Gravity The gas specific gravity is only required when the Internal PVT Table is used. Normally. the bubble point is the pressure at which gas begins to evolve from solution. This value is only required when oil or water is the produced fluid and the Internal PVT Table is selected.5. Oil API The oil API gravity is required when the Internal PVT Table is used and the fluid type is oil. When this occurs.

As you become familiar with this data screen. Inc. If necessary. Figure 5. Meyer User’s Guide . This value is only required when the Internal PVT Table option is selected or the fluid type is gas.7) provides a location for entering the propped fracture properties needed to perform a simulation when the fracture option is selected.7: Fracture Characteristics . Each of the items found in the Fracture Data dialog screen are explained below. Fracture Characteristics The Fracture Characteristic Data dialog box (see Figure 5. The Stages/Cluster tab will only be activated if the Well Orientation is selected as Horizontal. the conditions for data entry are indicated Meyer & Associates.436 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator where  o is the specific gravity of the oil at 60F and atmospheric pressure.Data Dialog Box. Reservoir Temperature The initial mean reservoir temperature is used to calculate the fluid properties. you will notice that many of the parameters will appear or disappear depending on the options selected.

fracture width.5. ----kL h p The reader is referred to Appendix L for additional information. if Input Conductivity or Calculate fracture permeability is selected. The Total Propped Fracture Height along with the Effective Propped Pay Zone Height to calculate the proppant mass in the pay zone and the effective proppant number in the pay zone. Total Propped Fracture Height The Total Propped Fracture Height is only required if the Fracture Design Option is selected. Propped Fracture Length When the NPV option is used and the User Specified NPV Fracture Data is disabled. This gives the user the flexibility to input two of the variables and have the third calculated. It is dimmed here since it is only shown for reference Effective Propped Pay Zone Height As stated.mfrac”). This value maybe greater or less than the Total Pay Height ( h p ). If the NPV option is Off.e.. this is the effective propped height of the proppant in the pay zone ( h p ) and is used only if the fractured well option is selected. The code will only display this feature if it is necessary. Inc. The effective dimensionless conductivity in the pay zone is calculated from k f w f h p C fD = --------. The Effective Propped Pay Zone Height. Enter Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. it is necessary to specify the propped fracture length. . Please refer to Appendix L for additional discussions. The Calculate option may not be available depending on the Fracture options selected (i. must be less than or equal to the Total Propped Fracture Height that is used for the Fracture Design Optimization cases. however. or fracture conductivity. the propped fracture lengths are read from the MFrac output file (“. Total Pay Zone Height The Total Pay Zone Height or net pay thickness is an input parameter from the Formation Data dialog.3 Data Input 437 Fracture Characteristics Tab Calculate A calculate radial option is available at the bottom of the dialog to calculate either the fracture permeability. The calculated value will then be dimmed.

The fracture is assumed to have two symmetrically propped wings of equal half-length. Because MProd uses an analytical approach to reservoir simulation. The code will then calculate the more rigorous Average Fracture Conductivity based on pseudosteady-state analyses (see Appendix L).438 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator a value that represents the fracture half-length which is propped or conductive. The Average Fracture Conductivity is used over the entire length. the User should consider using the Variable Conductivity option for a fractured well. Fracture Permeability This is the average value for fracture conductivity (with damage). Inc. if the NPV option is Off. The average fracture conductivity for slightly varying conductivities may be estimated using the following relationship for long term production kf wf = L 0 kf  x wf  x  dx  L and for short term production or reduced conductivity near the wellbore the following relationship may be more applicable L 1 k f w f = L    ------------------------. Fracture Width This the average value for the propped fracture width. This option requires the User to input fracture conductivity as a function of fracture position. Meyer User’s Guide .dx  0 k f  x w f  x   where kf wf = average fracture conductivity kf  x  = = = proppant permeability in the fracture propped fracture width propped fracture length wf  x  L For a variable fracture conductivity with position. Average Fracture Conductivity The Average Fracture Conductivity is only input in this dialog box. the Average Fracture Conductivity entered should be weighted towards the near wellbore con- Meyer & Associates.

. & Associates. must be used. the entire propped fracture length should be used.3 Data Input 439 ductivity when modeling early time production. Inc.5. ----kL h p If the Average Fracture Conductivity is input. Beta Factor The field will not be displayed if the Darcy-Only option is selected in the Fracture Options tab. used by MProd can be expressed as:  ys k S f = --. When simulating longer production times (pseudosteady-state). As with any type of skin. If an analytical approach is unsatisfactory. for example. Fracture Skin Factor Damage to the fracture face can occur as a result of the fracture fluid leaking off and fluid loss additives. a value will be present but dimmed since it will be a calculated value from the proppant porosity and permeability. more conductive fracture. The Fracture Skin Factor can be used to model this damage by simulating an additional pressure drop adjacent to the fracture face. Dimensionless Conductivity The effective dimensionless conductivity in the pay zone is calculated from C fD k f w f h p = --------. S f . a positive value corresponds to damage. a numerical simulator that allows the fracture conductivity as a function of position to be specified. If the option to calculate beta from a database correlation is selected.T. while a negative value indicates stimulation. and if the Dimensionless Conductivity is input. the Average Fracture Conductivity will be calculated. is such a simulator and is fully compatible with MFrac output. this will more accurately characterize a shorter. developed by T. Stimulation effects may be inferred as a result of the chemical reactions that occur. the effective Dimensionless Conductivity in the pay zone will be calculated. Exodus. ----  ---. as well as mechanical damage due to fracture propagation process.– 1 2  xf  kl  where k Meyer User’s Guide = equivalent reservoir permeability Meyer & Associates. Effectively. during acid fracturing. The Fracture Skin factor. The non-Darcy beta factor is required input if input Beta has been selected.

Meyer User’s Guide . however. As the conductivity of a fracture approaches the conductivity of the reservoir. inverse fracture diffusivity is insignificant. the ratio of the diffusivity of the reservoir to the diffusivity of the fracture approaches zero for low permeability reservoirs and reasonable fracture conductivities. Aspect Ratio. this may significantly influence the early time production behavior of a well. The definition of this parameter is as follows: kc t c f = --------------k f  f c tf where cf k kf ct c tf  f = = = = = = = dimensionless inverse fracture diffusivity equivalent reservoir permeability equivalent fracture permeability total reservoir compressibility total fracture compressibility equivalent reservoir porosity equivalent fracture porosity For more information on inverse fracture diffusivity refer to Lee and Brockenbrough. enter the Dimensionless Inverse Fracture Diffusivity. and Reservoir Size will be shown (dimmed) if the Reservoir is a closed system.440 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator kl xf ys = = = damaged zone permeability due to leakoff propped fracture half length damaged zone adjacent to the fracture Inverse Fracture Diffusivity Normally. For these conditions. in the space provided. Meyer & Associates.8. c f . This dialog will change depending on the Fracture Stage Option selected. The Stages/Cluster Tab will only be present if the Well Orientation is selected as Horizontal. The Reservoir Drainage Area. To include the effects of fracture diffusivity. Inc. Stages/Cluster Tab The Fracture Characteristics Stages/Cluster tab is shown in Figure 5.

Number of Clusters per Stage This is the total number of fracture clusters per stages in the horizontal well. Each of the input variables are discussed below: Number of Stages This is the total number of fracture stages in the horizontal well. Inc. This also referred to as the Multiply spacing option. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Please refer to Appendix G.Stages/Cluster Tab. For an infinite reservoir it is assumed that the clusters do not interfere. This option is only selectable for a closed system. The user is referred to Appendix G for a complete description with illustrations of the transverse fracture placement for each option.3 Data Input 441 Figure 5. The total number of multiple transverse fractures is simply the number of stages multiplied by the number of clusters per stage. Equal Spaced Over Reservoir This option will place the total number of transverse fractures equally spaced in the reservoir.5.8: Fracture Characteristics . Fracture Stage Option There are three selections for the fracture stage option with each having different data input requirements regarding the stage and cluster spacing in the horizontal wellbore. .

Fracture Position The Fracture Position is the location of the proppant in the fracture measured from the wellbore (i. If this option is selected the Horizontal Lateral Length must be input. Only parameters unique to this Variable Conductivity option are discussed below.Data Dialog Box.442 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Equal Spaced Over Specified Wellbore Length This option will place the total number of transverse fractures equally spaced over a specified wellbore length. The final entry in the table is the propped fracture length from which the Dimensionless Conductivity is calculated as discussed below. Figure 5. Meyer & Associates.9: Variable Fracture Conductivity .e. User Specified This is the most general case and allows the user to input the Stage spacing and the Cluster spacing.Lateral length. This selection is also referred to as Multiple Stage/Cluster Transverse Fractures option as defined in Appendix G. Inc. This option is also referred to as the Multiple Equally Spaced Transverse Fractures . a fracture position of zero or a value equal to the well radius). Meyer User’s Guide .9.. Variable Fracture Conductivity Data If the Variable Conductivity option is selected for a fractured well a dialog prompting the user to input Fracture Conductivity or Dimensionless Conductivity as a function of Fracture Position will be available as illustrated in Figure 5. The numerical simulator will then calculate the effective fracture and dimensionless conductivities.

4) fracture length. then the History Match Parameters and Measured Data screens become available. For an unfractured well. 3) reservoir aspect ratio. the user has an option to history match on the following parameters: 1) reservoir drainage area (closed system).3 Data Input 443 Fracture Conductivity The variable Fracture Conductivity is entered into the table as a function of fracture position. ----kL hp where the final Fracture Position in the table is the Propped Fracture Length ( L ). Selecting this option will model the conductivity as a linearly varying value from fracture position to fracture position within the fracture. 5) beta factor and/or 6) dimensionless fracture conductivity depending on the Fracture Options.5. For the fractured well. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. and/or 4) wellbore skin. If Conductivity Gradient is not selected the Fracture Conductivity (and Dimensionless Conductivity) will be assumed to be piece-wise constant over a given fracture position (see Appendix L for additional information and discussions). 3) reservoir aspect ratio. 2) permeability. Dimensionless Conductivity The Dimensionless Conductivity as a function of fracture position can be input and the Fracture Conductivity as a function of fracture position will be calculated. The history matching process allows the user to history match on various parameters depending on whether the well is unfractured or fractured. Conductivity Gradient An option is provided at the bottom of the dialog to select a Conductivity Gradient in the fracture. . History Match Parameters If the History Match Production Simulation Data option is checked in the Options dialog. if the Fracture Conductivity is input the equivalent spacial Dimensionless Conductivity will be calculated. As discussed earlier in this chapter. the user has an option to history match on one or all of the following parameters: 1) reservoir drainage area (closed system). 2) permeability. Inc. The Dimensionless Conductivity as a function of position is defined as k f w f  x  h p C fD  x  = ----------------.

the code may converge on an infinite conductivity fracture (i. there is essential no difference in the solution. if the dimensionless conductivity range is from 0. 2. To ensure a pleasant experience. since there are an infinite combination of fracture conductivity and beta that will give the same effective dimensionless conductivity. Calculations may not be unique for short term data. the numerical solution for CfD = 1000 is no different than if C fD = 10000 ). Permeability. The code may find parameter values that minimize the error in saddles but may not actually represent the true history match values. For fracture conductivities greater than 100 or 1000. Consequently. Once pseudosteady state occurs the probability of solution uniqueness increases.444 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator History matching is a methodology of finding a set of input parameters (history match parameters) that will minimize the error between the measured data and the history match data (simulated numerical results). Following is a partial list of history matching scenarios for which the differential equations will provide a non-unique solution: 1. Fluid properties. If the option Internal Estimate is selected the user will not have to enter an estimate for any of the history match parameters. Inc. 7. Any parameter (property) with the same minimum and maximum values will not be a history parameter. the code will keep this parameter at a constant value. 3. Short time well test. History matching by its very nature may result in a non-unique solutions.e. it may be advantages to history match on only a few parameters at a time. Meyer User’s Guide . No fracture case. A negative skin value Meyer & Associates. The simulator will not be able to history match (converge) on the drainage area or reservoir aspect ratio unless the drainage area is extremely small. That is. If the fracture length is chosen to be a value greater than the maximum reservoir drainage dimensions. 5. The effective estimated wellbore skin may not be very accurate if the flow has not reached pseudosteady state. The uncertainty in fluid properties affects the reservoir mobility and history matching uniqueness. To history match on any given parameter the user must specify the minimum/maximum range and provide an estimate of a starting value. 6. Fracture length. Calculations may not be unique for constant production data.000 and an estimate is at 1000. High dimensionless fracture conductivities.. Beta.1 to 10. 4.

No Fracture Case . History matching is an engineering methodology not a trial and error exercise. Beta factor. Although some of the above items are error checked in the code. . Dimensionless Fracture Conductivity. Skin Factor. 2. This sub-menu provides a Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Inc.Properties Following is a list of the history match parameters for a fractured well: 1. 5. Dimensionless Reservoir Aspect Ratio (Closed system only). MProd provides three options for gathering MFrac data. When User Specified fracture data is selected for the NPV Fracture Data Source.5. 6. 2. Equivalent Reservoir Permeability.3 Data Input 445 should also be increases if the effective wellbore radius is greater than the drainage area. Fracture Case . Fracture Length. 4. 3. Equivalent Reservoir Permeability. Reservoir Drainage Area (Closed system only).Properties Following is a list of the history match parameters for an unfractured well: 1. Dimensionless Reservoir Aspect Ratio (Closed system only). 3. the NPV Fracture Data option is added to the Data menu. This can be found in the section containing the description of the Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Data Source. Reservoir Drainage Area (Closed system only). To perform treatment optimization studies using a Net Present Value approach. 4. Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Characteristics Multiple fracture treatment cases can be simulated during a single execution. the user must be responsible for reasonable input values to obtain a unique solution.

Fracture Characteristics Tab The categories of data required to characterize each fracture in the Multi-Case Fracture tab are as follows: Import Use the Import button provided in the dialog to read the proppant transport data from any MFrac file containing a proppant transport solution. This capability allows for preliminary viewing of MFrac data and offers a method for editing and adding data prior to its use by the program. To take advantage of this capability. Figure 5. Meyer User’s Guide . the Stages/Clusters tab will be present as shown in Figure 5.10.Stage/Clusters Dialog. Inc. Once the data is imported it can be modified.10: Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Characteristics Dialog. Figure 5.11.11: Multi-Case . If the Well Orientation is selected as Horizontal.446 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator table for defining up to 25 different fracture cases for simultaneous production simulation as shown in Figure 5. Click on the Import button to browse Meyer & Associates.

Calculate A calculate radial option is available at the bottom of the dialog to calculate either the fracture permeability.. prior to importing. fracture width. Propped Length The Propped Length is the propped fracture half length for which the production will be simulated. Normally. or using the Export Spreadsheet function on the dialog tool bar to avoid loosing the original data. .3 Data Input 447 and select an MFrac file. This gives the user the flexibility to input two of the variables and have the third calculated. if Input Conductivity or Calculate fracture permeability is selected. Since data contained in the dialog box is over-written during an import operation.5. The code will only display this feature if it is necessary. caution should be used when using this facility.e. Average Fracture Conductivity Like the Average Fracture Conductivity discussed earlier in this chapter. we recommend starting with a blank data dialog. this should be consistent with the average integrated value over the fracture length. Effective Propped Pay Zone Height This is the effective propped height of the proppant in the pay zone ( h p ) and is used only if the fractured well option is selected. Fracture Width This is the effective average propped fracture width in the fracture as a function of position. Inc. Fracture Permeability This is the average proppant permeability (with damage) as a function of position in the fracture. The calculated value will then be dimmed. or fracture conductivity. This value maybe greater or less than the Total Pay Height ( h p ). The Calculate option may not be available depending on the Fracture options selected (i. Dimensionless Conductivity The effective dimensionless conductivity in the pay zone is calculated from Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.

Fracture Skin Factor The Fracture Skin factor. These values are entered and included as output to be used later by MNpv in the calculation of Net Present Value. in the space provided for each case. Beta The field will not be displayed if the Darcy-Only option is selected in the Fracture Options tab. The non-Darcy beta factor is required input if input Beta has been selected. Inc. the effective Dimensionless Conductivity in the pay zone will be calculated. used in MProd can be expressed separately for each case as:  ys k S f = --. Meyer & Associates. Maximum Power This is the maximum power required to create the specified (multi-cluster for a horizontal well) fracture geometry. the Average Fracture Conductivity will be calculated. S f . and if the Dimensionless Conductivity is input. enter the Dimensionless Inverse Fracture Diffusivity.– 1 2 xf kl where k kl xf ys = = = = equivalent reservoir permeability damaged zone permeability due to leakoff propped fracture half length damaged zone adjacent to the fracture Inverse Fracture Diffusivity To include the effects of fracture diffusivity. ----  ---. ----kL h p If the Average Fracture Conductivity is input. a value will be present but dimmed since it will be a calculated value from the proppant porosity and permeability.448 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator k f w f h p C fD = --------. c f . Meyer User’s Guide . If the option to calculate beta from a database correlation is selected.

Make sure that the NPV option is turned on by opening the Options dialog box from the Main Menu and selecting the appropriate radio button. To Enter User Specified NPV Fracture Data: 1.8. Use the Import button provided in the dialog to read the data from any MFrac “. Complete as many rows as necessary by entering data in each of the six columns. The dialog boxes shown in Figure 5. This Liquid Volume is only included to allow the determination of fracture Net Present Value based on the cost of the fracturing fluid.5. Once the data is imported it can be modified. Inc. Liquid Volume This is the total Liquid Volume (frac fluid) injected necessary to create the specified (single cluster for a horizontal well) fracture geometry. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. and Reservoir Size will be shown (dimmed) if the Reservoir is a closed system.10 will appear. 2. When finished characterizing the fractures for evaluation. The Reservoir Drainage Area. The Stages/Cluster Tab will only be present if the Well Orientation is select as Horizontal. This dialog will change depending on the Fracture Stage Option selected. open the NPV Fracture Data dialog from the Data menu. Stages/Cluster Tab The Fracture Characteristics Stages/Cluster tab is shown in Figure 5. The User Specified option for the NPV Fracture Data Source must also be selected. This quantity is only included to allow the determination of Net Present Value for a design. Next. Aspect Ratio. click OK or the Next Page button to close the dialog box. . Total Proppant Mass This is the amount of proppant used to create the specified (single cluster for a horizontal well) fracture geometry.FD*” file containing NPV data.3 Data Input 449 Slurry Volume This is the total slurry volume required to create the specified (single cluster for a horizontal well) fracture geometry. 3. The Insert and Delete buttons can be used to edit the table as it is constructed. These values are also used for the determination of Net Present Value. 4.

Dimensionless Well Location (x=0.Multi-Case the Reservoir Drainage and Reservoir Aspect Ratio are input in the Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Characteristics Stages/Cluster tab. the fracture azimuth is always assumed to parallel the X L orientation.450 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator The Reservoir Drainage Area and the Dimensionless Reservoir Aspect Ratios are only required if the Reservoir is a Closed System. The Dimensionless well location for the Multi-Case (NPV) Fracture Characteristics when the Well Orientation is horizontal is assumed to be at the reservoir center (i. described above. Please refer to Appendix G. The total number of multiple transverse fractures is simply the number of stages multiplied by the number of clusters per stage. It usually represents. Meyer User’s Guide . An aspect ratio of four (4) represents a rectangular area with a length 4 times greater than its width. Number of Stages This is the total number of fracture stages in the horizontal well. The aspect ratio should. This is the area of the reservoir to be produced. If the Well Orientation is selected as Horizontal and the Solution is selected as Fracture . Each of the input variables are discussed below: Reservoir Drainage Area The Reservoir Drainage Area is only required in this dialog if the Reservoir is a Closed System. A rectangle is defined by entering the Dimensionless Reservoir Aspect Ratio ( X L  Y H ). For a hydraulically fractured reservoir. This is the ratio of the reservoir half-length ( X L ) and half-width ( YH ) illustrated in Figure 5. Number of Clusters per Stage This is the total number of fracture clusters per stages in the horizontal well.6.y=0)). Inc. therefore.. Meyer & Associates. be greater than or equal to one (1) so that the fracture parallels the long axis of the block. Concerning the reservoir's spatial relationship with the wellbore and fracture. in map view. Dimensionless Reservoir Aspect Ratio This data is only required if the Reservoir is selected as a Closed System. MProd currently assumes that the drainage area.5). can be approximated by a rectangular shape. Entering a value of one (1) for this parameter corresponds to a square drainage area. This allows for greater flexibility when comparing multiple transverse fracture solutions in a horizontal wellbore for closed systems.e. The reservoir volume is obtained by multiplying the area times the pay zone thickness (see Figure 5. the lateral extent of the reservoir drained by a particular well.

Inc. This option is only selectable for a closed system. Total Stage/Cluster Volumes and Proppant Masses The total stage/cluster volumes and proppant masses are the values as calculated from a single cluster (specified in the Fracture Characteristic Tab) multiplied by the Total Number of Transverse Fractures.3 Data Input 451 Fracture Stage Option There are three selections for the fracture stage option with each having different data input requirements regarding the stage and cluster spacing in the horizontal wellbore. Equal Spaced Over Specified Wellbore Length This option will place the total number of transverse fractures equally spaced over a specified wellbore length. Gas PVT Data If Gas is specified as the Fluid Type and the Internal PVT Table is Off. a table of up to 25 values of Viscosity and Z-factor as a function of pressure must be entered. For an infinite reservoir it is assumed that the clusters do not interfere.Lateral length. The Gas PVT table must be constructed with increasing values of pressure and cover the expected range of pressures for the simulation.0.5. . The first entry should be at standard pressure (14. The user is referred to Appendix G for a complete description with illustrations of the transverse fracture placement for each option. Equal Spaced Over Reservoir This option will place the total number of transverse fractures equally spaced in the reservoir. This option is also referred to as the Multiple Equally Spaced Transverse Fractures . The last entry should be equal to or greater than the initial reservoir pressure. User Specified This is the most general case and allows the user to input the Stage spacing and the Cluster spacing. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. This also referred to as the Multiply spacing option. If this option is selected the Horizontal Lateral Length must be input.696 psi) with a Z-factor equal to 1. This table is used to calculate the pseudo-pressures used in the simulation (see Figure 5.12). This selection is also referred to as Multiple Stage/Cluster Transverse Fractures option as defined in Appendix G.

452 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Figure 5. Meyer & Associates. Proppant Data Proppant Data is required when the Fracture Optimization option is selected. Inc. The required proppant input data are: 1) permeability.12: Gas PVT Dialog Box. These parameters are discussed below: Permeability This is the fracture proppant pack permeability which is a function of concentration per unit area and Closure Pressure. Meyer User’s Guide . The user is referred to the MFrac proppant database for typical values. 2) porosity. The reader is referred to Appendix L for additional information. The effective propped fracture permeability is calculated based on a damage factor as discussed below. The data in this screen is used in the calculation of the optimum fracture characteristics and proppant number. 3) specific gravity and 4) the fracture permeability damage factor.

6 3150 Sintered Bauxite 3. liquid volume to slurry ratio of the settled bank).72 169.70 231. as well as the pipe frictional.e. Proppant Damage Factor The reported final permeability of the proppant in the fracture is calculated from: k f = k f0  1 – DF  Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.32 Specific Gravity This is the ratio of the proppant density to the density of water. gravitational and perforation pressure losses. The specific gravity of a proppant is based on the grain density. not the bulk density of the proppant.32 20-40 round 0.35 40-60 round 0.55 159.2 2550 Sand 2. Inc.3 Data Input 453 Porosity This is defined as the void fraction between sand grains (i.4.15 196. It is used to calculate the final propped fracture width.3.5.. Proppant Type Specific Gravity Absolute Density Absolute Density (lbm/ft3) (kg/m3) Resin Coated Sand 2. Table 5.3: Porosity of Proppants Mesh Size Sphericity Porosity (fraction) 6-8 angular 0.4: Specific Gravity of Proppants. . Typical values of porosity for proppants are shown in Table 5. Typical values are shown in Table 5.4 2650 ISP-Lightweight 2.8 2720 Intermediate Strength 3.36 10-20 round 0.0 3700 The proppant Specific Gravity is used in the calculation of the proppant settling velocity.65 165.36 10-20 angular 0. Table 5.

Total Proppant Mass This is the total mass of proppant pumped into the fracture. Design Optimization Data This data is only required if the Fracture Design Optimization option is selected. Proppant Number The proppant number is defined as twice the ratio of the propped fracture volume in the pay zone ( V prop frac ) to reservoir volume ( V reservoir ) multiplied by the fracture to reservoir permeability ratio ( k f  k ). This table allows the user to input various values for the Total Proppant Mass..e. the simulator will calculate the optimum fracture characteristics and dimensionless conductivity to maximize production (i. The user is referred to Appendix L for additional details. That is for a given mass of injected proppant. The proppant mass placed in the pay zone (Pay Zone Proppant) and the effective Proppant Number are also calculated based on the other proppant and formation properties. The fracture optimization methodology is based on placing a given amount of proppant mass in a propped hydraulic fracture in such a manor as to optimize performance. for a given volume of proppant do we need fracture length or width to optimize productivity). Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates. The design optimization is based on the proppant mass in the pay zone or for a given reservoir the Proppant Number. Inc. Pay Zone Proppant Mass This is the mass of proppant placed in the pay zone. Entering the Proppant Number will result in the calculation of the Total and Pay Zone Proppant Masses.454 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator where kf k f0 DF = = = final (damaged) fracture permeability proppant permeability (undamaged from database) proppant damage factor The final permeability is used to determine the fracture conductivity and dimensionless fracture conductivity.

