Theory of Knowledge Anand Kumar

Theory of knowledge is a branch of philosophy that cover following aspects. 
What is knowledge?  How is knowledge acquired ?  What are the attributes of knowledge?  Source of knowledge  Architecture of knowledge  Application of knowledge

Knowledge can define in several manner in different fields A true belief is the knowledge that must have a justification.(philosophy) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information(Oxford) There is no common definition of knowledge.


Outlook of ToK

Memory or Past

Consciousness Reason Testimony

Architecture of Knowledge Analysis of Knowledge


Perception is the process by which organisms interpret and organize sensation to produce a meaningful experience of the world. Sensation usually refers to the immediate, relatively unprocessed result of stimulation of sensory receptors in the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, or skin. Every perception leads beliefs about object and event into our mind.

Memory is a store house of our past perception, beliefs and experiences. A vast proportion of beliefs are stored in memory but memory itself does not originate beliefs. Memory build on perception. Memory is a basic source of justification. A justification may strengthen or weaken the beliefs.

C onsciousness
This is an inner perception. Consciousness is subjective experience or awareness or the executive control system of the mind. Consciousness= Images of memory + Imagination.

Reason is a motive to exercise the things. Reason makes room for the possibility that one can consider and adequately understand a self evidence proposition yet fail to believe.

‡ A testimony is known as statements that are based on personal experience. ‡ Testimony is a special source of knowledge. ‡ It has social ground of beliefs.

Architecture of Knowledge
Belief 1 Belief 2 Belief 1 -> Belief n Inferential Belief Belief 1 Belief 2 Circular Belief Belief 1 -> Belief n

Knowledge has similar architecture as belief it may be infinite inferential or circular knowledge. Knowledge makes a chain in our brain with all related belief and justification. Multiple chain exist in mind.

Analysis of Knowledge
‡ We know knowledge arises in experience through all sources and justification. ‡ A false belief and belief on lucky guess is not knowledge. ‡ Knowledge is a right kind of true belief and appropriately caused true belief. ‡ How much knowledge we have.

Application of Tok
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