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Best Techniques for Sketching, Landscapes,

Portraits and Everything Else Drawing.

Table of Contents

Chapter 1: Getting Started With Sketching

Chapter 2: Getting Started With Some Basic Techniques

Chapter 3: Tips on How to Draw Landscapes For Beginners

Chapter 4: Tips On Drawing Portraits For Beginners

Chapter 5: What Every Beginner Needs To Know About Drawing


I want to thank you and congratulate you for downloading the book, Drawing: Best
Techniques for Sketching, Landscapes, Portraits and Everything Else Drawing.
This book contains proven steps and strategies on how to get better when it comes to
drawing landscapes, portraits and just about any kind of subject you can think of. Get
familiar with the basics and different techniques and apply what you've learned. You'll
surely see a significant change in your drawings the next time you give it a try.
Thanks again for downloading this book, I hope you enjoy it!

Chapter 1: Getting Started With Sketching

If you're new to drawing, one of the first things that you need to sort out would be the
supplies you'll be using. Taking the art seriously requires more than your average pencil
and piece of paper. What you need are the real basics, the tools that would actually
compliment your abilities. To help you out, here's a quick list of what you'll need:
Three to five different pencils with varying grades. Drawing pencils come in a
variety of grades which indicate how soft it is. Now, this softness pretty much
influences just how dark the lines will be. The softer a pencil, the darker it
would be since it leaves more graphite in comparison to a harder grade. Harder
pencils are usually graded as H to 9H, the latter being the hardest of the lot. The
softer ones are graded B to 9B with the latter, being the softest. If you want
something that falls in the middle range, an HB pencil would be the safest bet.
The best range to begin with if you're still a beginner? Try 2H, 2B and 4B.
Choosing the right eraser. Different erasers are meant to be used for different
purposes so finding the right one is key. It is one of the most important tools
you'll be buying, after all. Start with the basics. A vinyl erases, usually
rectangular in shape, and a kneaded eraser are always good to have. The vinyl
one is hard and is the best for erasing charcoal and graphite. The kneaded one, as
the name suggests, is softer and moldable. This is great if you're trying to erase
specific parts of your drawing and want to avoid disturbing the rest of your
drawing. It can also be used for lightening certain areas as it isn't as rough on
your paper as the vinyl variety. Of course, using a light hand on these tools is a
A plastic triangle and a ruler. A 12 to 18 inch ruler would be great for beginners
and covers pretty much all the things you might want to use it for. For your
triangle, a 10 to 12 inch with one right angle would be just right for the job. Both
are useful if you need to draw straight lines or want to measure the distance
between objects in your sketch. Having ones that are transparent are better too as
you'll be able to see through them and check if everything is lining up properly.
The plastic triangle is a useful guide if you were to draw right angles of any size.
Until you're able to do these things without the guides, having them handy would
certainly make drawing hassle free.
Paper. Since you're still practicing and familiarizing yourself with the different

techniques, you will be needing lots of paper. A sketchbook with at least 50

sheets is good to begin with. If you don't want to be too wasteful, using recycled
paper for practicing is also a great idea. You might also want to familiarize
yourself with different paper textures. This should help you find the one you're
most comfortable with.
If you're teaching yourself how to draw, there are certain mistakes that you will
inevitably encounter especially since you don't have a teacher constantly checking what
you're doing. However, don't let that deter you from continuing. When it comes to
drawing, everything takes time and regular practice. There's no way you'll be able to
pull of a landscape or a proper portrait in the first seating. In fact, a bit of frustration
may begin to mount before you're able to make something you're satisfied with. Again,
don't let that stop you. Just remember that with every obstacle you pass, you're
progressing as an artist.
With that said, there are a few learning curves that you can do without. To help you pass
all of those and avoid any further hassles in your learning, here are some of the common
beginner mistakes that you should avoid:
If you're copying from a picture, make sure that you take the time to study its
details. Some people can get too excited when it comes to getting started that
they completely overlook the details.
If you're drawing a portrait, measurements are important. Make sure that you take
the time to get the proportions right as well before you get started. This will
certainly make a difference when it comes to the final result.
Choose the right pencils for the project. It is likely that you'll need more than one
in order to bring in some depth into your drawing. Always take the time to study
this and plan out which pencils to use. This should help you avoid any hassles
along the way and minimize potential mistakes.
Never rush anything and focus on what you're doing. Rushing can result in rough
lines, uneven proportions and a whole lot of mistakes that might end up ruining
the entire picture. Remember that sketching takes time and the more time you put
into it, the better the picture would be.
Remember your layers. This is especially helpful if you're things such as hair,
foliage or grass. Having layers and different shades can help bring it to life
instead of making it look like a messy blob. Scribbling is tempting since it is the
quicker route, but it is best avoid it at all costs. Giving thought and extra care