13 would result in pressure calculations performed using a rate of 300 bpd for 30 days with calculations made every day. When Rate is selected for this option. ---. . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Select Rate or Pressure for the Production Specified option by opening the Options dialog box from the Main Menu and making a selection. Inc.5. a table containing the rates. The appearance and required data for the dialog box presented will depend upon the selection made for the Production Specified option.13: Production Data Dialog Table . The last entry corresponds to 100 bpd for 900 days calculated every 100 days up to a total of 1000 days. See Appendix L for additional information.Variable Rate. durations (time) and time step for the calculations is required. Figure 5. The time step determines the number of iterations calculated for each corresponding time value. To Enter a Series of Constant Rates or Flowing Pressures: 1.= C fD I x2  V reservoir k where I x is the fracture penetration and  is the reservoir aspect ratio. The data shown in Figure 5.3 Data Input 455 The proppant number for a rectangular shaped reservoir is given by 2V prop frac k f N prop = ----------------------. Production Data The Production Data dialog box provides a table for entering the production rate or bottomhole flowing pressure schedules as a function of time. This would be followed by a rate of 200 bpd for the next 70 days to 100 days with calculations performed every 10 days.

Variable Flowing Pressure. Fill in at least one (1). The example shown in Figure 5. 4. bilinear.456 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator 2. Meyer & Associates. Calculations are made both for real and dimensionless time and flow rate or pressure. When the Production Specified option is set to pressure. trilinear and pseudo-radial. followed by a flowing pressure of 1500 psi to 365 days with calculations performed every 3. and up to five-hundred (500) rows of data making sure to complete each row that is used.13 or Figure 5. click OK to close the dialog box.65 days and finally a calculation every 36. Use the Insert and Delete buttons to edit the table as it is constructed.14 would start with calculations using a flowing pressure of 2500 psi every day for 30 days. the data required is Bottomhole Flowing Pressure. The principle of superposition is used to integrate the data input into a series of constant rate or pressure changes. Inc. open the Production Data dialog from the Data menu. One of the dialog boxes shown in either Figure 5.14 will be displayed depending on the selection in Item 1 above. the model is applicable for all flow regimes including linear. For hydraulically fractured wells. In addition. cumulative production and folds of increase (both instantaneous and average) are calculated. Next.14: Production Data Dialog Table .5 days at 500 psi to a total of 3650 days. Time and Time Step. When finished entering tabular data. Meyer User’s Guide . 3. Figure 5.

For MProd. When finished entering tabular data. The well radius defines the contact area between the well and the reservoir. Next. The appearance and required data for the dialog box presented will depend upon the selection made for the Production Specified option. This value is particularly important for unfractured wells. Fill in and up to five-hundred (500) rows of data making sure to complete each row that is used. This parameter may have a significant effect on calculating the folds of increase.. When the Production Specified option is set to rate. To Enter a Series of measured Rates or Flowing Pressures: 1. 2. An overview of the measured input data is given below. 4. Inc. The Measured dialog box provides a table for entering the measured production rate or bottomhole flowing pressure data as a function of time. these features include the Wellbore Radius and the permeability damage due to skin. The skin damage (Well Skin) characterizes the additional pressure drop associated with the near well regime. Select Rate or Pressure for the Production Specified option by opening the Options dialog box from the Main Menu and making a selection. 3. open the Measured Data dialog from the Data menu. Use the Insert and Delete buttons to edit the table as it is constructed. the data required is Time and Rate. . the data required is Time and Bottomhole Flowing Pressure. a table containing the time and time dependent bottomhole pressures is required. When the Production Specified option is set to pressure. A dialog box will be displayed requiring input for pressure or rate versus time depending on the selection in Item 1 above. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The difference is that measured data is input and not the boundary condition.5. Well Data Production forecasting typically requires a minimum of data describing certain features of the well in order to perform a simulation. When Rate is selected for this option. click OK to close the dialog box.3 Data Input 457 Measured Data The measured data is input in a table very similar to the Production Data table above. or when performing multi-case (NPV) analyses.

This parameter is important in the early-time solutions and are typically insignificant for long-time production. The Wellbore Data for an unfractured well is given in the Vertical Tab. entering a value of zero for the wellbore storage will not affect the overall results.15. Generally. Vertical Tab The Wellbore Data for an unfractured well is given in the Vertical Tab dialog. the general configuration of the horizontal should be specified. Wellbore Radius The Wellbore Radius is the radius of the borehole. If the well orientation is Horizontal and production is from a an unfractured (No Fracture) perforated horizontal or open hole. the Dimensionless Wellbore Storage Coefficient may be entered. The parameters contained in the dialog are listed and described below. When performing Multi-Case (NPV) analyses the productivity increase or Meyer & Associates. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide .458 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator To include the effects of wellbore storage on the calculation of dimensionless pressure and avoid errors during early time. No Fracture The required and/or optional well information entered in the Well Data dialog box for an unfractured well (Solution selected as No-Fracture) is shown in Figure 5. It is used as the base case for radial flow from the reservoir to the well and in the calculation of wellbore storage effects.Unfractured Oil Well. If the well orientation is Horizontal and the No Fracture Solution is selected data must also be input in the Horizontal .15: Well Data Dialog . Figure 5.No Fracture Tab.

Formation Volume Factor The Formation Volume Factor is the ratio of the volume of oil plus dissolved gas at reservoir pressure and temperature divided by the volume of the oil at stock tank conditions. The stimulated wellbore skin is used to calculate the well productivity. the dimensionless productivity index is the ratio of the stimulated to the base case productivity). The base Wellbore Skin Factor is the skin before the well is stimulated or simply a base skin that a stimulated well can be compared to determine a productivity increase index.5. Inc.16146C C D = -----------------------22c t hr w where CD C ct h rw  Meyer User’s Guide = = = = = = dimensionless wellbore storage wellbore storage coefficient total reservoir compressibility pay zone height wellbore radius equivalent reservoir porosity Meyer & Associates. Wellbore Skin Factor (stimulated) The dimensionless pressure drop at the wellbore face as a result of damage (positive value) or stimulation (negative value) is commonly referred to as Well Skin.3 Data Input 459 folds of increase is based on the production ratio of the fractured well to an unfractured well with a known borehole radius. Wellbore Skin Factor (base) The dimensionless pressure drop at the wellbore face as a result of damage (positive value) or stimulation (negative value) is commonly referred to as Well Skin.. This parameter is defined as: 5. .e. The base wellbore skin factor for an unfractured well is used for the base productivity for comparison with the stimulated case (i. The formation volume factor is not required when the produced fluid is gas. Dimensionless Wellbore Storage Factor The Dimensionless Wellbore Storage Factor can be included to improve the accuracy of early time predictions of pressure and rate when storage is present.

No Fracture Tab only requires data if the Well Orientation is Horizontal and if a No Fracture solution is selected for either the Solution.460 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Horizontal . Meyer & Associates. As the formation Permeability Ratio goes to zero. Base Case or Stimulated case. The smaller this ratio the greater the productivity. the unfractured wellbore produces as an infinite conductivity vertical hydraulically fractured well with a total fracture length equal to the Length of the Perforated Lateral (i.15. The parameters contained in the Horizontal . Length of Perforated Lateral The Length of Perforated Lateral is the total open hole length or the perforated interval in a horizontal leg contributing to production from an unfractured horizontal wellbore. Inc.No Fracture dialog are listed and described below.No Fracture Tab.No Fracture Tab The Horizontal . fracture half-length equal to one-half the perforated interval).16: Well Data: Horizontal .e.No Fracture (unfractured horizontal wellbore) dialog box is shown in Figure 5. Meyer User’s Guide . Figure 5. The required horizontal well information to be entered in the Horizontal . The horizontal permeability is the permeability input into the Formation Data dialog. Permeability Ratio The Permeability Ratio is the ratio of the horizontal to vertical permeability of the formation. The reader is referred to Appendix G for the solution methodology for unfractured horizontal wells.

For high conductivity fractures.prefrac) The prefrac Wellbore Skin Factor is the wellbore skin before the well is fractured. This is especially true for short fractures with large negative prefrac skins.17: Well Data Dialog . the flow entering the wellbore in the near well region is normally negligible and positive prefrac skin values will have a minor effect when the fracture length is much greater than the wellbore radius (or effective wellbore radius). Figure 5. Wellbore Skin Factor (base .3 Data Input 461 Wellbore Skin The dimensionless pressure drop at the horizontal wellbore face as a result of damage (positive value) or stimulation (negative value) is commonly referred to as Wellbore Skin.17.5. Vertical Tab The additional well data parameters required for a fractured well are listed and described below.Fractured Gas Well. (Please note that the storage of this variable in the input file is shared with the base wellbore skin factor for an unfractured well). If the prefrac skin is negative. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . the fracture resistivity model simulates a reduced resistance in the near wellbore region resulting in an increased productivity. The prefrac skin factor is used in the calculation of the flow resistivity in the near wellbore region. Inc. Fractured Well The well information required for a fractured well is shown in Figure 5.

Please refer to Chapter 1 for more information about the general error checking processes. if the simulator is stopped before the calculations are finished.462 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Wellbore Skin Factor (stimulated) The productivity from a well with a stimulated wellbore skin factor is also calculated which is used for comparison with the fractured well productivity. See “Run Options” on page 69. To stop the simulation.4 Run/Performing Calculations Once all of the required data relevant to the options selected have been entered. the program has checked the validity of the data contained in every dialog screen opened during the active session. when the calculation process is initiated. The RunOptions dialog can be used to specify options while the simulator is running. To Perform Calculations: 1. To avoid problems. Due to the nature of the MProd calculations. Since you are not forced to view every data screen sequentially prior to performing calculations. 2. For the fractured well with a prefrac skin. choose Stop! from the menu bar. The plots contain Meyer & Associates. These plots have all the characteristics of Meyer plots as described in Chapter 1. it is possible that some input parameters may not have been checked. Up to this point.5 Plots MProd provides a vast selection of plots that can be produced to illustrate the simu- lation results. Plots from any number of categories may be viewed at the same time. This extra level of error checking is designed to prevent calculation errors due to missing or “bad” data. After clicking the Run menu item. a Simulation Data window will be displayed and the menu bar will change to reflect that the simulation is running. the calculations can be performed. the productivity increase is the ratio of the fractured well productivity to that of a well with the stimulated Wellbore Skin Factor as given by this input value (Please note that the storage of this variable in the input file is shared with the simulated wellbore skin factor for an unfractured well). Once the calculations are finished. none of the calculated data will be saved. Click Run from the main menu. The MProd plots are grouped into different categories as described below. This section describes the plotting facilities that are specific to MProd. 5. 5. the menu bar will return to normal. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . the program checks to ensure that the minimum data requirements are met and that the data entered is within acceptable limits.

The Plot menu appears listing the available plot groups. The specific plots available will be directly controlled by the options selected for the last saved simulation. • History Match: These plots are for history matching (e. Groups that are unavailable due to the options selected will appear dimmed. you must activate the option and then re-run the simulation. For example. • Cumulative Production: These plots include the cumulative production and the productivity ratio versus time or propped length. each of which are accessible with the Plot menu. Select Plot from the main menu. 2.g. To View a Plot: 1. . • Production (Single Case): Non Multi-Case NPV plots. if NPV is disabled by “unselecting” it in the Options screen. • Flow Rate: These plots are of various flow rates versus time or propped length. and flowing BHP versus time). • Design Optimization: Various design optimizations plots. these plots will not be available in the Plot menu. • Net Cumulative Production: These plots are for net cumulative production. To obtain these plots. Viewing Plots The plots that are contained in MProd are divided into categories that can be accessed by different commands in the Plot menu. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.5 Plots 463 the results of the last simulation saved. Choose from the list of groups. that changing an input parameter does not affect a plot until the simulation has been run again. • Fracture Characteristics: These are plots of general characteristics of the fracture plotted versus propped length. Plot Categories The plots in MProd are grouped into different categories. flow rate versus time. Inc. The associated group selection dialog appears (See Figure 5.5. It is important to note.18).

MProd. Working with reports is the same in all Meyer programs as described in Chapter 1.18: Example Plot Selection Dialog Box . click Off the check box or use the Clear All button.6 Generating Reports After the calculations have been successfully performed. 4. click OK to view the plots. Inc.464 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator 3. Use the Select All button to view all the plots for the group. Viewing a Report To see the results of a simulation select View Report from the Report menu. Explanation of the Report Output The input data will have the same form as the input screens. Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide . Once the desired selections have been made. The output data (simulation results) will be presented in a set of tables. various options are available for viewing the results and creating reports. Select the desired plots by clicking the adjacent check boxes. To disable a plot. Figure 5. 5.

19.7 Program Database To simplify database input. Just like in the Fluid database. While this databases is offered as an integral part of the program. Once beta correlations have been copied from the System Database. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. 5. show the flow rate.7 Program Database 465 Production Solution These tables. a User Database can be built by copying non-Darcy beta correlations from the program’s System Database. You can Edit a record.5. . Inc. Non-Darcy Database To enter the Non-Darcy Database select the Non-Darcy Database command from the Database menu. The first screen presented is the Non-Darcy List dialog shown in Figure 5. they can be repositioned by using the Up and Down buttons. The System Database contains correlations for the beta factor as used in the petroleum industry. pressure and productivity ratio solutions indexed by time. Delete a record. production. To exit the non-Darcy database dialog box. one per case (fracture length). Meyer and the reference sources make no guarantee or expressed warranty as to their use or accuracy. MProd offers a Non-darcy database for the beta factor correlation. click on the Done button. This Non-Darcy database is also used in MFrac. Copy a record or Add a new record to the list by choosing the appropriate button.

The Description of the Non-Darcy Equation is displayed with the Reference Code in the report for correlation selected. Meyer User’s Guide . used to indicate which beta correlation to use in the simulation. The screen displays a non-Darcy database record. Meyer & Associates. seven (7) character identifier.466 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Figure 5. Non-Darcy Database Parameters When the Edit button is selected. the non-Darcy proppant data screen appears as shown in Figure 5.20. Inc. The Reference Code is a unique.19: Non-Darcy Database Dialog Box.

b . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. all applications have a Tool Spreadsheet option that allows the user to customize the spreadsheet. . Inc. The generalized correlation for the beta factor in terms of the fracture permeability k f and porosity  is of the form a = ---------b kf  c where a . and c are the input constants.8 Tools 467 Figure 5.8 Tools The Tools menu provides the user with options and analytical tools for calculating or determining scientific parameters.20: Non-Darcy Database Edit Screen. The power coefficients b . The a coefficient has units consistent with the permeability power constant. and c are dimensionless. MFrac and MProd also have a Proppant Calculator for determining the proppant permeability and beta factor based on proppant properties. Currently.5. b . 5. and the units for permeability.

and Robinson. AIME (1966) 997-1002.468 MProd: Analytical Production Simulator Proppant Calculator The Proppant Calculator allows the user to calculate the theoretical proppant permeability and non-Darcy beta factor.R: “A New Approximate Analytic Solution for Finite-Conductivity Vertical Fractures. B. Inc. H. Gonzalez.L. M. H. 4. J.: “The Viscosity of Natural Gases” Trans. Lee. Vazquez.E. 2. and Eakin. Meyer & Associates. Please refer to the MFrac section labeled “Proppant Calculator” on page 243 for more information. Beggs.R. M. 1975) 1140-1144.” SPEFE (Feb.: “Correlations for Fluid Physical Property Prediction” JPT (June 1980) 32.9 References 1.H. S. Meyer User’s Guide ..D. A. J. 1986) 75-88. 5. and Beggs.D. Lee. 968-970.T. and Brockenbrough.: “Estimating the Viscosity of Crude Oil Systems” JPT (Sept. 3.

Hydraulic fracturing optimization is a basic requirement to maximize economic returns on investment. there are many factors which influence the results of a design. Using MNpv. A description of the available options and the basic procedures required for running MNpv are given. Typically. this involves careful economic analysis of the costs and potential benefits of individual well operations. Fracture characteristics. 469 Meyer & Associates. examples are provided with the software to demonstrate the utility of certain features and manipulation of the data. Detailed information about the MNpv methodology and basic theory is covered in Appendix H. In addition. based on the concept of Net Present Value developed by Meyer & Associates. revenue and cumulative production plots as a function of fracture length and producing time can also be created. treatment cost and production revenue. .Chapter 6 MNpv Economic Analysis 6. the principle objective of any stimulation application is to maximize well profitability. The integrated capability of MFrac. a fracturing design optimization simulator. MProd. treatment advantages or disadvantages can be ascertained by evaluating predicted cash flow and future return on investment. The NPV of various fracture lengths can be calculated and displayed as a function of producing time. Although. and MNpv provides the ability to optimize the potential propped fracture length of a design based on the pumping schedule. fracture geometry. Inc. forecasting Net Present Value (NPV) has become an integral part of the preferred methodology to optimize hydraulic fracture treatments. treatment cost.1 Introduction This chapter is a user’s guide for MNpv. Inc. The complete process of performing an analysis is covered in this chapter. MNpv is designed for use with MProd to automatically determine and compare the NPV of various fracture scenarios in order to identify an optimal design. For many.

Meyer & Associates. The Options dialog box is typically the first input screen used in the MNpv program. the output generated by MProd is used in MNpv to perform an economic analysis. The option selections determine the scope of the MNpv simulation. This step may be omitted if the data is entered directly in the MProd program. This is accomplished by accessing the Options dialog box from the main menu. Meyer User’s Guide . First. Finally. An outline of the basic steps for using MNpv is shown in Table 6. the pumping schedules and associated fracture geometries are automatically determined using MFrac’s NPV option. Inc.mnpv) or creFile Menu ate a new data file Specify Units and currency symbol (optional) Units Menu Select Program Options and an MProd output file Data Menu Input Data: Input Economic Data Input Unit Revenue (if required) Input Share% Table (if required) Data Menu Run Simulation Run Menu View Plots Plot Menu Generate Report Report Menu 6. Next. the simulators are run in sequence. The first step before performing calculations is to establish the options. Its function is to establish the primary model options that will be employed. MProd is used to generate production forecasts for each of the different fracture geometries. They establish the kind of input to be entered and specific nature of the calculations to be performed. Each section deals with a different aspect of the modeling approach.1: MNpv Basic Steps Step Program Area Open an existing MNpv data file (*.2 Options This section outlines the available options and describes the parameters that define the conditions for MNpv.1 Table 6.470 MNpv: Economic Analysis To perform an integrated NPV analysis. There are four sections to this dialog. The selected options are stored in the current file.

Inc. oil or gas).. To move to the next option. A black diamond will appear in the center of the button when a choice is made. The Fluid Type. click on its radio button or use the TAB button to move sequentially through the choices. The option choice may be changed by using either the mouse or the arrow keys.1: Program Options. Figure 6.1 will then appear. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.e. Within a section the current selection for that option is highlighted with a dotted rectangle. The dialog box in Figure 6. Fluid Type MNpv uses the production predictions from MProd to forecast the potential future revenue for each fracture geometry evaluated. is used internally in MNpv to specify the primary fluid produced from the reservoir in order to direct the calculations through the appropriate algorithms for the purpose of calculating incremental revenue. To select an option. An explanation of the choices available for each of the Options are summarized in the following section.6. . This informational heading insures that the appropriate units are used and that the subsequent input screens are oriented towards the correct fluid (i. click the radio button adjacent to the option preference. as read in from the MProd output file.2 Options 471 To access the Options screen select Options from the main menu by clicking the menu name.

Unit Costs This option is used to modify the fluid and proppant unit cost for each case. you can enter a separate fluid and proppant unit cost for each table entry of conductivity and length. For this selection. The program will use the cost versus fracture length and conductivity (i. the Frac Fluid Unit Cost and Proppant Unit Cost are specified as constants in the Economic Data section of the Data menu. row specific) data entered in a table for all calculations. The program will use the revenue versus time data entered in this table for all calculations. The Well Orientation cannot be changed by the user. Well Orientation The Well Orientation. The Fluid Type cannot be changed by the user. is read in from the MProd output file. This selection enables the Unit Revenue Table found under the Data Menu to be used. MNpv plots can display transverse fractures for a horizontal well orientation. When Fixed is selected. Either Vertical or Horizontal will appear in this dialog depending on information from the MProd output data file.472 MNpv: Economic Analysis Either Oil or Gas will appear in this dialog depending on information from the MProd output data file. Meyer User’s Guide .e. The other choice for this option is Variable. The other choice for this option is Variable. a Unit Revenue Escalation Rate may also be specified. Inc. the Unit Revenue per volume of oil or gas produced is specified as a constant in the Economic Data section of the Data menu. There are two choices available.. This selection enables the Unit Cost Table found under the Data Menu to be used. When Fixed is selected. Meyer & Associates. If it is Fixed then it will use the same fluid and proppant unit cost for each case. If it is Variable. Revenue/Unit Volume This option specifies the type of production revenue schedule to use.

. This is accomplished by browsing directories to locate and select the file. MProd Output File with NPV/Multi-Case Data To perform NPV calculations.2 from which the desired data file may be selected. the output from MProd’s simulation must be linked to MNpv’s file.6. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Selecting Fixed Percentage requires entering the Share of Revenue percentage in the Economic Data section of the Data menu.2: MProd Output File Selection. During this procedure. the Share% Table is enabled. The file extension is POD (Production Output Data). Inc. This table allows the entry of share percentage as a function of net flow rate. Using this button displays the dialog box shown in Figure 6. Rate is chosen. the default filename extension for MProd output is used. this option may be used to specify the percent share of revenue a partner receives for the Net Present Value calculations. The path to the data file is specified by using the Select button found in the Options dialog. Figure 6. It can be found under the Data menu. This value is used as a constant in the economic calculations. click the OK button to complete the selection process.2 Options 473 Partner Share Option When ownership of a well involves more than one partner. If Variable Percentage vs. Once the file is highlighted.

The following sections pertain to the Data menu items found by selecting Data from the main menu. All of the data screens available within MNpv and the variables contained within them are presented. a Comments section is included so that additional information can be entered.3 Data Input After the options are selected and the scope of a simulation is set. Each Data menu item is explained and a description of the associated variables given.3. Well Location and Simulation Date. This indicates that the data file was not created with the NPV option on within MProd. Description The Data Description screen shown in Figure 6. program options or an Meyer & Associates. minimizes data input and prevents unnecessary or misleading data entry. Well Name. In addition. This information can include items such as the specific fluids.474 MNpv: Economic Analysis Attempting to select an MProd file that does not contain the necessary NPV data will result in a message like the one shown in Figure 6. Any time an option is changed. the screens will vary to enable new input or hide data that is not needed. data can be entered by accessing the categories found under the Data menu. The specific data requirements of a screen or the existence of the data screen itself will vary depending upon the options chosen. This methodology is used throughout MNpv. 6. Space is provided for entering the Company Name. When pertinent.4 provides a location for entering descriptive information about a simulation. This approach.3: MProd Output File Selection Error. Inc. the conditions or case sensitive options for a data screen are noted and an example of the resulting dialog is shown. As previously described. Either select another data file or return to MProd and re-run the simulation with the NPV/MultiCase option checked as On. the options selected determine what information is needed for a particular type of analysis. Simply decide what options are relevant to the simulation and MNpv will display only those menus and input fields necessary. Figure 6. Meyer User’s Guide .

5. Figure 6. the unit revenue parameter will change to currency per unit volume gas (e. Economic Data When the Revenue/Unit Volume and Partner Share Option are both Fixed.6. the Economic Data dialog box containing all of the necessary information to perform the calculations appears as shown in Figure 6. The units displayed. Variations of this dialog may be presented along with additional data screens when the Variable options are modified. if the Fluid Type changes from oil to gas. are consistent with the Fluid Type selected and the preferences selected from the Units menu. along with the variables contained in this dialog.. All of the information contained in this dialog is optional. . For example. $/Mscf).4: Data Description. Inc.g. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.3 Data Input 475 explanation of the data used.

surfactants. as well as. The number entered is used to determine the fluid cost as a function of fracture length for the NPV calculations. The value required for the fluid unit cost can usually be obtained by referring to the pumping service company’s price book or their specific job ticket.476 MNpv: Economic Analysis Figure 6. Meyer User’s Guide . nitrogen. Inc. The typical relationship between fracture penetration (i. this includes the total cost of the base fluid and gelling agents. the conditions for which the data is required are also indicated. Special fees associated with license arrangements and material handling may be factored into this unit cost or they may be added in the Miscellaneous Cost category found in this dialog. Meyer & Associates. CO2. miscellaneous additives such as.5: Economic Data Dialog Box. etc. clay stabilizers. inhibitors.e.6. fluid loss additives. length) and the fluid cost is illustrated in Figure 6. Frac Fluid Unit Cost The Frac Fluid Unit Cost is the cost per unit volume of fracturing fluid for a specific treatment design or group of designs. Each of the items found in the Economic Data dialog screen are explained in the next section. When necessary.. Normally.

are passed to MNpv for calculating the associated costs to be included in the economic analysis. Hydraulic Power Unit Cost The hydraulic power requirements for each specific pumping schedule. This data can be obtained from the pumping service company involved. Propped Fracture Length. . these expenses may be factored into the unit cost or included in the Fixed Equipment Cost category explained below. or overtime charges. Concerning standby power. This is the cost per unit mass of proppant used for a particular treatment design. the Proppant Unit Cost is used to determine the proppant cost as a function of fracture length. the cost of the proppant may also dramatically influence the economic viability of a particular treatment design. This value is used to determine the hydraulic cost.6: Treatment Cost vs. Inc.6.3 Data Input 477 240000 Treatment Cost ($) 200000 Treatment Cost vs Propped Length Job cost Fluid cost Proppant cost 160000 120000 80000 40000 0 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 Propped Length (ft) Figure 6. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The Hydraulic Power Unit Cost is the cost per unit power required for each design. Proppant Unit Cost Like the fluid unit cost.6. While the proppant type may have a significant effect on the resulting fracture conductivity and productivity. You may want to add additional costs in the Fixed Equipment Cost or Miscellaneous Cost if extra pumping capability is ordered. A typical proppant cost versus propped length relationship is depicted in Figure 6. mobilization costs. as determined by MFrac or entered in MProd. Don’t forget that service companies usually charge based on the power ordered and not necessarily on what is actually used.

treating connections.Other than mobilization and minimum charges. transport units.The cost of miscellaneous equipment such as.This includes standby power and non-pumping service time. Examples include LFC units. tree savers. The value entered is added to the variable power cost to determine the total equipment cost. This includes proppant transports. as well as other ancillary upstream pumping equipment used for delivering fluids to the blender. fluid volume. these costs are sometimes based on the average injection rate.These are charges associated with any equipment related to proppant handling not included in typical blending equipment charges. Pressure Multipliers (Intensifiers) . Fixed Power Costs . Proppant or Slurry Handling Equipment . Auxiliary Equipment .Special charges usually apply for the transport.The cost of pressure intensification is normally based on the hydraulic power ordered. Nitrogen or CO2 Equipment .These are charges typically incurred for mobilizing equipment and delivering materials. Inc. conveying equipment and special proppant concentration devices. Liquid Additive Equipment . flowmeters.478 MNpv: Economic Analysis Transverse Fracture Unit Cost The Transverse Fracture Unit Cost field is used to represent the additional cost of each transverse fracture for horizontal wells. Per-fracture proppant mass. The costs associated with the equipment should be included in this category. There are usually fixed costs also associated with this equipment. manifolds. Blending Charges .These costs are related to liquid delivery systems not covered by blending charges. preparation and pumping of energized fluids. Meyer User’s Guide . and hydraulic power costs are already factored in before the transverse fracture unit cost is applied. Meyer & Associates. Fixed Equipment Cost This category may be used to represent the additional cost of equipment that is not a function of hydraulic power or number of transverse fractures. Items that fall in this category are listed below: Truck Mileage and Transportation . This field is often used to represent the fixed equipment cost and miscellaneous cost that vary linearly according to the number of transverse fractures. and frac support units should also be considered in the fixed cost of equipment. data acquisition.

