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America under the Confederation

An Empire of Liberty-Thomas Jefferson

-Local loyalties over National patriotism still existed.

The Articles of Confederation

-(written in 1777 ratified in 1781 and lasted until 1788)

After war there was fear of an overtly powerful central

govt. Therefore states retained individual Sovereignty.
One-house Continental Congress-conduct foreign policy

America under the Confederation

The Land Ordinances

Western Frontier ceded by states

to Cont. Congress (National
Indians-forfeit land because they
aided British Army???
Treaties passed (again)
to grant Indians land
Northwestern Ordinances
of 1785 & 1787
No heed to Indian land
No Slaverybut

America under the Confederation

Nation in Debt
Under Articles, National Govt had no power to slow
worsening economic problems

Shays Rebellion (1786-87)

resulted in the realization that the need to move

toward a stronger National Govt was in order to
develop uniform policies

Unchecked Liberty in the Hands

of the People, endangers Libertyuh?

New Constitution

Nationalists of the 1780s

-Nation-Builders and Forefathers of American Nation.

New Constitution - 55 men at Constitutional Convention

Jefferson and Adams in Europe, Washington presides

Franklin was there BUT Hamilton and Madison were the
rowdy, nationalistic youngsters at this hoe-down!

The Structure of Government

-Branches of Govt
-Balance between powers held on
State and National Levels

A New Constitution

Virginia Plan (Large) and New Jersey Plan (Small)

Result: Great Compromise - Two-House Congress

(Senate and House of Reps)
Electoral College - Presidential Elections
Confusing! - CHECK! Controlling! - CHECK!

Constitution established:

Division of Powers = Federalism (relationship between

National and State govt)
Checks and Balances = Branches of Govt

A New Constitution

The Debate over Slavery

Slavery in the Constitution - The words slave or slavery did

not appear in the Constitution.
initially prohibited Congress from abolishing slavery for 20
years. (January 1, 1808 - end of importation of slaves in the US)
3/5th Compromise - (Southern & Northern Debate) -
- advantage Southern/Large States in the Electoral College
*12 of the first 16 Presidents were southern slaveholders*
S.Carolina - Fugitive Slave Clause - Free Air
- Disunion if Slave Trade was stopped
Opposed Bill of Rights - Pinckney (S.C. Delegate) such bills
generally begin with declaring that all men are by nature born
freea large part of our PROPERTY consists in men who are
actually born slaves. . JERK-FACE!

A New Constitution

The Final Document - Signed (39 delegates) on Sept.17, 1787

Debate over the RATIFICATION of the Constitution ensued

The Federalist Papers - 85 essays/letters published by James
Madison (30), Alexander Hamilton (50) and John Jay (5)
Written to convince the general population that the
Constitution and a stronger National Govt did not threaten
their liberties.
Ratified - July 1788

Ratification Debate & Origins of the Bill of Rights

Extend the Sphere - ideology coined by Madison that

Americas diversity and size was not a burden/problem but
rather a strength to its Republic.

Anti-Federalists - opponents of the Constitution

Samuel Adams, John Hancock and Patrick Henry

Favored Small, Local Governance -argued that the
common people will be dominated by the wealthy wellborn if the Constitution was ratified.

The Bill of Rights - not in original draft of Constitution

Anti-Federalists demand Bill of Rights to limit vague

powers of the National Govt
Ratified in 1791 - Defined Unalienable Rights found in
the DOI

Map 7.3 Ratification of the Constitution

Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 4th Edition

Copyright 2013 W.W. Norton & Company

We the People"

National Identity

Civic Nationalism - commitment to common

ideology of liberty (democracy and equality)

Ethnic Nationalism -

The People-Whites entitled to American Freedom

Indians - not part of American politic
Others - enslaved blacks
Indians - granted no political stake in American Govt
and conflict continued through out Frontier
Treaties (i.e.- Treaty of Greenville 1795) way to
ceded territory away from Indians

Give Me Liberty!: An American History, 4th Edition

Copyright 2013 W.W. Norton & Company

We the People"

Blacks and the Republic - both enslaved and

free made up nearly 20% of total population
Hector St. John de CREVECOEUR - French immigrant
published Letters from an American Farmer
America as a melting pot of many backgrounds/
ethnicitiesleft behind former identity to become
American, this new manincluded the horrors of
slavery in American fabric
Jefferson - slaveholder, was not opposed to emancipation
made claims saying that blacks lacked capacity to
understand Liberty and Loyalty, therefore inferior

We the People"
On July 4th, 1800
Declaration of Independence where art thou
now? -Connecticut Anonymous Author

Tell us not of principles. Those principles

have been annihilated by the existence of
slavery among us. -Virginia Newspaper


America under the Confederation

Focus Question: What were the achievements and the problems of the
Confederation government?

A New Constitution
Focus Question: What major disagreements and compromises molded
the final content of the Constitution?

The Ratification Debate and the Origin of

the Bill of Rights
Focus Question: How did Anti-Federalist concerns raised during the
ratification process lead to the creation of the Bill of Rights?

"We the People"

Focus Question: How did the definition of citizenship in the new
republic exclude Native Americans and African-Americans?