into adding these details will make a significant difference in the final result.
Be aware of lighting. This would make sure that your drawing has depth and
wouldn't come out looking flat and one dimensional. This can be tricky for
beginners but once you become more familiar with the process, it gets much
Always plan out what you want to draw before you even get started. Also, don't
expect it to come out looking fantastic, especially if it's your first time. Sketching
is a process of trial and error. Just remember that with every mistake that you
make, you are also learning something new which you can apply to the next

DeviantArt Attribution: chaosghidorah

Image shows great composition. Fine detail in foreground with larger objects at the
back of the image, thus showing perspective.

Chapter 2: Getting Started With Some Basic Techniques

There are a number of different drawing techniques and styles that you can study in
order to develop your own. It can be hard if you're doing it by yourself but certainly not
impossible to do. You will need quite a bit of patience, however. Being open is also
important when it comes to this. Sometimes you have to look at another artist's work,
study its details and the style that was used in order to get started with your own. Being
able to do this would allow you to take what works for you, tweak it according to your
preferences and needs and then apply it to your own art.
To help you get started properly, here are a few basic techniques for sketching with
Line Variety and Outlines
When you begin your sketch, it's always best to start with a pencil that's hard in order to
create a lighter outline. A sketch would usually have two different layers of outlines.
The first would be the lighter one and this is used as a guideline for you when creating
basic shapes. In order to achieve this, remember to use very little pressure on your
pencil as you draw; making sure that you create lines in a slow but fluid motion. Make
your lines as light as possible while still keeping it visible. You will want to be able to
erase these lines as your sketch progresses.
Next, you would want to create your second layer which is a heavier outline than the
first. This would be what defines the edges of your different elements. Start by retracing
over your lighter outline, making sure to add a bit more pressure this time in order to
create darker lines. However, do make sure that it doesn't become too dark as that
would be very difficult to erase. At this stage of the process, you're developing your
sketch's outlines and as such, you would want to be able to easily erase any mistakes
that you make. Emphasize your edges more and make sure that the shapes are easier to
This is where you'll be able to learn more about how you can use your pencil to create
variety when it comes to your lines. If you use the side of your pencil, this would create
a thicker line and is a technique that's typically used for creating a harder outline as
well as for shading. Try different angles, this would help you get familiar with the
effects that each one produces.
Hatching and Crosshatching

If you're looking to add a bit more depth to your drawings, hatching is a great technique
to learn about. This is done by drawing small lines close together, adjusting the
darkness according to your needs as you go. It is a style that's also typically used when
it comes to shading certain areas of your drawing. Now, what you need to remember
when hatching is to make sure that all of your lines go towards one direction. This
would make it appear less messy and make it appear more defined. Crosshatching, on
the other hand, are lines that crisscross each other. To make this appear neater, try and
bring your lines tighter to each other. This would also make it appear more realistic for
it minimizes the appearance of pencil strokes.


Circular Technique
Drawing circles as well as scribbles add contrasting texture to your drawing, especially
of objects that are similar when it comes to value. In order to recreate this, begin by
drawing small circles, smoothly moving your pencil in a swirling motion over the area
you're working on. In order to keep it from looking like a mess of scribbles, try and
keep the circles as tight as possible. This is also great if you're using the technique in
order to blend your shading properly. You can also opt to create different grades of
darkness by adjusting the pressure you place on your pencil. This would create
variation, texture and depth once you have everything blended together properly.
This particular technique can also be used when it comes to creating skin texture for
portraits. The tighter your circles are, the more realistic it would be when it comes to
adding a bit more contrast to the skin. The only thing is that it can be a bit tricky to
master so do try and practice it a lot. In time, you'll learn what works and what doesn't
for your style.
Smooth Shading
Shading is, of course, an important technique to learn when it comes to drawing. This is
one of the things that brings a sketch to life and gives it a realistic touch. The thing with
shading is that it needs to be quite smooth, otherwise it might actually take the appeal of
your drawing away. One way of achieving this is by using the side of your pencil as

opposed to its tip. Start with the hardest pencil that you have and create light lines
before moving to darker shades as you go on. You can alternate with the both hard and
soft pencils in order to create variety and more depth. Lastly, keep your lines as tight as
possible to keep things looking nice and smooth.
Another method that you can use for creating a smoother shading would be using the
hatching technique then following up with a shading tool. You can also use a q-tip or
even a piece of tissue in lieu of the tool; anything that would help you smudge the pencil
strokes cleanly would work just fine. Make sure that you smooth out any of the
individual hatch marks in order to create a continuous looking surface without any harsh


Look at shading behind the back area and to give the body its contours. This is a very
effective way to add three dimension to your art.