The Currency Escalation Rate is the parameter which describes this relationship. water hauling. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. the current unit revenue for the produced fluid must be entered. Basically. Currency Escalation Rate In MNpv. future economic calculations are always made relative to the present value of currency. The present worth of a future value is defined as: F P = -----------------n1 + i where P F i n = = = = present worth future worth currency escalation rate or interest rate number of periods Unit Revenue for Produced Oil or Gas When the Revenue/Unit Volume option is Fixed. To make this transformation. This value is sometimes referred to as the discount rate. etc. For example.. Tank rentals. This includes site preparation. bridge plugs. tubular rentals. this is a general category where any fixed cost related to the analysis can be included.. Inc. the average interest rate that could have been achieved with a similar amount of money during the same time period if it had been invested elsewhere. logging or testing services.3 Data Input 479 Miscellaneous Cost Miscellaneous costs should also be entered to compute the total cost associated with a treatment. It can be thought of as the effective interest rate used for calculating present worth from the future value of produced oil or gas. equipment or materials already included in the categories described above. license fees. . and consulting fees can also be included. workover costs.. specialized wellbore equipment (e. This category should be used to represent potential expenditures not related to hydraulic power. the time value of money must be defined. The unit revenue escalation rate (discussed below) can then be specified to forecast the future revenue.g. The title and unit for this variable automatically change depending on the Fluid Type selected in the Options menu. Another way of thinking about this parameter is to equate it to the change in the average investment opportunity rate.) and perforating.6..

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If Variable is selected for the Revenue/Unit Volume option, this parameter does
not appear in the Economic Data dialog. It is replaced by the Variable Revenue per
Unit Volume Table found in the Data menu.

Unit Revenue Escalation Rate
The Unit Revenue Escalation Rate is used to specify the percent change in the
unit revenue for produced oil or gas as a function of time. If this value is positive,
the future revenue of gas or oil will increase. A negative value indicates that as time
increases, the unit revenue price will decrease.
When the Currency Escalation Rate for NPV calculations and the Unit Revenue
Escalation Rate are the same, the unit revenue is a constant in terms of present
value.

Share of Cost
When partnerships are involved, this is your percentage of the total cost of the treatment for the NPV analysis. If you have no partners, your percentage or share of the
cost is 100%.

Share of Revenue
This data is only required when the Partner Share Option has been set to Fixed in
the Options dialog box. It represents your percent share of the total revenue. If you
have no partners your share of the revenue is 100%.
If Variable is selected for the Partner Share Option, this parameter is disabled and it
is replaced by the Share% Table located in the Data menu. This allows the entry of
your share percentage as a function of net flow rate.

Variable Unit Revenue Table
Given the history of oil and gas prices and their potential future variability, forecasting production revenue may be speculative. Nevertheless, to evaluate different
economic scenarios, as they influence the engineering decision, it is necessary to
have some flexibility in how future hydrocarbon price estimates are applied. MNpv
provides the ability to use a fixed revenue and an associated escalation rate. MNpv
also allows a table to be defined for increasing or decreasing revenue values.
This table is only available if Variable is selected in the Revenue/Unit Volume
option found in the Options dialog box. For this condition, the table is used to enter
the unit revenue of oil or gas as a function of time. The total number of entries must

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be between two (2) and twenty-five (25). The table must be constructed with
increasing values of time to cover the total period of the simulation. The first entry
should be at zero producing time with a corresponding initial unit revenue. The last
time entry should be equal to or greater than the maximum time of the production
simulation.
To Enter the Unit Revenue as a Function of Time:
1.

Select Variable for the Revenue/Unit Volume option by opening the Options
dialog box from the main menu and making a selection.

2.

Next, open the Variable Revenue/Unit volume Table screen from the Data
menu. The dialog boxes shown below will be displayed.

3.

Fill in at least 2 and up to 25 rows of data making sure to complete each row
that is used. Use the Insert and Delete buttons to edit the table as it is constructed.

4.

Click OK or Next Page to close the dialog box and save the changes you made.

The unit revenue of produced oil or gas is assumed to change linearly between consecutive times. Consequently, midway between two times (Time 1 and Time 2) the
unit revenue is equal to the average between the two entered values.
Assuming your net unit revenue for oil is $10.00/bbl today and will increase by
$1.00 per year, the table in Figure 6.7 would be input.

Figure 6.7: Variable Revenue Table - Step in Unit Revenue.

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If your net unit revenue for oil is $10/bbl today and increases linearly to $50/bbl in
twenty years, you would enter the data shown in Figure 6.8.

Figure 6.8: Variable Revenue Table - Linearly Increasing Unit Revenue.
Just as the unit revenue field in the Economic Data dialog is updated corresponding
to the Fluid Type selected, the unit and title for the variable revenue table also
change.

Variable Share% Table
Partnerships complicate any economic evaluation, especially when share percentages do not remain constant. Share of cost is usually more straight forward and in
MNpv your percent share of expenditures is entered in the Economic Data dialog
(see Share of Cost). If the percent share of revenue is a constant, simply apply
your percentage to the fixed Revenue/Unit Volume. When share of revenue is
based on periodic production rates, the Share% Table can be used to specify the
change in percent share of revenue of oil or gas as a function of the net flow rate. To
access this table the Partner Share Option must be chosen as Variable Percentage
vs. Rate in the Options dialog screen. The net flow rate is defined as the flow rate
from the fractured well minus the unfractured base case (i.e., radial production).
When using the Share% Table, the total number of entries must be between 2 and
25 and the table must be constructed with increasing values of net flow rate to cover
the expected range of production. The first entry should be for a net rate of zero.
The last time entry should be equal to or greater than the maximum expected rate. If

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the actual net rate is lower than the first data entry value, the share percentage for
the first value will be used. If the calculated net rate is greater than the last value in
the table, the last entered share percentage will be used.
As in the Revenue/Unit Volume Table (see Figure 6.7), the percent share of revenue
of produced oil or gas is interpreted linearly between consecutive net rates. Consequently, midway between two rates the share percentage is equal to the average
between the two values.
Assuming the share percentage of revenue for oil will increase linearly from 0% at
a rate of 0 bbls/day to 90% for 200 bbls/day of net flow rate increase, the data in
Figure 6.9 would be entered.

Figure 6.9: Share% versus Net Flow Rate Table.
This corresponds to a Share versus Flow Rate relationship as shown in Figure 6.10.

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Figure 6.10: Share% vs. Net Rate Relationship.
The unit for the net flow rate column will automatically correspond to the Fluid
Type that is specified in the Options dialog.

Variable Unit Cost Table
When the Variable unit cost option is selected you can enter a separate fluid and
proppant unit cost for each table entry of length/conductivity and length.
When Fixed is selected, the Frac Fluid Unit Cost and Proppant Unit Cost are
specified as constants in the Economic Data section of the Data menu.
The Variable selection enables the Unit Cost Table found under the Data Menu to
be used. The program will use the cost versus fracture length and conductivity (i.e.,
row specific) data entered in this table for all calculations as shown in Figure 6.11.

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Figure 6.11: Variable Fluid and Proppant Unit Cost Table.
This table provides the user with the capability to optimize the NPV based on different unit costs for the fluid and proppant types. The Frac Fluid Unit Cost and
Proppant Unit Cost can vary with either job sizes or for different proppants with
various conductivities at a given fracture length.

6.4 Run/Performing Calculations
Once all of the required data relevant to the options selected have been entered, the
calculations can be performed. Up to this point, MNpv has checked the validity of
the data contained in every dialog screen opened during the active session. Since
you are not forced to view every data screen sequentially prior to performing calculations, it is possible that some input parameters may not have been checked. To
avoid problems, once the calculation process is initiated, the program checks to
ensure that the minimum data requirements are met and, once again, that the data
entered is within acceptable limits. This extra level of error checking is designed to
prevent calculation errors due to missing or “bad” data.
To start the calculations, select the Run command from the Run menu. If there are
any error checking messages, correct the errors and select Run again. The
RunOptions dialog is available for specifying options for when the simulator is
running. See “Run Options” on page 69.
After clicking the Run menu item, a Simulation Data window will be displayed
and the menu bar will change to reflect that the simulation is running. To stop the
simulation, choose Stop! from the menu bar. Once the calculations are finished, the
menu bar will return to normal. Due to the nature of the MNpv calculations, if the

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simulator is stopped before the calculations are finished, none of the calculated data
will be saved.

6.5 Plots - Graphical Presentation
MNpv provides a vast selection of plots that can be produced to illustrate the simulation results. These plots have all the characteristics of Meyer plots as described in
Chapter 1. This section describes the plotting facilities that are specific to MNpv.
The MNpv plots are grouped into different categories as described below. Only
plots from the same categories may be viewed at the same time. The plots contain
the results of the last simulation. It is important to note that changing an input
parameter does not affect a plot until the simulation has been run again.

Plot Categories
The plots in MNpv are grouped into different categories, each of which are accessible with the Plot menu. The Fracture Characteristics, Cumulative Production, Net
Cumulative Production, and Yearly Average Flow Rate categories have plots that
use MProd output data. Each category is summarized below:
Fracture Characteristics: These are plots of general characteristics of the fracture
plotted versus propped length.
Cumulative Production: These plots include the cumulative production and the
productivity ratio versus time or propped length.
Net Cumulative Production: These plots are for net cumulative production.
Yearly Average Flow Rate: These plots are of various flow rates versus time or
propped length.
Treatment Cost & NPV: These plots include the treatment cost versus propped
length plot and NPV; and DROI plots versus time or propped length.
Partner Share Treatment Cost & NPV: These plots are similar to those above.

Viewing Plots
The plots in MNpv are divided into categories that can be accessed by different
commands in the Plot menu. The specific plots that are available will be directly
controlled by the options selected for the last run simulation.

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To View a Plot:
1.

Select Plot from the main menu. The Plot menu appears listing the available
plot groups.

2.

Choose from the list of groups. The associated group selection dialog appears
(see Figure 6.12). Groups that are unavailable due to the options selected will
appear dimmed. To obtain these plots you must activate the option and then rerun the simulation.

3.

Select the desired plots by clicking the adjacent check boxes. Chose the
Select All button to view all the plots for the group. To disable a plot, click off
the check box or use the Clear All button.

4.

Once the desired selections have been made, click OK to view the plots.

Figure 6.12: Plot Selection Dialog Box - NPV/Multi-Case.

6.6 Generating Reports
After the calculations have been successfully performed, various options are available for viewing the results and creating reports. Working with reports is the same
in all Meyer programs and is described in Chapter 1.

Viewing a Report
To see the results of a simulation select View Report from the Report menu.

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Explanation of the Report Output
The input data will have the same form as the input screens. The output data (simulation results) will be presented in a variety of tables. Each of the output tables is
summarized below.

Treatment Cost
This table gives the proppant cost, the fluid cost, the total job cost and the share of
the job cost indexed by the propped length of the fracture.

Net Present Value Solution
These tables, one per time step, show the production, revenue and net present value
solutions indexed by the propped fracture length.

6.7 Units
The Units dialog box (Figure 6.13) works the same as the other Meyer Unit dialog
boxes as described in Chapter 1. However, there is an option to specify the currency
name and currency symbol.

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Figure 6.13: MNpv Units Dialog Box.

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Chapter 7
MFast
Analytical 2D Fracture Simulator
7.1 Introduction
MFast is an analytical two-dimensional hydraulic fracturing simulator for design-

ing 2D fractures. The simulator illustrates the importance of various parameters and
provides a fast first order solution to fracture geometry, net pressure, fracture efficiency and treatment design. This simulator provides the capability to compare the
fracture geometries for Geerstma-deKlerk (GDK), Perkins-Kern (PKN) and ellipsoidal type two dimensional models. Since MFast was developed from analytical
solutions it has the inherent limitations of steady state injection, constant mechanical properties, time independent fluid rheology and single layer properties.
The governing equations of mass, momentum and energy conservation used in the
development of MFast are presented in full detail by Meyer1-4. Numerous coefficients are implemented from analytical relationships based on the limiting solutions
of numerical results obtained from MFrac.
MFast is a great tool for beginners to understand the parametric effects of the various input data and their importance in fracturing. MFast is also a useful tool for the
more experienced user in providing a fast first order analysis and in performing
parametric studies based on field data. Utilizing this program to perform simple net
pressure history matching will provide a first order estimate of the fracture geometry, correct geometry model to use, fracture efficiency and proppant mass for a
specified inlet concentration.

An outline of the basic steps for using MFast is shown in Table 7.1.

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Table 7.1: MFast Basic Steps.
Step

Program Area

1.

Open an existing data file or a new file

File Menu

2.

Specify Units (optional)

Units Menu

3.

Input Data
a. Options
b. Description
c. Formation/Fracture Data

Options Menu
Base Data Menu

4.

Run Simulation

Run Menu

5.

View Plots

Plot Menu

6.

View Report

Report Menu

Menu
The MFast menu bar is shown in Figure 7.1. Generally, the menus are accessed
from left to right as shown in Figure 7.1.

Figure 7.1: MFast Main Menu.

7.2 Data
This Data menu describes the various data options and input data required for
MFast. The Data options are shown in Figure 7.2. A complete description of the
required input data is presented in this section.

Figure 7.2: MFast Data Menu.

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Options
To access the Options screen, select the DataOptions menu. The dialog box displayed in Figure 7.3 will then be presented.

Figure 7.3: Options Screen.
The Options screen allows the user flexibility on which features to include for a
particular type of fracture design analysis. The specific data displayed in the base
data screen varies depending on the options selected. The selections made in the
Options screen set the scope for data used in MFast.
The Options provide choices for the fracture geometry model and constitutive relationships that affect the fracture solution methodology (Figure 7.3).

Input
This option determines whether the simulations will be based on specifying a fluid
(slurry) volume or entering the desired fracture length. If volume is selected, the

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slurry volume is input and the fracture length will be calculated. If the fracture
length radio button is selected, the volume to create a fracture of this dimension
will be calculated.

Fracture Friction Model
Normally, laminar flow exists in the fracture and this option may not be needed
(i.e., unchecked). For this case, the classical solution for fluid flow in a rectangular
slot (as modified for an ellipsoidal fracture width) is used and the Darcy friction
factor takes the form:

f D = 24  Re
2

where Re is the Reynolds number ( Re = w   and dp  dx = – 1  2 f D   w )
Deviations from laminar flow effect the frictional dissipation in the fracture and
therefore the fracture pressure predicted by a model. Turbulent flow in the fracture
may also occur when very low viscosity fluids (e.g., gas) at high rates are pumped.
To account for these phenomena and improve the ability to predict non-laminar
frictional pressure loss in a fracture, the following friction factor expression is used
when the Fracture Friction Model is turned On:

a
f D = --------bRe
Irregularities along the fracture face (e.g., tortuosity, bifuraction and wall roughness) that interrupt and disturb fluid flow can also result in greater energy dissipation. These effects can be modeled by increasing the a coefficient or modifying the
wall roughness factor as discussed below.
Typical values for the a and b coefficients have been developed empirically in
accordance with Prandtl's Universal Law of the Wall5 as shown in Table 7.2.
Table 7.2: Typical a and b Friction Coefficients.
Laminar flow

Re < 750; a=24; b=1

Transitional flow

750 < Re < 2000; a=0.5; b=0.44

Turbulent flow

2000 < Re < 30,000; a=0.13; b=0.25

Turbulent flow

30,000 < Re < 106; a=0.08; b=0.20

Turbulent flow

Re > 106; a=0.035; b=0.14

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Wall Roughness
When Wall Roughness is turned off (not checked), the Darcy friction factor inside
the fracture is used without modification as determined from the selections made in
the Fracture Friction Model option. This selection assumes that the fracture surface is a smooth planar feature without roughness.
To include the effects of roughness (or waviness) on the frictional dissipation, turn
this option on. This will result in an increase in the frictional pressure drop and
fracture width, as well as, a decrease in fracture length. If this option is used, the
friction factor defined in the Fracture Friction Model option will be modified using
a Friction Factor Multiplier. The relationship used is defined in the expression
shown below:
 = M f
fD
f D

where

fD

=

modified Darcy friction factor

fD

=
=

Darcy friction factor
friction factor multiplier

Mf

An empirically derived correlation6-8 for determining the Friction Factor Multiplier is shown in Figure 7.4.

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Figure 7.4: Friction Factor Multiplier Empirical Correlation.

Tip Effects
The observed field pressures for some treatments are at times much higher than the
simulated pressure. This discrepancy in measured pressure can be minimized in a
number of ways. Typically, the friction factor multiplier, fracture toughness, near
wellbore effects, confining stress or rock/reservoir properties are modified to obtain
a match. However, if the pressure discrepancy is due to excess pressure, an overpressure function can be applied at the tip. In MFast, excess pressure can be applied
using two mechanisms: 1) Fracture Toughness, and 2) Tip Over-pressure.
Over-pressure, as it is incorporated in MFast, accounts for the extra pressure
required at the fracture leading edge for propagation to occur. This extra resistance
at the fracture perimeter (tip) requires additional pressure (energy) to propagate the
fracture. As a result, when this option is used, higher pressure must be applied at
the inlet (surface or BHTP) to compensate for losses that occur in the fracture.
Tip effects, in general, remain an area of some controversy and considerable discussion. Plausible explanations for these effects have been proposed. The possibilities

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include tip friction due to flow resistance, rock properties effects (e.g., toughness as
a function of stress at the leading edge or poroelasticity), or it may be a consequence of fracture geometry (e.g., complex geometry and/or multiple fractures).
In MFast, tip effects represent a flow resistance at the tip. Regardless of whether
you believe this flow resistance is due to viscosity effects or some other phenomena
related to the tip region (e.g., tip geometry) the general effect on pressure is typically the same (i.e., resistance is resistance). It is important to note, however, that
this type of resistance differs from fracture toughness in its classical application;
over-pressure varies with injection rate and time, fracture toughness does not.
The range of the over-pressure factor allowed by MFast is between 0 and 1.0. If
this option is disabled, a default value of zero is used. Usually, the Tip Effect option
is suggested when the measured injection pressures are well above the theoretical
values predicted by a classical model (i.e., Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics).
When reasonable values have been implemented for wall roughness, friction factor
multiplier, toughness and other formation properties, a value between 0.1 to 0.4
may be justifiable. The larger the over-pressure factor the greater the increase in
the net pressure. If you are having difficulty relating the over-pressure factor to
pressure, one approach is to use MinFrac to automatically regress on the tip factor
to determine an appropriate value. This best fit value from matching the net pressure in a minifrac analysis is a good place to start.
Many engineers mistake near wellbore pressure loss for excess net pressure. Keep
in mind that when the injection rate changes suddenly, the near wellbore pressure
loss also changes instantly whereas the fracture net pressure cannot because of storage (i.e., if the rate drops suddenly and the BHTP follows, this is not excess pressure but frictional dissipation in the near wellbore region).
The phenomena of tip over-pressure has been referred to as “dilatancy” by some
researchers. It is not clear whether these researchers are referring to rock dilatancy or fluid dilatancy. Fluid dilatancy refers to a shear-thickening fluid. Rock
dilatancy describes volumetric expansion of a material that is rapidly approaching failure and is usually associated with the micro-cracking process. There has
been no published explanation on the effects of rock dilatancy on net pressure in
a crack, and to our knowledge, no correlations exist. The desired effect (i.e., an
increase in pressure) can be achieved due to viscosity effects (i.e., fluid dilatancy) or as a result of stress dependent rock properties that may or may not be
related to rock dilatancy. This is commonly referred to as nonlinear elastic
deformation. Figure 7.5 illustrates one possibility.

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Figure 7.5: Fracture Tip Width Reduction due to Non-Linear Elastic Effects.

Proppant Type
A proppant type must be selected from the drop down list box. The proppant type is
used to determine the amount of proppant which can be placed in fracture without
screening-out the fracture. The physical properties of each proppant type included
in the list box are contained in an internal database.

Description
The Data Description screen shown in Figure 7.6 provides a location for entering
descriptive information about the specific analysis being performed.

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Figure 7.6: Data Description Dialog Box - MFast.

Base Data
The MFast Base Data dialog box shown in Figure 7.7 provides the information
necessary to describe the rock properties, fluid rheology and fracture parameters.
Each of these data items are discussed below.

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It is therefore a measure of the materials stiffness. Young’s modulus is a constant with a unique value for a particular material and insitu conditions.3: Young’s Modulus for Various Rock Types.6 Meyer & Associates.7: Base Data Dialog Box. Rock Type Range psi) Limestone-Reef Breccia 1-5 0. Young's Modulus Young`s modulus or the modulus of elasticity is the slope (or derivative) of a stressstrain curve over the elastic portion of the curve. Inc. See Appendix A for more information regarding the sensitivity of this parameter.3. Table 7.8 . The modulus represents the materials ability to resist deformation under load. A range of Young’s modulus values for various rock types is given in Table 7.500 MFast: Analytical 2D Fracture Simulator Figure 7. to Fine Grained 4 .11 2.7. the fracture width will decrease and the length will increase for a given set of input parameters. As the stiffness (E) of the rock increases. (106 Range (107 kPa) Meyer User’s Guide .3 Limestone-Porous or Oolitic 2-7 1–5 Limestone-Med.5 . For linear-elastic deformation.

 .14 . The basis for this relationship involves the assumption that pre-existing defects exist and induce high stress concentrations in their vicinity. developed in linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM). Dolomite 6 .8 .1.13 4.8 Porous. propagation is assumed to occur once the stress intensity factor reaches a critical value. dense Sandstone 4-7 2. it can be shown that the tensile strength. See the MFrac chapter for more information. T . Inc. unconsolidated to poorly consolidated 0. Fracture toughness is a measure of a material’s resistance to fracture propagation.1 .9 Hard. . It is proportional to the amount of energy that can be absorbed by the material before propagation occurs.2 Data 501 Table 7. the stress intensity is K I =  H  and for failure to occur we have  c = K IC  H  where  is a geometric coefficient and H  is the characteristic fracture dimension. of the rock can be approximated by T = K IC  a c where K IC is the fracture toughness.4 Fracture Toughness The definition of fracture toughness is obtained from the concept of stress intensity factor.7. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. See Appendix A for more information on stress intensity factors. These sites become points for crack initiation and propagation.4 .2 Medium Hard Sandstone 2-4 1. This critical value. If a c represents the area of the “largest” defect.5.35 . For a crack in the vicinity of a uniform stress field. In hydraulic fractures.2.2 0.3: Young’s Modulus for Various Rock Types. related to the propagation resistance (or energy balance) is assumed to be a material property and is given the name fracture toughness (or critical stress intensity factor).

if in doubt. The theoretical value for Poisson’s ratio is 1/4 for any isotropic body with strains below the proportional (elastic) limit. Formation Type psi-in1/2 kPa-m1/2 Siltstone 950-1650 1040-1810 Sandstone 400-1600 440-1040 Limestone 400-950 440-1040 Shale 300-1200 330-1320 Setting the values of fracture toughness to zero will result in the classical hydraulic fracturing propagation solutions dominated by viscous pressure loss. use 0. Meyer & Associates. the ratio increases and approaches the limiting plastic value of 1/2. Meyer User’s Guide . “Fracture Toughness and Hydraulic Fracturing.4: Fracture Toughness Values for Various Rocks. Typical Poisson's ratios for rock formations are 0. For very low viscosity fluids.4 lists some measured values of fracture toughness. For strains beyond the proportional limit. The values shown were reported by van Eekelen9. Poisson's ratio affects the fracture propagation characteristics to a very minor extent.8). fracture toughness may be the dominant parameter controlling fracture growth. Thiercelin10 reviewed the testing procedures for determining this parameter in his article. Therefore.502 MFast: Analytical 2D Fracture Simulator Table 7.” Table 7. Poisson’s Ratio Poisson’s ratio is defined as the ratio of the transverse strain to the axial strain resulting from an applied stress (see Figure 7. Inc.25. From parametric studies.25.

8: Definition of Poisson’s Ratio.2 Data 503 Poisson’s ratio Lateral strain Poisson’s ratio  Longitudinal strain w 0 l 0     w l  w  w  l  l w l 0 0 Figure 7. Poisson's ratio is also used by logging companies to infer in-situ stresses. This method assumes the rock behaves elastically and that the tectonic stresses are known or insignificant. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. This may or may not be equal to the hydrocarbon pay thickness used to estimate production.7. . The typical relationship is   Hmin =  ------------   v – p 0  + p 0 +  T 1– where  Hmin = =  v = p0 T  = = = minimum horizontal stress Poisson’s ratio vertical stress or overburden pore or reservoir pressure component of stress due to tectonics Biot’s constant Total Pay Zone Height This is the total pay zone or net permeable leakoff height penetrated by the fracture for leakoff. The total leakoff height is also referred to as the net pay zone thickness.

