You are on page 1of 113

CONTENTS Introduction

Before Edsa 1965-1986: Marcos Times

Day One
Day Two
Day Three
Day Four
The Flight

Beamed worldwide by satellite TV from EDSA for all the world to witness, the
dramatic People Power Revolution that ousted the firmly entrenched Philippine
dictator Ferdinand E. Marcos non-violently from power into exile was the first of
its kind and deserves serious study, never mind that it "failed", as critics and
cynics love to point out, to usher in real social and political change. Before the
failure came the success, the people stopped the tanks and Marcos fled, what a
coup, no mean feat, how on earth did that happen?
Many still think that the ouster was orchestrated by the Americans-a CIA* plot. As
many others, the Catholics mostly, still insist that it was a miracle, an act of God.
Not to be outdone, the military rebels claim credit for the uprising: had they not
defected, there would have been no EDSA.

Altogether the effect, deliberate or not, is to diminish the People's role in that
unexpected triumph, to insinuate that the People were acting as mere puppets of
some higher power. Contrary to Marcos propaganda, the Americans were not
responsible for the EDSA Revolution. Reagan's trouble-shooter Habib knew that
something was brewing but he failed to get a handle on it. The Ramos-Enrile
defection (Day 1) caught the Americans napping, People Power (Day 2) knocked
them out. It was already Day 3-the battle was practically won-when the Americans
intervened in earnest, and only in the matter of Marcos's escape. Intelligence
reports from the CIA may have helped the rebels during the four days but if the
Americans had completely stayed out of it, EDSA would have happened anyway
and it would have ended more decisively.

Neither were the military rebels responsible for EDSA. Their defection only served
as catalyst for the display of People Power. Remove the defectors and some other
agitators would have come along. At the time, Cory's boycott campaign vs.
Marcos-crony businesses was beginning to peak and the business community
was beginning to hurt. If the military had not defected, the business community
would have had to make their own move to force Marcos to step down for the sake
of the economy. The military reformists would have fallen in line, no doubt, and
People Power would have stolen the show just as stunningly, just in time to
render moot Marcos's inauguration. If anything, the military defectors owe their
lives and status, post-EDSA, to the People who not only saved their lives but also
prevailed upon Cory to avail of their armed services.
Neither was EDSA a miracle, beyond human understanding. There is a
rationalcause-and-effect explanation (unfortunately kept hidden from the public)
for everything that happened during those four days, from the Enrile-Ramos
defection to the Marcos-Ver escape. Walang himala! No sick were healed, no water
turned into wine, the sun didn't dance, and the Marian apparition is all in the
Cardinal's mind. EDSA was about ordinary people in great numbers who dared to
confront, unarmed, the military might of the dictator and discovered in the
process their mind-boggling powers when united by a common goal. Walang
himala. The task of removing the dictator was well within the people's human

In fact, EDSA was wrought by People Power, which was made flesh by the martial
law regime when it jailed, and then made a martyr of, opposition leader Beningno
"Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. EDSA was the climactic and final chapter of that fierce rivalry
between Marcos and Ninoy which saw the widow Cory rising triumphant on a
glorious wave of People Power. Also, EDSA is a sublime, if controversial, chapter
in the Filipino people's continuing struggle for freedom which inspired the world
but has proven an empty victory at home. As in the aftermath of the 1896
Revolution, the masses in 1986 went home empty-handed, the spoils pre-empted
by old peninsulares and new ilustrados. Nonetheless it was sublime, and the Four
Days (and preceding events to some extent) bear recalling and scrutinizing, if only
for lessons in non-violent warfare and the dynamics of people-power.
The story of EDSA begins with the imposition of martial law in September 1972
that ushered in fourteen years of oppression. A quick run down of those dark
times, that reign of greed and terror, which saw the principal players crossing
paths, taking their places, setting the stage for EDSA, is in order, more fully to
appreciate the interplay of forces that led to, and climaxed as, the People Power
Ferdinand E. Marcos of the Nacionalista Party was elected President of the
Philippines, defeating incumbent Diosdado Macapagal by a slim margin of 670,000
Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino, Jr. of the Liberal Party was elected Senator to a
Congress dominated by Marcos's Nacionalista Party.
Jose Ma. Sison organized a new Communist Party of the Philippines (CPP) to take
over the struggle from the old Partido Komunista ng Pilipinas (PKP)
Marcos was elected President for a second term, defeating Sergio Osmena, Jr.
The CPP joined forces with the PKP's military arm (Hukbong Mapagpalaya ng
Bayan) led by Bernabe Buscayno (Kumander Dante); it became known as the New
People's Army (NPA).
January, demonstrations against Marcos, perceived to be angling for a third term,
culminated in the "First Quarter Storm." Militant students, farmers, and workers
picketing Malacañang Palace were violently dispersed by military troopers.
In June, the Constitutional Convention began to rewrite the 1935 Constitution.
August, Plaza Miranda was bombed, injuring several opposition stalwarts. Marcos
blamed the Communists and suspended the writ of habeas corpus. Also he
charged that Aquino and other oppositionists were arming the NPA.
Amid allegations of bribery attempts by the Marcoses, the Constitutional
Convention approved a parliamentary system of government. September 13,
Aquino exposed and denounced "Oplan Sagittarius," a Marcos plan to place the
national capital region under military control. September 16, Marcos accused
Aquino of meeting with Communist Party leader Jose Ma. Sison and plotting to
overthrow the government. September 22, Marcos staged a violent ambush of his
Defense Minister's car, and then declared martial law. Congress was closed, the
Constitutional Convention suspended, and media muzzled. September 23, Aquino
was arrested and detained, along with other "subversive" oppositionists.
The final draft of the 1973 (Marcos) Constitution was ratified by Citizens'
Assemblies and declared legal by Marcos's Supreme Court. August, Ninoy Aquino
was brought to trial before a military tribunal for violating the antisubversion law.
Aquino refused to participate in the proceedings.
NPA Commander Bernabe Buscayno was arrested.
CPP Chairman Jose Ma. Sison was captured. In November, Aquino and Buscayno
were found guilty of subversion, illegal possession of firearms and murder, and
sentenced to death by firing squad. Meanwhile, Marcos's Defense Minister Juan
Ponce Enrile found himself caught in a power struggle with First Lady Imelda
Romualdez Marcos and Chief of Presidential Security Fabian Ver.
April, elections for representatives to an interim Batasan Pambansa were held.
Marcos's Kilusang Bagong Lipunan won 187 seats to the opposition's 13. In Metro
Manila, the KBL led by Imelda Marcos defeated the Lakas ng Bayan (LABAN) led
by Ninoy Aquino from his prison cell.
September, Marcos had his first hemodialysis treatment to control hypertension
and renal dysfunction. December, Aquino was granted for the first time a three-
week furlough to be home with his family for his 25th wedding anniversary.
Elections for governors and mayors were held, the first since martial law was
declared; the Liberal Party and LABAN boycotted the elections. In May, Marcos
allowed Aquino to go to the United States for heart surgery; friends secured him
fellowships at Harvard University and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
In November, Ronald Reagan was elected US President. Irwin Ver was promoted
to colonel, bypassing the next-in-line.
Early in the year of Pope John Paul II's first visit to the Philippines, Marcos lifted
martial law but retained extra-legal powers. Midyear, he was re-elected to a six-
year term, defeating Alejo Santos and Bartolome Cabangbang. He appointed
Fabian Ver [head of the National Intelligence and Security Agency (NISA) and the
Presidential Security Command (PSC)] Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces,
bypassing Lt. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos.
The Pentagon and the CIA helped upgrade and computerize NISA's
telecommunications system, enabling them to monitor the system and patch into
it at will.
July, Enrile received reports of plans to eliminate him and the "MND boys." To
protect themselves, Enrile's chief security aide Lt. Col. Gregorio "Gringo"
Honasan with four others founded the AFP Reform Movement, later known as the
RAM. With Enrile's blessings,Honasan started building up their armory and
expanding their base.
Marcos turned down Enrile's and Ramos's offers to resign. August 7, Marcos
underwent surgery for a renal transplant. Acute rejection occurred; the
transplanted kidney was removed forty-eight hours later. August 21, Aquino
returned from self-imposed exile in the United States and was slain as he stepped
off a China Air Lines plane at the Manila International Airport; his funeral drew
millions of Filipinos to the streets in defiance of the dictator. December, Ramos's
Special Action Force joined up with Enrile's Security Operations Group; the two
units underwent battle training supervised by British mercenaries.

In May's Batasan Pambansa elections, Ninoy's widow, Corazon Cojuangco
Aquino, threw her support behind opposition parties UNIDO (United Nationalist
Democratic Organization) and PDP-LABAN (Pilipino Democratic Party-Lakas ng
Bayan). Despite allegations of fraud on the KBL side, her candidates won 56 seats
out of 183. In October, the Fact-Finding Board found Ver, 24 other soldiers, and
one civilian indictable for the murder of Aquino; Ver went on leave of absence and
Ramos was appointed Acting Chief of Staff. In November, Marcos underwent a
second renal transplant. Rumors of Marcos dying and Ver taking over were rife.
Enrile began to admit publicly that he would like to be president in the future,
when Marcos was no longer interested.
1985 February
Ver et al stood trial before the Sandigan Bayan for the Aquino assassination.
March, the RAM went public at PMA's homecoming ceremonies. In his speech to
the graduating class the next day, Ramos confirmed the need for reforms and
proposed sweeping changes to strengthen the demoralized military in the face of
a mounting Communist insurgency. Soon after, Col. Jose Almonte, former
director of a Marcos think-tank, joined RAM.
Marcos removed the Integrated National Police from Enrile's ministry and placed it
under direct presidential control. August, opposition Members of Parliament filed
a motion to impeach Marcos, citing culpable violation of the Constitution and
allegations of "hidden wealth." RAM firmed up coup plans for the day after
Christmas. US Senator Richard Lugar, head of the Committee on Foreign
Relations, sent a member of his staff, Frederick Brown, to Manila to evaluate the
deteriorating situation. Brown concluded that one of the few promising
developments was the emergence of the RAM, a group that the Pentagon and CIA
happened to be quietly encouraging.
A US defense attache confirmed that Malacañang had issued secret and undated
warrants for the arrest of RAM leaders.
In Washington D.C., a secret strategy meeting attended by retired General Edward
G. Lansdale discussed 2 questions: whether to keep the U.S. bases in the
Philippines; if yes, how to shift control of the AFP from Ver to the RAM. US Sen.
Paul Laxalt visited Marcos to convey Reagan's concerns about the communist
threat and to discuss CIA director William Casey's idea of holding snap elections,
if only to disarm his liberal critics in America. Joaquin "Chino" Roces launched
the "Cory Aquino for President Movement" (CAPM). A week later, Cory agreed to
run if (1) Marcos called snap elections, and (2) if the CAPM gathered the promised
million signatures.
November 3
Marcos declared on American television that he would run in snap presidential
polls three months hence. November 19, the Batasan Pambansa set February 7 as
the date for the snap polls. November 30, Cory was presented with more than a
million signatures drafting her as presidential contender.
December 2
Ver et al were acquitted by the Sandigan Bayan of complicity in the Aquino
assassination. The very next day, Cory declared her candidacy under the UNIDO
banner, with former Senator Salvador Laurel as her running mate. December 23,
the Communist Party of the Philippines sounded the call to boycott the snap
elections. December 28, Ambassador Leticia Ramos Shahani announced her
resignation from the Philippine foreign service to join Cory Aquino. December 31,
KBL stalwarts began defecting to UNIDO. IBM Philippines refused to take part in
the COMELEC's computerization plans.
1986 January
Their coup plans on hold, RAM launched "Kamalayan '86," a series of prayer
rallies and consciousness-raising seminars funded by anti-Marcos businessmen
led by Jaime Ongpin, to impress the need for clean and honest elections upon
members of the military. Meanwhile, in separate meetings, key officers sketched
Cory Aquino and Fidel Ramos their coup plans. The reformist military tried, and
failed, to convince Cory that she had no chance of winning at the polls..
February 4
A 21-member bi-partisan delegation of US senators, congressmen, and private
citizens arrived in Manila to monitor the elections.
February 5
An estimated million, the largest political gathering in the nation's history,
attended Mrs. Aquino's miting de avance. NAMFREL (National Movement for Free
Elections) announced it would post poll-watchers to prevent fraud in the counting.
At least five banks, known to have ties with the Marcos regime, experienced a run.
February 7
Election Day. NAMFREL mobilized 400,000 volunteers to monitor voting, challenge
wrongdoing, and guard against fraud. Broadcast alerts over Radio Veritas urged
volunteers into troubled areas to stop ballot boxes from being stolen or tampered
February 8
Cory Aquino took the lead in NAMFREL's tally of precinct results. She vowed
massive protests and daily street demonstrations if cheated. The government's
counting proceeded more slowly and showed Marcos leading.
February 9
Led by Linda Kapunan, thirty computer technicians manning the COMELEC
tabulation machines walked out of their posts in protest over alleged deliberate
changing of election results. A multinational team of observers cited cases of
vote-buying, intimidation, snatching of ballot boxes, tampered election returns,
and the disenfranchisement of thousands of voters, specially in Metro Manila, by
the ruling party.
February 10
Defense Minister Enrile warned of greater political instability. "Any untoward
events may cause the country to swing either to the extreme right or to the
extreme left." In either case, he said, only the Communist Party would benefit.
Gen. Fabian Ver said that the recent election was "the most peaceful in the history
of the country," and exhorted AFP men to keep up the good work.
February 11
Laban leader Evelio Javier, former governor of Antique, was gunned down in
broad daylight. The Batasan Pambansa formally began the canvass of election
returns. Reagan said "hard evidence" of fraud was lacking, and he would send
Philip Habib to mediate between the ruling party and the opposition camp. Cory
Aquino asked "friends abroad" to set aside "short-sighted self-interest" and stop
supporting "a failing dictator." This, as President Marcos invited her to join his
government and "actively participate" in a planned Council of State.
February 12
The Philippine peso fell drastically to an all-time low of P20 to a dollar, dropping
by 75 centavos from its rate the day before.
February 13
President Marcos took a virtually irreversible lead over opposition candidate
Corazon C. Aquino in the Batasan's official canvass of votes. This, despite efforts
of opposition MP's to point out defects in almost all certificates of canvass
opened by Speaker Nicanor Yniguez. Statistical improbabilities were also cited.
February 14
The Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines (CBCP) issued its strongest
statement ever, warning that a government which "assumes or retains power
through fraud" would have "no moral basis." President Marcos's lead widened to
1.5 million votes, with only 1.1 million votes remaining uncanvassed.

