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Induction Motors

Introduction

Three-phase induction motors are the most common
and frequently encountered machines in industry
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-

simple design, rugged, low-price, easy maintenance
wide range of power ratings: fractional horsepower to 10
MW
run essentially as constant speed from no-load to full load
Its speed depends on the frequency of the power source

not easy to have variable speed control
requires a variable-frequency power-electronic drive for optimal
speed control

Construction

An induction motor has two main parts
-

a stationary stator

consisting of a steel frame that supports a hollow, cylindrical core
core, constructed from stacked laminations (why?), having a
number of evenly spaced slots, providing the space for the stator
winding

Stator of IM

Construction
-

a revolving rotor



composed of punched laminations, stacked to create a series of rotor slots,
providing space for the rotor winding
one of two types of rotor windings
conventional 3-phase windings made of insulated wire (wound-rotor) »
similar to the winding on the stator
aluminum bus bars shorted together at the ends by two aluminum rings,
forming a squirrel-cage shaped circuit (squirrel-cage)

Two basic design types depending on the rotor design
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-

squirrel-cage: conducting bars laid into slots and shorted at both ends by
shorting rings.
wound-rotor: complete set of three-phase windings exactly as the stator.
Usually Y-connected, the ends of the three rotor wires are connected to 3
slip rings on the rotor shaft. In this way, the rotor circuit is accessible.

Construction Squirrel cage rotor Wound rotor Notice the slip rings .

Construction Slip rings Cutaway in a typical woundrotor IM. Notice the brushes and the slip rings Brushes .

rotating with a speed 120 f e nsync  frequency and rpm Where fe is the supply P P is the no.Rotating Magnetic Field   Balanced three phase windings. i.e. of poles and nsync is called the synchronous speed in rpm (revolutions per minute) . mechanically displaced 120 degrees form each other. fed by balanced three phase source A rotating magnetic field with constant magnitude is produced.

Synchronous speed P 50 Hz 60 Hz 2 3000 3600 4 1500 1800 6 1000 1200 8 750 900 10 600 720 12 500 600 .

Rotating Magnetic Field .

Rotating Magnetic Field .

5 BM sin(t  240)]xˆ  [ BM sin(t  240)]yˆ 2 [0.5 BM sin(t  120)]xˆ  [ .Rotating Magnetic Field Bnet (t )  Ba (t )  Bb (t )  Bc (t )  BM sin(t )0  BM sin(t  120)120  BM sin(t  240)240  BM sin(t )xˆ 3 BM sin(t  120)]yˆ 2 3 [0.

5 BM cos(t )]yˆ .Rotating Magnetic Field 1 3 1 3 Bnet (t )  [ BM sin(t )  BM sin(t )  BM cos(t )  BM sin(t )  BM cos(t )]xˆ 4 4 4 4 3 3 3 3 [ BM sin(t )  BM cos(t )  BM sin(t )  BM cos(t )]yˆ 4 4 4 4  [1.5 BM sin(t )]xˆ  [1.

Rotating Magnetic Field .

Principle of operation     This rotating magnetic field cuts the rotor windings and produces an induced voltage in the rotor windings Due to the fact that the rotor windings are short circuited. and induced current flows in the rotor windings The rotor current produces another magnetic field A torque is produced as a result of the interaction of those two magnetic fields  ind  kBR  Bs Where ind is the induced torque and BR and BS are the magnetic flux densities of the rotor and the stator respectively . for both squirrel cage and wound-rotor.

which is the same speed of the rotating magnetic field. then the rotor will appear stationary to the rotating magnetic field and the rotating magnetic field will not cut the rotor. the rotating magnetic field will cut the rotor windings and a torque is produced . no induced current will flow in the rotor and no rotor magnetic flux will be produced so no torque is generated and the rotor speed will fall below the synchronous speed When the speed falls. So. why? If rotor runs at the synchronous speed.Induction motor speed  At what speed will the IM run? - - Can the IM run at the synchronous speed.

the IM will always run at a speed lower than the synchronous speed The difference between the motor speed and the synchronous speed is called the Slip nslip  nsync  nm Where nslip= slip speed nsync= speed of the magnetic field nm = mechanical shaft speed of the motor .Induction motor speed   So.

notice that the slip is a ratio and doesn’t have units . by 100.The Slip s Where s is the slip nsync  nm nsync Notice that : if the rotor runs at synchronous speed s=0 if the rotor is stationary s=1 Slip may be expressed as a percentage by multiplying the above eq.