For example. MinFrac has an option to history match on fracture height for the PKN model. C. Fracturing fluids are most often characterized by the power law model. These 2-D models have fixed fracture heights by definition (see Chapter 2). These mechanisms Meyer & Associates. Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio This is the ratio between the length of the major and minor ellipse axes. Any value greater than one will produce an elliptical profile and corresponding fracture area.504 MFast: Analytical 2D Fracture Simulator Total Fracture Height This is considered the total fracture height for the PKN and GDK fracture models. is made up of a combination of three flow resistant mechanisms that are encountered in fluid loss from the fracture. Inc. the model reduces to the standard radial or penny shaped solution. This model is typically defined as:  w = k n where  is the wall shear rate. Total Leakoff Coefficient The total leak-off coefficient. This parameter is one of the most difficult to estimate and is one of the most important input parameters for the PKN and GDK models. Injection Rate The injection rate is the total constant slurry injection rate for a two wing fracture. If this value is equal to unity (1). Consistency Index  k   See the explanation of the flow behavior index above. an Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio of two (2) results in a fracture half length that equals the total height of the fracture.  w is the wall shear stress. Flow Behavior Index  n  Rheological characterization of non-Newtonian fluid is required to calculate the frictional dissipation in the fracture. and n is the flow behavior index (dimensionless). Meyer User’s Guide . The total fracture height is not used for the ellipsoidal geometry model. k is the consistency index.

2 Data 505 are: CI . Spurt Loss Coefficient Spurt loss is the “instantaneous” volume loss of fluid per unit area of fracture face that occurs prior to the development of a filter cake. and CIII . the fracture half length must be entered. From this total slurry volume.wall-building effects. Input Total Volume Injected When the Input option is selected as Input Volume. The total leak-off coefficient is one of the most important parameters in determining the fluid efficiency and therefore the fracture geometry. Input Fracture Length When the Input option is selected as Input Length. This value is normally the final or maximum inlet concentration. The volume of fluid loss due to spurt V sp for both faces of a single wing fracture is V sp = 2AS p where S p is the spurt loss coefficient and A is the leakoff area in the pay zone. From the total calculated slurry volume. Maximum Proppant Concentration The maximum proppant concentration is the desired or final concentration in the fracture.reservoir fluid viscosity-compressibility effects. CII . the total slurry volume must be entered.fracture fluid leak-off viscosity and relative permeability effect. Inc. . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. the program will then calculate the proppant mass required based on the proppant type and maximum proppant concentration specified. This is the amount of slurry which will be used for the simulation. Fluid loss is only assumed to occur over the pay zone height. The total amount of slurry is then automatically calculated to create the desired input fracture length. the program will automatically calculate the proppant mass required based on the proppant type and maximum proppant concentration specified.7. From this the total amount of proppant mass pumped is calculated based on this uniform concentration at the end of pumping in the fracture.

There are two main Output section items. Run The calculations are accessible from the RunShow Calculations menu.506 MFast: Analytical 2D Fracture Simulator 7. Table 7.9: Calculations for the GDK. Inc. PKN and Ellipsoidal 2D fracture propagation models. simulation results and viewing the report. This will run the simulation for all the models using the Input Data.9.3 Output The Calculations menu is shown in Figure 7. Figure 7. A summary of the simulation results are displayed for the GDK. PKN and Ellipsoidal models as shown in Figure 7. There is also an option to display 2D Plots of the calculations. Meyer & Associates.9. Meyer User’s Guide .5 contains a description of the output data.

Plot The MFast Plot dialog box is shown in Figure 7. frac. Parameter Description Length Half length of the fracture. . Net pressure Fracture net pressure.3 Output 507 Table 7. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. well width Maximum width at the wellbore. Volume Total volume of slurry injected.5: Output Data. Proppant mass Total mass of proppant pumped based on the specified maximum allowable concentration.7. Max. well width Average width at the wellbore. (Fluid + Proppant). Percent propped Percent of the created fracture volume that will remain propped after closure. width Average width throughout the fracture. Avg. Efficiency Fracture efficiency = Fracture volume/ Total injected volume. It allows the user to select which plots to display. (this will be the same for all geometry models). Inc. Pumping time Time to inject a given volume or to create a given fracture length.10. The fracture is assumed to have two symmetric wings. Avg. and whether or not the plots are displayed versus time or volume. Height (wellbore) Total height of the fracture at the wellbore.

Inc.10: Plot Options Dialog Box Reports MFast can generate reports similar to the other Meyer Programs. Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide .508 MFast: Analytical 2D Fracture Simulator Figure 7. Figure 7.11 shows a typical MFast Report which includes a summary of the input data and calculated results.

7.: “Design Formulae for 2-D and 3-D Vertical Hydraulic Fractures: Model Comparison and Parametric Studies.” Oil and Gas Journal. .4 Parts. R. 2. June 17. Inc. KY. 1986.: “Frac model in 3-D .11: MFast Output Report.” paper SPE 15240 presented at the SPE Unconventional Gas Technology Symposium. B. B.7. 1821. July 22 and July 29. Meyer. July 1. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. R. Louisville.4 References 509 Figure 7. 1985. Meyer.4 References 1. May.

5. Rock Mech.” SPEJ (June 1982) pp 341-349. C.: “Fluid Flow in Simulated Fractures. No3/4.R.W.A. & Geomechanics. 5-132. Huit.. R. Louis.: “Fracture Toughness and Hydraulic Fracturing. 7. 8. Midland. Thiercelin. Schlichting.” AIChE Journal.: “Etude des écoulements d'eau dans les roches fissurées et leurs influence sur la stabilité des massifs rocheux. 1989. 1968. Series A. Meyer. 6.. 2. NY (1955).” paper SPE 19329 presented at the SPE Eastern Regional Meeting. 1989. Meyer User’s Guide . TX. Sept. P. M.K. B. Meyer & Associates. Petroleum Society of CIM.: “Three-Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulation on Personal Computers: Theory and Comparison Studies. 1992. 10. p 259.: “Fracturing Horizontal Wells. van Eekelen. B. 9. Inc. pp 177-183. H. McGraw-Hill. and Matson. Boundary Layer Theory.: “Hydraulic Fracture Geometry: Fracture Containment in Layered Formations. Meyer. M.” Bull. 3. Hagel. No.” presented at the 54th Annual SPE Technical Conf. de la Direction des Etudes et Recherches. H.” Int.. Hudson. R. J. Oct.. Calgary June 1988.510 MFast: Analytical 2D Fracture Simulator 3. 1956. J. 4. 24-27. Morgantown. Vol. vol 26. “Simulated Mini-Frac Analysis”. p. J.

fluid loss from the fracture is generally diffusion controlled or 1D. 511 Meyer & Associates. The reservoir coupling with ellipsoidal fluid loss has a marked effect on fracture geometry for high permeability large injection volumes compared to 1D leakoff. . Options are available for various fluid loss models. inclusion of thermal. This simulator has many of the same features as MFrac with the exception of proppant transport. A summary of the governing water and thermal front equations. The program was specifically designed for evaluating the effects of injecting large fluid volumes over long periods and for fracture efficiencies approaching zero. Boundary conditions for the reservoir drainage area include. MPwri has options for conventional (1D Carter type leakoff) and ellipsoidal (2D) fluid loss.and poro-elastic stresses behaviors. acid. thermal. but at large times the fluid loss is governed by ellipsoidal and pseudosteady-state leakoff.1 Introduction This chapter is a User’s Guide for the three-dimensional (3-D) hydraulic fracturing waterflood simulator MPwri. closed system.2. Options are available in MPwri to modified the vertical layer and lateral stresses to account for thermal and poro-elastic effects. constant pressure boundary condition and pseudo-steady state behavior.and poro-elastic stresses and fluid loss equations are also provided. At early times. Additional options are available for inputting internal and external fracture skins and cakes. foam etc. MPwri is a highly specialized simulator for predicting the pressure and geometry of hydraulic fractures associated with waterflooding1. Inc. The solution methodology for our Produced Water Reinjection (PWRI) hydraulic fracturing simulator is formulated in the Appendices.Chapter 8 MPwri Produced Water ReInjection Fracturing Simulator 8.

View plots during or after the simulation Plot menu 7. A description of each of the menu items is described in the MFrac chapter.1: MPwri Basic Steps Step Program Area 1.1: MPwri Main Menu.1.1. Table 8.2 Meyer & Associates.512 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . Select program options Data menu 4. Open an existing MPwri data file (*. Input required data Wellbore hydraulics Zones Treatment schedule Rock properties Thermal/Poro-stress Thermal front Fluid loss data Cake Properties Data menu 5. Please refer to the MFrac Chapter for a complete description of the fracture input data. Specify units (optional) Units menu 3. Run simulation Run menu 6. The items unique to MPwri are described in the following sections: Options . Inc. the menus are accessed from left to right with the exception of the Units and Database menus. Generate report Report menu Menu The MPwri menu bar is shown in Figure 8.Section 8. Figure 8. Generally. An outline of the basic steps for using MPwri is shown in Table 8.Fracturing Simulator Only features unique to MPwri will be presented in this chapter.mpwri) or create a new File menu data file. Meyer User’s Guide . 2.

8.Section 8.2 Options 513 Data Input .5 The data sections are in the same order as in the MFrac Chapter for ease of reference. The Data Options screen determines what information is needed for a particular type of analysis. select Options from the Data menu by clicking the menu name.Section 8. These options establish the input data required and specify the nature of the calculations to be performed. 8.2 Options To access the Data Options screen. Figure 8.4 Plots .2: Data Options Screen.Section 8. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The specific data displayed in a screen or the existence of a data screen itself varies depending on the options selected. The dialog box displayed in Figure 8.3 • Thermal/Poro-elastic Stress Properties • Thermal/Water Front Data • Treatment Schedule Run . The selections made in the Data Options screen set the scope for all data entered in the MPwri program. .2 will then be presented.

General Options The General Options screen allows the user to specify the type of analysis to be performed. Although the closed system.where the average reservoir pressure is maintained at the initial reservoir pressure. Meyer User’s Guide . Reservoir Coupling This option provides control and flexibility for the fluid loss mechanisms. Three reservoir boundary conditions are available for ellipsoidal fluid loss: 1) Closed system . constant pressure b. Inc. The Filtration Law and Thermal Stress options are features unique to MPwri. and 3) Pseudo-Steady State .no flow boundaries. the leakoff velocity at early times Meyer & Associates. That is. the production rate is equal to the injection rate resulting in a pseudo-steady state pressure behavior of the reservoir.2 shows the data screen speed buttons at the top of the dialog box. This model assumes an ellipsoidal (2D) fluid loss model based on the work of Koning. All data screens in MPwri now contain these speed buttons to make it easier to go from one data screen to another without pressing OK or Cancel.514 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . The pseudo-steady state solution is based on the assumption that the reservoir is in a pseudosteady-state mode of injection and production. Figure 8. Linear (Conventional) The Linear or Conventional option is the standard type of fluid loss mechanism where the rate of fluid loss to the formation is governed by the total leakoff coefficient C. 2) Constant pressure boundary condition (b. and steady-state fluid loss are not diffusion controlled at long injection periods. This option should only be used if the leakoff distance perpendicular to the fracture is much less than the fracture length Ellipsoidal (Koning) This option should be used for long periods of produced water reinjection or waterflood injection.) at the initial reservoir pressure. Conventional is the standard diffusion type fluid loss model as used in MFrac.2 shows the MPwri General Options screen.Fracturing Simulator Figure 8. See the MFrac chapter for additional information on the conventional leakoff mechanisms.c. Selecting a speed button has the same effect as pressing OK when exiting a dialog. The SteadyState option is useful for long injection times when the leakoff rate is no longer controlled by diffusion but rather by steady-state injection and production.c. This is referred to as diffusion type leakoff because the fluid loss mechanism is diffusion controlled.

This results is a lower BHTP and more contained fracture. when thermal stresses are included one should also include poro-elastic effects. From this information. The governing equations for the ellipsoidal fluid loss model are given in Appendix J. Consequently. the thermal and poro-elastic stresses can be calculated (see Appendix J).c. the modified minimum horizontal stresses due to thermal effects are seen by the fracture. If you exclude thermal and poro-elastic stresses. the fluid injected is cooler than the reservoir temperature which for large injection times and volumes.2 Options 515 is diffusion controlled or linear (i. if poro-elastic stresses are included this will increase the minimum horizontal stress in layers with large leakoff volumes. the resulting leakoff velocity for the constant pressure b. initial stress. When the Ellipsoidal law is specified. will result in a lowering of the minimum horizontal stresses in zones that have fluid leakoff (if only thermal stresses are included). The Constant fluid loss option will be dimmed. At large dimensionless times. This option accounts for the fluid loss behavior changing from the conventional diffusion leakoff to a steady-state fluid loss controlled mechanism. they can in some special cases (under pseudo-steady conditions when the thermal front is well ahead of the fracture) be modelled using modified stresses in layers where thermal and poro-elastic stresses become time independent. If either thermal or poro-elastic stresses are included a Thermal/Poro-Elastic Properties Table must be input. . Thermal and Poro-Elastic Stresses Options are available to Include or Exclude Thermal and/or Poro-elastic stresses.8. and coefficient of thermal expansion and layer temperature (if thermal stresses are included) and Biot’s constant (only if poro-elastic effects are included). However. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. and steady-state behavior approaches an asymptotic value. Normally. Inc. This table includes the zone layer (depth). the leakoff velocity is inversely proportional to the square root of time). either the Harmonic or Dynamic Fluid Loss Model must be chosen. This results in a constant leakoff velocity since as time increases the fracture length asymptotes to a constant value. If the thermal front is ahead of the fracture leading edge.e.

A detailed description of the components characterizing the Harmonic and Dynamic models is given in Appendix D and J and in the Fluid Loss Data section of this chapter. This option determines which fluid leakoff model is used.wall building effects. and 3) CIII . and 3) Calculate Fracture Skin.reservoir viscosity and compressibility effects.leakoff viscosity and relative permeability effects. Inc. The total leakoff and spurt loss coefficients are then input as a function of depth to characterize fluid loss in the fracture at different intervals. The fluid ahead of the thermal front is assumed to be at the reservoir temperature and the fluid behind the thermal front is at the fluid temperature specified in this dialog box. the three additional options available are: 1) Input Filter Cake. Fluid Loss Model Two fluid loss models are available: 1) Constant and 2) Dynamic.516 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . the rate of fluid loss to the formation is governed by the total leakoff coefficient C. Meyer User’s Guide . Dynamic Model For the Harmonic model. the total leakoff coefficient. The thermal and water fronts are calculated based on the rate of creation of energy and mass. There is no option for heat transfer in the wellbore or fracture because of the long injection periods that result in the fluid temperature in the wellbore and fracture being equal to the injection temperature. If the reservoir coupling is ellipsoidal only the dynamic fluid loss option is available. C. Constant If Constant is selected. The injection fluid temperature is also used to calculate the induced thermoelastic stresses. The fluid loss model options include specifying the total leakoff coefficient (Constant Model) or the CIII coefficient and the corresponding components which comprise CI and CII (Harmonic or Dynamic Models). is entered in the Fluid Loss Data screen. If the Reservoir coupling is selected as linear. Meyer & Associates. 2) CII .Fracturing Simulator Fluid Temperature The fracture fluid temperature is specified in this dialog box. 2) Input Fracture Skin. The three types of flow resistance mechanisms making up C are: 1) CI .

viscosity. the model assumes that the cake.3: Fracture Options. Please refer to Appendix J for additional information of the definition of internal and external fracture skin. the wall building coefficient must be input in the table. If the Input Fracture Skin option is selected. the user will be asked to input an Internal Skin and External Skin for each layer. . the simulator will remember the fluid loss history if the fracture closes and then re-opens. Figure 8. This option should be selected to include the effect of when multiple open/close cycles are generated. If this option is checked. Include Fluid Loss History If the Include Fluid Loss History check box under Fluid Loss Model option is checked. See MFrac “Fracture Options” on page 88 for additional information. If the Calculate Fracture skin option is selected. Inc. Figure 8. Fracture Options This group of options is accessed by clicking the Fracture tab found on the Data Options screen. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. skin. the user must enter the particulate properties given in the Cake Properties dialog. The Fracture Options provide choices for the fracture geometry model and constitutive relationships that affect the fracture solution methodology.8.3 shows the Fracture Option choices. and compressibility effects from the previous fracture remain upon re-opening.2 Options 517 If Input Filter Cake is selected.

the conditions or case sensitive options for a data screen are noted and an example of the resulting dialog shown. When pertinent.3 Data Input The following sections pertain to the features unique to MPwri in the Data menu. General Tab The General tab for the Waterflood Treatment Schedule is shown in Figure 8.4: Input Treatment Schedule – General Tab. the General tab and the Stages tab. Meyer & Associates.Fracturing Simulator 8. Figure 8.4. The data screens applicable for MPwri are presented below. Meyer User’s Guide . The General tab contains dialog boxes for Schedule Type and Wellbore. All other MPwri data menus are covered in detail along with a description of the data dialogs and their associated variables under MFrac. Two tabs are listed under Treatment Schedule.518 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . Inc. Treatment Schedule The input Treatment Design schedule for waterflood applications is given below.

If pumping from Surface. paste. rates.5 means that the well is 50% filled. Stage Tab The Stage tab for the Waterflood Treatment Schedule is shown in Figure 8. it is necessary to specify the Flush Fluid Type. If necessary. whose rate will be used to recirculate the fluid that is at bottomhole out of the wellbore. An initial portion of the pumping schedule can be recirculated by entering a slurry volume in the Recirculation Volume box. specify the Flush Fluid Type. This is selected in the same way as the Wellbore Fluid Type as described above. A value of 0. etc. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Use the toolbar located at the top of the screen to control functions such as cut. enter a fraction (0-1) in the Fraction of Well Filled box.5. For reference. . you can specify a Recirculation Volume. A value of one (1) indicates the wellbore is 100% filled.) represent surface or bottomhole conditions. When pumping from Bottomhole.3 Data Input 519 Schedule Type In the Schedule Type dialog box. All stages with a total slurry volume less than the Recirculation Volume will be recirculated.g. This type of treatment schedule uses a spreadsheet type of interface as shown. specify a Wellbore Fluid Type. select Surface or Bottomhole to specify whether the data entered (e. Select Ramp Particulates Concentration when the option to calculate fracture skin is enabled in the General Options. Along with the Wellbore Volume displayed from the wellbore hydraulics screen. Wellbore The wellbore dialog box is related to the initial condition of the wellbore. If pumping from Bottomhole. This is useful for setting stages. copy. If the Stage Friction Multiplier box is selected the Wellbore Fluid Friction Multiplier can be specified. To indicate a partially filled wellbore. Select Stage Friction Multipliers to enter friction multipliers for each stage. insert. delete and fill down (see “Working with Spreadsheets and Dialogs” on page 23). Inc. the Wellbore Fluid Type (surface) or Flush Fluid Type (bottomhole) and Wellbore Volume are displayed.. Select Stage Recirculation to allow the selection of stages. You can also specify whether the well is filled or partially filled prior to injection. a fraction of a stage may be recirculated. such as in Frac-Packs. to enter from/to values for the total suspended solids (TSS) and oil-in-water (OIW) concentrations for each stage.8. volumes.

Fracturing Simulator Figure 8. Thermal/Poro-elastic Stresses The Thermal/Poro-elastic Stress Properties dialog box provides a table for entering the Coefficient of Thermal Expansion. the Recirculate column will appear in the table to allow the selection of stages. To aid in defining the Treatment Schedule. Figure 8. while the selected stage is injected at the surface. When the Stage Recirculation option is selected on the General tab. the selected stage is the one that is recirculated out of the wellbore. When the option to calculate fracture skin is enabled in the General Options.520 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection .6 shows the dialog layout when both the thermal and poro-elastic stress options are selected.5: Treatment Schedule – Stages Tab. and Biot’s constant (only if poro-elastic stresses are included) as a function of depth. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. that is recirculated out of the wellbore. For surface schedules. the last column of the table has a Variable Column list box. it is the fluid that is bottomhole. which displays either the Total Time or Total Volume injected. columns for particulate concentrations will appear in the table for the total suspended solids (TSS) and oil-in-water (OIW) concentrations for each stage. and formation Layer Temperature (only if thermal stresses are included). whose rate will be used to recirculate the fluid that is at bottomhole out of the wellbore. Meyer & Associates. For bottomhole schedules.

is used to calculate the thermal stresses in the formation as a function of depth.  . The Thermal/Poro-elastic Stress data must be input after the Rock Properties data. This data is taken from the Rock Properties dialog box. . This value can only be changed in the Rock Properties dialog. Coefficient of Thermal Expansion The Coefficient of Thermal Expansion.6: Thermal/Poro-elastic Stress Properties Table.8. if the injection temperature is less than the reservoir temperature the thermoelastic stresses will be negative.3 Data Input 521 Figure 8. The magnitude of the thermal stresses will Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Appendix J has a complete list of the Thermal/Poro-elastic stress equations. Therefore. Zone Depth The zone depth is the TVD at the bottom of the zone. Behind the thermal front (and toward the wellbore). Ahead of the thermal front. Initial Stress The Initial Stress is the stress value input as a function of depth in the Rock Properties dialog. This depth can only be changed in the Rock Properties dialog. Inc. the modified stresses as a result of thermal and poro-elastic effects are seen by the fracture system. the stresses are equal to the initial formation stresses plus any poro-elastic effects.

Meyer & Associates. Layer Temperature This is the formation layer temperature. The temperature difference for thermal stresses is calculated from T = T i – T f where T i is the injection temperature and T f is the formation layer temperature. This data is used to calculate the thermal front. is used to account for the magnitude of the ellipsoidal pressure extent around the fracture.e. waterfront. Thermal/Water Front Data The Thermal/Water Front Data screen is shown in Figure 8.5x10-6/C). Inc.7. ellipsoidal waterflood shape.  where 0    1 .. A description of the input data is discussed below.Fracturing Simulator increase as this coefficient increases. Meyer User’s Guide . oil displacement and leakoff characteristics.522 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . 10-6/C to 2. Biot’s Constant The change in the minimum horizontal stress is related to the change in the pore pressure by Biot’s Constant. The general form of the poro-elastic equation (see Appendix J) is  3 p 1 – 2 =  --------------- f k p  f  a 1 b 1 h   1– where the Perkins factor. f  a 1 b 1 h  . Typical coefficients of thermal expansion for rocks are 2x10-6 /F to 5x10-6/F (i.

8. Very thin layers can be modelled for fluid loss with the thermo- Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. For waterflood applications. specific gravity. this fluid is oil.7: Thermal/Water Front Data Screen.3 Data Input 523 Figure 8. Typically. The internal database associated with the injected fluid is used in the calculation of the thermal front. Inc. . Reservoir Lithology The Reservoir Lithology represents the primary rock type in the region to be fractured. the user should specify Water. etc. Minimum Reservoir Height The Minimum Reservoir Height is used as a minimum layer thickness for calculating the thermoelastic coefficient. In-situ Fluid The In-situ Fluid is the formation fluid that occupies the pores. heat capacity. Injected Fluid The injected fluid represents the properties (thermal conductivity.) of the fracturing fluid. The minor axis to thickness ratio will be calculated based on the maximum value of the reservoir layer thickness or the minimum reservoir height.

Meyer & Associates. x e . The reservoir is assumed to be a square with sides of half-length xe = 1  2 A = ( Re =  A    12 R e where the equivalent drainage radius is defined as ). If the reservoir is of infinite extent simply put in a very large value. is used in the dimensionless pressure solution for fluid leakoff. The specific data required by the program depends on which fluid loss model is selected in the General Options dialog. A . If the reservoir is of infinite extent simply put in a very large value. although they may. Reservoir Half-Length The Reservoir Half-Length is used in the dimensionless pressure solution for fluid leakoff. Fluid Loss Data To model fluid loss from the fracture into the reservoir and surrounding layers. The reservoir is assumed to be a square. A maximum of 1000 layers is permitted in both the Rock Properties and Fluid Loss data screens. The format for the fluid loss data entry is flexible and allows anything from a single layer reservoir to multi-layered zones with diverse properties. will be calculated from ( A = 4xe2 ). The minimum reservoir height input prevents the thermoelastic coefficient from being unity for small laminated reservoir intervals with a small minor axis where the minor axis to thickness ratio is large.524 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . Drainage Area The Drainage Area. is input. If the reservoir half-length. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . the drainage area. A .Fracturing Simulator elastic and poro-elastic effects being simulated over a greater height. additional information characterizing the formation and in-situ diffusivity parameters is necessary. The drainage half-length/area is only used if the Reservoir Coupling option is set to Ellipsoidal. It is not necessary for these depths to correspond directly to the depths specified in the Rock Properties screen. This results in a smaller thermoelastic coefficient for small fluid penetration in the minor axis. The drainage half-length/area is only used if the Reservoir Coupling option is set to Ellipsoidal.