Marcos called a meeting of senior generals--Ver, Ramos, Josephus Ramas of the

Army, Vicente Piccio of the Air Force, Brilliante Ochoco of the Navy, and Prospero
Olivas of the Metropolitan Command. Discussed were: the disciplining of military
reformists and arrest of their leaders; the arrest and assassination of opposition
leaders--Neptali Gonzales, Ramon Mitra, Homobono Adaza, Luis Villafuerte,
Aquilino Pimentel, Rene Saguisaag, Joe Concepcion, Dante Santos, Ting Paterno,
Jaime Ongpin, Vicente Jayme, among others; the declaration of a state of
emergency; the arrest and liquidation of Enrile.
February 15
The Batasan Pambansa formally proclaimed Marcos winner of the February 7
elections; all 50 opposition Members of Parliament walked out in protest. Trade
Minister Roberto Ongpin, speaking for the economic technocrats, assured Marcos
of support if he undertook reforms in military, political, and economic areas;
Marcos signed an agreement to the effect. Philip Habib arrived in Manila.
February 16
At a "victory rally," Corazon Aquino called for coordinated strikes and the boycott
of crony media, 7 banks, Rustan's Department Store, and San Miguel Corporation
in a civil disobedience campaign aimed at toppling Marcos from power. Marcos
announced that Ver had resigned as AFP Chief of Staff and NISA director-general
and that Lt. Gen. Ramos would serve as Chief of Staff. The White House
grudgingly admitted that the elections "were marred by fraud and violence
perpetrated largely by the ruling party" and instructed Habib to work out a
compromise with Cory.
February 17
Marcos extended Ver's term to the end of February to allow him to wind up his
affairs. Habib met with Marcos, then with Cory. Cory bluntly refused anything less
than Marcos's removal from office. She announced that she would go around the
country to sound her call for civil disobedience and non-violent protest actions;
her first stops, Cebu and Davao, the coming weekend. (Habib also met privately
with Ramos and Enrile over the next few days.)

Crony banks, corporations, and media were hit hard by the boycott. Deposit
withdrawals were reportedly heavy not only in the seven banks in Cory's boycott
list but also in banks either partly or wholly owned by known Marcos cronies.
Nestle pulled out its ads from government TV Channel 4 and newspaper Bulletin
Today. San Miguel-A shares went down to as low as P11.50 per share, while B
shares went down to P14.50 per.

Not far behind in financial fiasco was the beverage industry. Beer quaffers had
suddenly shifted to gin or hard drinks. Restaurants, eateries and cafes refused to
serve San Miguel beer as well as Coca Cola, Sprite and Royal True Orange. A
small number also stopped drinking Pepsi Cola, Seven-Up and Mirinda, thinking
that these softdrinks were also under the control of a crony.
February 18
The peso fell to P22.04 to the dollar. NAMFREL chairman Jose Concepcion, Jr.
said at least 3.27 million voters, mostly from areas considered as opposition
bailiwicks, were unable to cast their votes in the February 7 election. Enrile's
American friends warned him that Ver was positioning his forces around Metro
February 19
The US Senate voted 85 to 9 in favor of a declaration that the snap elections were
marked by "widespread fraud." Col. Irwin Ver placed the Presidential Security
Command on red alert. US bishops announced their support of the local clergy's
election protests.
February 20
Testifying before a US House subcomittee, Asst. Secretary of State Paul H.
Wolfowitz disclosed that Reagan's offer of new aid was "in abeyance" as long as
Marcos remained in office. Diplomats from 15 nations - Austria, Switzerland,
Norway, Finland, Sweden, Japan, Britain, Ireland, the Netherlands, France, Spain,
Belgium, Italy, Denmark, and West Germany - called on Mrs. Aquino who told
them she was determined to assume the presidency "at the earliest possible
time." Jeepney drivers, consumerists, students, and academicians joined the
boycott wagon. RAM set the coup for Sunday, February 23, at 2:00 AM. Col.
Almonte detailed the plans to Gen. Ramos.
February 21
Marcos admitted he was "nervous" about the decisions of foreign governments to
boycott his February 25 inauguration and that he was launching a diplomatic
offensive to inform foreign governments about what transpired in the polls. In a
35-minute meeting with Habib, Aquino advised the envoy to "wait and see...let
events speak for themselves." Ver informed Marcos that Ramos and Enrile and his
Trade Minister Roberto Ongpin were involved with RAM in a CIA plot to
assassinate the president. Enrile received information that Ver had ordered his
men to prepare for a series of arrests; he wrote a letter of resignation which he
said he would deliver to Malacanang the following Monday.

Despite rumors of a weekend coup by RAM and suggestions that she stay put in
Manila, Mrs. Aquino said she would fly to Cebu as scheduled Saturday morning to
pursue her civil disobedience campaign.

In less than a week since Aquino's call for a boycott of crony-owned or aligned
banks and business establishments, there was a total of P1.78 billion in
withdrawals from crony banks and the Philippine National Bank, Security Bank &
Trust Company, Republic Planters Bank, and Traders Royal Bank. The first to get
their money out of the crony banks were groups belonging to the clergy; in Union
Bank, the clergy represented at least 12 % of its deposit base. As a result, deposit
upsurges were recorded in Bank of the Philippine Islands, Metropolitan Bank and
Trust Company, and Citibank. Bulletin today, the country's largest circulated
newspaper (circulation 350,000) trailed behind the Philippine Daily Inquirer,
Malaya, and the Manila Times. Rustan's department store was empty; most of their
customers moved over to SM Shoemart, Anson's, and Robinson's.

The political opposition said it was ready to set up a provisional government with
strong backing from concerned military officers and their men if Marcos insisted
on remaining in power. "Mrs Aquino and I have been approached by sufficiently
high military officers," Laurel said, who had secretly pledged support for the
opposition and the democratic process. Laurel stressed that he was not calling for
a military take-over. "We just want to let Mr. Marcos know that his threat to use the
military against the people will not work out."

When the day began, just after midnight, a meeting was in progress in the home of
Marcos's Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile.
DASMARIÑAS VILLAGE, MAKATI - Among those present were Enrile, his press
secretary, Silvestre Afable, and three key officers plotting a coup against
Ferdinand Marcos.
The five were putting final touches to a speech Enrile planned to read 36 hours
later over national radio and television. Enrile would proclaim himself head of a
ruling junta, the National Reconciliation Council, just after rebel troops assaulted
the Palace at 2:00 AM February 23, capturing or killing Marcos.
Spearheading the attack on Marcos was Enrile's chief of security, Colonel
Gregorio "Gringo" Honasan, an officer whose relationship with the Defense
Minister has been described as "closer than father and son."
Enrile was the central political figure behind the coup conspiracy, but Honasan,
his PMA classmates Col. Eduardo Kapunan and Col. Victor Batac, were the
masterminds of the attack plans.
At 2:00 AM of the 23rd of February, Sunday, Col. Honasan and his commandos,
guided by carefully prepared maps and rebels in the Palace guard, would break
into the presidential bedrooms of Malacañang Palace to arrest Marcos and his
First Lady, Imelda. Simultaneously, Col. Kapunan's force would set off a series of
massive explosions near the Malacañang armories, signalling three rebel
battalions to move in with reinforcements. The first and largest explosion was
intended to assassinate General Fabian Ver who would be sleeping inside his
home in nearby Malacañang Park.
The rebels also finalized a list of nominees for Enrile's junta: opposition
candidate Corazon Aquino, Vice Chief of Staff Gen. Fidel Ramos, Cardinal Jaime
Sin, and several leading technocrats like Marcos's Prime Minister Cesar Virata.
Veritas Special Edition Oct 86
Unknown to Honasan, one of his moles in In January, Honasan had
Malacanang Palace had been leaking top-secret pressured an officer on
details of the coup plot to the Vers. the staff of the
Presidential Security command into acting as an agent within the Palace. Thirty-
five-year-old Major Edgardo Doromal had been reluctant to take the assignment,
and he wasn't up to its demands. In just a few days, Doromal's nerves frayed, and
he unburdened himself to his commander, Col. Irwin Ver, who immediately passed
on the astonishing information to his father, the general. The Vers turned the
jittery Doromal into a double agent, and he channeled accurate, up-to-date
information to them. (WORTH DYING FOR 1987,pp272-273)

While Enrile was polishing his speech, General Ver was fortifying the palace.

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 2:00 AM - Ver ordered the 5th Marine Battalion Landing
Team out of Zamboanga to the National Capital Region. He plucked 8 officers and
82 enlisted personnel from the 5th Infantry Battalion in Piddig, Ilocos Norte for
urgent posting in Malacañang. Further, he beefed up the anti-riot units with one
Philippine Air Force (PAF) Crowd Dispersal and Control Battalion
Malacañang's defenses were divided into 4 sectors; each sector had a battalion of
ground troops. The Palace was the responsibility of Col. Irwin Ver, Presidential
Security Command (PSC) Chief of Staff. Lieutenant Colonel Rexor Ver headed the
Presidential Security Unit of 400 men, whose primary mission was to provide
close-in security to the First Family. The Recon Company of the PSC, an armored
unit with 8 light Scorpion tanks, 10 M-113 Armored Personnel Carriers (APC), and
11 V-150s was under Major Wyrlo Ver.
The Pasig River from its mouth at Manila Bay to Guadalupe, about 2 kilometers
from the Palace, was secured by a Philippine Navy unit composed of 6 patrol
crafts, 2 frigates, a demolition team, and ferry boats. All approaches to the Palace
by road were secured by the Metrocom Western Sector under Lt. Col. Agapito
Heredia. This mobile unit of 350 men took care of choke points at the Ayala-
Lozano approach, the Sta. Mesa-JP Laurel approach, the Mendiola approach, and
all approaches on Otis St. and Nagtahan Bridge. The unit was also assigned to
provide the palace with in-depth defense.
All in all they had 3,629 fully armed officers and men. (BREAKAWAY1986, pp. 5-
Ver was turning the palace into a death trap. . . a Acting on orders from
cat's cradle of detonation leads to 500 lb. bombs Marcos, who was in
and Claymore anti-personnel mines lining the river. command, Ver
announced to his generals that he would let Col. Honasan's commandos approach
the palace riverfront in their rubber boats.
Ver was turning the palace into a death trap. A navy demolition team was
already weaving a cat's cradle of detonation leads to 500 lb. bombs and Claymore
anti-personnel mines lining the river.
In a garishly theatrical touch, the river was to be lit up with spotlights as
Honasan and his men crossed in their boats. Marcos's son, Ferdinand
"Bongbong" Jr., was to step forward with a megaphone, give the rebels one
chance to surrender, and then signal the launch of the counter-attack. Veritas
SpeciaL Oct 86

While Ver was fortifying the palace, some reformists began to feel the heat.