Induction Motors and Transformers  Both IM and transformer works on the principle of induced voltage - - - - Transformer: voltage applied to the primary windings produce an induced voltage in the secondary windings Induction motor: voltage applied to the stator windings produce an induced voltage in the rotor windings The difference is that. the secondary windings can move Due to the rotation of the rotor (the secondary winding of the IM). the induced voltage in it does not have the same frequency of the stator (the primary) voltage . in the case of the induction motor.

Frequency  The frequency of the voltage induced in the rotor is given by Pn fr  120 Where fr = the rotor frequency (Hz) P = number of stator poles n = slip speed (rpm) P  (ns  nm ) fr  120 P  sns   sf e 120 .

the frequency of the induced voltage is equal to the supply frequency On the other hand. the frequency will be zero .Frequency  What would be the frequency of the rotor’s induced voltage at any speed nm? fr  s fe   When the rotor is blocked (s=1) . if the rotor runs at synchronous speed (s = 0).

its output is mechanical power and for that we should know some terms and quantities related to mechanical power Any mechanical load applied to the motor shaft will introduce a Torque on the motor shaft.m and 2 nm m  60 rad / s . This torque is related to the motor output power and the rotor speed  load Pout  m N .Torque   While the input to the induction motor is electrical power.

there is a relation between horse power and watts hp  746 watts .Horse power    Another unit used to measure mechanical power is the horse power It is used to refer to the mechanical output power of the motor Since we. as an electrical engineers. deal with watts as a unit to measure electrical power.

What is the synchronous speed of this motor? What is the rotor speed of this motor at rated load? What is the rotor frequency of this motor at rated load? What is the shaft torque of this motor at rated load? . 4. 2. 10hp.Example A 208-V. Y-connected induction motor has a full-load slip of 5 percent 1. four pole. 60 Hz. 3.

Solution 1.7 N .05  60  3Hz  load Pout Pout   m 2 nm 60 10 hp  746 watt / hp   41. 4. nsync 120 f e 120(60)    1800 rpm P 4 nm  (1  s )ns  (1  0.m 1710  2  (1/ 60) . f r  sf e  0. 2.05) 1800  1710 rpm 3.

it is easier if we can combine these two circuits in one circuit but there are some difficulties .Equivalent Circuit  The induction motor is similar to the transformer with the exception that its secondary windings are free to rotate As we noticed in the transformer.

s =1. i. Why? ER  sER 0 Where ER0 is the largest value of the rotor’s induced voltage obtained at s = 1(loacked rotor) .e.Equivalent Circuit   When the rotor is locked (or blocked). the induced voltage and frequency in the rotor will be equal to zero. s = 0. if the rotor rotates at synchronous speed. Why? On the other side. i. the largest voltage and rotor frequency are induced in the rotor.e.

the reactance of the rotor circuit also changes Where Xr0 is the rotor reactance at the supply frequency (at blocked rotor) X r  r Lr  2 f r Lr  2 sf e Lr  sX r 0 .e. i. as the frequency of the induced voltage in the rotor changes. fr  s fe  It is known that X   L  2 f L  So.Equivalent Circuit  The same is true for the frequency.

Equivalent Circuit  Then. we can draw the rotor equivalent circuit as follows Where ER is the induced voltage in the rotor and RR is the rotor resistance .

Equivalent Circuit  Now we can calculate the rotor current as ER IR  ( RR  jX R )  sER 0  ( RR  jsX R 0 ) Dividing both the numerator and denominator by s so nothing changes we get IR  ER 0 ( RR  jX R 0 ) s Where ER0 is the induced voltage and XR0 is the rotor reactance at blocked rotor condition (s = 1) .

Equivalent Circuit  Now we can have the rotor equivalent circuit .

Equivalent Circuit  Now as we managed to solve the induced voltage and different frequency problems. we can combine the stator and rotor circuits in one equivalent circuit Where 2 X 2  aeff X R0 2 R2  aeff RR I2  IR aeff E1  aeff ER 0 aeff  NS NR .

Power losses in Induction machines  Copper losses - Copper loss in the stator (PSCL) = I12R1 - Copper loss in the rotor (PRCL) = I22R2  Core loss (Pcore)  Mechanical power loss due to friction and windage How this power flow in the motor?  .

Power flow in induction motor .