8. Inc. the reservoir porosity and fluid saturations are required to calculate the water and thermal fronts. When the Constant Fluid Loss Model is chosen. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.8: Fluid Loss Data Dialog Box . it is not necessary to calculate the three individual linear flow resistance mechanisms CI.3 Data Input 525 Please refer to Appendix D for a detailed description of the individual leakoff coefficients which control fluid loss. Constant Fluid Loss Model This option is only available if the Reservoir Coupling is set to Linear. However. and CIII (see Appendix D). CII. When this model is used. and CTotal coefficients for each layer are entered in the Fluid Loss Data screen shown in Figure 8. The specific data required by the program when using a Constant Fluid Loss Coefficient Model is as follows: Zones An optional zone name can be specified for each layer to help organize the fluid loss data properties table. the total leakoff. .Constant Fluid Loss Model. Figure 8. compressibility and viscosity are not required for this option because they are inherently included in the total coefficient. The diffusivity parameters of permeability. and S iw is the irreducible water saturation. The mobile porosity is also displayed (non-editable) as calculated from  m =   1 – S or – S iw  where S or is the residual oil saturation.8. There is no Spurt Loss for produced water reinjection or waterflood.

e. The reservoir parameters are assumed to have constant properties over this interval. This porosity is calculated from  m =   1 – S or – S iw  and is not editable. Oil Displacement Factor = 1. The mobile porosity is used to calculate the CI and CII leakoff coefficients used to simulate fluid loss during injection. Residual Hydrocarbon Saturation The residual hydrocarbon saturation is the fraction of the total oil or gas initially in place that is immobile. By convention. Hydrocarbon Saturation The hydrocarbon saturation is the fraction of the total porosity initially filled with oil or gas. the depth entered is the true vertical depth TVD at the bottom of the interval. This factor is directly related to the irreducible or residual oil saturation (i. Irreducible Water Saturation The irreducible water saturation is the fraction of the water that is immobile.Fracturing Simulator Depth at Bottom The TVD depth at the bottom of the zone (Depth at Bottom) is the next entry. The general diffusional leakoff velocity is  = C t– Meyer & Associates. These leakoff coefficients are discussed in Appendix D. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. Total Leakoff Coefficient The total leakoff coefficient is a combination of the CI. water. CII and CIII leakoff mechanisms. This value is also used to determine the extent of the water front (see Appendix J).526 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . Total Porosity The total reservoir porosity is the fraction of a rock’s bulk volume that is filled with hydrocarbons. and gas. By convention. Mobile Porosity The mobile or equivalent reservoir porosity is the fraction of a rock’s bulk volume that is filled with mobile hydrocarbons.. The total leakoff coefficient is used in calculating the time dependent leakoff velocity and overall fluid loss based on mass conservation.irreducible oil saturation). The Oil Displacement Factor is the fraction of oil that is displaced by the water. this is the true vertical depth (TVD) at the bottom of each zone or layer.

an optional Zone name is permitted to assist in preparing and organizing the data. Figure 8. . Please refer to Appendix D for additional information. or 3) Calculate Fracture Skin. the wall building coefficient must be input in the table. This equation illustrates that the fluid loss volume is proportional to the leakoff coefficient and leakoff area product.8. The total fluid loss volume to the formation is t A Vl = 2   v dA dt 0 0 = CA t where  is a fluid loss parameter and A is the total leakoff area (one face) for both wings. the user will be asked to input an Internal Skin and External Skin for each layer. Inc.9 illustrates the input parameters when the internal and external skin are input. Dynamic Fluid Loss Model When the Dynamic fluid loss model is chosen three additional options are available for modeling fluid loss. The parameters required for this option are described below. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. If the Input Fracture Skin option is selected. the user must enter the particulate properties given in the Cake Properties dialog. If Input Filter Cake is selected. Also like the Rock Properties. In the Options screen the user can specify either 1) Input Filter Cake. If the Calculate Fracture skin option is selected. For multi-layer leakoff. are input as a function of the TVD depth. These properties. 2) Input Fracture Skin.3 Data Input 527 where t is time and  is the initial time of fluid leakoff. spurt loss is calculated in each layer separately. like the Rock Properties.

Dynamic Fluid Loss Model (Input Fracture Skin). Reservoir Pressure The reservoir or pore pressure is used in conjunction with the minimum horizontal stress and fracture pressure to calculate the differential pressure for leakoff.9: Fluid Loss Data Dialog Box . ( p f –  Hmin ) differential leakoff pressure . Depth at Bottom The TVD depth at the bottom of the zone (Depth at Bottom) is the next entry. By convention. this is the true vertical depth (TVD) at the bottom of each zone or layer. A detailed description of the Linear and Ellipsoidal fluid loss models are given in Appendix J. The leakoff pressure differential is p loss = p f – p 0 = p f +   Hmin – p 0  where  Hmin = pf = p0 p f p loss = = = minimum horizontal stress pressure in the fracture pore or reservoir pressure net fracture pressure. The specific data required for the Dynamic Fluid Loss Model for the various options is as follows: Zone An optional zone name can be specified for each layer to help organize the rock properties table.Figure 8.

When a well has been produced for some period of time. enter the initial reservoir pore pressure for the productive interval. gas caps.. the value entered should be less than the minimum horizontal stress. Variations in pore pressure versus depth can be inferred and entered based on gradient measurements and/or the fluid saturation changes within the interval (e.g. Inc.).8.3 Data Input 529 The pressure difference between the minimum horizontal stress and average pore pressure is. In all cases. . It is the reciprocal of the undrained bulk modulus and is typically expressed as follows: ct = So co + Sw cw + Sg cg + cr where cg co cr ct cw Sg So Sw = = = = = = = = gas compressibility oil compressibility bulk rock compressibility total formation compressibility water compressibility gas saturation oil saturation water saturation The compressibility is used to relate the permeability and porosity with pressure and time using the expression leakoff pressure differential is 2 p k  p  =  -----------  2   c t   t z  Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Total Compressibility The total reservoir compressibility is defined as the total change in the reservoir volume per unit volume per unit pressure difference. For new wells. therefore. aquifers. a critical component in calculating the CI and CII leakoff coefficients. enter the average reservoir pressure as interpreted from a well test. This value is typically obtained from either a production log or well test. etc.

Meyer User’s Guide .   dx where q k  dp  dx = = = = flow rate per unit area formation permeability reservoir fluid viscosity pressure gradient The permeability/mobility is used to calculate the CII coefficient in order to model the rate of fluid leakoff into the formation during injection. The CI coefficient is calculated from the permeability and filtrate viscosity.Fracturing Simulator where k ct   z p t = = = = = = = formation permeability total formation compressibility formation porosity reservoir fluid viscosity distance pressure time Permeability The reservoir permeability is the formation property that characterizes its ability to transfer a fluid through the pores when subjected to a pressure gradient. The Oil Displacement Factor is the fraction of oil that is dis- Meyer & Associates. water. Total Porosity The total reservoir porosity is the fraction of a rock’s bulk volume that is filled with hydrocarbons. An effective permeability to the frac fluid filtrate is used to derive CI. From Darcy's law k dp q = – --. The values entered should reflect the effective permeability to the mobile portion of the reservoir fluid. and gas. Inc. Residual Hydrocarbon Saturation The residual hydrocarbon saturation is the fraction of the total oil or gas initially in place that is immobile.530 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . Hydrocarbon Saturation The hydrocarbon saturation is the fraction of the total porosity initially filled with oil or gas.

 e . Mobile Porosity The mobile or equivalent reservoir porosity is the fraction of a rock’s bulk volume that is filled with mobile hydrocarbons. This parameter is used to calculate the CI coefficient for modeling viscosity and relative permeability effects caused by fracturing fluid leakoff to the formation.e. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. This porosity is calculated from  m =   1 – S or – S iw  and is not editable. This is the fracturing fluid which leaks off through the fracture face. Irreducible Water Saturation The irreducible water saturation is the fraction of the water that is immobile. This value is used in calculating the CII leakoff coefficient for modeling leakoff resistance due to the viscosity and compressibility effects of the in-situ fluids. This is especially important for a gas reservoir. Oil Displacement Factor = 1. Reservoir Viscosity The equivalent reservoir viscosity is the total effective viscosity of a multi-phase fluid system at reservoir conditions.8. The effective leakoff viscosity. Wall Building Coefficient The wall building coefficient is only require if the Dynamic fluid loss option is selected to Input Filter Cake. This factor is directly related to the irreducible or residual oil saturation (i. Filtrate Viscosity The filtrate viscosity is the effective leakoff viscosity of the fracturing fluid. The mobile porosity is used to calculate the CI and CII leakoff coefficients used to simulate fluid loss during injection.3 Data Input 531 placed by the water.irreducible oil saturation).. Inc. This value is also used to determine the extent of the water front (see Appendix J). This viscosity has been reduced from its original state due to the deposition of polymer on the fracture face which forms a filter cake. . The effective fluid leakoff viscosity must also account for the relative permeability effect of the leakoff fluid to that of the reservoir fluid. in terms of the fluid leakoff viscosity and relative permeability is e = f  kr where  f is the true fluid leakoff viscosity and k r is the relative permeability of the leakoff to the reservoir fluid.

spurt loss is calculated in each layer separately. The slope of this relationship is proportional to the Wall Building Coefficient (see Figure D.Fracturing Simulator The wall building or filter cake coefficient is equivalent to the inverse of the fracturing fluid leakoff resistance.10. >100 ft/min½) represents no wall building.----------------------------------------Lt 2    The effective external skin based on the filter cake thickness at the wellbore from Appendix J is sf external 1  c  t  k    = --------------. It reduces the fluid loss rate by increasing the resistance due to leakoff at the fracture face. Refer to Appendix D additional information. This will then display the Time Dependent Fluid Loss screen shown in Figure 8.g. The internal fracture skin for linear leakoff from Appendix J is sf internal   k  ks – 1  1 x=0 = ----------------.-------------. Input Fracture Skin The internal and external fracture skins are input for each layer. Time Dependent Fluid Loss To use time dependent fluid loss. If Meyer & Associates.. 2    L  t  k c   c  The reader is referred to Appendix J for a detailed outline of the governing equations for ellipsoidal skin factors. The wall building coefficient is typically acquired by performing either a static or dynamic laboratory test to determine the relationship between volume loss and time. The input fracture skins are assumed to remain constant (note: use the Calculate Fracture Skin option for time dependent fracture skins). Meyer User’s Guide . whereas. if the Input Fracture Skin option is selected. the nomenclature is also presented in Appendix J.2 in the Meyer Appendices). For multi-layer leakoff. This coefficient is used in calculating the total leakoff coefficient C. Inc. a CIII value approaching infinity (e. open the Time Dependent Fluid Loss tab. -----------.532 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . A value of zero (0) represents an infinite filter cake resistance.

Figure 8. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.10: Time Dependent Fluid Loss Data Table This feature allows you to increase or decrease the fluid loss multiplier as a function of time.8. Inc. The three sections of the cake properties screen are described below. open the Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss tab. If pressure dependent fluid loss is to be modeled simply check the ‘Enable Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss’ check box and enter the desired fluid loss multipliers. enter time dependent fluid multipliers. This is helpful for modeling leakoff in naturally fractured reservoirs. simply check the ‘Enable Time Dependent Fluid Loss’ check box as shown in Figure 8. natural fractures open and accelerated leakoff occurs. Cake Properties The internal and external cake properties screen shown in Figure 8.10. A zero slope on the Nolte plot may characterize this period of accelerated leakoff.11 is available when the Fluid Loss Model is set to Calculate Fracture Skin within the Data Options screen. When the critical pressure of the formation is reached. the pressure in the fracture may approach the critical pressure. While fracturing a naturally fractured formation. This will then display the Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss screen. . To use this feature. Pressure Dependent Fluid Loss To use pressure dependent fluid loss.3 Data Input 533 time dependent fluid loss is to be modeled.

To edit an existing damage model. Meyer User’s Guide . The FDM (Filtration Damage Meyer & Associates. The fraction of particulates that are deposited internally and externally for the DDM may also be specified. Inc.534 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . Damage models are stored within the damage model database. Code and Description identify the damage model associated with the current case.Fracturing Simulator Figure 8.Internal and External. select the Damage Model DB button. or to create a new damage model entry. Internal Deposition The internal deposition input data allows for specifying the fraction of mobile and deposition particulates.11: Cake Properties . Model The parameters on the cake properties screen are associated with a damage model.

If Face is specified the filter cake will build on the walls. If On is selected the cake wall friction effects will be included. Cake Deposition The fraction of external cake deposition on the fracture face and at the fracture tip can be specified using the options of Face. if the fracture has positive growth/propagation the fluid loss reduction at the tip would be minimized. External Deposition The external deposition options are discussed below. Deposition Distribution If the Displacement Damage Model (DDM) is selected. The reduction factor ranges from zero. to unity for full reduction. However. Cake Wall Friction Effects The cake wall friction effects accounts for the additional resistance (frictional pressure loss) in the fracture due to narrowing of the fracture width for fluid flow due to a build up of the external filter cake.3 Data Input 535 Model) allows for non-deposition of particulates but once the external cake starts to build the internal deposition stops as discussed in Appendix J. A reduction factor of unity (1) signifies that there is no fluid loss through the fracture area at the tip that has external cake deposited. or User Specified. Particulate Deposition The fraction of total suspended solids (TSS) or oil/water injected into the formation that are not included in the cake building process are defined to be Non-Deposition/Mobile. If Off is selected friction effects will be ignored which may result in a cake thickness greater that the fracture width. Inc. no deduction factor. Fluid Loss Reduction at Tip If cake is deposited at the tip of the fracture there may be a reduction in the fluid leakoff rate as a result of the pressure loss through the cake at the tip. If the Filtration Damage Model (FDM) is selected from the database the deposition distribution options are dimmed. If erosion of the filter cake takes place Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . If fluid Loss reduction at the tip is selected as On the user can specify the leakoff area reduction factor from the trailing edge of the cake to the tip.8. a deposition distribution is required for both the internal and external cake. Tip. It is suggested that this option be specified as On. A factor of zero (0) means there is no reduction of fluid loss at the tip as a result of cake build up.

13. it is time to perform calculations. All open Simulation Data windows and plots will be updated to show the current state of the simulation. This plot only displays the zone with the greatest fluid loss volume The minor to major axis aspect ratio is illustrated in Figure 8. Waterflooding Plots Figure 8. and the fracture length at the end of pumping.Graphical Presentation This section describes the plots unique to MPwri. select the Run command from the Run menu. the user can specify the fraction of TSS and OIW that are wall building with the remaining fraction being deposited at the tip. To start the simulation. The fraction of external cake at the wall or tip can range from zero to unity. Inc. 8.Fracturing Simulator (which may occur depending on the damage model database selected) the eroded cake will be deposited at the tip. If Tip is specified all the cake will only be deposited at the tip and no wall building will occur. If User Specified is selected. See “Run Options” on page 69 for information about the available run options. 8.536 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection .4 Run/Performing Calculations Once all of the required data relevant to the options selected have been entered.5 Plots .12 illustrates the water and thermal front profiles. Meyer User’s Guide . Meyer & Associates.

Inc.8.Graphical Presentation 537 Figure 8. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. .5 Plots .12: Thermal/Water Front Profiles.

13: Thermal/Water Front Aspect Ratio as a Function of Time. water and fracture major fronts as a function of time are shown in Figure 8. Meyer User’s Guide .Fracturing Simulator Figure 8.538 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . The thermal. Meyer & Associates.14. Inc.

5 Plots . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. .Graphical Presentation 539 Figure 8. Inc.8.14: Thermal/Water and Fracture Fronts.

540 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection .15: Thermal/Poro-Stresses and Fronts with Fracture Profile Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide .Fracturing Simulator Figure 8. Inc.

.Graphical Presentation 541 Figure 8.Two Limited Entry Fractures Figure 8.16: Volume Loss versus Depth .17: Injectivity Index versus Time Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.8.5 Plots . Inc.

Fracturing Simulator Particulate Transport Plots Figure 8.18: TSS/OIW Fronts Figure 8. Inc.542 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection .19: Major Axis Fronts Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide .

Graphical Presentation 543 Figure 8.20: Minor Axis Fronts Figure 8. Inc.21: TSS/OIW Front Aspect Ratios Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.5 Plots . .8.

22: Volume Distribution TSS Figure 8. Meyer User’s Guide .23: Volume Distribution OIW Meyer & Associates.Fracturing Simulator Figure 8. Inc.544 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection .

25: Fracture/Cake Volume Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Inc.8. .Graphical Presentation 545 Figure 8.24: Particulate Volume Distribution Total Figure 8.5 Plots .

546 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection .Fracturing Simulator Figure 8.6 Program Database MPwri shares the majority of its databases with MFrac.26: Skin Pressure Loss Figure 8.27: TSS/OIW Front Profiles 8. See “Program Databases” on page 218 for more information. Meyer & Associates. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide .

The first screen presented is the Damage Model List dialog shown in Figure 8. When either the Add button or the Edit button is used to create or edit a damage model. the screen shown in Figure 8. click on the Close button. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . a blank screen is presented providing a template for the entry of data. Any damage model record contained in the User Database can be edited by selecting the record and clicking the Edit button or by double-clicking on the record. To exit the Damage Model database dialog box. You can Edit a record. Once Damage Models have been created. Inc.28.29 appears permitting the data to be entered. viewed or modified. Figure 8. Copy a record or Add a new record to the list by choosing the appropriate button. they can be repositioned by using the Up and Down buttons.8.6 Program Database 547 Damage Model Database To enter the Damage Model Database select the Damage Model Database command from the Database menu.28: Damage Model Database Dialog Box. For a new damage model. A new blank record can be created with the Add button. Delete a record.

Saturation Model The internal cake concentration and saturation distribution in the formation is expressed in the following form S D = S  S * = f  z   Meyer & Associates.Internal Damage Internal Damage Parameters The Code is a unique seven (7) character used to identify the damage model. A description of the damage model may be specified in the Description field.Fracturing Simulator Figure 8.548 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection .29: Edit . The saturation and permeability models are discussed in great detail in Appendix J. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide .

S D = S  S * is the dimensionless partic- ulate saturation. Table 8.0 i DDM S D = 1. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Table 8.0 ii FDM SD = e – az iii DDM SD = e – a iv DDM SD =  1 –   v DDM SD = 1 –  – az 1–e S D =  ------------------ az –a SD a a 1–e =  ----------------  a  SD = 1   1 + a  SD = a   1 + a  Permeability Model The internal permeability damage in the formation is expressed in the following form k D = k s  k = f  S D V V p  where k D is the internal damaged permeability ratio.2: Internal Saturation Distribution Functions Correlation Model DDM or FDM Dimensionless Saturation Average Dimensionless Saturation SD = S  S * SD = S  S* S D = 1.8. V is the volume loss of fluid per unit area. Inc.6 Program Database where 549 z is the elliptical particulate position in the formation. and V p is the volume loss of particulates per unit area as a function of position in the formation.  = z  z max is the dimensionless position in the formation and z max is the internal damage zone elliptical leading front (edge). k is the formation permeability. k s is the damaged permea- bility.2 lists a number of general relationships used in MPwri for the DDM and FDM models where a is a user specified constant. .

3 lists a number of general relationships used in MPwri for the internal permeability damage for both the DDM and FDM models. Inc. Dimensionless Saturation are constants Meyer User’s Guide . Table 8. where a b c d I DDM or FDM kD = a IIi DDM or FDM 1 k D = ------------------1 + bS Da III DDM or FDM k D = a +  1 – a   1 – s Db  IVa DDM k D = a +  1 – a  exp  –  Vb  c  IVb DDM k D = a +  1 – a  exp  –  V p b  c  Va DDM k D = a + b exp  –  V  c  d  Vb DDM k D = a + b exp  –  V p c  d  Meyer & Associates.550 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection .3: Internal Permeability Damage Models Correlation Model Suggested Use DDM or FDM k D = k s  k .Fracturing Simulator Table 8.

8. of the filter cake.30: Edit .External Damage External Damage Parameters Cake Permeability This is the permeability of the external filter cake. The greater the porosity the faster the filter cake builds for a given concentration and fluid loss volume per unit area. Inc. The lower the cake permeability the greater the resistance and fracture skin will be. . k c . Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.  c .6 Program Database 551 Figure 8. Cake Porosity This is the external cake porosity.

 c . 1 –  c  cs The filter cake resistance at the maximum thickness is Rs max c max = --------------kc Typically one assumes that the maximum filter cake thickness (one face) should be less than 1/2 the fracture width. However. The minimum cake thickness must be less than or equal to the maximum value. The minimum filter cake resistance is then Rs min c min = -------------kc Cake Build Coefficient Normally the filter cake is assumed to build proportional to the volume loss per unit area (i. The filter cake thickness does not necessarily have to have a physical meaning with respect to the fracture width but rather as a calculated parameter for mass conservation and a mechanism for fluid leakoff resistance based on the user input cake properties. the filter cake thickness may be greater than the fracture half-width.552 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection .e. max and corresponding fracture skin. if filter cake embedment/compaction occurs or if one assumes that the filter cake is outside the fracture control volume. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . If no erosion occurs this value can be set equal to the maximum cake thickness. linear build rate)  c  t   V  t  A more general form of this equation for non-linear building of the filter cake is Meyer & Associates. Minimum Cake Erosion Thickness This is the minimum cake thickness after erosion.. The Maximum Volume Loss per Unit Area after transition to reach the maximum filter cake thickness is given by V max  1 – cs  =  c  t  -----------------.Fracturing Simulator Maximum Filter Cake Thickness This input variable allows one to limit the maximum filter cake thickness.

the  g » 1 . The filter cake thickness during erosion is then  c  t  =  max –  e or  max –  c  t    V  e The erosion coefficient controls the erosion rate over the time or volume to erode. Cake Erosion Coefficient The change in the filter cake thickness during the erosion process is V e  e =   max –  min   ----------  V  e where  e is erosion rate power coefficient and the change in volume loss per unit area after reaching the maximum filter cake thickness is V = V  t  – V   t max  and V   t max  is the volume loss per unit area when the filter cake reached it’s last maximum value. .6 Program Database 553  c  t   V  t  where g  g is the cake build coefficient. For a linear build rate. If filter cake will instantly grow to the maximum value and if  g  0 . the filter cake will erode instantly and then remain at the Meyer & Associates. See Appendix J for additional information of the build coefficient. Theoretically the cake build coefficient should be near unity. Inc. The filter cake grows at a faster rate for smaller build coefficients. If Meyer User’s Guide  e  0 .  g is equal to unity. If  e is set to unity the filter cake erosion will be linear with the volume loss per unit area. the filter cake will not grow until the volume loss is near the maximum value.8.

78-88.K.. Abou-Sayed.. 2.: “The Effect of Thermoelastic Stresses on Injection Well Fracturing. Defining the erosion to build rate as  = d d  d V e d V b V b = ----------V e where the volume loss per unit area to build the filter cake form  min to  max is   V b = V max – V min and V e is the volume loss per unit area required to erode the filter cake from  max to  min . J-L: “Thermally Induced Fractures: A Field Proven Analytical Model. J.” Journal of Petroleum Technology.Fracturing Simulator minimum value until the change in erosion volume is met.. February 1985. V e . Jones.. J-L. If the time to erode the filter cake is the same as the build ratio then fast then  should be set to unity. A. and Gonzalez. R. Kessler. If  e » 1 . the filter cake thickness will remain at nearly the maximum value until the change in erosion volume. M. If the erosion process is very   1 or  » 1 8.” SPE Journal. 1113-1121. The actual erosion to build rate. Meyer & Associates. and Al-Saffar. Inc. A. A. Detienne. 3. Creusot. October 1996. Erosion to Build Rate Ratio Erosion of the filter cake can also take place during produced water reinjection. N. Morales.554 MPwri: Produced Water ReInjection . The larger the erosion rate ratio the less time it takes to erode the filter cake from the maximum to the minimum thickness. is obtained. Meyer User’s Guide .H.  . is given below. B.” SPE 30777. Sahuquet.7 References 1. Perkins.A.H.: “Detection of a Formation Fracture in a Waterflooding Experiment. and Bergerot. October 1986. T.S..

& Foam Proppant Only Meyer & Associates. Inc. a lite version). MFrac can also open MFrac-Lite files which are fully compatible but should be saved as a *.1.e.mfrac files.1: MFrac-Lite and MFrac Feature Comparison..mfrac-lite). A summary of the major MFrac-Lite and MFrac feature comparisons are shown in Table 9. This simplified three-dimensional simulator provides ease of use with less input data and fewer options to choose from for applications which do not require some of the advanced features in MFrac. MFrac-Lite can open *.Chapter 9 MFrac-Lite Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator . MFrac-Lite has similar real-time capabilities as MFrac and is designed to be compatible with like features in MFrac. MFrac-Lite uses the same numerical routines as MFrac but without some of the more advanced and user specified options.Lite Version 9.mfrac-lite extension. Acid.1 Introduction MFrac-Lite is a three-dimensional hydraulic fracturing simulator similar to MFrac but with a limited number of MFrac features and capabilities (i.mfrac file. Upon importing the MFrac data will be processed to produce a compatible three-layer single layer fracture (not limited entry) MFrac-Lite file (*. Table 9. This simulator is designed for those who do not need the full functionality of MFrac. 555 Feature/Option MFrac MFrac-Lite Reservoir Coupling Linear or Ellipsoidal Linear Fluid Loss Model Options Fluid Type Dependent Include History None None Treatment Type Proppant. . This MFrac file should be saved with the *.

2 Options and Features MFrac-Lite has many of the same capabilities as MFrac but with limited features.Lite Version Table 9. select Options from the Data menu by clicking the menu name.1: MFrac-Lite and MFrac Feature Comparison. Inc. General Options To access the Options screen. Heat Transfer On or Off option Off Flow Back On or Off option Off Proppant Flow Back On or Off option Off Perforation Erosion On or Off option Off Rock Properties 1000 layers 3 layers Fluid Loss Data 1000 layers 3 layers Import LAS Yes No Limited Entry Yes. 9.1 will then be presented. Single zone Since MFrac-Lite is a subset of MFrac. the MFrac chapter should be referred to for a specific description of a given feature or data input parameter. The dialog box displayed in Figure 9. A detailed list of the MFrac-Lite features and differences between MFrac-Lite and MFrac is provided. The differences between MFrac-Lite and MFrac are presented below by category: The major differences in MFrac-Lite and MFrac is most easily distinguished by comparing the options and various other data input screens.556 MFrac-Lite: Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator . Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide . 10 multiple zones No.