FORT BONIFACIO - After escorting Trade & Industry Minister Robert Ongpin to his
Alabang residence, his 19 security men were arrested by elements of the Scout
Ranger Regiment and brought to Fort Bonifacio.
Military officers who interrogated them told Ongpin's aides that they had been
arrested in connection with an attempted coup and a plan to assassinate the
President and his wife.
In the ensuing investigation, Ongpin's chief security aide, Lt. Alamos Alabe, a
graduate of the Philippine Military Academny and detailed with the Linsi Security
Agency, managed to talk his way out of Fort Bonifacio, claiming he was not a
member of the military. Immediately, Alabe rushed to Ongpin's house to inform
him of what had happened. Business Day13 Mar 86

DASMARIÑAS VILLAGE, MAKATI, 3:00 AM - The meeting at Enrile's house was

just breaking up. Col. Tirso Gador, a commander from Enrile's home province,
walked the others to the street. "I have your Uzis in my car," he told them.
The would-be rebels stared blankly. "We told him we didn't know how to use an
Uzi," recalled Captain Felix Turingan, who added, "I'd been planning to use my
Nonplussed, Gador held an impromptu training session in the early Manila
dawn, right outside the Defense Minister's palatial home. Veritas Special Oct 86

Honasan and Kapunan had left the meeting earlier to make a final reconnaissance of the
approaches to the Palace.
OUTSIDE MALACAÑANG - Honasan and Kapunan discovered a battle-hardened
Marine battalion sitting precisely at their point of attack. By dawn, it was clear that
they had been betrayed. Ibid.

According to Ramos aide Avelino Razon, the AFP Vice Chief of Staff was in his office by
6:30 AM as usual. A RAM member, Major Razon had kept the general informed of the
coup plans.

Sonny Razon: That early morning it was not yet clear what the apprehension of
Ongpin's security was all about. As far as I knew, everything was still "go."

Jose Almonte: We planned the whole action mainly under two offices: the Ministry
of National Defense and the office of Gen. Ramos, then PC Chief and AFP Vice
Chief of Staff. His closest aides and the chief of his security, Sonny Razon, were
members of our core group; they kept the general informed of meetings and

ALABANG, RIZAL, Morning - Ongpin, in a panic, called up Marcos and asked why
his security aides had been arrested. Marcos assured Ongpin that he would
investigate the matter. Marcos offered the services of some of his security from
the Presidential Security Command but Ongpin vigorously objected. Business Day
13 Mar '86


Metropolitan Command officer Col. Rolando Abadilla tried to talk Honasan out of
doing anything rash.
"He reminded me that Ver and my father were friends, that Irwin and I were
friends," Honasan said. "I told him to tell Ver he could order me to report to him
anytime because he was the chief."
Despite his cocky response, Honasan was shaken. As soon as Abadilla left, at
about 10 a.m., he called Kapunan into his office. They weighed what they had seen
on their late-night drive and discussed their options, then decided to freeze
operations for twenty-four hours. "We didn't abort our plans," said Kapunan, "we
just froze them." WORTH DYING FOR p.272

10:00 A.M. - Gringo Honasan checked out incoming reports for additional data on
the prepositioning of troops and armored vehicles in Malacanang and other
places in Metro Manila. As he pored over some of the documents, two brief
reports which came in at 7 A.M. caught his eye: "5th Marine Battalion landing
Team moved from Fort Bonifacio to Pandacan area just off the Otis entrance of
the Malacanang Park at 0400H." "14th Army Infantry Battalion moved to North
Harbor from Nueva Ecija at 0300H." BREAKAWAY p. 168

MAKATI, Midmorning - Defense Minister Enrile was at the Atrium for coffee and
gossip, chatting with Deputy Prime Minister Jose Rono, when a call came from
Trade Minister Bobby Ongpin. "My security men! They've all been rounded up!"

Enrile was worried because three of those men were from his office and were on
loan to Ongpin to train his own security force. BREAKAWAY p. 10
More to the point, several of those arrested were intimately involved with the coup
plot. WORTH DYING FOR p. 274

MALACAÑANG PALACE, Morning - The household staff, all in white, moved

reassuringly about their chores. Tuesday's event was going to be significant and
the Palace had to be brushed to a shine. The carpets were being shampooed and
vacuumed, the shiny floors, made of rare Philippine hardwood, waxed and
polished, and the huge chandeliers overhead, products of proud artisans from
Guagua, Pampanga, dusted. The marble floors were scrubbed till they shone like
mirrors. Everywhere, the capiz windows were cleaned and then opened to admit
fresh air. The lights in the Ceremonial Hall, the dining room, Heroes Hall, the
president's Study Room, and Mrs. Marcos's Music Room were turned off. The
entire Palace was left to bathe in natural sunlight. MALACANANG TO MAKIKI 1991,
p. 3

Mid-morning, Cory Aquino was just leaving for Cebu to campaign for civil disobedience.
Cory Aquino: It was my aide, then Lt. Jose Honrado, who told me of the
rumors of a coup for the weekend, and who recommended that I stay in
Manila. But I'd been hearing of rumors of coup attempts in the past and
they never materialized, so I was not all that convinced that there would
be one. On the other hand, Cebu was for certain. I had announced
several days before that I would be in Cebu that Saturday in pursuance
of the non-violent movement I had launched in February 16 at the Luneta.
Thousands of people were expecting us who I imagined would be terribly
disappointed and probably not as eager to give me their support if I did
not come.
CAMP AGUINALDO, 12:00 Noon - There was commotion at the Defense Ministry
as some of the reformists discussed what to do. Navy Capt. Rex Robles was
assigned to act as liaison with the diplomatic community and to tell the world their
story in case the reformists were arrested. Another reformist sent an urgent signal
to a US Embassy official to seek help. No response. Honasan and Kapunan left for
the Defense Minister's residence. Business Day 28 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE, High Noon - Stephen Bosworth, American ambassador

to the Philippines since May 4, 1984, was ushered into the Study Room. With him
was Philip Habib, Ronald Reagan's "trouble shooter," whose presence in the
country was the culmination of several months' turmoil and intrigue.

Philip Habib was cutting short his stay by three days and leaving immediately. It
would not do for President Reagan's negotiator to be in Manila if all hell was going
to break loose. It might seem as if he was involved, or responsible. THE MARCOS
DYNASTY 1988, p. 411

The President, Habib, and Bosworth reviewed the elections, discussing peace and
order. The Americans brought up the touchy subject of overstaying generals and
insisted that Ver resign or retire. They bore down on that so hard that the
President said later that perhaps if he had thrown them Ver's head, the Americans
might have eased up on him. MALACANANG p. 32
DASMARIÑAS VILLAGE, MAKATI - Enrile was taking lunch with his wife Cristina
when Honasan and Kapunan arrived and asked to have a chat with him. Sunday
Inquirer Magazine 9 Mar 86

Honasan said, "We're getting constant information that there's an order to round
up all the members of the movement." Asiaweek 9 Mar 86

Enrile assessed the situation. "We can disperse, in which case they would hunt
each one of us. Or we can regroup and take a stand and take our chances. If we
regroup, the possibility of an encounter is very high. But the possibility of a stand-
off is not far-fetched." Sun Inq Mag 9 Mar 86

Honasan and Kapunan tried to convince Enrile to fly to Cagayan where he could
hide in the meantime and think of other options should the reformists be arrested.
They assured him they could handle the situation in the camp. Enrile replied,
"Why Cagayan? If I die, I might as well die here." Enrile decided to regroup and
call everyone to Camp Aguinaldo. Business Day 28 Feb 86
Cory was receiving a warm welcome from the people of Cebu. CEBU CITY
- People
lined the
leading to
the city. In
ns, crowds became so excited that they literally blocked the road, thus creating
momentary bottlenecks in the traffic flow. People shouted "Cory! Cory! Cory!" and
"Laban!" There was an abundance of yellow banners, streamers, and flags. People
along the motorcade route displayed anything yellow, such as yellow banana
leaves, yellow flowers, yellow bedsheets, yellow towels, yellow shirts and
blouses, and even yellow men's briefs. PEOPLE POWER (I) 1986, p. 146

Fidel Ramos: I had two important meetings scheduled that day. Lunch with Max Soliven
at the house of Mrs. Betty Go Belmonte, and later in the afternoon, a dialogue with Cory
supporters, mostly neighbors of mine who wanted to picket my house in Alabang.

Ming Ramos: But I asked them, "What will you get from picketing? You will not get any
answers. Why don't you have a dialogue with my husband instead?"

QUEZON CITY - Max Soliven secretly met with Gen. Fidel V. Ramos. Ramos
explained why he had not chosen to resign despite the humiliations heaped on
him by Mr. Marcos and rogue elements of his Philippine Constabulary who were
involved in carnaps, murder, and other crimes. He said he had been helpless to
discipline these men as they were protected "from above". He said he had had to
swallow his pride because he was needed "in place" to protect the lives of many
"reformist" officers and men who would be in danger. Inquirer 25 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 12:45 PM - Still meeting with US envoy Philip Habib, Mr.
Marcos stressed that although he had promised a policy of "maximum tolerance"
towards the planned mass protest actions by the opposition and other anti-
government forces, "the moment the opposition touched any of the public
officials or started a Welga ng Bayan," he would be constrained to take "more
forceful measures." Inquirer 23 Feb

While the president was busy with Habib and Bosworth upstairs, Capt. Ricardo
Morales (one of the First Lady's several escorts and security officers, who was to
guide the rebel force up the stairs into the president's bedroom) reconnoitered the
Palace defenses and then attempted to withdraw firearms from the Presidential
Security Unit armory. He was accosted and brought to the aides-de-camp room for
questioning. MALACAÑANG p. 40

While Habib and Marcos had been closeted in the president's study, a noticeably
nervous General Ver had been cooling his heels next door in the music room.
Habib had barely been ushered out the front door of Marcos's study when Ver
slipped in through a side door to give him urgent news. His men were in the
process of grilling four officers...plotters of a plan to storm the palace and oust
Marcos. IMPOSSIBLE DREAM 1989, p. 376

MALACAÑANG PALACE - After Habib left, the President headed for his bedroom
and rested, a by now predictable turn; he would rest after a caller, or even
betweeen calls. His illness demanded that. It was to his bedroom that the news of
the Enrile-Ramos mutiny was brought. MALACAÑANG p. 91

US EMBASSY, Just Before 2:00 PM - As he prepared to depart, Habib concluded:

"Cory won the election and deserves our support. Marcos is finished, and we
ought to offer him asylum in the United States."
Before boarding his US Air Force plane for the flight home, Habib intuitively
told an American embassy officer to tell Bosworth, "Something's going to break."
IN OUR IMAGE 1989, p. 415

DASMARIÑAS VILLAGE, MAKATI - Enrile's and RAM's number-one priority was to

drum up as much public support as they could. To do this, they had to scuttle any
impression that they had been planning a coup d'etat.
If people realized that Enrile had been planning to stage a coup and then
impose a junta, most of them certainly would not have been supportive. Enrile and
his men had to cover their plans and portray themselves as victims.
That settled, Enrile went to his bedroom, changed into jeans and canvas shoes,
and took an Uzi submachine gun out of the closet. WORTH DYING FOR p. 276

Before leaving home Enrile contacted Gen. Ramos. "Eddie, I have this problem and I'd
like to know if you'll help." He outlined the plot that he had uncovered against RAM. "Will
you support us?" QUARTET p. 15

Fidel Ramos: I said at once, "Yes, sir, I'm with you, all the way." Then I warned him that
his phone might be bugged. "I know all about it," I said. "I will join you in Camp
Aguinaldo." I had wanted my withdrawal to have a very profound impact on events. I had
been waiting for the right moment. And it came.

