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Chapter 19


Foodborne Illnesses
 Contaminants in food cause over 76 million

illnesses and 5,000 deaths in the United States.

Contaminant: is a substance, such as a chemical or
organism, that makes food unsafe to eat.
Foodborne Illness: sickness caused by eating food that
contains a contaminant.

Fever, headache, digestive troubles

Roots of Foodborne Illness
 Most foodborne illness is caused by


Microorganism: is a living thing so small that it can only be
seen through a microscope.

Bacteria (cause of foodborne illnesses)

 A few bacteria are dangerous to human health.
 Toxin: or poison
 Spore: protected cell that develops into a bacterium.

Correct Conditions (temperature, etc)

Food Safety
 Food Safety: keeping food safe to eat by

following proper food handling and cooking

Keep yourself and kitchen clean
Do not cross-contaminate
Cook food thoroughly
Refrigerate food properly.

Cleanliness in the Kitchen
 Sanitation: prevention of illness through

 Personal Hygiene
 Thoroughly washing your body, face, hands, and avoiding
transfer of harmful bacteria.
 20-second scrub: using soap and warm water to scrub
your hands (ABC’s) .
 Clothes, Jewelry, Hair, etc.

Cleanliness in the Kitchen cont.
 A Clean Kitchen
 Helps limit the growth of bacteria.
 Practice these following habits:
Wash work surfaces in hot soapy water
 Wash tops of cans before opening
 Use clean spoon for taste testing
 Change dishtowels often
 Wash laundry and replace with clean linens
 Keep pets out of the kitchen

 Pest Control
 Insects cause harmful bacteria.

Clean up crumbs, food spills, etc.

Clean Up
 Thorough clean-up is essential for food safety.
 Mop up any spills on the floor.
 Wash sink
 Throw garbage away.
 Washing Dishes
 Scrape and rinse food and place them in one side of sink.
 Use sponge or dishcloth to wash dishes in order
 Rinse thoroughly
 Air Dry on rack

Avoid Cross-Contamination
 Cross Contamination: is the spread of harmful

bacteria from one food to another

Most common with:
Raw Meat
 Poultry
 Seafood
 Eggs

Wash surfaces often
Use new utensils
Wash hands frequently.
Cutting Boards

Use a new one or wash in between cutting different foods

Cooking Food Safely
 Food temperature affects how quickly bacteria

 The DANGER ZONE is when bacteria grow the fastest.

40 degrees F to 140 degrees F.
High temperatures during cooking kill most bacteria, but spores
and some toxins can survive.
Bacteria grow more slowly when the food is in the refrigerator
and freezer; but some bacteria survive freezing.

 Internal Temperature: the temperature deep inside

the thickest part of the food.

Most foods need to reach 160 degrees F.

Thawing Food
 Bacteria can multiply when food is thawing, you

should NEVER thaw food at room temperature.

By the time the inside is thawed, millions of bacteria have
grown on the outside.
Refrigerator (In container)
 Why?
 Microwave
 Skip thawing
 Cooking time will be longer

Serving Food
 1. Keep hot foods hot
 Higher than 140 degrees

Warming Tray, etc

 2. Keep cold foods cold
 Refrigerate until serving
 3. Follow the 2-hour


Perishable foods

Meats, Poultry, Fish, Eggs,

Storing Food Properly
 Identifying Spoiled Food
 Dirt, Heat, Moisture ALL promote bacteria growth
 Fresh Produce


Slimy Texture

Breads, etc

Wilted, Wrinkled, Bruised, Brown


Canned Goods

Bulging Cans, Cloudy Fluids



Food-Storage Guidelines
 No food can be stored indefinitely. Food has

shelf life, the length of time it can be stored and

still retain its quality.

Shelf life depends on the type of food, packaging, and
storage temperature.

 To avoid loss of quality, follow these guidelines:
 1. buy only what you need
 2. Look at sell by and use by dates
 3. Clean storage areas regularly

Room Temperature Storage
 Shelf-Stable foods can be

stored at normal room
temperature; generally
below 85 and above 32.

Include: unopened canned
goods, dry beans, peas, oils,
shortening, grain products.

Storage should be clean, dry
without doors to keep out
Keep away from household

Refrigerator Storage
 Bacteria thrive at room temperature, so it is

important to put food away promptly.
 Help air circulate to all the parts of the refrigerator

Do not overload the fridge
Tightly covered
 Take on taste of other food, spread bacteria

 Rancidity- or spoilage

Freezer Storage
 Freezing allows for long term storage; at

temperatures of 0 degrees.
 Foods that are purchases frozen should be
stored promptly in the freezer.
 Freezing foods can increase shelf life of foods
like: bread, meat, baked goods, etc

Packaging Food for Freezing
 Foods that are purchases already frozen can be

stored in their original packaging.
 Freezer Burn: results when food is improperly
packaged or stored in the freezer too long. The
food dries out and loses flavor and texture.
 Packaging material- must be vapor and moisture

Include: plastic containers, heavy duty plastic freezer

 When filling storage containers- be sure to leave

enough room for the food to expand when frozen.
(usually about 1 inch)

 Label all packages and containers with the

contents, amount, date frozen, and any other
special instructions.

 You should keep an inventory of your frozen foods,

so you don’t buy food that you already have at

Inventory- or up-to-date record

When the power goes out
 When the power goes off or the refrigerator

breaks down, the food inside is in danger of

In general, avoid opening the door- will help maintain
colder temperatures longer.

 Keeping frozen foods safe
 A full freezer will keep frozen for about 2 days.
 A half full freezer- about 1 day.
 Keep meats separated

If they start to thaw their juices may run.

 Keeping refrigerated foods safe:
 During a power outage, food will usually keep in the
refrigerator for 4 to 6 hours
 When the refrigerator is working again:
 Discard any fresh meats, poultry, fish, lunch meat, hot
dogs, eggs, milk, soft cheeses, and left over's.
 Keep butter or margarine if they have not melted
 Other foods, including fresh fruits and vegetables are
safe if they show no signs of mold, sliminess, or bad

Safeguarding the Food Supply
 Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
 Oversee safety of the food supply
Food Additives
 Fat Replacers
 Hazard Analysis (Food Borne Outbreaks)
 Irradiation
 The process of exposing food to the high-intensity energy
waves to increase shelf life and kill harmful organisms.
 Recalls
 Immediate removal of a product from store shelfs