The General Options not available in MFrac-Lite are: 1. MFrac also supports options for Acid and Foam. 3.1: General Data Options Screen. Inc. The Fracture Options provide choices for the fracture geometry model and constitutive relationships that affect the fracture solution methodology (see Figure 9. Reservoir Coupling. Treatment Type. There is no heat transfer option in MFrac-Lite. MFrac-Lite does not support Fluid Type Dependent or the option to Include Fluid Loss History.2). By default heat transfer is set to off and the user only needs to specify the fluid temperature at which rheological properties are evaluated. The choices are as follows: Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.2 Options and Features 557 Figure 9. The Options screen determines what information is needed for a particular type of analysis. The default in MFrac-Lite is Linear only. Heat Transfer.9. See MFrac “General Options” on page 80 for more information. Fracture Options This group of options is accessed by clicking the Fracture tab found on the Data Options screen. 2. . MFrac-Lite only supports a treatment type of Proppant. Fluid Loss Model. 4. MFrac has options for Linear and Ellipsoidal.

Inc. See MFrac “Fracture Options” on page 88 for more information.2: Fracture Options. Meyer & Associates. MFrac-Lite does not support Flowback as does MFrac. Proppant Options This group of options is accessed by clicking the Proppant tab found on the Data Options screen.3 illustrates the proppant options available. The proppant options specify the proppant transport methodology to be employed. Figure 9. Meyer User’s Guide .558 MFrac-Lite: Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator .Lite Version Figure 9.

Inc.9. The following sections pertain to the Data menu items found within the main menu. As illustrated.3 Data Input Once the Options are selected the scope of a simulation is set.3: Proppant Options. Limited entry type fractures are not supported in MFrac-Lite. Only Data menus that are different than the MFrac Data menus will be covered in this section.4). options for Proppant Flowback and Perforation Erosion are not supported in MFrac-Lite. Data may then be entered by accessing the various dialog boxes from the Data menu. Zones The Zones dialog box is used to specify the number and location of the perforated intervals and corresponding Zone Data (Figure 9. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. .3 Data Input 559 Figure 9. See MFrac “Proppant Options” on page 99 for more information. Only one perforated interval can be specified. 9. The reader is referred to the MFrac chapter for Data Input menus not covered in this chapter that are common to both simulators.

5 shows the Perforation tab screen. Zone Data Perforations Figure 9.560 MFrac-Lite: Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator . Perforation erosion is not supported in MFrac-Lite. Figure 9. Meyer & Associates.Lite Version Figure 9. See MFrac “Zones” on page 122 for more information.4: Zones Dialog Screen. Meyer User’s Guide .Perforation Tab. Inc.5: Zone Data . See MFrac “Zone Data” on page 124 for more information.

Harmonic or Dynamic Fluid loss. Inc. Fluid Loss Data To model fluid loss from the fracture into the reservoir and surrounding layers. MFrac-Lite does support an option to insert rock properties from our rock properties database (Insert from Database) but DOES NOT support an option to import mechanical rock properties (Import Log) data as does MFrac.6). Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. MFrac-Lite only supports three lithology layers. MFrac-Lite only supports Constant. The specific data required by the program depends on which fluid loss model is specified in the General Options Dialog. See MFrac “Rock Properties” on page 163 for more information. A maximum of one thousand (1000) layers can be specified in MFrac. MFrac-Lite only supports three fluid loss zones whereas MFrac supports up to a maximum of one thousand (1000) layers. MFrac-Lite supports up to three layers. Figure 9. additional information characterizing the formation and in-situ diffusivity parameters is necessary.3 Data Input 561 Rock Properties The Rock Properties dialog box provides a table for entering the mechanical properties of the reservoir and adjacent lithologies including in-situ stresses as a function of depth (see Figure 9.6: Rock Properties Dialog Box.9. .

Harmonic/Dynamic Fluid Loss Model. the total leakoff.8: Fluid Loss Data Dialog Box . Inc. The specific data required by the program when using a Constant Fluid Loss Coefficient Model is discussed in the MFrac chapter. and the Spurt Loss coefficients for each layer are entered in the Fluid Loss Data screen shown in Figure 9.Constant Fluid Loss Model. Figure 9.7: Fluid Loss Data Dialog Box .562 MFrac-Lite: Three Dimensional Hydraulic Fracturing Simulator . Figure 9. See MFrac “Fluid Loss Data” on page 182 for more information. Meyer & Associates. C . MFrac-Lite only supports three layers while MFrac supports up to one thousand. Harmonic or Dynamic Fluid Loss Models When either the Harmonic or Dynamic fluid loss models are chosen.8.Lite Version Constant Fluid Loss Model When the Constant Fluid Loss Model is chosen. Meyer User’s Guide . the filter cake coefficient ( C III ) is input for each layer desired.7. C I and CII are calculated based on the reservoir parameters input in the Fluid Loss dialog box shown in Figure 9.

MWell was designed for real-time analysis to calculate BHTP’s. from surface conditions but can also be used as a design tool for determining wellbore pressure characteristics prior to performing the treatment.mwelll) or create a new File Menu data file.mwell and *. Meyer & Associates. gravitational head. An outline of the basic steps for using MWell is shown in Table 10.mfrac-lite are compatible in that the common data is shared. Near wellbore and perforation pressure losses are also calculated to determine the bottomhole treating pressure in the formation. transport times and hydraulic power requirements in the wellbore. MWell however does provide the capability to simulate time dependent formation pressures with a user specified table for inputting the minimum horizontal stress and a time dependent net pressure (pressure above or below the reference minimum stress).1: MWell Basic Steps. Step 1. This chapter covers the available menu options and basic procedures required to run MWell. restrictions. If the formation is not fractured the reference pressure should be the reservoir pressure. Table 10. Inc. .1. MWell is structured in a manor similar to MFrac and uses the same databases.1 Introduction MWell is a wellbore hydraulics simulator for calculating surface or bottomhole pressures.Chapter 10 MWell A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator 10. The data files *.mfrac or *. MWell is essentially a subset of the MFrac simulator without the fracture simulation. 563 Program Area Open an existing MWell data file (*.

Inc.1: MWell Main Menu. Generate Report Report Menu Menu The MWell menu bar is shown in Figure 10. the menus are accessed from left to right with the exception of the Units and Database menus. View Plots during or after the simulation Plot Menu 8. 5.2 Data . Meyer User’s Guide . Generally. Figure 10.564 MWell: A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator Table 10. Run Simulation Run Menu 7. 2. Specify Units (optional) Units Menu 3. For a real-time or replay case. A description of each of the menu items is described in the following chapters or sections: File .1: MWell Basic Steps. start MView and import the MView acquired data.3 • Wellbore Hydraulics • Zones Meyer & Associates.1.Section 10.Section 10. Select Program Options Data Menu 4. Input Required Data Wellbore Hydraulics Zones Treatment Schedule Foam Schedule Data Menu 6.Chapter 10 Options .

the current selection for that Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . The dialog box displayed in Figure 10. This “smart-menu” approach. A black diamond will then appear in the center of the button selected.2: Data Options The Options screen determines what information is needed for a particular type of analysis. Any time the options are changed the input data screens will be updated to enable new input or hide data that is not needed. Simply decide the relevant options for a specific simulation and the program will only display those menus and input fields necessary.2 Options 565 10.2 will then be presented. select a radio button within the next option section or use the TAB button to move sequentially through the choices. Inc. The selections made in the Data Options screen set the scope for all data entered into the MWell program. click the radio button adjacent to the option preference. These options establish the input data required and specify the nature of the calculations to be performed. It is used to establish the primary model options in the program.2 Options The Options screen is the first input dialog box under the Data menu in MWell. Each option relates to a specific aspect of the fracture and proppant/acid modeling approach. minimizes data input and prevents unnecessary or misleading data entry. Once within a section. select Options from the Data menu by clicking the menu name. Continuing. The specific data displayed in a screen or the existence of a data screen itself varies depending on the options selected.10. This hierarchy methodology is used throughout MWell. To select an option. Figure 10. To access the Options screen.

perforation friction. wellbore pressures etc. Meyer & Associates. Real-Time The Real-Time options are only available if the Replay/Real-Time radio button is clicked On in the Simulation Method dialog. hydrostatic head. The Synchronize Well Solution radio button is used to synchronize the numerically calculated time steps for wellbore events with the replay/real-time data.566 MWell: A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator option is highlighted with a dotted rectangle. The difference between these methods only involves the source data input which is handled by MView. Please refer to Chapter 3 for instructions on the use of MView. for a specific design. This procedure requires the use of MView as the real-time or replay data handler. Design Mode refers to the fact that the design engineer must design (and optimize) the fracture treatment schedule. The option choice may be changed by using either the mouse or the arrow keys. Depending on other options specified. With respect to MWell. Meyer User’s Guide . The program flexibility allows for running in standard mode based on a given input treatment schedule. If MView Concentration is selected the proppant concentration will be taken from the replay/real-time data as sent to MFrac from MView. Generally. Inc. General Options The General Options screen allows the user to specify the type of analysis to be performed. Replay/Real-Time The Replay/Real-Time option is required for replaying or performing real-time fracture analysis using the data collected during a treatment. the program uses the formation and treatment data to calculate surface and bottomhole pressures. The choices available for each of the General Options are summarized as follows: Simulation Method Design Mode This option is used for determining the pressure losses. If the Input Concentration button is selected the proppant concentration used by MWell will be taken from the values specified in the Treatment Schedule. the MView Concentration is desirable unless the actual proppant concentration injected is not available. there is essentially no difference in the procedures used for performing real-time or replay simulations.

Empirical The Empirical option is an internal correlation for calculating the frictional pressure loss of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. the desired design fracture length or total slurry volume is input in the treatment schedule dialog box. In MWell. The Treatment Type can be either a propped (Proppant) or acid (Acid) fracture. specific criteria for controlling the proppant scheduling will also be required. gravitational head. the treatment can accommodate an optional foam schedule by checking the Foam box. In addition. Since Mwell uses the same treatment type as MFrac. The default setting is Input for all other cases. Inc. Depending on the Proppant Transport Methodology selected. however. This option provides a combined Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. either the pumping schedule can be input manually or determined automatically. When Foam is checked.10.2 Options 567 Synchronizing the wellbore solution with the incoming real-time or replay data enables for very refined calculations of the wellbore and near-wellbore frictional pressure losses. The near wellbore and perforation pressure losses are calculated separately below the BHP reference point for each fracture and coupled to the wellbore. . restrictions. Wellbore Hydraulics Model This option determines the wellbore hydraulics model to be used in calculating frictional pressure losses in the wellbore. the frictional pressure loss is assumed to be zero. the reader is referred to the MFrac chapter for more detailed information not duplicated below Treatment Design Options The treatment design options are only available if the Simulation Method is in Design Mode and the Treatment Type selected is Proppant with no Foam. Surface and bottomhole pressures. Treatment Type This selection determines the type of fracture treatment. The available wellbore model options are listed below: None When this option is selected. When Auto Design is chosen. MWell will include compressibility effects. wellbore hydraulics calculations are still performed. transport times and hydraulic power requirements are also calculated. The wellbore hydraulics output data is also not displayed or written to file.

See Appendix E for additional information. These behaviors are illustrated in Figure 10.2: Fanning Friction Factors Maximum Drag Reduction. Prandtl. the expression for friction factor based on Prandtl’s “Universal” Law is modified. Meyer & Associates. Virk1 (Predicts Minimum Friction) 1----= 19 log  Re s f  – 32. et al. P.4 f When a value for the Relative Pipe Roughness is entered into one of the Wellbore Hydraulics dialog boxes. et al. Three distinct types of behavior are possible with the combined correlation used in MWell.3: Pipe Friction Empirical Correlations.568 MWell: A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator correlation that is applicable for a variety of fluids ranging from linear systems to highly non-Newtonian and viscoelastic fluids that exhibit drag reduction due to slip or shear thinning during turbulent flow. Meyer User’s Guide .S. Table 10.3 and summarized in the explicit expressions for the Fanning friction factor outlined in Table 10. Keck.2 1----= A log  Re s f  + B f No Drag Reduction.= 4 log  Re s f  – 0.2 Figure 10.4 f Transitional Flow.3 (Predicts Maximum Friction) 1 -----. Inc.

. Iterations The value for the number of Iterations determines the target number of time steps to be used for the fracture propagation solution. The actual time step may vary depending on other numerical considerations.g. the information specified in the fluid database is used for calculating the frictional pressure loss in the tubing. The total or estimated simulation time is then divided by the number of iterations to determine the time step size. the program has a built in correlation for slurry rheology. pad/acid). the data Restart Time can also be specified. et al... To enable time step size control for capturing various time dependent events. The maximum time step can also be specified to minimize the time step. if the number of iterations is 100 and the pump time is 100 minutes.10. is also presented in Appendix E. This data can be edited and plotted by accessing the database. annulus. years as in water flooding).2 Options 569 To include the effects of proppant concentration on friction. The number of time steps should be increased for cases with order-of-magnitude changes in the injection rate or fluid rheology properties (e. It should also be increased when the injection times are very large (e. For Replay/Real-Time. originally described by Keck. the Max Time Step constraint may be more applicable. User Database When User Database is selected. Generally. The base time step used for discretization in the numerical simulation will be the minimum of the values calculated from either the number of Iterations or Max Time Step input.g. The relationship used. For most simulations. the average time step would be one (1) minute. . the number of iterations is most effectively used in design mode. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. and casing. if the proppant concentration wellbore option is selected in the proppant option screen. Consequently. a value of 20 to 30 iterations is sufficient. The information in the database does not represent proppant-laden fluid. the user can specify the number of wellbore solution Iterations and the Maximum Time Step. Wellbore Solution These options provide control and flexibility for the time dependent discretization methodology used in the program. For Replay/Real-Time analysis. Inc. For example. the friction factor will be adjusted for proppant concentration in a manner similar to the method described in Appendix E for the Empirical option.

e. This is especially useful when performing real-time or replay simulations. significant rate and pressure changes may be missed. Proppant Options This group of options is accessed by clicking the Proppant tab found on the Data Options screen. The fluid rheological properties are then calculated from the Fluid Database as a function of time based on this temperature. This option is normally used when earlier data is not relevant or multiple injection cycles (i. These options are discussed below.g. Also. rate changes or pressure spikes) the time step size must be small enough to capture the event. this option provides the flexibility to restart a simulation at the beginning or middle of any injection cycle. The Real-Time option of synchronizing the wellbore solution to the input data enables time refinement for wellbore and near-wellbore pressure losses. Restart Time The Restart Time is used to start or restart a simulation at a time other than the first entry point in the data file for real-time or replay simulations. main frac) is to be analyzed. Fluid Temperature This is the wellbore Fluid Temperature.4 illustrates the proppant options available.e. minifrac) are pumped and only the later time cycle data (i. Figure 10. Enter the time in the replay/realtime data at which the simulation should begin. This is very useful for history matching pressure changes due to rate. the smaller the Max Time Step the longer it will take the program to run. Meyer & Associates.. This provides the capability to accurately model wellbore friction.. If the time step is too large. Inc. the longer the program will take to run. Max Time Step The Max Time Step can be used to control the program time step.570 MWell: A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator The larger this value is. Meyer User’s Guide . To simulate events that occur over a very narrow range of time (e. Consequently..

The options are as follows: None For this selection. et al.10. proppant has no effect on the friction factors used in the wellbore hydraulics calculations. a uniform proppant concentration is assumed for each stage.2 This correlation uses an expression for relative Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Wellbore-Proppant Effects This option controls the methodology used to simulate the effects of proppant concentration on pipe friction.4: Proppant Options. This results in a linear proppant ramp with liquid volume. Empirical This option includes the effects of proppant concentration on pipe friction as originally described by Keck. When this option is turned Off. The Treatment Schedule screen will then permit only one entry value for concentration. Inc. When this option is On. . Proppant Ramp The ramp option controls the ability to ramp the proppant concentration between a specified range.2 Options 571 Figure 10. the concentration of proppant will be ramped linearly from an initial value (From) to a final (To) value for each fluid stage in the Treatment Schedule dialog box.

5 where r n'   = = = = relative slurry viscosity power-law behavior index for base fluid Newtonian shear rate proppant void or particle volume fraction For laminar flow. If this occurs.5n –  1 – n   1000 1. for proppant-laden fluids is equal to the value of  r .  r =  s   b slurry density relative slurry viscosity friction factor of base fluid friction factor of slurry User Specified For some slurry systems. the friction factor multiplier as a function of proppant concentration can be specified in tabular form. the expression shown below is used to estimate the effect of proppant on friction: M f =  r0. M.75  e – 1 e  ------------------ 1 – 1. Inc. the friction factor multiplier. adequate characterization of the frictional dissipation is not possible with the empirical correlation contained in MWell. Meyer & Associates.45 and fs = Mf fb where Mf b r s r fb fs = = = = = = = friction factor multiplier base density relative slurry density. For proppant-laden fluids in turbulent flow. Meyer User’s Guide .25  2  r =  1 +  0.572 MWell: A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator slurry viscosity to account for the effects of proppant on increased friction.55  r0. The relationship is shown below: 1.

3 Data Input 573 10.5).10. Treatment stage movement in the wellbore is also simulated during pumping. frictional dissipation and restrictions in the wellbore. Zones The Zones dialog box is used to specify the number and location of the perforated intervals and corresponding Zone Data (Figure 10. kinetic energy. Wellbore Hydraulics MWell offers an integrated wellbore hydraulics module that couples the fracture or formation with the wellbore to provide additional simulation capability. hydrostatic head. Inc. Since the MWell and MFrac wellbore hydraulics dialog’s are identical. BHP in the wellbore. The following sections pertain to the Data menu items found within the main menu. The capability to model tapered deviated wellbores is also included. . Data may then be entered by accessing the various dialog boxes from the Data menu. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Only Data menus that are different than the MFrac Data menus will be covered in this section. The reader is referred to the MFrac chapter for Data Input menus not covered in this chapter that are common to both simulators. Frac-Pack screen pressure drop. An energy balance approach is used to calculate the pressure changes due to potential energy. Only one perforated interval can be specified.3 Data Input Once the Options are selected the scope of a simulation is set. frictional loss and hydraulic power requirements for a treatment design. the reader is referred to the MFrac chapter section on Wellbore Hydraulics for a detailed description of the required input data and features. This general solution permits calculations of surface pressure. The flexibility of the model provides the capability to history match measured pressures during real-time or replay treatment analysis.

. Top of Perfs MD. Perforation and Fracture Intervals For vertical wells with vertical fractures.5: Zones Dialog Screen. open the Zone Data screen for each interval by clicking the Edit button found in the far right column.574 MWell: A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator Figure 10. and Fracture Pressure. The type of data required to define an interval depends on whether the well and/or the fracture is horizontal or vertical.e. A well is assumed to be a “vertical well” unless the Horizontal check box in the General Wellbore Hydraulics screen is checked. Zone Name To assist in keeping track of the data depth intervals.e. Meyer & Associates. an optional Zone name can be entered in the second column of the table. Bottom of Perfs TVD) or measured depths (i..6 has tabs for Perforations. This name is only used to help organize the input and output data. Zone Data After entering the Zones perforated depth information. Meyer User’s Guide . If a horizontal well is specified in the General Wellbore Hydraulics screen. Inc. The Center of Perfs TVD is dimmed and cannot be edited. the perforation data is entered relative to the true vertical depth (i. Top of Perfs TVD. Near Wellbore. The Zones Data screen shown in Figure 10. regardless of whether the well is deviated or not. the center of the perforated measured depth (Center of Perfs MD) is input and the true vertical center of the perforated depth (Center of Perfs TVD) is calculated. Bottom of Perfs MD).

Perforations Figure 10. etc. perforation erosion.3 Data Input 575 Figure 10. This information is used to calculate the perforation friction pressure loss. The perforation data requirements are discussed below.10. This pressure drop can represent any near wellbore effect such as tortuosity.6 shows the perforation tab screen. MWell has the capability to model time and rate dependent near wellbore pressure drop for each fracture. These values are entered in the boxes provided at the top of the Perforations screen. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. near wellbore multiple fractures. The methodology employed is explained in Appendix C. Inc.7. . Near Wellbore Pressure Table The near wellbore pressure loss table is shown in Figure 10. Number and Diameter of Perforations The Number and Diameter of perforations must also be specified for each perforated zone.6: Zones Data Dialog Tabs.

Up to fifty rows can be specified to define the near wellbore pressure drop as a function of time and rate. The program will then load the corresponding data file to fill in the Near Wellbore Pressure Table. Inc. fill in the spreadsheet located on the right side of the Zone Data screen. Meyer User’s Guide . a message like the one shown in Figure 10. If no significant rate/BHTP changes were encountered or if the data was not run through MWell.8 will be displayed. open the Zone Data dialog box and choose the Import RT Button.576 MWell: A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator Figure 10. MWell automatically records “significant rate and pressure changes” and generates a near wellbore pressure loss relationship. To include the near wellbore pressure drop as a function of time.7: Near Wellbore Pressure Loss Screen. Import RT Button When performing real-time or replay analysis using MView. After running the acquired data through MWell. Meyer & Associates.

This table enables the user to calculate surface pressures in Design Mode (from a given BHFP reference) and history match the net. Fracture Pressure Table The fracture pressure table is shown in Figure 10. The program performs a linear interpolation between successive data points for  K  t  (where p  t  = K  t   Q  t  ). This table can be manually changed to incorporate small rate/pressure changes not considered significant or indeterminate by MWell. Inc.9. surface. and bottomhole pressures in Replay/Real-Time Model The time dependent bottomhole formation or fracture pressure ( BHFP ) can either be input as function of time and the net pressure or delta pressure ( p ) above the reference minimum horizontal stress (  ) for a fractured system calculated or the delta pressure can be calculated based on a given BHFP . The general formulation for the bottomhole formation or fracture pressure is BHFP =  + p  t  Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The options are: to ignore the table completely. choose how it will be applied by clicking one of the radio buttons located below the spreadsheet. . If the job duration is longer than the maximum time entered in the table.3 Data Input 577 Figure 10. use the pressure drop as the total near wellbore effects (including perforations). or to add the resulting effects to the calculated perforation pressure losses (near well effects only). Once a Near Wellbore Pressure Table has been created. The imported near wellbore pressure table includes the total near wellbore pressure loss.10.8: Import RT Message. the last (final) K  t  value will be used.

Figure 10. Following is a detailed description of the parameters in the Fracture Pressure Dialog. the minimum stress represents the reservoir pressure.9: Fracture Pressure Dialog. Delta Pressure The Delta Pressure ( p ) or net pressure is the pressure above (positive) or below (negative) the reference Minimum Stress. BHFP The bottomhole formation or fracture pressure ( BHFP ) is the pressure in the formation or fracture. If the formation is not fractured during injection. The bottomhole treating pressure is then calculated by adding the near wellbore and perforation pressure loss to this value. Meyer & Associates. Inc.578 MWell: A Wellbore Hydraulics Simulator If the formation is not fractured the minimum stress reference is the reservoir pressure and the delta pressure (negative for production and positive for injection) is the deviant form this value. Meyer User’s Guide . Minimum Stress This is the minimum horizontal stress (  ) in the formation for a hydraulically fractured system.

MShale is not a fully 3-D model. MShale can also be used as a diagnostic tool to compare DFN numerical results with microseismic data. MShale also has options for 2-D type fracture models. continuity. The only input dialog unique to MShale is the Zones Data dialog which will be presented in this chapter. The solution methodology for our discrete fracture network hydraulic fracturing simulator is formulated in Appendix M. and x-y planes) hydraulic fracture propagation in discrete fracture networks. Please refer to the MFrac Chapter for a complete description of the other fracture input data. Discrete fractures in naturally fractured or faulted formations can be modeled by specifying a fracture network grid to simulate fracture propagation in multiple planes (not just perpendicular to the minimum horizontal stress). The fundamental first-order mass.Chapter 11 MShale A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator 11. y-z. MShale accounts for the coupled parameters affecting fracture propagation (and proppant transport) in multiple planes. Inc. and discrete type fractures in shales and coal bed methane (CBM). The boundary condition assumes that once the pressure exceeds the minimum stress in a plane perpendicular to the natural fracture a hydraulic fracture will be initiated and start to propagate. and momentum conservation equations for DFN are provided in detail. cluster. 579 Meyer & Associates. The majority of the menu options and basic procedures required to run MShale are discussed in the MFrac Chapter. MShale is a very specialized fracturing simulator designed to simulate multiple.1 Introduction MShale is a Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) simulator designed for simulating three-dimensional (x-z. It is however formulated between a pseudo-3D and full 3-D type model with an applicable half-length to half-height aspect ratio greater than about 1/3 (Meyer15). . This boundary condition forces multiple fractures to be created.

Step Program Area 1. Generate Report Report Menu 11.1. start MView and import the MView acquired data. 2. Input Required Data Data Menu 6. Table 11. Specify Units (optional) Units Menu 3. modeling techniques. utility and general data entry procedures. The methodology and governing equations for multilayer or limited entry fracturing is discussed in Appendix B. View Plots during or after the simulation Plot Menu 8. Select Program Options Data Menu 4. Example files are provided with the software to demonstrate some of the MShale features. A maximum of ten different perforated intervals or limited entry type fractures can be specified. An outline of the basic steps for using MShale is shown in Table 11. Open an existing MShale data file (*. Meyer & Associates. Inc.580 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator Please refer to the Meyer Appendices and listed references for specific details regarding the governing equations.2 Zones Dialog The Zones dialog box is used to specify the number and location of the perforated intervals and corresponding Zone Data (Figure 11. methodology and numerical procedures.1: MShale Basic Steps. 5. Meyer User’s Guide .1). Run Simulation Run Menu 7.mshale) or create a File Menu new data file. For a real-time or replay case.