RAM recognized that while a significant number of officers and men were
prepared to line up behind Enrile, his long political and personal association with
Marcos had tainted him in the minds of many more. And this was doubly true
among the civilian power structure, the wealthy businessmen who'd emerged as
an anti-Marcos force and the large middle class who'd tirelessly marched and
demonstrated ever sine the Aquino assassination. Ramos's image was much
cleaner. WORTH DYING FOR p. 265

CEBU CITY - Cory campaigned for civil disobedience. "We are ready to assume
office as soon as Mr. Marcos goes," she said. Malaya 23 Feb 86

She expanded the list of firms and establishments she had asked the people to
boycott. In the new list were Fortune Tobacco, Asia Brewery, Allied Bank,
Rustan's Cebu, Cebu Plaza Hotel, Cebu Casino, Cebu Jai Alai, and the
government-run station DYFM. The Sunday Times 23 Feb 86

DASMARIÑAS VILLAGE, MAKATI, Close to 3 PM Cristina Ponce Enrile was

changing into her Sunday best to attend mass with her family at the chapel in their
home. As she was about ready to step out of the bedroom, her husband came
rushing in, got into some clothes, and "in a matter of seconds, he was ready to
go," recalled Mrs. Enrile. He gathered her in his arms, kissed her and said, "I think
I'm going to be arrested."
She saw him to the door. He was already inside the car when he ran back to her
to give instructions: call a publisher friend to inform the press corps, foreign and
local, and call Cardinal Sin. Mr & Ms. 28 Feb

Honasan picked up his radio transceiver and barked orders to his radio operator
at Camp Aguinaldo. "Joggers! Joggers!" It was the signal to put all his men and
RAM people, including 300 civilian components, on combat readiness.

Eggie Apostol: I was in the Inquirer office as usual, putting our Sunday edition to
bed, when we got this call, about 2:30 in the afternoon, from Mrs. Enrile. I was in
the office which I shared with Betty Go Belmonte and Mrs. Enrile asked to talk to
me and she said Johnny was going to be arrested. "Will you help us? Will you call
the Cardinal for us? And we did try to call the Cardinal, but we were not
successful because I think the Cardinal was out in Ateneo for an ordination. So I
told Betty and Lita Logarta to handle that part of it, to try to get hold of the
cardinal, while I ran to Cristina in Dasmarinas Village. She sounded very nervous,
and as I am very fond of Cristina, I wanted to be with her at that moment. On my
way out, I passed by the desk of Louie Beltran who was our editor then and I told
him what was happening. Of course nobody knew why Johnny was going to be
arrested, everybody just knew he was going to be arrested.

3:00 PM - Enrile prepared a letter in the office of his friend Member of Parliament
(MP) Rene Cayetano, to be opened only in case of his demise. He then gave
Cayetano instructions to call the press. Business Day 21 Mar

Aboard a helicopter Enrile, Honasan, and Kapunan flew to Camp Aguinaldo.

Business Day 28 Feb

CAMP AGUINALDO, 3:30 PM - On arrival at his office in the Defense Ministry,

Enrile had his guards break out brand-new M-16 Armalites, still wrapped in plastic,
and an arsenal of mortars and Israel-made Uzis and Galils. Asiaweek 9 Mar

He ordered Honasan to deploy the fully-armed troops not only around Camp
Aguinaldo but also around Camp Crame, headquarters of the Constabulary and
the National Police, forces sympathetic to RAM. Enrile began with 200 troops.

He made a series of calls. He called up US Ambassador Stephen Bosworth and

Ambassador Kiyoshi Somiya of Japan to inform them that "we are now grouped in
this building because there is an order to round us all up." The ambassadors
indicated that they would inform their respective governments about it. Sun Inq
Mag 9 Mar 86

He called back home, instructed his wife to contact Mrs. Eggie Apostol of the
Philippine Daily Inquirer "to tell her what's happening and to ask her to please
contact other members of media about it." He contacted by long-distance
telephone Rafael Salas, UN population czar, in New York "to say goodbye." Also
he called Cardinal Sin. QUARTET p. 17

ARCHBISHOP'S PALACE - Jaime Cardinal Sin received a call from Minister Enrile.
"Cardinal, I will be dead within one hour." He seemed to be trembling. "I don't
want to die...if it is possible, do something. I'd still like to live." He was almost in
tears. PEOPLE POWER (II) P. 105

DEFENSE MINISTRY - Soldiers are in complete combat gear, with canteens and
knapsacks and K-rations. They look as if they are ready for war....Enrile is
obviously nervous. He is the underdog. He must feel that the end is near. It is war.

Eggie Apostol: When I got to the Enriles, Cristina was just coming down with her
staff. She was going out to a place where she was going to be safe. The whole
family had been dispersed to different houses - the children in one house, the
grandchildren in another house, and she was going to go to a cousin's house in
Alabang, Meding Porcuna's. They were afraid that they would be taken hostage,
something, or just to hide.

Ming Ramos: At four, the Cory Crusaders came-a group of 20 women and 2 men.
They asked my husband, why don't you do something? And he was saying,
"There's a proper time, you know. I have to think also of the welfare of the men
under me."

Alex Sembrano: While the dialogue was going on, we received a call from the
office of Minister Enrile. I told them that the general couldn't come to the phone
because he was in the middle of a meeting. They called up maybe about 3 or 4
times to ask him to go to Camp Aguinaldo already.

Ramos's failure to report to Camp Aguinaldo for three hours after Enrile's first
phone call raised speculation within the Core Group that he had not yet firmly
decided to support the rebellion, which, due to circumstances beyond any of their
control, was being mounted prematurely and according to an improvised script
under the leadership of Enrile. IMPOSSIBLE DREAM p. 380

Alex Sembrano: It got to a point where, if the general didn't join the rebels, they
were suggesting a "laundry-bag" solution. They'd get Gen. Ramos and hide him;
they'd allow him to surface only when Malacanang had been taken.
CAMP AGUINALDO, 4:30 PM - Enrile instructed Col. Honasan to plan and
establish the area's defense. "We will fire our first shot only if we are attacked,
because I want to maintain dialogue with whoever will be coming to challenge us."
Sun Inq Mag 9 Mar

He also asked Honasan to fetch Brig. Gen. Pedro Balbanero, the Military Police
Brigade commander. Balbanero had under his custody the 19 persons led by Lt.
Michael Aspirin. BREAKAWAY p. 16

The first military region to go to the rebel side was Regional Unified Command No.
8, which included troops in Mrs. Marcos's own province, Leyte, led by RUC-8
commander, Brig. Gen. Salvador Mison who was in Camp Aguinaldo. Op. cit., p.

VILLAMOR AIR BASE, 5:00 PM - Ver was with the First Lady at the chapel where
they were standing as sponsors at the wedding of Major Gen. Vicente Piccio's
son, Philip. Op. cit.,p.7

Ver was completely unaware of what was transpiring. Although the previous days
had been filled with tension and conspiracy, Ver's personal commitments that
Saturday kept him occupied through the afternoon and early evening. Ver's men
were so terrified of him that they did not dare break into the ceremonies. It was a
long wedding. DYNASTY p. 413

Jose Almonte: Vic Batac called around five and told me that the whole operation
was compromised, so we were on Plan B, an alternate plan, which was to hold out
in the camp and confront the Marcos forces. We had prepared as many camps as
we could throughout the country as revolutionary base areas; if we held up here
in Camp Aguinaldo, all the other camps would do the same and we'd just ask them
to back us up.

CAMP AGUINALDO - Enrile briefed Balbanero and laid his cards on the table.
Balbanero was "shocked and speechless" for a while. He told the Minister he
knew of no order to arrest the Reformists.
Just then, Balbanero saw Col. Rolando Abadilla, Metrocom Intelligence Chief,
and the idea came to him that he and Abadilla could arrange for Enrile to see
Marcos and Gen. Ver in Malacañang for a dialogue. Enrile talked to Abadilla and
permitted the two to go to Malacañang. BREAKAWAY p. 17

VILLAMOR AIR BASE - When the wedding service finally ended and the guests
prepared to dash through the chicken soup heat to the wedding reception, Ver's
men at last interrupted to tell him the bad news. Ver and Imelda immediately
excused themselves from the reception and rushed anxiously back to
Malacanang. A wedding had cost them the throne. DYNASTY p. 413

Ver was stunned. Confident of a double agent in the rebels' camp, Ver expected
their coup at 2 o'clock the next morning. He was completely thrown by the
rebellion and Ramos's defection. Veritas Special Oct 86

MALACAÑANG PALACE - An indication that Marcos's mind was not at ease: he

ordered that his entire family should be at the palace. The military fetched
daughter Imee and husband Tommy Manotoc and their children from their home
in Wack Wack, Mandaluyong; and daughter Irene, husband Greggy Araneta, and
their children from their home in Forbes Park, Makati. Came son Bongbong
(Ferdinand Jr.) who soon donned a fatigue uniform, reminiscent of the days when
he trained as a jungle fighter. The First Lady attempted a facade of calm, but she
was obviously fidgety. BREAKAWAY pp. 8-9

Ming Ramos: When the Cory activists had left and he and Alex were about to
leave, I asked if they would be home for dinner. He said, "Yeah, maybe."

Cristy Ramos: He was very calm, like nothing alarming was going on.

Fidel Ramos: I did not say anything to Cory's supporters about Minister Enrile's
call because it was not the proper place or the proper crowd. It was at Camp
Aguinaldo, with Minister Enrile, where I wanted to announce my decision to our
people and to the world.

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Ver informed Balbanero and Abadilla that Marcos

wanted to talk with Enrile. Balbanero tried to reach Enrile by phone. After thirty
minutes he gave up. He and Abadilla rushed back to Camp Aguinaldo. Op. cit., p.

What Marcos and Ver were continually talking about this day, nobody among the
officers and enlisted personnel knew, except perhaps Col. Irwin Ver. Even the
personal bodyguards of Marcos's children did not know what was going on. Op.
cit., p. 9

CAMP AGUINALDO, MND - Ramos arrived at 6:00 PM in a gray safari suit, looking
serious, gritting a cigar, not replying to the flurry of questions thrown at him. He
went straight to Enrile's office with two aides in civilian clothes. Newsmen were
kept out. The Sunday Times
9 Mar

RADIO VERITAS, 6:00 PM "We were doing the news roundup," Orly Punzalan
recounted.. "At the time we were almost sure something was going on in Camp
Aguinaldo because Enrile had requested for Radio Veritas. They were specific
about wanting Veritas. So Jun Tana was there with Gabby Salcedo and Henry
Diaz. They had a VHF radio and a cassette recorder." Manila Chronicle 25 Feb

6:30 PM - At this time the total strength of the Defense Ministry security force was
only 320 officers and men, including Col. Gador's Cagayan 100, plus 12 teams
from the RAM civilian component. BREAKAWAY p. I74

There was already a big crowd around Enrile and Ramos, waiting for the press
conference to begin. Brig. Gen. Pedro Balbanero and Col. Rolando Abadilla told
Enrile that Marcos wanted to talk with him. Enrile firmly brushed aside the idea.
Op. cit., p. 18

Rose Marie Arenas: When we went to church we were already told that General
Ramos and Minister Enrile had joined together and were in the office in Camp
Aguinaldo. So immediately after mass we went straight there and true enough all
the press people were there, and all those people who were very close to them like
Secretary Jose Almonte, and their closest aides like Greg Honasan and Sonny
Razon. We were so nervous.
Eventually, Enrile agreed to speak with Gen. Ver. He asked Ver not to initiate any
attack against the camps that night. Ver asked Enrile not to attack the Palace. The
two called a truce of sorts. Sun Inq Mag 9 Mar

Balbanero notified unit commanders of both sides about the modus vivendi by
wire. BREAKAWAY p. 33

Fidel Ramos: The situation was still very fluid and nebulous; nothing was clear. It
is possible that Malacañang looked upon this withdrawal of Minister Enrile and
myself as a very small thing. For our part, we needed time to organize, we needed
time to mobilize and deploy our forces.

Ming Ramos: Around 6:30, our daughter Angelita, who was studying in the States,
called up asking, "Is it true that Papa has resigned?" I said, I didn't know, where
did she hear the news? She said, "A friend called from Rome, said that Enrile and
Ramos have resigned."

MALACAÑANG PALACE - It was 6:30 PM when reports reached the President that
Enrile and Ramos were holed up in Camp Aguinaldo and had announced that they
were withdrawing their support from the Marcos government. MALACAÑANG p.

SOCIAL HALL, MINISTRY OF DEFENSE, 6:45 PM - The mood was tense as the two
men, clad in olive and gray, and blinking into the glare of television lights, took
their seats before a cluster of microphones.
Behind them huddled about a dozen soldiers, some in full battle regalia.
Outside, at the gates of the Ministry, heavily armed guards and tanks stood at the
ready. When the two men began to speak, the reason for the precautions became
startlingly clear, for they proclaimed open rebellion, Philippine style, against the
twenty-year regime of President Ferdinand Marcos. Time 3 Mar 86

"We're going to die here fighting," Minister Juan Ponce Enrile declared as he and
Gen. Fidel Ramos crossed their bridges, so to speak, and began the revolt against
Ferdinand Marcos. Mr & Ms. 28 Feb

ENRILE: The fact is, there is a report that we are going to be arrested. ... As of
now, I am still the Minister of National Defense and that is why I came here. ... We
have no intention of harming anybody. We are here to take a stand. If anyone of us
will be killed, I think...all of us must be killed. We'll stay here until we are all killed.