Chapter 3: Tips On How To Draw Landscapes For

For many beginners, the challenge of drawing their first landscape piece can be
daunting. All that detail, texture and depth that's needed to make it look good can be
overwhelming at first glance. However, once you begin to dissect all the little pieces
and learn more about the techniques that was employed in creating the whole picture,
the task doesn't seem as complicated anymore.
To help you get started, here are a few simple steps and tips for drawing a simple
landscape picture.
Begin with the standard shape that's often used for drawing landscapes. This is
your basic rectangle and is also referred to as a picture plane. Once you get more
familiar with how landscapes work, you can move on to other shapes such as:
oval, vertical oblong, square or even something circular. Most landscapes are
drawn using a horizontal rectangle as it creates a better perspective, especially
when it comes to the wider landscape scenes.
The first thing you need to do is create a thumbnail sketch which would serve as
a kind of rough guide for your finished work. This would enable you to figure out
the proportions and find the right balance for both your background, and
foreground. Getting your composition right early on will definitely save you a lot
of trouble later on.
Mind where you draw your horizontal line that serves as your guide when it
comes to your perspective. If you put it half way between your ground and the
sky, it would make the picture appear static and lifeless. Instead, place your line
one third of the distance from the ground or from your sky. This should be more
appealing to the eye and draw the viewer in.
An important aspect of your landscape drawing would be the focal point. This is
that part of your drawing where the viewer's eyes tend to focus on. A great
drawing, regardless of the kind, would need one or more of these in order to
appear interesting and eye-catching. The great thing about this is that, you have
full control over where you want to divert their attention to. A focal point is
also, typically, the biggest spot in your drawing. Just make sure it doesn't
overwhelm the entire sketch or it might end up ruining the whole effect.

How do you decide on a focal point? When it comes to composing a drawing,

there is a golden rule that most (if not all) artists follow. Never make any of your
two intervals identical or place them within the same distance apart from each
other. Also avoid having them the same size because that ruins the perspective as
well. This is where the rule of thirds enters the picture. Begin by taking your
rectangle and divide it into thirds, horizontally and vertically. Where they cross
over is a good spot for you to place your focal point (the biggest object in your
Keep balance in mind. If you want to create a composition that's pleasing to the
eye then make sure that your picture is properly balanced. Creating one side
that's cluttered with various objects or focal points can definitely unbalance a
sketch. There's also the case of static balance wherein objects bearing the
same size are lumped together in one side of the picture or on either side, like
pillars. While this might seem neat, it can also lead to a very boring picture with
nothing interesting to draw in the eye. Try playing around with positioning the
different elements, this is how you'll figure out what works for your picture.
Varying degrees of light. Another important aspect of your picture that you must
think about would be the light and dark areas. This is what would give your
picture more life, texture and depth. It can also place emphasis on your focal
points. Again, practice is what will help you perfect this particular technique. If
you're copying from an actual photograph, just take what you see on it and apply
it to your drawing. Which areas have the most light? Which ones are somewhat
covered in shadow? Shading and blending would also come in handy when it
comes to this particular step.

Image: Public Domain

A typical Cezanne using sketched outlines, followed by ink rendition.