This name is only used to help organize the input and output data.1: Zones Dialog Screen. The type of data required to define an interval depends on whether the well and/or the fracture is horizontal or vertical.e. Each Active zone represents the possibility of creating a multilayer fracture in that zone. . Active Any zone that is defined in the program can be enabled or disabled for use in simulation of multilayer fractures by double-clicking the left column to display or clear a check mark. If only one zone is active.. Inc. A well is assumed to be a “vertical well” unless the Horizontal check box in the General Wellbore Hydraulics screen is checked. regardless of whether the well is deviated or not. the perforation data is entered relative to the true vertical depth (i. Perforation and Fracture Intervals For vertical wells with vertical fractures.2 Zones Dialog 581 Figure 11.11. the fracture will initiate in that zone. Top of Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. A zone is Active when the check mark is displayed. an optional Zone name can be entered in the second column of the table. Zone Name To assist in keeping track of the data depth intervals.

e.2). open the Zone Data screen for each interval by clicking the Edit button found in the far right column. Fracture Network Options. even if the well is vertical. the ratio of the total length (tip to tip) to the total height of the fracture (2L/H)). the Zones spreadsheet will contain two additional columns. the Ellipsoidal Aspect Ratio must also be specified. Zone Data After entering the Zones perforated depth information. Bottom of Perfs TVD) or measured depths (i. Top of Perfs MD. This same convention is used when the Horizontal Ellipsoidal fracture model is specified. the center of the perforated measured depth (Center of Perfs MD) is input and the true vertical center of the perforated depth (Center of Perfs TVD) is calculated.582 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator Perfs TVD. Pay Zone. it is also necessary to enter the TVD for the top and bottom of fracture initiation. When any of the two-dimensional fracture geometry models are chosen from the General Options screen. If an Ellipsoidal fracture geometry model is chosen. and Near Wellbore. A feature to include perforation erosion is also available.2 has tabs for Perforations. This data is used to characterize the total gross height of the fracture.. For the PKN or GDK models. When either the Vertical Ellipsoidal or 3-D geometry options are used in combination with a horizontal well. Bottom of Perfs MD). The Zones Data screen shown in Figure 11. additional columns of data are required. In these columns you must enter the top true vertical depth of the fracture (2-D Top of Frac TVD) and the bottom true vertical depth of the fracture (2-D Bottom of Frac TVD). If a horizontal well is specified in the General Wellbore Hydraulics screen. This is the ratio of the major and minor ellipse axes (i. Meyer User’s Guide . Inc. To activate the perforation erosion folder you must have Perforation Erosion selected to User Specified in the Proppant Option Dialog (see Figure 11. Meyer & Associates. The Center of Perfs TVD is dimmed and cannot be edited..e.

11. The perforation data requirements are discussed below. This activates the screen for inputting perforation erosion data. Perforations Figure 11.2 shows a dimmed perforation erosion table illustrating that Perforation Erosion was selected to None. Inc. Figure 11.2: Zones Data Dialog Tabs. Perforation erosion has been set to User Specified. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.3 shows the perforation tab screen. .2 Zones Dialog 583 Figure 11.

Limited entry designs require a certain differential pressure across the perforations to ensure that each zone accepts a proportionate amount of fluid and proppant. Cramer17. the intercept is calculated. This option allows for perforation erosion during the treatment.3: Zone Data . and ElRabaa. Number and Diameter of Perforations The Number and Diameter of perforations must also be specified for each perforated zone. When Intercept is selected. During the limited entry treatment. Perforation Erosion The perforation erosion feature is based on the work of Shah12. To calculate Perforation Erosion for limited entry fracturing treatments. Meyer & Associates. The effect of the proppant is to increase the discharge coefficient. and the hydraulic diameter of the perforation ( C D1 / 2 D ). Perforation Erosion Rate. and Lord18. select Intercept or Final Discharge Coefficient from the Perforation Erosion dialog box. C D . Meyer User’s Guide .584 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator Figure 11. Figure 11. and Critical Proppant Mass. The increase in CD can be described as a rounding of the perforation. Final Discharge Coefficient. perforations are exposed to a slurry of proppant and fluid.4 shows the data required to model perforation erosion. This information is used to calculate the perforation friction pressure loss. Inc.Perforation Tab. Enter an Initial Discharge Coefficient. These values are entered in the boxes provided at the top of the Perforations screen. Shah.

Note. For a rounded perforation entrance. The Final Discharge Coefficient should be set to a larger value than the Initial Discharge Coefficient.004 in. Figure 11.83 discharge coefficient (i. select the Plot icon. the discharge coefficient is 0.83. the pressure loss ratio has dropped to less than 60% of its original value. and Critical Proppant Mass. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.e.83./1000 lbm and 6000 lbm. The final discharge coefficient is then calculated. After 6000 lbm of proppant has passed through the perforation. Perforation Erosion Rate. To view a plot of the Perforation Erosion correlation.4: Perforation Erosion Data Screen.5 shows a plot of the hydraulic perforation diameter ( CD1 / 2 D ) and pressure loss ratio as a function of proppant mass through each perforation.11.. the hydraulic diameter increases and the pressure loss ratio decreases. Typical values for the Perforation Erosion Rate and Critical Proppant Mass are 0. if perforation erosion is not selected a 0.60.6 and the Final Discharge Coefficient to 0. As the amount of proppant mass passes through a perforation. . Figure 11. The discharge coefficient for a sharp-edged perforation entrance is 0. The pressure loss ratio is the ratio of the perforation pressure loss after proppant has gone through compared to the base case of no perforation erosion. Unless reliable data is available. Inc.2 Zones Dialog 585 When Final Discharge Coefficient is chosen enter an Intercept along with the Initial Discharge Coefficient. rounded orifice entrance) is used. set the initial value to 0.

Mass.586 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator Figure 11. To determine the fracture conductivity in a pay zone.6 shows the Pay Zone data screen. The upper and lower dashed lines are the theoretical limits for the initial and final hydraulic perforation diameters.5: Hydraulic Diameter (CD1/2D) & Pressure Loss vs. Pay Zone Figure 11. respectively.60 and 0. These limits are based on Initial and Final Discharge Coefficients of 0.83. a productive interval (pay zone) and average zone permeability must be assigned. These values are used to determine an integrated (average) conductivity ( k f w f ) and a dimensionless conductivity over the pay interval. Inc. Meyer & Associates. Meyer User’s Guide .

6: Pay Zone Data Screen.11. F CD .2 Zones Dialog 587 Figure 11. The associated Dimensionless Fracture Flow Capacity. Pay Zone Permeability This is the average pay zone permeability used to calculate an average dimensionless conductivity.dx  0 k f  x w f  x   Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Inc. is calculated from kf wf F CD = --------kr L The average fracture conductivity for long term production is given by kf wf = L 0 kf  x wf  x  dx  L and for short term production or reduced conductivity near the wellbore the following relationship may be more applicable L 1 k f w f = L    ------------------------. .

and Proppant Distribution. the propped conductivity and propped fracture length will be zero. Figure 11. If the fracture is not propped in this interval. These depths do not have to conform to the perforated interval.588 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator where kf wf = average fracture conductivity kf  x  = = = = proppant permeability in the fracture reservoir permeability propped fracture width propped fracture half-length kr wf  x  L A more detailed analysis of the effective conductivity for variable conductivity fractures is given in Appendix L. Fracture Network Options This section allows the user to specify the Fracture Network Options.8 shows the Fracture Network Options input data screen. Pay Zone Depth A pay zone is defined by entering the TVD or MD Depth From (top) and TVD or MD Depth To (bottom) in the boxes provided. Meyer User’s Guide . Characteristics. Interaction. Meyer & Associates. Inc. If the Proppant Transport Plots show a conductive fracture (propped width and conductivity contours) and the pay zone does not appear on the screen or the pay zone plots show zero conductivity. it indicates that the fracture is not within the pay zone.

8 shows the Fracture Network Options screen for Multiple Fractures. Figure 11. and width are the same. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. interaction. The Fracture Network Options menu allows the user to specify the type of discrete fractures to be modeled. numerical solution methodology. and proppant distribution in the dominant or primary fracture. characteristics. Inc. their extent. That is the fracture length. Fracture Options The Fracture Options allows the user to specify the type of discrete fractures to be modeled.7: Fracture Network Options Screen.11. their spacing and degree of interaction in the specific multilayer zone. These fractures may also be parallel or dendritic (tree like). . Multiple fractures are fractures that have the same fracture characteristics.2 Zones Dialog 589 Figure 11. The Fracture Options are discussed below: Multiple Fractures Multiple fractures refer to fractures in the far field (not near wellbore) which may or may not be interacting. This is not the same as multilayer or limited entry fracturing. Under the Characteristics and Interaction drop down menus the user can specify the number of multiple fractures. height. Depending on the Fracture Network option chosen different Options and Characteristic dialogs will be presented.

fracture spacing. the Fracture Network Extent and Fracture Network Numerical Solution options are dimmed. but can be of finite extent. Inc. As illustrated. These options are dimmed because the Multiple Fractures option assumes that the fractures are selfsimilar with the same characteristics and extent. Figure 11. allow fractures to propagate in all three principle planes. the user can specify the number of fractures. Cluster fractures are assumed to be self similar.590 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator Figure 11. unlike Multiple fractures.9 shows the Fracture Network Options screen for Cluster Fractures. Meyer User’s Guide . and aspect ratio. Under the Characteristics section. fracture aperture ratios. if Multiple Fractures is selected. Cluster Fractures Cluster fractures. Meyer & Associates.8: Multiple Fractures Options Screen.

Discrete referring to the condition that each fracture has discrete characteristics.10 shows the Fracture Network Options screen for Discrete Fracture Network User Specified option.2 Zones Dialog 591 Figure 11. The characteristics data menu will require input of the limited network extent in the primary planes if the Fracture Network Extent is selected as finite.User Specified and Deterministic A discrete fracture network is a set of discrete fractures in the principle planes.11. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. As illustrated. Inc. . Discrete Fracture Network .9: Cluster or Complex Fractures Options Screen. Figure 11. if Cluster or Complex Fractures are selected the Fracture Network Numerical Solution option is dimmed.

Discrete referring to the condition that each fracture has discrete characteristics. if the Discrete Network Fracture User Specified or Deterministic options are specified. the user has the ability to select the Fracture Network Extent and Fracture Network Numerical Solution options.592 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator Figure 11. the formation properties in the principle planes is input and the code will calculate the discrete fracture network extent and propagation of secondary fractures. Meyer User’s Guide .10: Discrete Fracture Network Options Screen. If the confining stress contrast is unknown.User Specified A discrete fracture network is a set of discrete fractures in the principle planes. The Characteristics screen will require input of the limited network extent in the primary planes if the Fracture Network Extent is selected as Finite. As illustrated. Inc. select this option (User Specified) and enter the fracture aperture ratios and propagation aspect ratio in the y-z and x-y planes within the Characteristics screen. If the User Specified option is selected the users specifies the secondary fracture characteristics relative to the primary fracture under Characteristics. Meyer & Associates. Discrete Fracture Network . If Deterministic is specified. This is convenient if the engineer has an idea of the network extent.

y-z. The two options available are Continuum and Discontinuous theory as discussed below. the secondary fractures are assume to have no limiting or finite extent. If the confining stress difference in the y-z and x-y planes are unknown.2 Zones Dialog 593 Discrete Fracture Network . Consequently if this option is selected the number of newly created discrete fractures will not increase by an integer but rather gradually from say 2 to 3. The primary or dominant fracture in the x-z plane is not affected by this option only the secondary. momentum. parametric studies can be used to determine which properties give the best stimulated reservoir volume based on experience. a limiting fracture extent in each plane can be specified in the Characteristics screen. Finite If Finite is selected. Fracture Network Extent The fracture Network Extent option allows the user to specify the extent of the fracture system in the various planes. This allows for modelling of discrete fractures that are randomly spaced with some mean spacing.11. This is analogous to the movement necessary to climb a stairs. Infinite If Infinite is selected. or non-primary fractures.Deterministic The deterministic fracture network option requires the user to input the confining stress contrast in the y-z and x-y planes. . without any abrupt changes or “discontinuities””. This will limit the extent of the secondary fractures in the xz. and x-y planes as input by the user. and fracture propagation equations in each plane. This a more rigorous solution that requires additional input in the Characteristics screen. Continuum Theory Continuum Theory can best be explained by its definition “Continuum (theory). to a different condition. Thus the creation of the secondary fractures are more gradual or continuous. Inc. The code will then calculate the discrete fracture network apertures extent and propagation of secondary fractures by solving a set of mass. is anything that goes through a gradual transition from one condition. Fracture Network Numerical Solution The fracture Network Numerical Solution options are only required input for the Discrete Fracture Network User Specified or Deterministic selections. Your feet move horizontal and vertical where as your body has a more continuous motion. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.

Secondary fractures can initiate (depending on the boundary conditions and rock properties) in each of the three principle planes.594 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator Continuum theory is also based on a grid system but assumes a gradual intersection of secondary fractures. The fracture aperture or opening (width) is in the direction of  1 or z axis. Characteristics The fracture characteristics data input screen is dependent on the Fracture Network Options selected. Thus the number of created fractures with time is discontinuous.2: Nomenclature used by the Characteristics screen Name Fracture Plane Aperture Opening Along Major Vertical Fractures x-z  3 .Major Axis Horizontal Fractures x-y  1 . Discontinuous Theory Discontinuous theory assumes that the fracture propagation process is not continuous and only initiates secondary fractures when the fracture extent (propagation) in the different planes reaches a secondary fracture at a precise grid location.2 presents the nomenclature used within the application to describe the different fractures and axes. The y-z plane is perpendicular to  2 and parallel to  3 . Fractures in the x-z and y-z planes are vertical and fractures in the x-y plane are horizontal. The primary fracture is assumed to propagate in the x-z plane which is perpendicular to the minimum horizontal stress  3 and parallel to  2 . Inc. The x-y plane is perpendicular to  1 and in the zdirection. The fracture aperture or opening (width) in the y-z plane is in the  3 or x axis direction. The minimum horizontal stresses  2 and  3 are in the x and y directions (axes). The fracture aperture or opening (width) is in the direction of  2 or y axis. The x-z plane is perpendicular to  3 and parallel to  2 .Minor Axis Minor Vertical Fractures y-z  2 . Table 11.Vertical Axis The Characteristic input data will be discussed for each of the Fracture Options. Meyer & Associates. The vertical stress  1 is in the z-direction (axis). The discrete fracture characteristics are input for each principle plane. Table 11. Meyer User’s Guide .

Number of Major Vertical Fractures This is the number of multiple fractures (two wings) to be modeled in a given zone.2 Zones Dialog 595 Multiple Fractures Figure 11. The fracture spacing is used in the calculation of the empirical stiffness influence factor and for plotting.11. Cluster or Complex Fractures Figure 11. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.  3 . The default is a single two wing fracture (Number of Major Vertical Fractures equal to one).11: Multiple Fractures Characteristics Screen. The closer the spacing of multiple fractures the greater the fracture interaction factors and degrees of interaction will be as discussed in Appendix C and Appendix M. Spacing along the Minor Axis This is the distance between the multiple fractures in the x-z plane.11 shows the Fracture Network Characteristics screen for Multiple Fractures. .12 shows the Fracture Network Characteristics screen for Cluster or Complex Fractures. Inc. which is perpendicular to the minimum horizontal stress. Multiple fractures are assumed to be in the primary or dominant fracture x-z plane. The number of multiple fractures and the fracture spacing are the only required input. Figure 11.

The required input data is the Number of Fractures. This Meyer & Associates. Inc. y-z. Number of Fractures The Number of Fractures in the x-y. The fracture spacing is used for determining the empirical stiffness influence factor and for plotting. and x-z planes is only required input data if the Fracture Network Extent option of Finite is selected. If secondary fractures can not propagate in a given plane. the Spacing. If only one fracture is specified it is the primary fracture.12: Cluster or Complex Fractures Characteristics Screen. Meyer User’s Guide . y-z. Maximum Extent The maximum extent of secondary fractures in the x-y. Complex fractures can be in each of the principle planes. Spacing The spacing or distance of the cluster fractures in the x-y. and x-z are input. y-z. Aperture Ratio in each plane and the network fracture Aspect Ratio. The closer the fractures in any given plane the greater the fracture interaction factors and degrees of interaction will be as discussed in Appendix C and Appendix M. enter zero. At least one fracture in the x-z plane must be specified. Dilatancy at the interface is ignored.596 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator Figure 11. Only fractures in the same plane are assumed to interact. and x-z planes are input.

The primary fracture extent and width profile however can be different than the secondary fractures in the x-z plane.User Specified Characteristics. The primary fracture in the x-z plane is not limited by the Maximum Extent. Discrete Fracture Network . and width. Figure 11. An aspect ratio of unity implies the secondary and primary fractures are of equal length at the origin. . height. The aspect ratio has ranges from zero to one. Aspect Ratio The Aspect Ratio is defined as the fracture network minor (y-z plane) to major axis (x-z plane) fracture extensions. An aspect ratio of zero means no secondary fractures can open.User Specified Figure 11. Aperture Ratio The Aperture ratio is the ratio of the secondary fracture widths in the various planes relative to the primary fracture width.2 Zones Dialog 597 input data allows the user to account for a finite region of natural fractures.5 describes a fracture network extension in the y-z plane of 1/2 that in the x-z plane.User Specified option.11. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.13: Discrete Fracture Network . The fractures in each plane are assumed to be identical with each having the same length. Inc.13 shows the Fracture Network Characteristics screen for the Discrete fracture Network . A fracture network with an aspect ratio of 0.

and x-z planes is only required input data if the Fracture Network Extent option of Finite is selected. The reader is referred to Appendix M for additional information regarding the dimensionless well location. Only fractures in the same plane are assumed to interact. The required input data is the Dimensionless Well Location. The primary fracture in the x-z plane is not limited by the Maximum Extent.g.. if the wellbore is drilled through a natural fracture in the x-z plane.0 to 1. If the primary fracture is located at the center of the natural fracture system the dimensionless well location would be  0 0 0  . Secondary fractures do not all propagate simultaneously as Multiple or Cluster type fracture. Spacing The spacing or distance of the discrete fractures in the x-y. Dimensionless Well Location The location of the perforations in the well or origin grid block can be positioned in space (x. Meyer & Associates. y-z. Maximum Extent. As an example. Spacing. y. This input data allows the user to account for a finite region of natural fractures. The discrete fractures are assumed to be located symmetrically about the well grid block center (0.598 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator The Discrete Fracture Network Characteristics is specified for each of the principle planes.  1 – 1 1  . Secondary fractures only initiate and begin to propagate when a fracture propagating in a given plane reaches a fracture grid in the adjacent plane. z) by the dimensionless well location. The closer the fractures in any given plane the greater the fracture interaction factors and degrees of interaction will be as discussed in Appendix C and Appendix M. Meyer User’s Guide . If the fracture initiates at the intersection of natural fractures in each plane the dimensionless well location could be specified as  x Dw = – 1 or 1 y Dw = – 1 or 1 z Dw = – 1 or 1  (e. Inc.0 in each axis.0). Dilatancy at the interface is ignored. Fracture. the dimensionless well location. in the y-direction can be specified as either  x Dw 1 z Dw  or  x Dw – 1 z Dw  . Maximum Extent The maximum extent of secondary fractures in the x-y. The location of the primary fracture relative to the secondary fracture (grid) is specified by the dimensionless well location with values ranging from -1. The primary fracture in the x-z plane is oriented with respect to this location. y-z. Aperture Ratio in each plane and the network fracture Aspect Ratio.  x Dw y Dw z Dw  .0. and x-z planes are input. That is a fracture in the x-z plane can not initiate unless a fracture in the y-z plane reaches extents to the next grid location in the x-z plane.

5 describes a fracture network extension in the y-z plane of 1/2 that in the x-z plane. . and in-situ Aperture after initiation. An aspect ratio of unity implies the secondary and primary fractures are of equal length at the origin. Maximum Extent. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.Deterministic option. A fracture network with an aspect ratio of 0. Inc. The required input data is the Dimensionless Well Location. The aspect ratio has ranges from zero to one.11. Fracture Spacing. See Appendix M for addition information regarding aperture as a function of position. This is the maximum plane width ratio.Deterministic Figure 11. Discrete Fracture Network . Aspect Ratio The Aspect Ratio is defined as the fracture network minor (y-z plane) to major axis (x-z plane) fracture extensions. Stress Difference.2 Zones Dialog 599 Aperture Ratios The Aperture ratio is the ratio of the secondary fracture widths in the each plane relative to the primary fracture width. The Discrete Fracture Network Characteristics are specified for each of the principle planes. An aspect ratio of zero means no secondary fractures can open.Deterministic Characteristics. The fracture aperture is assumed to decrease as an elliptical function of position from the center of the primary fracture.14: Discrete Fracture Network . Figure 11.14 shows the Fracture Network Characteristics screen for the Discrete fracture Network .

0. If the fracture initiates at the intersection of natural fractures in each plane the dimensionless well location could be specified as  x Dw = – 1 or 1 y Dw = – 1 or 1 z Dw = – 1 or 1  (e. z) by the dimensionless well location. If the primary fracture is located at the center of the natural fracture system the dimensionless well location would be  0 0 0  .0 to 1. if the wellbore is drilled through a natural fracture in the x-z plane. This input data allows the user to account for a finite region of natural fractures. the dimensionless well location. Dimensionless Well Location The location of the perforations in the well or origin grid block can be positioned in space (x. That is a fracture in the x-z plane can not initiate unless a fracture in the y-z plane reaches extents to the next grid location in the x-z plane. y-z. Maximum Extent The maximum extent of secondary fractures in the x-y.0). The primary fracture in the x-z plane is oriented with respect to this location. the secondary fractures do not all propagate simultaneously like the Multiple or Cluster type fracture.  x Dw y Dw z Dw  . Spacing The spacing or distance of the discrete fractures in the x-y. The fracture pressure must be greater than  1 to ini- Meyer & Associates. Only fractures in the same plane are assumed to interact. and x-z planes are input. in the y-direction can be specified as either  x Dw 1 z Dw  or  x Dw – 1 z Dw  . The reader is referred to Appendix M for additional information regarding the dimensionless well location. The discrete fractures are assumed to be located symmetrically about the well grid block center (0. and x-z planes is only required input data if the Fracture Network Extent option of Finite is selected.  1 – 1 1  . respectively. Stress Difference The stress differences in the x-y and y-z planes are defined as 13 =  1 –  3 and  13 =  1 –  3 . Meyer User’s Guide . The location of the primary fracture relative to the secondary fracture (grid) is specified by the dimensionless well location with values ranging from -1.g. Dilatancy at the interface is ignored. The primary fracture in the x-z plane is not limited by the Maximum Extent. Inc.0 in each axis. As an example. y-z. y. The secondary fractures only initiate and begin to propagate when a fracture propagating in a given plane reaches a fracture grid in the adjacent plane..600 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator As above. The closer the fractures in any given plane the greater the fracture interaction factors and degrees of interaction will be as discussed in Appendix C and Appendix M.

Aperture (in-situ) An in-situ Aperture is a residual natural fracture width that may exist after a discrete secondary fracture is initiated. The residual or in-situ apertures are natural fractures that are open under in-situ conditions. The stiffness and fluid loss interaction of discrete fractures is calculated based on the input data in this dialog.2 Zones Dialog 601 tiate a horizontal fracture in the x-y plane and greater than  2 to initiate a vertical fracture in the y-z plane..15. Normally. The discrete fracture network aspect ratio is then calculated from the governing mass and momentum equations controlling fracture propagation as given in Appendix M. The stress difference for secondary fractures in the x-z plane is assumed to be zero (i.11. Figure 11. Interaction The Interaction dialog for User Specified Fracture Interaction is shown in Figure 11. Stiffness interaction is only assumed to occur between fractures in the same plane.  33 = 0 ). The fracture aperture is assumed to decrease as an elliptical function of position from the center of the primary fracture as a result of pressure dissipation in the different planes. Depending on the Fracture Interaction options various input data fields will be dimmed. natural fractures are closed under in-situ conditions. Fluid loss interaction can occur between planes.15: Interaction Screen.e. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Inc. .

can also be . Inc. 32 Meyer User’s Guide . the User can input the specific levels of interaction for both Stiffness and Fluid Loss. Full.  E specified such that  E   E  = 0 . and for  l = 1 the fractures fully interact and the max max . is h 2  ij = 1 – 1  1 +  ---------  2d ij Meyer & Associates. The stiffness multiplier is defined as  = E + 1  The effective modulus in the  direction is then defined as E =  E An empirical correlation for the 3D influence factor. None represents no stiffness or fluid loss interaction between fractures and Full represents 100% interaction. See Appendix C and Appendix M for additional information regarding multiple fractures and DFN interaction. If User Specified is selected.  ij . Fracture Interaction Fracture interaction can be None. If  E = 0 there is no interaction and the stiffness factor is zero  E stiffness factor is.  E   = N  – 1 . Selecting Empirical allows for the stiffness interaction to be calculated from an internal correlation and a user specified fluid loss interaction. The stiffness factor for each plane is defined as E  =  N  – 1  E where  E is the stiffness or elastic interaction factor and N  is the number of parallel fractures in that plane that interact. the fracture net pressure can be lower for multiple fractures than for a single fracture. User Specified or Empirical.602 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator Depending on the degree of fracture interaction. A maximum stiffness factor. Stiffness interaction occurs when fractures are close enough to be affected by the stress field from adjacent fractures.

the Minimum Leakoff Coefficient Multiplier for In-Zone and Multi-Layer can be specified. the stiffness increases by a factor equal to the number of fractures (i. The closer the fractures are together. If User Specified or Empirical is selected. respectively. respectively. the value in the dialog will be used for calculating the stiffness factor. For tree like (dendritic) fractures the stiffness interaction may be negligible (no interaction). Thus. . Typically. If User Specified or Empirical is selected. a value of one is reasonable since fracture spacing is approximately equal to the zone height.2 Zones Dialog 603 where h is the fracture height and d ij is the distance between parallel fractures i and j . this value may not be the same as the degree of the stiffness interaction. This parameter can have a value from 0 to 100%. Inc. if the calculated leakoff multiplier is less than the value entered in the dialog the dialog value will be used. For multiple parallel fractures within a fraction of their characteristic height. Stiffness Interaction This represents the percentage of stiffness interaction between the multiple fracture system. full interaction).. The interaction values for no interaction and full interaction are zero and 100%. Thus. This parameter can range from 0 to 100%. Fluid Loss Interaction This represents the percent of fluid loss interaction between the multiple fracture system. The average stiffness factor for N parallel fractures is N E  = N   ij  N i = 1j = 1 Stiffness Characteristics If the Empirical option for Fracture Interaction is chosen. the greater the stiffness. a maximum height to spacing value ( h  d ij ) can be specified when calculating the empirical stiffness factor. the Maximum Stiffness Factor for InZone and Multi-Layer can be specified. if the numerical fracture height to spacing ratio is greater than the value entered in this dialog. For example if we have 10 multiple fractures with full interaction the leakoff multi- Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.11. Depending on the reservoir properties and vicinity of the fracture system. The interaction values for no interaction and full interaction are zero and 100%.e.

if we specified a minimum multiplier of 0.604 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator plier would be 0. Inc. even with no fluid leakoff the proppant can screen-out if the secondary fractures do not allow proppant transport. Uniform Proppant Distribution The Uniform Proppant Distribution option assumes that the proppant can be transported uniformly (i. Dominant. Options are available for Uniform.16. The three proppant Distribution Styles are discussed below.5. the total leakoff coefficient for each fracture would be multiplied by a factor of 0.. concentrating only due to fluid loss not flow dispersion in Meyer & Associates. That is. The Proppant Distribution dialog is shown in Figure 11. This proppant distribution solution is a methodology for determining fluid loss and proppant loss (distribution) from the primary or dominant fracture based on fluid efficiency. this would be the same as no interaction.e. Proppant Distribution The proppant distribution allocation is defined as  p = M f  M DFN = M f  M t where M f is the proppant mass in the primary fracture and M t is the total proppant mass injected (or mass in DFN system). However. Figure 11.5. If a multiplier of one is input.16: Proppant Distribution Screen.1. Meyer User’s Guide . and User Specified distribution.