Power relations Pin  3 VL I L cos   3 V ph I ph cos  PSCL  3 I12 R1 PAG  Pin  ( PSCL  Pcore ) PRCL  3I 22 R2 Pconv  PAG  PRCL Pout  Pconv  ( Pf  w  Pstray )  ind Pconv  m .

Equivalent Circuit  We can rearrange the equivalent circuit as follows Actual rotor resistance Resistance equivalent to mechanical load .

Power relations Pin  3 VL I L cos   3 V ph I ph cos  PSCL  3 I12 R1 PAG  Pin  ( PSCL  Pcore )  Pconv  PRCL R2  3I s 2 2 PRCL  3I 22 R2 Pconv  PAG  PRCL  3I 22 R2 (1  s ) s Pconv  (1  s ) PAG Pout  Pconv  ( Pf  w  Pstray )  ind PRCL  s PRCL (1  s)  s Pconv (1  s) PAG   m (1  s)s .

Power relations PAG Pconv 1 1-s PRCL s PAG : PRCL : Pconv 1 : s : 1-s .

and the rotor copper losses are 700 W. three phase induction motor is drawing 60A at 0. The efficiency of the motor.85 PF lagging. The power converted Pconv. Find the following quantities: 1. The output power Pout.Example A 480-V. . 4. 3. 60 Hz. the core losses are 1800 W. The stator copper losses are 2 kW. The air-gap power PAG. and the stray losses are negligible. The friction and windage losses are 600 W. 2. 50-hp.

4  2  1. Pin  3VL I L cos   3  480  60  0. Pconv  PAG  PRCL 700  38. Pout  Pconv  PF &W 600  37.6   37.9 kW 1000 3.85  42.6 kW 2.8  38.Solution 1.4 kW PAG  Pin  PSCL  Pcore  42.9   37.3 kW 1000 .

4 . Pout   100% Pin 37.Solution 37.3  100  88% 42.3 Pout   50 hp 0.746 4.

641 R2= 0. four-pole.3  The total rotational losses are 1100 W and are assumed to be constant.106  X2= 0. 3. 2.2 percent at the rated voltage and rated frequency. 25-hp. For a rotor slip of 2. Y-connected induction motor has the following impedances in ohms per phase referred to the stator circuit: R1= 0. find the motor’s 1. Efficiency . Pconv and Pout  ind and load 6.464  XM= 26.Example A 460-V. Speed Stator current Power factor 4. The core loss is lumped in with the rotational losses.332 X1= 1. 60 Hz.

11.76 1   12.022) 1800  1760 rpm R2 0.464  15. 120 f e 120  60 nsync    1800 rpm P 4 nm  (1  s )nsync  (1  0.09  j 0. 2.1 .76  1 1 Zf   1/ jX M  1/ Z 2  j 0.Solution 1.332 Z2   jX 2   j 0.022  15.0662  1.464 s 0.1  0.9431.0773  31.038  0.

4.88  0.72  j 7.0733.641  685 W PAG  Pin  PSCL  12530  685  11845 W .88) 2  0.79  14.833 lagging Pin  3VL I L cos   3  460  18.0733.Solution Z tot  Z stat  Z f  0.6 A Z tot 14.6  3.106  12.9431.6  0.6 PF  cos 33.1   11.641  j1.88  33.833  12530 W PSCL  3I12 R1  3(18. 4600 V 3 I1    18.

Solution Pconv  (1  s ) PAG  (1  0.7% Pin 12530 . 10485 =  14.m 60 Pout 10485   100%   100  83.m 60  56.022)(11845)  11585 W Pout  Pconv  PF &W  11585  1100  10485 W 5.1 hp 746 PAG 11845   sync 2 1800 Pout 10485   m 2 1760  62.  ind  load 6.9 N.8 N.

Torque. power and Thevenin’s Theorem  Thevenin’s theorem can be used to transform the network to the left of points ‘a’ and ‘b’ into an equivalent voltage source VTH in series with equivalent impedance RTH+jXTH .

power and Thevenin’s Theorem VTH jX M  V R1  j ( X 1  X M ) | VTH || V | RTH  jX TH  ( R1  jX 1 ) // jX M XM R12  ( X 1  X M ) 2 .Torque.

power and Thevenin’s Theorem  Since XM>>X1 and XM>>R1 VTH  XM  V X1  X M Because XM>>X1 and XM+X1>>R1  XM   X 1  X M RTH  R1   X TH  X 1 2 .Torque.

power and Thevenin’s Theorem VTH I2   ZT  VTH 2  RTH  R2    ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 s Then the power converted to mechanical (Pconv) Pconv R2 (1  s )  3I s 2 2 And the internal mechanical torque (Tconv)  ind Pconv  m R2 3I Pconv PAG s    (1  s)s s s 2 2 .Torque.