RAMOS: There has become an elite Armed Forces of the Philippines that no
longer represents the rank and officers' corps of the Armed Forces. ... The
President of 1986 is not the President to whom we dedicated our service. it is
clear that he no longer is the able and capable commander-in-chief that we count
upon. ... He has put his personal family interest above the interest of the people.
We do not consider President Marcos as now being a duly constituted authority.

ENRILE: I cannot in my conscience recognize the President as the commander-in-

chief of the Armed Forces and I am appealing to the other members of the Cabinet
to heed the will of the people expressed during the last elections. Because in my
own region, I know that we cheated in the elections to the extent of 350,000 votes.
... No, I will not serve under Mrs. Aquino even if she is installed as a president. ...
Our loyalty is to the Constitution and the country. ... You are welcome to join us.
We have no food...

RAMOS: I am not even acting Chief of Staff of the Armed Forces. I think that when
he made that announcement to you and to the whole world last Sunday, he was
just fooling us, and he was fooling the entire world because he flip-flopped so
many times already. ... I would like to appeal to the fair and to the dedicated and
people-oriented members of the AFP and the INP to join us in this crusade for
better government. Malaya 23 Feb 86

Cory Aquino: It was Bel Cunanan - she was also in Cebu - who told us about it.
When I was first heard the news, I was saying, is this for real? I was very skeptical.
So I called up some people here in Manila to find out more about it.

ALABANG VILLAGE - When Ming Ramos heard her husband referring to Marcos
as a "flip-flop or something" she could hardly believe her ears. "Because at home
no one could say anything against Marcos-never!" QUARTET p. 21

MAX SOLIVEN - Which came first? The "arrest order" for Minister Juan Ponce
Enrile and Gen. Fidel V. Ramos-or their rejection of President Marcos? In any
event, the battle is joined. Inquirer 24 Feb

Alex Sembrano: There in the Social Hall, while the general and the minister were
talking to the journalists, we were talking among ourselves. Shit! we said, we're in
deep trouble! This is it, there's no turning back! It was the first time we were
hearing all those things-that there was massive cheating in Cagayan, that they
borrowed firearms from Ali Dimaporo, mga ganoon!

Sonny Razon: I was scared. What happened? What went wrong? Our plans were
all wrecked! What a way to go! Now, here are the cameras. Are we ready to face
them? If we lost, it would be evidence against us. So some of us were staying
away. We were with Gringo on the other side of the hall, where the TV cameras
couldn't catch us. And because of that, maybe the thinking in Malacañang was, we
were already deployed outside, ready to strike.

CAMP CRAME The war room of the rebel generals in Camp Crame was deluged
by delegations of important politicians, hordes of newsmen from all over the
world, and the inevitable hangers-on. In the midst of military salutes, Napoleonic
posturings, flashing cameras, and interminable press conferences, ex-Secretary
Anding Roces was overheard to remark with wonder and amusement:
"Look at those toy soldiers playing at war. For years they had nothing better to do
than to march in loyalty parades and bang the heads of civilians who could not
fight back. Now they ask these same civilians to keep their asses from being
blown off." Mr & Ms. 7 Mar

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 7:00 PM - Marcos was closeted in his study. Reporters

were told that he was resting but he was probably awake because Ver and his son
Irwin and Information Minister Gregorio Cendana came and went. BREAKAWAY
p. 32

FORT BONIFACIO, 7:15 PM - Ver summoned to his Tactical Operations Center his
senior officers, among them Rear Admiral Brillante Ochoco, the Navy Chief; Brig.
Gen. Felix Brawner, Deputy Chief of Staff of Operations and Commanding General
of the First Scout Ranger Regiment; Brig. Gen. Jose Bello, Deputy for Plans and
Materiels Development; Brig. Gen Catalino Villanueva, Deputy for Personnel;
Commodore Serapio Martillano, Deputy Chief of Staff; Brig. Gen. Fortunato
Corrochea, Deputy for Home Defense; Navy Capt. Eriberto Varona, secretary of
the General Staff; and Col. Irwin Ver, Chief of Staff of the PSC.
They talked about military moves against the Enrile-Ramos group. There was
not even a situation map in the place. The PSC at the time had 3,629 officers and
men but since their job was to defend Malacañang, Ver had to utilize other units
for the planned operations against the Aguinaldo-Crame complex.
Ver notified all military units nationwide that he was still Chief of Staff of the
Armed Forces. Op. cit., pp. 32-33

CAMP CRAME - Major Gen. Prospero Olivas was waiting for Ramos when he was
stricken ill. His blood pressure was 160/110, his pulse rate 130 seconds per
minute. The doctors ordered him taken to nearby Camp Panopio for treatment.
Op. cit., p. 41

Jose Almonte: After the presscon, General Ramos and Minister Enrile met to
review the situation. General Ramos decided to go back to Crame because he was
the PC Chief, his staff was there, his communications set-up was there.

Fidel Ramos: The division of powers between Minister Enrile and myself was
clear. He would take care of the political and diplomatic affairs, I would command
the military operation.

Rose Marie Arenas: That same evening we crossed to Camp Crame. Minister
Enrile stayed in Camp Aguinaldo, and we had people power on both sides. My car,
my old Isuzu Trouper, that's why I love that car, was filled with priests and nuns
and we parked right by the gate along EDSA, which was already closed. The first
thing that entered my mind was to make my daughter Rachel go home to fetch the
Our Lady of Fatima. So the one you saw, the Fatima, the very first one,belongs to
my mother; she got it when she went to Europe. And everybody started
bringing their saints already. Now I asked my daughter to also bring the Mary,
Help of Christians inside the office of General Ramos, and a small statue of the
Sto. Nino.

CAMP CRAME - Knowing that the Manila riot police was Marcos's first line of
defense, Ramos called their chief, Gen. Prospero Olivas, in Camp Panopio.
Veritas Special Oct 86

Ramos: Olive, you know the score. We are counting on you.

Olivas: Yes, sir. BREAKAWAY p. 41

Fidel Ramos: Gen. Olivas was the first regional commander I called and he gave
me his support and that of the PC-INP units under his command. This was very
very crucial because we could have been taken from inside, and we weren't. Now
Gen. Olivas had to do some play-acting in order not to reveal his hand. He had to
play the tightrope because, the Metrocom being right here in the capital, he was
also getting instructions from President Marcos and General Ver.

MALACAÑANG NEWSROOM, 8:00 PM - Reporters were alerted that a televised

press conference was set for 10:30 PM at the Reception Hall. They noticed that
Deputy Minister Aber Canlas was still at the grounds outside the old Maharlika
building, supervising the construction of the stage for the Marcos inaugural,
apparently oblivious of what was happening at Camp Aguinaldo and inside
Malacañang. Lights flooded the Palace grounds while carpenters kept their
feverish pace. Inside the Palace, a sign that the situation was not normal was the
battle attire of members of the First Family's close-in security. Instead of barong
Pilipino, they were wearing gray bush jackets. BREAKAWAY pp. 33-34

SAN BEDA COLLEGE, MENDIOLA, 8:00 PM - Some 150 meters from across the
Malacanang gate, about 50 law students carrying streamers and placards had
pitched camp for a vigil. One of the placards read: "Feb. election: fake victory for
Marcos." Another said, "We're not good neighbors of Malacanang." Sunday
Times 23 Feb

RADIO VERITAS - Listeners all over the country were practically glued to the radio
for that blow-by-blow account of a two-decade old regime's downfall. People
wanted to know now, not a minute later, what was happening at Camp Aguinaldo
and Camp Crame, at Malacanang Palace, at the MIA, at Mendiola and other points
of action. And only the ever-dependable radio waves, which travel 186,000 miles
per second, could do the trick. Business Day 21 Mar

Fidel Ramos: For our part, we didn't have facilities other than the very limited
telephone system to communicate with the field. So it was a very good thing that
we had a small component of the radio broadcasting industry supporting us at the
time; first Radio Veritas, and later the guerrilla Radyo Bandido.

CAMP AGUINALDO, 8:15 PM - Brig. Gen. Fidel Singson, chief of the Intelligence
Service of the AFP, received the order from Ver: "Destroy Radio Veritas!"
ISAFP was a next-door neighbor of the MND and by this time was preparing to
join the Enrile-Ramos forces. one you saw, the Fatima, the very first Singson
dispatched a team to Veritas with instructions not to take any offensive action,
just to reconnoiter the premises. BREAKAWAY p. 34

Ming Ramos - Around 8:30, one of our neighbors, Tony Abaya, came with Father
de Santis, the priest from Alabang church. They asked if my husband wanted
people in Aguinaldo. I said I'd ask. So I called my husband and he said, "That's a
good idea, to have people power." That's the first time I heard that term, people

Joe Alejandro: Two meetings of Cory supporters were going on in Alabang. One
in Benedictine Abbey, another at the commercial center. The first group, upon
hearing the call to EDSA, decided to go right away. But first we wanted to reach
Cardinal Sin.

Tony Abaya: Bishop Baccani was with us, and Triccie and Louie Sison, who were
then chairpersons of NAMFREL for Muntinglupa. I remember Bishop Baccani and
Triccie running towards the phonebooth sa guardhouse to call up the Cardinal."

Joe Alejandro: The first time the Cardinal went on radio, he only said, 'Please, do
not be alarmed, stay home.' We said, that's not what we want. We want people in
EDSA. So the Bishop called the Cardinal again.
RADIO VERITAS, 9:00 PM - Jaime Cardinal Sin went on Radio Veritas asking the
people to support "our two good friends." BAYAN KO! 1986 p. 129

TEODORO BENIGNO "Leave your homes now," the Cardinal said, "I ask you to
support Mr. Enrile and Gen. Ramos, give them food if you like, they are our
friends." Manila Times 13 Mar

Not long after, food came in, including sacks of rice and canned goods. Sunday
Times 23 Feb

PASAY CITY - Butz Aquino was at a birthday party. The news was that the
opposition leaders were going to be picked up, martial law was going to be
declared. Over the radio they heard the replay of the Ramos-Enrile press
conference. At hearing the appeal of General Ramos and Minister Enrile, Butz
concluded that the situation was serious. He continued listening, and eating. Sun
Inq Mag 1 Jun

LUIS D. BELTRAN - The whole town is buzzing with rumors that the independent
press offices have been or will be raided. Palace and military sources say that
there is such a plan for this evening. The plan is to arrest four Cabinet Ministers
and close down three newspapers: Veritas, Malaya, and Inquirer. Inquirer 24 Feb

RADIO VERITAS After the press conference of Enrile and Ramos, Orly Punzalan
had to leave for a speaking engagement. He asked a friend, Rick Santos, to get on
the phone to Veritas, introduce himself as a concerned citizen, and appeal for a
big crowd to go to Camp Aguinaldo. Santos phoned Frankie Batacan, who was
anchoring the show, and the appeal was made. Manila Chronicle 25 Feb

CAMP AGUINALDO - Enrile telephoned Inquirer Editor-in-Chief Beltran and

requested him to call as many opposition leaders as possible to go on radio and
express their support.
Inquirer co-chairman Betty Go Belmonte telephoned Member of Parliament
Cecilia Munoz Palma. MP Palma immediately made a call to Radio Veritas and was
one of the first opposition leaders to express support for the revolution. Sun Inq
Mag 1 Jun

MAKATI, 9:30 PM - After some discussion the ATOM (August Twenty-One

Movement) Executive Committee decided to wait for further developments and for
instructions from Cory in Cebu.
Butz disagreed with the majority decision to wait and see rather than go all out
in support of Ramos and Enrile. "This is our chance to split the military," he said.
He thought it was "out of character" for Ramos to be "included in a zarzuela to
fool the people." As for Enrile, Butz was willing to take a chance on him: "I don't
know him well but I am convinced that he had nothing to do with the
assassination of Ninoy. When it comes to human rights violations, we can't
pinpoint anything on him directly. We also know he's been powerless for the last
several years. It's Gen. Ver who's been calling the shots."
On his own Butz decided to take the daring course of action. He called MP
Palma and asked her, "Do you believe in these two guys?" And she said, "I think
so. What are your plans?" Butz told her, "I'm going to Camp Aguinaldo and offer
our support, whatever support we can give them." Ibid.
Cory Aquino: I was told by people I called in Manila that Butz was already asking
people to go to Camp Crame, so the ATOM would be very much involved. And I
was told that the Cardinal also had voiced an appeal. In the meantime, I told them,
if you can get through to Johnny Ponce Enrile, I'd like to talk to him.