The proppant distribution allocation for all the proppant in the primary or dominant fracture is  p = M f  M DFN = M f  M t = 1 where M f is the proppant mass in the primary fracture and M t is the total proppant mass injected (or mass in DFN system). the minimum allocation will be set to the primary fracture to DFN volume ratio. Dominant Proppant Distribution The Dominant Fracture Proppant Distribution option assumes that all the proppant remains in the primary fracture and no proppant enters the secondary DFN.2 Zones Dialog 605 the secondary fractures or bridging at DFN interfaces. the secondary fractures will have a maximum fraction of ( 1 –  p ) of the total min proppant. that remains in the primary min fracture with the remaining proppant entering the secondary DFN.  p . Inc. Consequently.) throughout the fracture network. User Specified Proppant Distribution The User Specified Proppant Distribution Style allows the user to specify the Minimum Dominant Fracture proppant allocation. Consequently the secondary fractures act primarily as fluid loss conduits from the primary fracture. The proppant distribution allocation for a uniform proppant distribution is  p = M f  M DFN  V f  V DFN where M f is the proppant mass in the primary fracture and M DFN is the total proppant mass injected (or mass in DFN system). If the minimum proppant allocation specified is less than a uniform distribution by discrete network fracture volumes. Thus the mass (and volume) of proppant is assumed to be distributed based on network fracture volume.11. That is both proppant and fluid are transported into the fracture network from the dominant fracture as a slurry. That is p min  V f  V DFN The proppant distribution allocation is defined as Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. .

After running the acquired data through MShale. Inc. Meyer User’s Guide . perforation erosion. is Ms = Mt – Mf = Mt  1 – p  Near Wellbore Pressure Table The near wellbore pressure loss table is shown in Figure 11. The methodology employed is explained in Appendix C. M s . The mass in the secondary fractures. The program will then Meyer & Associates. Up to fifty rows can be specified to define the near wellbore pressure drop as a function of time and rate.606 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator  p = M f  M DFN = M f  M t where M f is the proppant mass in the primary fracture and M t is the total proppant mass injected (or mass in DFN system). fill in the spreadsheet located on the right side of the Zone Data screen. open the Zone Data dialog box and choose the Import RT Button. MShale has the capability to model time and rate dependent near wellbore pressure drop for each fracture. near wellbore multiple fractures. etc. This pressure drop can represent any near wellbore effect such as tortuosity.17. MShale automatically records “significant rate and pressure changes” and generates a near wellbore pressure loss relationship. Figure 11. Import RT Button When performing real-time or replay analysis using MView. To include the near wellbore pressure drop as a function of time.17: Near Wellbore Pressure Loss Screen.

the last (final) K  t  value will be used Note: for limited entry the imported table must be modified to account for the fractional flow rate going into each fracture. The options are: to ignore the table completely.g.11. Complex fractures in Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.19. Once a Near Wellbore Pressure Table has been created. The program performs a linear interpolation between successive data points for  K  t  where p  t  = K  t q  t  .18: Import RT Message. (2010)) that complex fracture behavior may occur when fracturing highly deviated and/or horizontal wellbores. MShale has the capability to model time dependent mid-field fracture pressure decline for the fracture network. (2002). The imported near wellbore pressure table includes the total near wellbore pressure loss. or to add the resulting effects to the calculated perforation pressure losses (near well effects only). This table can be manually changed to incorporate small rate/pressure changes not considered significant or indeterminate by MShale. Weijers et al. choose how it will be applied by clicking one of the radio buttons located below the spreadsheet.2 Zones Dialog 607 load the corresponding data file to fill in the Near Wellbore Pressure Table. and Jacot et al. a message like the one shown in Figure 11.18 will be displayed. If the job duration is longer than the maximum time entered in the table. Weng (1993). . use the pressure drop as the total near wellbore effects (including perforations). Mid-Field Fracture Complexity The mid-field fracture complexity plot and table data is shown in Figure 11. Inc. If no significant rate/BHTP changes were encountered or if the data was not run through MShale. Figure 11.. It has been observed (e.

Up to fifty rows can be specified to define the near wellbore pressure drop as a function of time and rate. The fracture gradient during pumping can be much larger than the over-burden stress gradient without creating horizontal fractures in the far-field. Figure 11. 1 Meyer User’s Guide . This creates a high fracture pressure that does not diminish instantly as does the near-well or perforation pressure loss at shut-in.19: Mid-field Fracture Complexity Screen. fill in the spreadsheet located on the right side of the screen. The MFC methodology is explained in Appendix M. then re-orient in the direction perpendicular to the principal stress planes.608 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator the midfield region turn and twist. Inc. If you have pressure decline data that exhibits mid-field fracture excess pressure loss as a function of time. The curve fit to this data can be achieved by using a form of the Arps equation p  t  = ISIP –  ISIP –   f  t    where f  t    = 1 – 1   1 +   t – t p     Meyer & Associates.

------ p dt –1 ) represents the excess pressure build rate. The greater this time constant the longer it will take for the mid-field fracture complexity to develop.. Decline Exponent The Decline Exponent  is a power constant in the Arps equation (  = 0 representing an exponential decline and  = 1 representing a harmonic decline). Decline Time Constant 1 dp –1 The pressure Decline Time Constant  (  =  ------. Although the excess pressure is not known before the fracture treatment (similar to the near wellbore pressure loss).  1 –  3 ).------ ) represents the initial presp dt sure decline slope.------.  =  ------.for G  G c ISIP –   dG MFC Excess Pressure The mid-field complex fracture excess pressure is defined by ISIP –   where   is a mid-field closure stress.2 Zones Dialog 609 and  is a power constant (with  = 0 representing an exponential decline (f = 1 – e –  t – tp    ) and  = 1 representing a harmonic decline).------ p dt –1 ). The greater the decline exponent the smaller the pressure decline will be for a given time constant. This constant can be obtained by placing a straight line on the initial pressure decline and extrapolating to an excess pressure of zero. abnormally high treating pressures and high pressures during shut-in may indicate mid-field fracture complexity.11.e..e. . This constant can be obtained by history matching on the excess pressure decline data. Build Time Constant 1 dp The Build Time Constant  (i. This intersection on the time axis represents  . The constant  is 1 dp a pressure decline time constant (  =  ------. Since the excess fracture pressure normally builds Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. The pressure decline function f based on G-function analysis is dP G f    = ----------------------. Inc. The excess fracture pressure is normally on the order of the difference between the maximum and minimum principal stresses (i.

the longer it will take to achieve the maximum mid-field fracture excess pressure. Inc.610 MShale: A Three Dimensional Discrete Fracture Network Simulator rather quickly. Meyer & Associates. this time constant should be approximately equal to or less than the Decline Time Constant. Build Exponent The Build Exponent  is a power constant in the Arps equation (  = 0 represents an exponential decline and  = 1 represents a harmonic decline). This constant can be obtained by history matching on the excess pressure build rate. The greater the build exponent. Meyer User’s Guide .

The major fracture.1-6 Symbols are given in the nomenclature. These non-linear partial differential equations are then transformed and solved using integral methods. (3) fracture toughness and dilatancy (tip effects). fracture propagation criteria and constitutive relationships to model fracture propagation are presented here for completeness. The hydraulic fracturing simulator accounts for the coupled parameters affecting fracture propagation and pressure-decline. (4) variable injection rate and time dependent fluid rheology. A list of parametric relationships which affect the fracture characteristics and fracture net pressure is also given. momentum.1 Introduction This appendix describes the solution methodology for our hydraulic fracturing simulator. heat transfer and fracture propagation. . (2) multilayer leakoff. Inc. A detailed description of these equations and the solution methodology is provided by Meyer et al. The coupled rock and fluid mechanics equations governing fracture propagation are presented. widthopening pressure. continuity. (6) wall roughness and (7) coupled proppant transport.Appendix A Hydraulic Fracturing Theory A. 611 Meyer & Associates. A. rock and fluid mechanics phenomena included are: (1) multilayer unsymmetrical confining stress contrast. (5) vertical and lateral rock deformation.2 Governing Equations An overview of the governing equations of mass conservation.

The above equations for performing minifrac analysis can be simplified for 2-D type models for fluid loss due to leakoff during and after pumping: During Pumping Vl ( t )   C ( t ) A( t ) t  ( a  c ) (A-3) After Pumping Vl ( )  2C (t p ) A(t p ) t p G ( a  c2 . Continuity The mass continuity equation in terms of the flow rate per unit length q = v W is Meyer & Associates. Inc.612 Hydraulic Fracturing Theory: Mass Conservation The governing mass conservation equation for an incompressible slurry in a fracture is t  q ( ) d  0  V f ( t )  V l ( t )  V sp ( t )  0 (A -1) where Vl ( t )  2  t 0 A C ( A.  ) (A-4) where   t t p . t )  t   ( A )  0  dAdt (A-2) V sp ( t )  2 S p A ( t )  ( A)  t A A(t ) a The above mass conservation equations are solved numerically in MFrac by elementally descritizing a fracture grid and then integrating over each element. Meyer User’s Guide .

0 . Inc. The fracture will propagate when the stress intensity factor equals the Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. . Re is the Reynolds Number and  is the relative wall roughness. t ) G (A-7) where  W is a generalized influence function.. t )  W ( x .A. Fracture Propagation Criteria The criterion for fracture propagation is based on the concept of a stress intensity factor K I .e. H  is a characteristic half-height and P is the net fracture pressure P –  . leakoff velocity). y . z . z . Width-Opening Pressure Elasticity Condition The crack-opening and opening pressure relationship is of the form: W ( x . laminar flow f = fR  e   .2 Governing Equations 613   W   q  2qL  0 t where (A-5)   q = q L  x +  z  z and  L is the leakoff rate per unit leakoff area (i. t ) 2 (1   ) H   P ( x . Momentum Conservation The momentum equation (equation of motion) for steady flow is   P   1 2 f q 2 w 3 (A-6) where f = 24  Re . turbulent flow f is the Darcy friction factor.

spurt loss. The fracture efficiency is given by   and H =  H   L .614 Hydraulic Fracturing Theory: fracture toughness K IC or critical stress intensity of the rock ( K I = KIC or  I =  IC whichever is greater). momentum (Eqn. elasticity relationship (Eqn. fracture toughness. Meyer User’s Guide . (A-5)). (A-1)). Inc. The governing differential equations for fracture propagation are differentiated with respect to time and then simplified by the transformations t dL(t ) t dA(t ) . P(t ) dt c  (A-8) t dC (t ) C (t ) dt to form a set of equations in terms of the alpha parameters    = t  d  dt  . H  Ww (t ) dt Hw (t ) dt L  p  t dP(t ) .3 Solution Methodology The fracture propagation solution is obtained numerically by satisfying mass conservation (Eqn. (A-7)) and the fracture propagation criteria ( K I = K IC or  I =  IC whichever is greater). The geometric factor   is equal to unity for the PKN and 3-D type fracture models and equal to zero for the GDK model. continuity (Eqn. etc. (A-6)). a  L(t ) dt A(t ) dt t dWw (t ) t dHw (t ) w  . A. non-steady injection rates and fluid rheology. The length propagation parameter is of the form: L  1  ( ca  1 2 )(1  )   term (1   H (3  n  ) 1 ( n   1)(1    ) (A-9) where   accounts for the time dependent gamma parameters. Equation (A-9) and the formulated constitutive relationships control the time dependent length propagation solution: Meyer & Associates. Additional alpha parameters for 2-D type fractures are also given by Meyer3.

A systematic approach is a good method of determining parameters which best match the fracture characteristics and response.1 illustrates that the fracture net pressure decreases with volume (time) for the GDK and Penny models for both viscous and toughness dominated fractures. as toughness increases the net pressure and width increase. Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates. Replacing the injected volume ( V ) by fracture volume ( V f ) demonstrates the approximate effect on fluid efficiency. To match the net pressure in a GDK model only the fluid rheology or Young's modulus can be varied to get a match assuming negligible toughness.1 shows that for fracture propagation controlled by toughness. Table A. Parameters with the largest exponents have the greatest influence on the specific fracture characteristic. Table A.4 Parametric Relationships 615  L (t ) t L(t )  L(tn )   tn  (A-10) A. The toughness equations are for negligible viscous dissipation. Therefore. fracture height and viscosity for the PKN model. The penny shape model is referred to as the Sneddon model for toughness controlled propagation. Inc.A. . more emphasis should be put on refining these critical parameters. GDK and Penny type 2-D fracture models for viscous and toughness dominated fracture propagation. The proportionality equations in Table A.1 can be used to refine input data and to determine parameter sensitivity for 2-D type models. The net pressures for the GDK and Penny models are shown not to be a function of fracture height.4 Parametric Relationships This section describes some of the functional relationships between various fracture parameters and their effect on fracture characteristics and pressure response (see Hagel and Meyer6 for additional details). The parameters which affect net pressure the most are: Young's modulus. The PKN model is the only 2-D model where the net pressure increases with time (volume). and the length decreases. width and net pressure for PKN.1 shows the effect of various parameters on fracture length. The fracture characteristics are shown to be only a function of the critical energy release rate ( G cr = K IC  1 –    G ). Table A. The viscous equations are for laminar flow with negligible toughness and no spurt loss.

One of the major reasons for using a 3-D hydraulic fracturing simulator is to predict height growth as a function of time in fracture pressure analysis.2 summarizes the parametric equations for the total leakoff coefficient based on satisfying the governing equations of mass and momentum. This is evident by the fact that if momentum is satisfied. A 2-D PKN type model can also be used with reasonable results for well contained fracture by modifying the fracture height to match at given points in time. The fracture efficiency is approximately equal for all models. Clearly. Therefore. Table A. Since these equations do not account for coupled effects and assume no parameter interaction. they should only be used as general guidelines.616 Hydraulic Fracturing Theory: Table A.3 also demonstrates that if the simulated net pressure is different than the measured net pressure. The proportionality relationships given in Table A. However. As illustrated. Meyer User’s Guide .1 are for negligible spurt loss. For the PKN. Compatibility in net pressure is far more important for mass conservation than the fracture model used. Since the closure time for a minifrac analysis is a constant and known. the minifrac net pressure results should also be applied to the correct model.2 also shows that the total leakoff coefficient is inversely proportional to the pay zone height. Changing the fracture height and injection rate has a major effect on the predicted leakoff coefficient. respectively. Table A. This table is useful in determining what happens if a given parameter is increased or decreased.3 lists the relationships for the fracture length. since it is only a function of the pressure decline slope and closure time (see Appendix F). Table A. to obtain an accurate total leakoff coefficient. The penny shape equations assume leakoff over the entire fracture area. Meyer & Associates. Inc. 1/2 and 2/3 powers. Exceptions can be found in nonhomogeneous formations and for treatments with time dependent parameters. to history match the entire pressure response in formations which display height growth.3 also illustrates the problem with assuming the measured net pressure applies to all three models. a significant error in the leakoff coefficient and fracture characteristics can occur.5 lists a qualitative representation of the effect various parameters have on the fracture geometry for 2-D and 3-D type models. the model must account for this behavior. Table A. each model will predict different values for the net pressure. width and leakoff coefficient as a function of net pressure. the leakoff coefficient and width increase and the length (radius) decreases as the net pressure increases. Table A. the pay zone and total fracture heights must be known. The leakoff coefficient in minifrac analysis is also shown to be strongly influenced by the pay zone and total fracture height for the GDK and PKN type models. the fracture efficiency and fluid loss volume ( CA ) are also constant for a specific model. GDK and Penny shape models the leakoff coefficient is proportional to net pressure raised to the 1.

a 2-D model will provide acceptable results. • Multilayer leakoff. reservoir.4 are not constant but vary with time and space.4 Parametric Relationships 617 The utility of Table A. Dilatancy and fracture toughness. for fractures which exhibit height growth the importance of a 3-D model is realized to correctly simulate height. • Fracture tip effects. geomechanical and fracture fluid. Each element has been rated according to its relative influence on the pressure solution.1 through Table A. • Height growth through multi-stress zones. However. • Variable formation properties. many of the parameters listed in Table A.4 illustrates that increasing fracture toughness generally increases fracture width and net pressure. For example. • Coupled fracture propagation.5 lists the major elements used in the numerical simulator to calculate the fracture pressure and pressure decline. increasing dilatancy.4 is in providing the engineer with a quick and qualitative method of establishing the effect various parameters have on fracture characteristics without running numerous simulations.4 a numerical simulator is almost essential. height and net pressure (generally). The engineer is encouraged to make an effort to obtain the best possible values as the final accuracy of the analysis will Meyer User’s Guide Meyer & Associates.A. . Whereas. • Variable injection rates. and result in a shorter length. net pressure and compliance (width). To determine the effect of coupling numerous parameters in Table A. For well contained fractures. • Temperature effects on fluid rheology. To accurately model such variations it is necessary to use a fracture simulator which accounts for these complex interactions. Table A. Inc.1 through Table A. • Wall roughness and waviness. A hydraulic fracturing simulator can account for the following effects not normally modeled in fracture-pressure analysis: • Time dependent fluid rheology. Table A. and decreases height growth. Generally.1 through Table A. They are divided into three sub-groups. heat transfer and proppant transport. viscosity or wall roughness will tend to increase the fracture width. • Consistency in the fracture-pressure analysis and treatment design.

-------------E V 4  1 – v 2  K IC P  ------------------.kQ n  V 2 E E n  + 1 kQ n  P  ------------------------------------- 1 – v2 n  + 1Vn  1 – v2  W  ------------------. The items which have received a rating of minor.618 Hydraulic Fracturing Theory: be affected.K IC H 1 / 2 E K IC P  ---------H1 / 2 1 ----------------2n  + 3 1 ------------n + 2 1 ------------n + 2 Radial Model GDK Model PKN Model Toughness Dominated V E .1: Two-Dimensional Hydraulic Fracture Parametric Equations.--------------------L  ----------------- 1 – v 2  K IC H 3 / 2 V E . Table A. need only be approximated within a range of 25 percent.---------------E Hn   1 – v 2  kQ n  VW  ------------------. 2 V K IC  1 – v 2  2 -----------W  --------------------H E2  1 – v2 4 4 K IC V W  --------------------E4 1-3 1-5 4  1 – v 2  K IC H P  ------------------.---------------E Hn  + 2 1 ----------------2n  + 3 1 ----------------2n  + 4 2 2 – n  ---------------3n  + 6 E 2n  + 2 kQ n  V P  -------------------------------------------------- 1 – v 2  2n  + 2 H 3n  + 3 E n  + 1 kQ n  P  ------------------------------------- 1 – v2 n  + 1Vn ------------ 1 – v2  W  ------------------. Inc.------------L  ----------------- 1 – v 2  K IC H E .--------V E 1--3 1--5 Meyer User’s Guide .V --------L  ----------------- 1 – v 2  K IC 2 --3 2 --5 Meyer & Associates. Radial Model GDK Model PKN Model Viscous Dominated EQ – n  V 2n  + 2 L  -------------------------------------- 1 – v 2 kH n  + 2 EQ – n  V 2n  + 2 L  -------------------------------------- 1 – v 2 kH n  + 2 EQ – n  V 2n  + 2 R  ------------------------------- 1 – v 2 k 1 ----------------2n  + 3 1 ----------------2n  + 4 1 ----------------3n  + 6  1 – v 2  kQ n  VW  ------------------.

----------------K C  ----------------.------------------.Leakoff Coefficient 4n  + 1 ----------------- PKN Model n + 3 ----------------- H 2n  + 3.H ----------.K IC C  -----------.K C  ----------------.---------------2n  E  – 3n  + 6 2 V Toughness Dominated PKN Model 3 / 2 1 – v2  1 –  Q 1 / 2.A.----------------n  E  ----------------.H p 2n  + 4 V 1--.---------------2n  + Radial Model 1 ---------------2n  + 3 1 ----------------2n  + 4 2 ----------------3n  + 6 1 – v 2  1 –   Q 2 3n  + 6.---------E  V1 / 2 Hp GDK Model 1 –  Q1 / 2 H2 / 3  1 – v2  .2: Leakoff Coefficient Parametric Equations.-----------------.------------------.K IC C  -----------.-----------------1 – v 2  1 –   Q 4n  + 6.----------------2n +1 H E  ----------------p V 2n  + 3 n------------ + 1- GDK Model 1 / 2 1 – v2   1 –   Q n  + 2. Viscous Dominated C .--------- V1 / 6 Hp E Sneddon Model 1 –  Q1 / 2  1 – v2  .H ----------.K IC C  -----------.----------- V 3 / 10 E Meyer User’s Guide 2--3 4--5 Meyer & Associates.-----------------K C  ----------------. .-----------------.------------------------1--.----------.4 Parametric Relationships 619 Table A. Inc.

Inc.---------E  V1 / 2 Hp 2 1–v W  P -------------.H E V L  ------------------------------2 -----------------1 – v P H E V R  ------------------------------2 -----------------1 – v - H P E Meyer & Associates.-----. 2 1 – v 2 1 –  Q 1 / 2.P --------------C  ----------2 / 3 1 / 6 E  V Hp 1 --2 2--3 Meyer User’s Guide .P -------------E H 1--3 2--2 3 1–v W   V  P -------------E 1/2  1 –v 2  1 – .1 / 2 H Q ----------.----------.3: Leakoff Coefficient Parametric Equations V L  ---------------------------2 1 – v 2 P -------------.P ---------------C  ----------1 / 2 Hp E  1 –  Q1 / 2 H2 1 – v 2 .620 Hydraulic Fracturing Theory: Sneddon Model GDK Model PKN Model Table A.H -----.P --------------C  -----------.H E 1 --2 1 --3 1 --2 2 V 1 – v W  ------.

Hp W L H? W L H? Temperature.  W L W L- Height. W L H W L H? W L H W L H W L H W L- H Toughness. V  increase  decrease ? not sure (may go either way) . E W L W L- Poisson's Ratio. W L W L W L W L Q Leakoff Coef. T W L H W L- H W L H W L H Volume. Hp W- L- W L Volume. C Viscosity. Rate. C Viscosity. W L W L V GDK PKN Three-Dimensional Models >0 Stress Contrast.width L . PARAMETER FRACTURE CHARACTERISTICS Two-Dimensional Models (PKN. GDK.. 0 KIC W L W L- Young's Modulus. Inc. KIC Q Leakoff Coef.  W? L H W? L- H W L H W L- H Young's Modulus. .4 Parametric Relationships 621 Table A.  W L W L- Inj..length H . E W L H W L- H? Inj. Penny) 1 Toughness.efficiency Meyer & Associates.4: Qualitative Parametric Effects on Fracture Charactersitics.  Pay Height.A. H W- L W W LL- Pay Height.height  .not a function of that parameter Meyer User’s Guide W . Rate.

Cores Minor Compressibility Tests. Cores Important Gross Pay (Estimate of Frac Logs Barriers) Medium Permeability (estimated) Cores. PVT Minor GEOMECHANICAL Sources Importance Rating Poissons's Ratio Logs.622 Hydraulic Fracturing Theory: Table A. Calculations Medium Reservoir Pressure Buildup Medium Net Pay Logs. Core Tests Medium Fracture Toughness Tests. RESERVOIR Sources Importance Rating Porosity Logs. Core Tests Important FRAC FLUID Sources Importance Rating Rheology Lab Tests Important Density Lab Tests Minor Filter Cake Lab Tests Medium Filtrate Viscosity Lab Tests Important Meyer & Associates. Inc. Core Tests Minor Young's Modulus Logs. Meyer User’s Guide . PVT Medium Fluid Compressibility Lab Tests. Tests Medium Fluid Viscosity Lab Tests.5: Summary of Major Elements for Proper Analysis. History Match Medium Minimum Horizontal Stress Minifrac Important Stress Contrasts Logs.

. Eqn.5 Nomenclature 623 A. Inc.A. Vf = Fracture volume Vl = Fluid loss volume (no spurt loss) V sp = Volume loss by spurt Meyer & Associates.5 Nomenclature Meyer User’s Guide A = Leakoff area (one face of the fracture) Ct = Total reservoir compressibility C = Total leakoff coefficient CI = Leakoff viscosity control coefficient C II = Reservoir compressibility and viscosity coefficient C III = Wall building coefficient E = Young's modulus G = Fluid loss function. (F-18)