Chapter 4: Tips On Drawing Portraits For Beginners

Much like landscape drawing, most people tend to feel intimidated by the idea of
creating a portrait. This is because it requires more realism than most types of drawing
and in some ways, there's very little room for mistakes- as it would be too obvious
otherwise. However, once you have an understanding of the basic drawing techniques, it
would seem less complicated and more like a challenge to take on. Sure, you won't be
able to produce a stellar piece during your first go but as with most art projects, every
mistake you make is also a step towards becoming better at it.
So where does one begin? For realistic portraits, having a firm grasp on the
different techniques of outlining and shading would be very beneficial. Choosing
the right tools would also come into play and can actually make the process
much easier. Pencils ranging from 2H to 7B would be great for beginners.
Next, you would want something to copy off of. A photograph would be the best
option for beginners as a live model might produce subtle nuances that can throw
you off. Find a simple photograph, preferably in black and white if you're not
keen on using color just yet. Make sure that it doesn't appear too flat and that
there are dimensions to the person's face. This would help familiarize you with
creating shape and depth through the use of shading and shadows.
Once you have your photograph, you can start working on a basic outline. Just
follow the edges, making sure that you only create light lines that can be easily
erased later on. You can also use a grid for this step or do it freehand, whichever
you're comfortable with. If you're quite keen on accuracy, using a grid is
recommended. Remember that your outline need not resemble the person just yet.
Take your time with it and make sure it matches up to your photograph just right.
It is not uncommon for an artist to take hours when it comes to drawing up an
outline. This is going to be your basis for everything else, after all. So take your
Working on drawing the hair. It is usually better to start working from top to
bottom to avoid smudging areas that you're already done with. A great tip here is
to take your time when sketching out the hair. Pay close attention to where the
hair is flowing towards and do make sure that you keep your lines close together
to achieve that smoothness. Don't forget to add light and dark areas for contrast,
this would prevent your sketch from looking flat. Remember to darken the areas

around your highlights before you start fading it. Tones flow into each other; dark
into a mid-tone and into light. Keep everything flowing into gradients. The effect
might be subtle but it will lend some realism to your drawing. Broad pencil
strokes are recommended.
The forehead area. The first thing you need to do is identify where the lightest
spots of the sketch of would be. Once you have these plotted out, lightly outline
their positions. Typically, highlights are found right on the tip of the nose, the
forehead, cheeks, chin and the bottom lip. The rest of the face needs to be darker
than these highlighted areas, of course. Lots of blending would be required for
this step of your sketch, just make sure that you do it carefully too so you don't
end up with something messy. Another area you should pay extra attention to
would be the hairline. There will always be darker shading around the hairline,
an effect produced by the hair casting shadows onto it.
Moving onto drawing the eyes. Eyes can be quite tricky to work on so do take
your time when drawing it up. You will need a blending stump to get the shading
just right but if you're more comfortable with using something else, such as a Qtip, you could go with that as well. Keep in mind that there will be brilliant
highlights in the eyes, this is what gives it that appearance of being life-like.
Place emphasis on these areas but making them slightly bigger than their actual
size. This can always be adjusted later on after you've finished shading
everything else. Do avoid making the whites of the eye exactly that color. It
would be too much in contrast to the eye itself and make it seem unrealistic.
Instead, shade this area lightly and pay close attention to the tones available to
you in the reference photo.
Cheeks. Again, locate your lightest tone once more. Shade this area softly using a
H graphite and blend it well with a Q-tip or a tissue paper. To add more depth
and contrast, add some B graphite around your lights and blend it out once more.
Create a gradient that will become darker as you approach the outer area of the
face. Take your time when doing this and pay attention to the subtleties.
Working on the nose. This can be a bit of a struggle, especially for beginners. A
tip here is to keep in mind that it's all about making use of different tones to build
up depth and contour. Begin by taking an H graphite and working on shading the
bridge of the nose. Mind that there are subtle highlights at the very tip so always
leave space for that while you're working. To bring your shading to life, take a B
pencil and shade around the bridge. Make it a tone or two darker than the bridge
area. Remember that the separation between the two needs to be bridged with a

gradient so that there are no harsh lines. Blend it from the edges of the nose and
fade it out onto the cheek. Working your gradient smoothly and seamlessly is key.
Again, take your time when doing this as the simple process of shading can
become tedious when you're trying to blend everything properly to create a
seamless flow between the elements.

Jawline area. Take your 3B pencil and pretty much follow the outline of the
jawline. Again, be careful when drawing outlines and try to keep it as light as
possible but still clear enough for you to see. If the photograph you're copying
from features a person who's smiling, copy the small nuances as well such as the
folds of the skin. There are shadows in these folds so don't forget to detail those
as well. Next, move onto the upper lip. For this, some B graphite would be great.
Depending on where the light source in the photograph is coming from, just
follow where the light and shadows fall. Take the time to study these details and
just copy them straight off of the photo and make minor adjustments as you go.