VILLAMOR AIR BASE, Evening - While listening to Radio Veritas, Col. Antonio
Sotelo of the 15th Strike Wing of the Philippine Air Force received a call from Air
Force Col. Hector Tarrazona, one of the Reform Movement's leaders, asking for
his support. Sotelo said yes, he would support the defection. He summoned his
squadron commanders, briefed them on the situation, and instructed them to fuel
and arm all five attack helicopters in Villlamor (others were deployed in
Zamboanga, Lucena, Echague, and Baguio). Business Day 12 Mar

Ming Ramos: Half an hour later, Eddie called back and said maybe we should also
have people power here in Alabang.

Fidel Ramos: I told her, "Ming, don't hide, and don't run. Stay put in the house and
gather people power around you. This is all a people-power play and it is
important that we maintain the moral ascendancy of the people."

10:00 PM - Only Radio Veritas was carrying a blow-by-blow account of the

unfolding siege. Not one of the television stations broke programming or flashed
what is known in the trade as "crawls" - printed matter marching from right to left,
superimposed on the video. No other radio station brodcast the first break or the
press conference.
Radio Veritas' account may have the drawn the crowds to Aguinaldo, now aswarm
up to EDSA with bewildered flocks trying to divine the meaning of it all and where
it was leading to. We Forum 25 Mar

NEW MANILA, QUEZON CITY, 10:00 PM - Summoned by Gen. Ver, PC Col. Maximo
Mejia arrived at businessman Eduardo Cojuangco's house in Balete Drive where
he also found Virgilio de Guzman, elder brother of Brig. Gen. Isidoro de Guzman,
Region III Commander. Mejia was told that President Marcos had decided to
neutralize the radio station transmitter in Dakila, Malolos. Cojuangco told Mejia
that the attack had been cleared by Marcos to "prevent the incident created by the
Enrile-Ramos defection from escalating to a bloody one." Midday Malaya 20 May

CAMP AGUINALDO, Also Around 10:00 PM - Enrile talked by phone with Corazon
Aquino in Cebu where she had just finished speaking before some 50,000 people
at Fuente Osmena, the third in a series of nationwide rallies she had promised if
cheated out of the Presidency. Asiaweek 9 Mar

Their dialogue was brief; they both knew the phone was tapped. He warned her
that her life was in danger. "They'll probably come to get you. So take the
necessary precautions." QUARTET p. 84

Cory Aquino: I asked him how he was and he said they were holding out. I said,
well, all I can offer you for this moment are my prayers. And he said, we certainly
need your prayers.

CEBU - Aquino knew of Enrile's coup plans. Enrile's colonels had pleaded with her
to stay in Manila. Deeply suspicious of the Defense Minister, Aquino's supporters
were planning to establish a provisional revolutionary government in the southern
city of Davao. Veritas Special Oct 86

CEBU CITY - The American consul, Blaine Porter, dropped in to see how Cory
was. Ramon Mitra asked him if he had any suggestions. Consul Porter said he
would consult Manila. He sent a coded message to US Ambassador Stephen
Bosworth, asking for instructions. QUARTET p. 84

Cory Aquino: I was staying in the Quisumbing residence in Cebu. Monching Mitra
was there, Nene Pimentel, my brother Peping, Tony Cuenco, Sonny Osmena,
those are the people that I remember. They were saying it was imperative that I go
someplace where I would be safe. Monching mentioned a U.S. navy boat nearby,
maybe we could go there. I said I didn't think so. I already knew where I wanted to
go. "I think I'll go to the Carmelite monastery."

DAVAO - Businessmen led by planter Chito Ayala had convinced the local Marine
commander, Col. Rodolfo Biazon, to protect Aquino with his brigade. Unknown to
Mrs. Aquino, however, disaster awaited her in Davao. Biazon's aide had
discovered the plans and was under orders from his superiors: "If Biazon defects,
draw your pistol and shoot him." Veritas Special Oct 86

MALACAÑANG PALACE, Also Around 10:00 PM - Reporters and foreign

correspondents were waiting for Marcos's press conference. They saw Mrs.
Marcos emerge from the President's study with several politicians, among them
former Rodolfo Ganzon. She was talking excitedly, in a voice loud enough for the
journalists to hear, about the discovery of a "plot" to assassinate her and Marcos
at 12:30 AM. BREAKAWAY p. 34

CAMP AGUINALDO, 10:20 PM - Butz sought out Enrile. He could feel the tension
in the air. The soldiers on the stairway were sweating. PEOPLE POWER (I) p. 105

Enrile was "tense, perspiring, perhaps from the heat of his bullet-proof vest." At
Butz's offer of support, Enrile answered, "We need all the support we can get."
Spying Jun Tana of Radio Veritas on the phone, Butz plugged in and made his
call to the people: "I am here at Camp Aguinaldo. I have just spoken to Minister
Enrile. He and his men are bracing themselves against an attack. We are here to
try and prevent bloodshed. We are going to work for a peaceful solution... I am
calling on all concerned citizens, specially my friends in ATOM, BANDILA, and
FSDM to meet me at Isetann in Cubao. There we will decide on the best course of
action." Sun Inq Mag 1 Jun

Father Francisco Araneta groaned when he heard Butz Aquino sounding off his
call for volunteers to join him in Cubao and from there to march off to support the
soldiers at Crame and Aguinaldo. "There goes that fool," he thought to himself. Mr
& Ms 14 Mar

CESAR D. UMALI When I heard Butz Aquino over Radio Veritas, I asked myself,
"What can civilians do, other than die, amid a firefight between two groups of
professional soldiers? Will volunteers be issued guns to fight side by side with
the rebels?" I was probably more afraid to heed Butz Aquino's call than puzzled
by his exhortation. I never imagined that the Marcos antidote called people power
had already been unleashed. I went to sleep, extremely agitated by my own
thoughts. PEOPLE POWER (II) p106
Joe Alejandro: We were on our way to EDSA when the Cardinal finally came out
and asked for people power outside the camps. Leo de Guzman was with us, Tony
Lucero, Vic Barrios. Along the way we stopped at Tropical Hut and bought all their
hamburgers, 68 of them, the first food that arrived in EDSA. We were already there
when Butz Aquino came marching in from Cubao.

The people had barricaded all the entrances to the main gate with all kinds of
vehicles. Many were praying the Rosary, some in groups, some just standing
alone. People came from all walks of life teenagers in jeans and t-shirts, middle-
class matrons and their husbands, the poor people, including the peddlers. There
were entire families. The crowd truly represented a cross-section of the people,
the devout and the frivolous, the man on the street and the big-time executives.
All were there, probably fearful, resigned to prayer, excited, with only one thought
in mind: to help the revolution succeed in each one's small way. PEOPLE POWER
(II) p. 109

Men from the crowd passed a small table to a man atop a guardhouse. Puzzling.
But the puzzle soon solved itself. The men below passed up a five-foot statue of
Our Lady of Fatima. Their companion atop the guardhouse mounted the statue on
the table ad set candles and flowers at its base. The group began a chain Rosary
for a peaceful solution to our problems. Op.cit., p. 110

Everyone was calling up Jaime Cardinal Sin who was himself calling on the
contemplative nuns-the Poor Claires, the Pink Sisters, and the Carmelites to fast
and pray for non-violence.

VILLA SAN MIGUEL, MANDALUYONG - "Come out from your cells. Go

immediately to the chapel and before the exposed Blessed Sacrament with
outstretched arms prostrate yourselves on the floor before God and pray. And
start fasting tonight. Do not eat solid food until I tell you because we are in battle
and you are the powerhouses. And if we do not win the battle, you will have to fast
until the end of your life." Sun Inq Mag 13 Apr

MBS TV CHANNEL 4 - The government channel interrupted its program to show a

self-conscious Ronnie Nathanielz with an announcement that President Marcos
was in control of the government and that there was no truth to rumors that there
was trouble. He said the President himself would appear on the screen for an
important announcement. Up to this time, about 10:30, Radio Veritas had been all
alone on the story. We Forum 25 Feb - 3 Mar
President Marcos went on television, live from the Palace. He MALACANANG
said he was "in control of the situation." He called on Enrile PALACE, 10:30
and Ramos "to stop this stupidity and surrender so that we PM - President
may negotiate." Marcos went on
television, live from the Palace. He said he was "in control of the situation." He
called on Enrile and Ramos "to stop this stupidity and surrender so that we may
He reported thwarting an attempt on his life by a bodyguard of the First Lady in a
conspiracy involving Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and Lt. Gen. Fidel
Ramos, Armed Forces Vice Chief of Staff. He presented the alleged assassin,
Army Capt. Ricardo Morales, who read his supposed confession from a piece of
folded paper produced from his pocket.
Mr. Marcos said he was in touch with his commanders and he had instructed them
to surround Camp Aguinaldo. If Enrile and Ramos refused to surrender, his troops
from the Palace grounds "could annihilate them with heavy artillery and tanks"
without any from his command suffering any casualty. The Sunday Times 23 Feb

Fidel Ramos: We called first, of course, those that were most likely to join us. For
instance, the naval patrol force, which is, I'd say, one-third of the Philippine Navy
under then Commodore Tagumpay Jardiniano, was among the first that I called
on. We also called on the Scout Ranger Regiment, although at the time they were
really the main attack force poised to hit Camp Crame. But there were enough
officers in the regiment, young ones as well as senior staff officers and unit
commanders, who had trained with me as junior officers."

ISETANN, CUBAO, 10:45 PM - Four people had come in response to Butz's call.
Butz, with Tom Achacoso, and the four looked at each other. "How do we have a
revolution with only six of us?" Sun Inq Mag 1 Jun

Rose Marie Arenas: We went to Isetann to meet with Butz Aquino who had his
own group that was not even there yet. Then my mother, the late Remedios Bosch
Jimenez who was still alive, told me, I think you must call Cardinal Sin. I told my
mom, you be the one na lang, you're very close to him; in fact she was there just a
few days before, she serves in the archbishop's palace. I said, ask him to please
pray for these people inside, and to please offer special prayers.

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 11:00 PM - During the presscon Ver reached the ailing
Olivas by phone. He ordered Olivas to silence Radio Veritas because it was
inciting large crowds to Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. Olivas replied, "Yes,
sir." But he did not take action.A few minutes later, Minister Juan Tuvera, the
Presidential executive assistant, called Olivas to remind him that it was Marcos's
desire that Radio Veritas be "neutralized" and that the order be carried out
immediately. Olivas, keeping up the charade, assured him it would be.

RADIO VERITAS - Enrile was interviewed by Harry Gasser. Enrile's message to

Marcos: "Mr. President, I hope you're listening. Enough is enough, Mr. President.
Your time is up." He warns, "Do not miscalculate our strength now.
Enrile dismissed the possibility of negotiations with Marcos, citing the lateness
of the hour. He denied the existence of a plot to assassinate the President. "There
is no official named Morales in the AFP." Sunday Times 23 Feb

WASHINGTON, DC - White House advisers issued a statement approved by

Reagan tilting towards the rebels. Quoting Enrile and Ramos on the recent
election fraud, the White House said that their views "reinforce our concerns."
Although his old friend was telling the truth, Reagan pointedly ignored Marcos's
claims that he was victim of a coup plot. Veritas Special Oct 86

KILUSANG MAYO UNO - Leaders of the country's major labor federations decided
on a nationwide work stoppage on Wednesday in support of the claim to victory of
opposition Presidential challenger Corazon C. Aquino. About 1.2 million workers
will paralyze business and commercial activities with walkouts and coordinated
simultaneous strikes. To be affected by the strike are the airline and transport,
banking, hotel and restaurant, food and drugs, garments and textile, stevedoring,
mining, manufacturing, and service industries. Sunday Times 23 Feb

Fidel Ramos: I sent orders for our regional commands to organize units for us,
just in case magkaroon ng pangangailangan. Brig. Gen. Rene de Villa, then based
in Legaspi City, offered to send me a contingent.