Torque. power and Thevenin’s Theorem     ind 3    s      VTH 2  RTH  ind R2    ( X TH s 1  s 2    R2   s   2  X2)    R2 3V    s 2 R2  2 R   ( X  X )  TH  TH 2 s   2 TH .

Torque-speed characteristics Typical torque-speed characteristics of induction motor .

torque increase linearly with the slip. 2. This torque is called pullout torque and is 2 to 3 times the rated full-load torque. . The curve is nearly linear between no-load and full load. 3. There is a maximum possible torque that can’t be exceeded. so the rotor current. Discussed earlier. In this range. The induced torque is zero at synchronous speed.Comments 1. the rotor resistance is much greater than the reactance.

. so the motor will start carrying any load it can supply at full load. If the rotor is driven faster than synchronous speed it will run as a generator. The starting torque of the motor is slightly higher than its full-load torque. 6.Comments 4. 5. The torque of the motor for a given slip varies as the square of the applied voltage. converting mechanical power to electric power.

Complete Speed-torque c/c .

 This condition occurs when R2/s equals the magnitude of the impedance RTH + j (XTH + X2) R2 2  RTH  ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 sTmax sTmax  R2 2 RTH  ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 .Maximum torque  Maximum torque occurs when the power transferred to R2/s is maximum.

Maximum torque  The corresponding maximum torque of an induction motor equals  max  1  3VTH2    2 2 2s  RTH  RTH  ( X  X ) TH 2   The slip at maximum torque is directly proportional to the rotor resistance R2 The maximum torque is independent of R2 .

Maximum torque  Rotor resistance can be increased by inserting external resistance in the rotor of a wound-rotor induction motor. The value of the maximum torque remains unaffected but the speed at which it occurs can be controlled. .

Maximum torque Effect of rotor resistance on torque-speed characteristic .

What is the motor’s slip? 2. How much power will be supplied by the motor when the torque is doubled? .m under these conditions? 3. What is the induced torque in the motor in N. 50-Hz induction motor supplies 15kW to a load at a speed of 2950 rpm.Example A two-pole. What will be the operating speed of the motor if its torque is doubled? 4. 1.

6 N.67% nsync 3000 Q no Pf W given  assume Pconv  Pload and  ind   load  ind Pconv 15 103    48.Solution 1.0167 or 1.m m 2950  2 60 .  120 f e 120  50 nsync    3000 rpm P 2 nsync  nm 3000  2950 s   0.

0333)  3000  2900 rpm 4. In the low-slip region.33% and the motor speed will be nm  (1  s )nsync  (1  0. the torque-speed curve is linear and the induced torque is direct proportional to slip.5 kW 60 . Pconv   ind m  (2  48.6)  (2900  2 )  29. So.Solution 3. if the torque is doubled the new slip will be 3.

. 3. 4. 25-hp. 60-Hz. Y-connected wound-rotor induction motor has the following impedances in ohms per phase referred to the stator circuit R1= 0.106  X2= 0.464  XM= 26. what is the speed at which the maximum torque now occur? What is the new starting torque of the motor? Calculate and plot the T-s c/c for both cases. four-pole. What is the maximum torque of this motor? At what speed and slip does it occur? What is the starting torque of this motor? If the rotor resistance is doubled.Example A 460-V.3  1. 2.641 R2= 0.332 X1= 1.

106  26.3   (0.590  1.3 X TH  X 1  1.2 V 2 2 (0.3) RTH  XM   R1   X  X  1 M  2 2 26.106  26.641)  (1.641)    0.Solution VTH  V XM R12  ( X 1  X M ) 2 460  26.106 .3 3   255.

464) 2 2  0. sTmax   R2 2 RTH  ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 0.332 (0.198) 1800  1444 rpm .198 The corresponding speed is nm  (1  s )nsync  (1  0.590)  (1.Solution 1.106  0.

Solution The torque at this speed is  max 1  2s    3VTH2  R  R2 TH  TH    ( X TH  X 2 ) 2  3  (255.590) 2  (1.2) 2 2 2  (1800  )[0.590  (0.464) 2 ] 60  229 N.106  0.m .