Chin area. This is what will complete the entire face so take your time with it.
Outline your lightest areas and start with some H graphite for subtle shading.
Blend it out as you go. Next, add some B graphite around the highlights to create
shadows and add emphasis to your lights. Remember to leave some space for
adjustments later on. It's always better to have something too light than have it
too dark for the latter is much harder to edit once you've realized the mistake.
Neck. The same idea applies when it comes to drawing the neck. Just follow the
shadows and highlights that are being shown in the photograph. As a base,
however, do start with an even layer of 3B graphite in the area with the most
shadows. To make sure that you're not going too dark, just compare it with the
tones that you've done in the face area and match it up. Remember that the
shadows would get darker as you near the edge on either side. As for the hair,
simply fade it out as you get to the very bottom. This should give you a cleaner
and more realistic look. When you get to the chest area, just make sure your
gradients and tones are seamless. Check if your highlights and shadows are
matched in color as well.
Note: Keep in mind that you don't have to finish every element of the picture in one go.
You can set aside certain areas aside as you work on something else. Plan this out
before you even begin and you'll be able to prevent unnecessary smudges which may
come about as you move your drawing while you work.

attribution: Artfulcraner
Very good detail on facial features showing shading and pencil detail to accentuate
areas of the face and hair.

Chapter 5: What Every Beginner Needs To Know About

When it comes to drawing or sketching, just about anyone can do it. It's just a matter of
some people being more capable than others. However, it is a skill that can be honed in
if a person wants it enough to invest some real effort in learning it. Desire, guidance,
practice and time are just some of the factors that are needed in order to help a beginner
improve his own abilities.
To help you continue going further, here are a few more tips that should help you
understand the process better.
Drawing is actually 50% observation. It is all about seeing and understanding the
appearance of an object, scenery, or a person. Have you taken photographs
without even looking at something? Did it come out good? Of course not. A lot of
people tend to overlook this simple fact and end up disappointing themselves for
not being able to draw properly. Learn how to observe keenly and how to really
study an object. Absorb all that information before you even start sketching
anything. Everything is there if you really look at it. The more you understand
observation, the better your drawings would be.
Look for basic shapes. This is a great technique, especially for beginners since it
can really help simplify even the most complicated of subjects. To begin, start by
studying what you have to draw and pick out the basic shapes that make up the
whole. These are the ones that would be easier to draw in terms of outlines. Use
it as a guide before you begin layering in more detail.
Practice your pencil strokes before you start sketching. By doing this, you'll be
able to better familiarize yourself with how dark or how light each pencil grade
is. You'll also be able to avoid any big mistakes when you're drawing because
you know exactly what you're going to get if you use a particular grade.
Always make sure your drawings have a full range of value. As we've pointed
out earlier, value refers to the darkness and lightness of any given color. It is
all about light and shadow, the very things that give your picture contrast and
depth. Both are very important when it comes to lending some realism and life to
your drawings. A scale value would be very useful to have around as it would
allow you to check if you're adding a full range to your drawing. Familiarize

yourself with this element of sketching, it can really make a difference.

Make full use of line quality. Line quality refers to the thickness or thinness of the
lines you use on your picture. If you're making a line drawing then this is an
important aspect to consider. Having a variety of line quality can make a
drawing more appealing and interesting to look at. Play around with it and
practice. You should be able to find which ones work with your style better.
Speaking of style, it helps to be more consistent. Make sure that you start and
finish your drawing using the same style. If you began with a drawing style that's
a bit more loose and free-handed, keep it that way until you're finished. If you
mix it with something tighter and more structured, you won't have any
cohesiveness in the picture and it will certainly throw the viewer off. Much like
your gradients, keep the style seamless and harmonious. Again, practicing a bit
before you get started will certainly help you with this.
Understanding your medium. Before you even get started, make sure that you
understand the proper way of using your medium as well as the different ways it
could be utilized. It's about understanding the basics then experimenting and
testing its limitations as well as how you can apply it to your own style. Practice
makes perfect in this case. It is also important that you don't rush the process.
Pay attention to everything you're doing, even the mistakes, because this is how
you'll learn.
Loosen up. The way you hold your pencil can certainly impact the resulting lines
and the entire picture itself. Think about it, if you hold it too tightly and start
drawing, the lines can end up looking darker or harsher than intended. However,
if you keep it loose and hold it comfortably between your fingers, your lines
would appear smoother and flow on the paper better. Practice different ways of
holding your tool and draw with your shoulder instead of your wrist.
So there you have it, just a few simple tips to help you move along when it comes to
developing your drawing skills. At the end of the day, it all comes down to how much
effort you're willing to put into your art. Practice, as we've emphasized numerous times,
is certainly the key to success.

Thank you again for downloading Drawing: Best Techniques for Sketching,
Landscapes, Portraits and Everything Else Drawing!
I hope this book was able to help you to learn more techniques when it comes to
drawing different subjects such as portraits and landscapes. There are many different
styles to learn and plenty of room to develop your own as well. May this book help you
achieve just that!

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