Cory Aquino: I was wearing, as usual, a yellow dress. When they said, try to be as
incognito as possible, I borrowed a dress from Nancy Cuenco. Then we had to
wait for my daughter Kris, who had been invited to a restaurant by some of our

CEBU CITY, 11:00 PM - Daughter Kris, out disco-hopping, was tracked down after
forty panicky minutes. Mother and daughter were rushed by Peping Cojuangco to
the Carmelite Convent where Cory had decided to seek shelter. The rest of the
party retired to the US Mission Office, whose radio equipment Consul Porter had
offered for communication with Manila. QUARTET p. 84

CAMP AGUINALDO, 11:00 PM - Armida Siguion-Reyna, sister of Enrile, arrived and

kept vigil with the rebels. With Enrile in his room were Brig. Gen. Ramon Farolan,
retired Gen. Romeo Espino, Gen. Alfonso, Gen. Eduardo Ermita, and Cols.
Honasan and Gador.
They sat around, "the atmosphere getting tense every time the phone rang."
MP Tony Carag, presumably acting as emissary for President Marcos, called to
ask JPE if he would talk to the President. Enrile said, "Maybe tomorrow." Veritas 9

ISETANN, CUBAO, 11:00 PM - There were about two or three dozen people...more
trickling in. Sun Inq Mag1 Jun

EDSA - It was still a motley crowd at the camps gates. An impromptu rally was
going on in front of Gate 1 at Crame. The make-up of the crowd was a mixture of
fair-skinned urbanites, professionals, businessmen, matrons, and the religious.
The whole stretch of the highway surrounding the perimeter of the camps was
lined with Mercedeses, Corollas, Crowns, Liftbacks, Lasers, and Hi-Aces from the
plush subdivisions and middle-class neighborhoods. In front of the Aguinaldo
gates, makeshift altars had been erected, candles burned quiveringly, and stately
matrons and nuns patiently stood vigil.
If Marcos decided to nip the snap revolt in the bud, he could easily have done
so this night as there were only a couple of hundred soldiers inside the camp and
a couple hundred of civilians and cars outside. Sunday Magazine of Malaya 23 Mar
RADIO VERITAS - "I am in deep concern about the situation of Minister Enrile and
General Ramos," Jaime Cardinal Sin said. "I am calling on all our people to
support our two good friends ... show your solidarity, your support in this very
crucial period." Inquirer Extra 23 Feb

JAIME CARDINAL SIN "In subsequent calls I summoned the people to fill the
streets precisely to avoid bloodshed and fratricide. Our intent was to make sure
the first spark of fire would not be struck; that the first drop of blood would not be
spilled. The call to fill the spaces around Crame and Aguinaldo was a summons
"to love, not war." Inquirer Feb 89

JOAQUIN G. BERNAS, S.J. - My recollections are of an incredible chain of events.

When I first heard of the mutiny, my initial reaction was: "Leave the soldiers to
fight it out among themselves." Clearly, the mutinous crew could not have lasted
against the armed might of the dictator. Yet it did. Within an hour from a call for
support for the mutineers, EDSA was filled with people.
The atmosphere was portentous of divine intervention. Lighted candles and
religious images abounded. The night wore on and there was no indication of fear.
Manila Chronicle Feb 92

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 11:15 PM Marcos's press conference ended when Imee

Marcos Manotoc advised her father to rest. She accompanied him to another room
where she congratulated him on his TV performance.
As Morales was escorted out, he went over to the First Lady and said, "Madam,
we had no intention of killing you and the President." Mrs. Marcos cried, tapped
Morales's right shoulder, and left. BREAKAWAY p. 39

Marcos made five personal calls to Olivas ordering him to disperse the crowds.
Feigning compliance, Olivas replied "Yes, Sir" each time but he did nothing,
waiting for the crowds to grow into a human barricade for his mentor Gen. Ramos.
Veritas Special Oct 86

ISETANN, CUBAO, 11:30 PM - Butz made a second call through Radio Veritas. "We
are here at Isetann and we will march to Crame and Aguinaldo. Minister Enrile and
his men are ready to fight if they are attacked. If they are attacked, we will support
them...we will surround the camps and protect them with our bodies. We will do
this because Enrile and Ramos wish to follow the will of the people. Anyone who
respects the will of the people deserves our help... I call on all our countrymen to
join us and increase our number so that we can prevent a bloody confrontation. ...
Only the brave should come!" There were thousands of people already. Sun Inq
Mag 1 Jun

Cory Aquino: When people found out that I was with the Carmelite nuns, they
were really banging at the gates of the monastery but the nuns assured me, they'd
have to kill us first before they can get to you, or something like that. The problem
was, Monching and the rest wanted to clear with me a press statement for release,
but I didn't get to see them until the following day.

Eggie Apostol: I "slept" in the same room with Mrs. Enrile. She was clasping her
statue of the Fatima. My ears were glued to the radio, to June Keithley, listening to
what was going on. Walang tulugan.
MBS TV CHANNEL 4 - Marcos went on the air again, reaffirming the strength of his
position. Sunday Times 23 Mar

FORT BONIFACIO - Ver thought of plunging the Enrile-Ramos camps in darkness

by cutting of their power supply. It would also deny power to Radio Veritas which
was just a couple of kilometers to the north.
Ver ordered Brig. Gen. Feliciano Suarez, Chief of the 52nd Engineer Brigade, to
switch off the two camps from the power line. Suarez transmitted Ver's order to
retired Brig. Gen. Francisco Gatmaitan of the Manila Electric Company.
"No way," Gatmaitan replied. A blackout would deny power to the Philippine
Heart Center where Marcos's mother, Dona Josefa, was confined for a heart
Suarez told Ver. Ver had another idea: cut off water connections. Suarez came
back with a similar argument. Ver gave up. BREAKAWAY p. 43
ISETANN, CUBAO - "Everybody came armed to the teeth," said Butz. "A
lot of guys brought out their arms-their `hidden arms'-with them."
By midnight the number of people had swelled to close to 10,000. As they
marched to Camp Aguinaldo chanting "Cory! Cory!" and proudly flashing
the Laban sign, more people came converging, and by the time they got
to the camp, their numbers had risen to 20,000 or 30,000. They were
bolder now, more confident. Sun Inq Mag 1 Jun

Cory Aquino: At the time Marcos still loomed as someone so formidable but I was
thinking that maybe this is it, you know, the end of everything. So we prayed, of
course, at the Carmelite monastery. and I surrendered everything to the Lord.

Fidel Ramos: Saturday night it was very clear to me that there was going to be a
stand-off. How long this would last, nobody knew. I only knew that it was
important to use the only weapon we had available at the time, and that was the
people interposing themselves between us and the hostile forces of Marcos and
Ver. We used the very weapon that Cory Aquino used during and after the snap

Jose Almonte: One of my principal assignments with Vic Batac concerned people
power. We reviewed the many social movements in various countries in various
periods, in particular, Ghandi's work and peoples' experiences in Czechoslovakia
and Hungary. At one point I told Tingting Cojuangco na ang strategy against the
soldiers of Marcos is to climb the tanks, kiss the soldiers, give them flowers.

MALACANANG PALACE, Saturday Night - No attack came because Ferdinand was

busy hedging his bets. He ordered a barge towed up the Pasig River in the dark to
the palace quay, where it was loaded with three hundred packed crates, most of
them extraordinarily heavy. Yamashita's Gold was taking a trip. DYNASTY pp.

The crowd that was expected to dwindle seemed to swell instead. A cautious estimate
placed the crowd at close to a hundred thousand. One reason for the eager turn-out: it
was such a beautiful night. The moon almost full made the ambience so lucid some
people claimed they could read by its light. The air so crisp and brisk it was a delight to
be out of doors.
Nobody was being pompous or heroic about this camp-out on ground threatened with
bombardment. The priests and the nuns and the pious were here from obedience; the
other adults were simply anti-Marcos; for most of the young, all this was just a lark.

EDSA, 12:00 Midnight - Cardinal Sin's plea that the people help Ramos and Enrile was
taken literally. Thousands of people began massing outside the rebel camps and
supplying food for the soldiers.
BAYAN KO! p. 129

Fidel Ramos: That day we had to develop additional forces outside Crame and
Aguinaldo and, of course, we needed to reinforce our military forces. This is why
our call to the people to come and support us was very constant. And we were
able to do this through June Keithley and the radio broadcasting crews of Radio
Veritas who were on the job, calling on the people, transmitting for us even
messages which were tactical in nature. This was the first time in military history,
anywhere in the world, when private broadcast media, run by concerned citizens,
were used to transmit or relay military orders or directives to military units in the

STA. ANA, MANILA Father James Reuter, S.J., was the vital link in the
communications system of the revolution. He had a VHF radio link to Gen. Ramos
in Camp Crame; another to Veritas radio station where June Keithley was
broadcasting; and a telephone line to the US Embassy political section headed by
Pssst Kplan, Scott Hallford and Bruce Thomas. Inquirer Feb 88

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Tonight, nothing was working. The Enrile-Ramos team

was on the air, making noise without letup over Radio Veritas and other stations,
waging an aggressive propaganda war. Eager to confront the rebels, presidential
aide Col. Aruiza called up Gen. Ver on the other side of the river and urged him to
act. Ver said, "I have no instructions from the President."
All through the night and the next two days, there was the same maddening
inaction on the part of government troops. No one was thinking; no one was
taking the initiative. Several generals besides Ver could have planned and
executed counteraction, but they didn't. Some were nowhere to be found. They
were all waiting for Marcos, but Marcos was sick. Others had already made up
their minds to sit it out and join the winners. MALACAÑANG pp. 104-5

CAMP CRAME, Past Midnight - Butz Aquino sought out Gen. Ramos to tell him,
"The troops are here!" Butz was surprised to see the general "so relaxed, with his
cigar, like he has no problem, as if it's a social visit." He was glad he saw Enrile
first because then, "there was urgency."
Ramos explained their plans to secure the camp, briefed them regarding the
entrances and exits that should be guarded. Butz asked how many people Ramos
had. "All told, about 3,000."
"As it turned out, he was also counting the wives, househelpers, everybody in
the camp, including the dogs. The soldiers were only 300."
Gen. Ramos asked if the troops were prepared to stay for two months. Butz
answered, "If it takes three months to remove that guy from Malacañang, we are
prepared to stay three months." Sun Inq Mag 1 Jun

Rene Cruz: Everybody brought food - sandwiches, chicken, hamburgers, all kinds.
Colgate-Palmolive even sent toothbrushes, toothpaste, and soap for everyone.

Rose Marie Arenas: I'm an expert on food brigades. We were the first to bring in
lots and lots of food. The first day we even served them on silver trays. The
generals, like General Rene Cruz, were the ones receiving the food. I didn't see
General Ramos eat. I think he was only taking shark's fin soup. And we gave them
all rosaries. I didn't enter the room; it was Rachel who gave rosaries to General
Ramos and the soldiers. Of course the priests wanted to say Mass. But I asked
them to please give the soldiers and everybody inside mass absolution because
they wouldn't be able to hear mass, we didn't know what was in store for us.

Fidel Ramos: It was the nuns who operated the food brigade. They made sure that
everybody in the camp who needed food got fed, soldiers and civilians alike.

Rose Marie Arenas: We were using silverware from my house, including my

gaseras. We also bought all the flashlights and batteries in Manila; we had to
check that each and everyone was working, And the soldiers were quarreling over
them because you know, they needed flashlights.

Sonny Razon: All of a sudden, there was so much food. Also cigarettes, piles and
piles. I started smoking again. Nerves, I guess.

Alex Sembrano: That first night it wasn't so scary yet. All we did was wait.