464) 2 ] 60  104 N.Solution 2.590  0. The starting torque can be found from the torque eqn.m . by substituting s = 1 2  R2 3VTH   1  s  start   ind s 1  2 s  R2 2 R   ( X  X )  TH  TH 2 s  s 1   3VTH2 R2 s [ RTH  R2   ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 ] 2 3  (255.2) 2  (0.106  0.332) 2 1800   [(0.332) 2  (1.

then the slip at maximum torque doubles too R2 sTmax   0. If the rotor resistance is doubled.m .396 2 RTH  ( X TH  X 2 ) 2 The corresponding speed is nm  (1  s )nsync  (1  0.Solution 3.396) 1800  1087 rpm The maximum torque is still max = 229 N.

m .590  0.106  0.664) 2 1800   [(0.2) 2  (0.Solution The starting torque is now  start  3  (255.464) 2 ] 60  170 N.664) 2  (1.

- DC test: determine the stator resistance R1 - No-load test: determine the rotational losses and magnetization current (similar to no-load test in Transformers). - . same tests are used to determine the values of the motor parameters. Locked-rotor test: determine the rotor and stator impedances (similar to short-circuit test in Transformers).Determination of motor parameters  Due to the similarity between the induction motor equivalent circuit and the transformer equivalent circuit.

. A variable DC voltage source is connected between two stator terminals. The DC source is adjusted to provide approximately rated stator current. and the resistance between the two stator leads is determined from the voltmeter and ammeter readings.DC test - - The purpose of the DC test is to determine R1.

the per phase stator resistance is 3 R1  RDC 2 .DC test - then RDC VDC  I DC - If the stator is Y-connected. the per phase stator resistance is RDC R1  2 - If the stator is delta-connected.

The motor is allowed to spin freely The only load on the motor is the friction and windage losses. The slip is very small 1. . so all Pconv is consumed by mechanical losses 3.No-load test 2.

No-load test

4.

At this small slip
R2 (1  s)
? R2
s

&

The equivalent circuit reduces to…

R 2 (1  s)
? X2
s

No-load test

5.

Combining Rc & RF+W we get……

No-load test
6.

7.

8.

At the no-load conditions, the input power measured by
meters must equal the losses in the motor.
The PRCL is negligible because I2 is extremely small
because R2(1-s)/s is very large.
The input power equals
Pin  PSCL  Pcore  PF &W
 3I12 R1  Prot

Where
Prot  Pcore  PF &W

No-load test
9.

The equivalent input impedance is thus approximately
Z eq

V

 X1  X M
I1,nl

If X1 can be found, in some other fashion, the magnetizing
impedance XM will be known

the rotor is locked or blocked so that it cannot move. a voltage is applied to the motor.Blocked-rotor test  In this test. current and power are measured. and the resulting voltage. .

Blocked-rotor test   The AC voltage applied to the stator is adjusted so that the current flow is approximately full-load value. The locked-rotor power factor can be found as Pin PF  cos   3Vl I l  The magnitude of the total impedance Z LR V  I .

Blocked-rotor test ' Z LR  RLR  jX LR  Z LR cos   j Z LR sin  RLR  R1  R2 ' X LR  X 1'  X 2' Where X’1 and X’2 are the stator and rotor reactances at the test frequency respectively R2  RLR  R1 X LR  f rated ' X LR  X 1  X 2 f test .

7 XLR Design D 0.6 XLR Design C 0.4 XLR 0.5 XLR .Blocked-rotor test X1 and X2 as function of XLR Rotor Design X1 X2 Wound rotor 0.5 XLR 0.5 XLR 0.5 XLR 0.3 XLR 0.5 XLR Design B 0.5 XLR Design A 0.

2 .Midterm Exam No.

DC Test: VDC = 13.Example The following test data were taken on a 7.17 A Pin = 420 W Locked-rotor Test: Vl = 25 V f = 15 Hz I = 27.6 V IDC = 28.5-hp. Find the slip at pull-out torque. and find the value of the pull-out torque. 208-V. design A. four-pole. 60-Hz.0 A No-load Test: Vl = 208 V f = 60 Hz I = 8. . Y-connected IM having a rated current of 28 A.9 A (a) (b) Pin = 920 W Sketch the per-phase equivalent circuit of this motor.