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Marcos called Olivas for a fifth time about dispersing
the crowds on EDSA. Olivas finally told Marcos, "The crowd is beyond the
capability of my men to disperse." Veritas Special Oct 86
Marcos ordered Olivas to get in touch with Major Gen. Josephus Ramas,
Commander of the Army, and ask for reinforcements. Olivas did not contact Gen.
Ramas. BREAKAWAY p. 41

CAMP AGUINALDO, EDSA GATE, 12:30 AM - A lady speaking through a

megaphone announced that Gen. Ramos was in Camp Crame, saying that it was
the strategy agreed upon with Minister Enrile, and she requested that some of the
crowd should go there "para magka-guardiya doon."
The lady likewise thanked those who had donated foodstuffs but requested
that instead of uncooked rice, the people should give bread because, she said, it
is very hard to cook rice. Inquirer Extra 23 Feb

MBS TV CHANNEL 4, I:00 AM - Marcos presented another alleged assassin, Major

Saulito Aromin, who claimed to be part of five combat teams that were to have
crossed the Pasig to attack Malacañang and kill the Marcoses. QUARTET p. 35

CAMP AGUINALDO - More people came in to lend moral support: MP Rene

Cayetano, Atty. Carlos Platon, Atty. Vic Alimurung, Oscar and Diana Santos.
Several mayors from Cagayan arrived. They all embraced JPE and cried
unabashedly. Hagulgol din si JPE.
JPE ordered security to provide the mayors with armalites. News spread that
President Marcos was going to order the shelling of Camps Aguinaldo and Crame.
Minutes after that information was given, some prominent MP's and attorneys
disappeared. "Natakot siguro." Veritas 9 Mar

CIA agents who had set up shop in a back office of the Defense Ministry kept
Ramos and Enrile informed of everything Ver did, and passed on all
communications coming out of Malacanang. Enrile stayed in frequent contact with
Ambassador Borworth through this backroom CIA link. DYNASTY p. 414

RADIO VERITAS, 1:45 AM - Letter of resignation of Supreme Court Justice Nestor

Alampay was read by his daughter Maria Belen. QUARTET p. 35

Fidel Ramos: I told my wife that if any of the hostile soldiers of Mr. Marcos and
Gen. Ver tried to penetrate our residence, she should let the womenfolk meet
them, starting with my 90-year old mother-in-law and my 3-month old

Alex Sembrano: When I heard that, I said, "Hey! That's my daughter you're giving

CAMP AGUINALDO, MND - Winnie Monsod, economics professor of the University

of the Philippines, entered the office bringing a plastic bag containing P481.50,
donations from sympathizers massed outside the camp. She told Enrile, "It's for a
communication system, so that they can hear you. They're getting restless."
Enrile took the bag, his eyes turning red. He asked that a reporter from Radio
Veritas be called in so he could speak to the people waiting at the military camp
gates. Business Day 24 Feb

2:30 AM - Enrile dismissed as a "bunch of bull" Marcos's charge of a coup

aborted. If Marcos really wanted to talk, Enrile said, he was willing to oblige, but
not at Malacañang. "We might never get out of there alive." QUARTET p. 35
RADIO VERITAS, 2:59 AM - MP Homobono Adaza called from Cebu. "This move of
Minister Enrile and General Ramos deserves the congratulations of our people,
and they need the support of everyone." PEOPLE POWER (I) p. 85

CAMP AGUINALDO - Armida brought in a showbiz friend, superstar Nora Aunor,

who was hooted by the crowd outside. They compared her to the balimbing, the
fruit that's as many-sided as a starfish. When she faced Enrile, for whom she
campaigned when he ran for Parliament, she started to explain that she accepted
not a centavo from Marcos, but Enrile cut her short by taking her so swiftly in his
arms, she was lifted off the floor. QUARTET P. 26

Only 300 determined mutineers guarded the camp starting 3 PM Satuday while the
military rebel leaders fired off frenzied and continuous press conferences up to
3:30 AM Sunday. Not a wink was taken. Many could not understand why the
Marcos forcs did not deal a quick and decisive blow during that long and
vulnerable night. Mr & Ms. 28 Feb

FORT BONIFACIO, 3:00 AM - General Ver finally called his commanders together
at the Officers' Club to discuss plans for a counter-attack. With over 100 senior
officers attending, the meeting lurched aimlessly from the coup to the counter-
attack. Ver appointed Army Chief Gen. Josephus Ramas, a protegee with no
significant combat experience, to lead the assault on the rebel camps. Veritas
Special Oct 86

CAMP AGUINALDO - Ernie Maceda, Joey Laurel, and former Ambassador to Japan
Jose Laurel III came to see Enrile. JPE suggested that maybe they should
consider setting up a provisional government. Veritas 9 Mar

Enrile urged that Corazon Aquino announce not later than Tuesday the formation
of her own government as the duly-elected President. Malaya 24 Feb

RADIO VERITAS, 3:07 AM - Cardinal Sin went on the air to implore Marcos troops
not to use their weapons and to Gen. Ver not to use violence. He asked the faithful
"not to abandon Enrile and Ramos." QUARTET p. 35

Rose Marie Arenas: I sincerely believe that if the Cardinal did not call the people
and did not call the nuns, they would not have come. The religious will only follow
His Eminence. None of us would be followed by the nuns and priests, they only
came when the Cardinal called for them. We had people power already but the
frontliners were the religious.

3:11 AM - Jaime Ongpin broadcast an appeal to "concerned citizens" to assemble

"in very large numbers" at Camp Crame and Aguinaldo. "Large groups are a
deterrent to violence." Ibid.

JUAN PONCE ENRILE "The boys (reformists) are committed to one single act:
resist if assaulted. We won't be a party to repression. If he wants to repress the
people, we'll be part of the people. I'm 62 years old, I can go to jail." Business
24 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Twice, Col. Aruiza tried breaking into the president's
bedroom, but both times, he was stopped and told that the president was resting.
This was how it had been for the last six years. There would be problems to be
solved, important decisions crying out to be made, but the president, protected by
his doctors, nurses, and close-in security, could not be
disturbed. MALACAÑANG p. 107

CAMPS' GATES - Butz's troops waited and braced for the attack expected at 4
o'clock. Their numbers had dwindled, from 20,000 to around 2,000, deployed in
several places. If they were attacked now, "Patay na!" Sun Inq Mag 1 Jun

EDSA, 4:00 AM - Nora Aunor wept inside her car amid shouts of "Sipsip!" and
"Balimbing!" by an angry mob swarming all over her vehicle when she started to
alight and join the ranks of movie celebrities outside the camps. Not even the
pleas of committed film artists Behn Cervantes and Johnny Delgado, who jumped
on top of Aunor's car to pacify the crowd, could assuage the enraged men and
women. Malaya 24 Feb

Rose Marie Arenas: Those who want to sleep would sleep and those who want to
use the usual necessities, you knock on people's doors. We couldn't go to
Greenhills anymore, it was too far, so we just went around that area. And people
were so kind, we were allowed to go into all those apartments, and I saw how poor
the people were who lived inside those small iskinitas. But they were all so
hospitable, they offered us drinks, they even invited us to stay overnight.

CAMP AGUINALDO - As the EDSA crowd thinned, seven RAM officers devised a
plan to recall people power to EDSA. A newspaperman reminded the planners that
Minister Enrile and Gen. Ramos had the capability to preempt the use of vast
media outlets (244 newspapers, 33 of which were based in Metro Manila, including
7 big national dailies; 185 weekly publications, including 46 comics magazines;
286 radio stations, 46 of which were broadcasting in Metro Manila; 26 television
stations, 5 of them in Metro Manila) as a psychological propaganda weapon.
Preemptive action would necessarily deny Malacañang maximum access to media
and Marcos would lose the propaganda war.
Enrile lost no time when he was informed of the plan. He ordered his public
information assistants Brig. Gen. Ermita, lawyer Jose Flores Jr., Silvestre Afable,
and Ramos spokesman Col. Luis San Andres to get in touch quietly with their
friends in media. BREAKAWAY p. 176

WASHINGTON, D.C., 4:00 AM (Manila Time) - US Secretary of State George Shultz

assembled a few of his staff in his elegant seventh-floor office. They were dressed
casually, the weekend custom. Among them were Michael Armacost, former U.S.
ambassador in Manila and now undersecretary of state; Paul Wolfowitz, the
assistant secretary for Asia; and Charles Hill, Shultz's close aide and alter ego, a
diligent professional with a razor-sharp mind. Even at this late stage they were
struggling to shape a firm Philippine policy - proof again that policies are often
forged in the heat of crisis rather than in cool contemplation. IN OUR IMAGE
1989, p. 418

CAMP CRAME, 4:30 AM - Col. Alexander P. Aguirre, Chief of Operations at

Constabulary Headquarters, arrived from Baguio City. He rushed to Ramos's side
and worked continuously on the defense plan in line with the following guidelines
laid down by Ramos: (1) Galvanize and make maximum use of "people power;" (2)
Undertake no provocative military action against the opposing side.

DAKILA, MALOLOS, BULACAN, 5:30 AM - Troops under PC Lt. Col. Cesar Alvarez,
Bulacan PC Commander, PC Major Napoleon Castro of the 185th PC Company in
Tarlac, and Capt. Tito Samson "neutralized" Radio Veritas's transmitter station.
Midday Malaya 20 May

A group of armed men, numbering around 40, in fatigue pants and yellow t-shirts,
armed with armalite rifles, axes, and hardwood, stormed the radio antenna farm of
Radio Veritas. They destroyed 60 KW AM and shortwave transmitters and 16 units
of radio equipment. Inquirer 24 Feb

Limited to a 10-kilowatt emergency transmitter, Radio Veritas now covered only

Luzon and was not expected to last the day. Malaya 24 Feb

Alex Sembrano: Towards early morning - that's when attacks happen - we were
getting a bit edgy already. But still nothing happened.

Chula Sembrano: How do I remember those days? Sleepless nights. We were

never sure what would happen next. Will they call? Will we see them again?
Everybody was praying. They were saying Masses right outside the house. Some
people slept outside, like a little EDSA.

Cristy Ramos: They even got heavy machinery like bulldozers, payloaders, and
they blocked off our street for security. It helped, made things a little less scary.

FORT BONIFACIO, 5:00 AM - Gen. Josephus Ramas called a planning conference

at the Army headquarters. Present were Maj. Gen. Piccio, Air Force Commander;
Brig. Gen. Brawner, Operations Commander; Commodore Martillano; Brig. Gen.
Suarez, 52nd Engineer Brigade Commander; and Brig. Gen. Angel Sadang. Brig.
Gen. Isidoro de Guzman, RUC 3 Commander, excused himself from the
meeting. BREAKAWAY p. 47

5:30 AM - Although he had three Army combat battalions standing by, Ramas
announced that Gen. Tadiar's Marines will lead the attack-a decision that stunned
Tadiar. His Marines were tied down defending the Palace and it would take hours
to move them. Veritas Special Oct 86

CEBU CITY - US Consul Blaine Porter called on Cory at the convent, informed her
that a sub had arrived, ready to take her to Manila if she wanted. Cory turned
down the offer. Inquirer 26 Feb

MP Ramon Mitra's offer of sanctuary in his native Palawan was

declined. Asiaweek 9 Mar

Cory Aquino: Over breakfast with opposition leaders in the Carmelite monastery,
Monching Mitra was saying we should go to Palawan, and then on to another
country. There were all kinds of suggestions. I said, I think I'd just like to go back
to Manila. I figured that Marcos was very much concerned with EDSA and would
not be thinking about me. I felt that the sooner I got back to Manila, the better.


Cory spoke to me on Sunday morning. She said, "We have a big problem. There is
a third force."
I told her: "No. I am sure they are staging this because they want you to be the
President. Go there and thank them. Without this, you could be demonstrating
every day and you will still not be President. But now, you will be. You can see the
hand of God. This is the answer to our prayers." PEOPLE POWER (II) p. 119

MALACAÑANG PALACE - In compliance with Marcos's wish that Enrile and Ramos be
denied escape by air, Ver ordered Singson to have his people destroy the two
helicopters parked behind the Ministry building. Singson told Ver it was impossible to
blow up the helicopters because a single explosion, even from gunfire, would provoke
hostile action that could lead to the "bloody mess" that Marcos wanted to avoid.
Balbanero seconded the motion. The order was not carried out. BREAKAWAY p. 48
Early that morning, General Ramos made a very quick visit to Camp Aguinaldo.

Ramos told Enrile that he should join him in Camp Crame. Then the general
returned to Crame and was wildly cheered by the crowd along the way. Op. cit., p.

VILLAMOR AIR BASE,Morning - Sotelo received the first mission order from the
loyalist camp: a photo mission to look at the defense of Camp Crame and the
deployment of troops. Business Day 12 Mar

The team spotted a weak link in the "people power" chain around the camp: Libis.
To crash this vulnerable link, Piccio assigned two armed S-76 helicopters to
support the marines. BREAKAWAY P. 50

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Impatient over the lack of action against the crowd, Ver
sent malacañang CDC elements to Libis, behind the Ministry building, and to
Bonny Serrano Avenue, which bound Camps Aguinaldo and Crame on the
northeast. By this time the crowd had swollen to almost 50,000 and was
increasing by the minute.
Ver was moving pawns on his military chessboard. He ordered an Infantry
battalion in Zamboanga to fly to Manila and report to Fort Bonfiacio; the 14th
Infantry battalion to proceed to Libis. The 8th Marine Battalion Landing he ordered
to move to Fort Bonifacio; Ochoco dispatched a ship to transport the unit. Ibid.

STA. ANA, MANILA, 8:00 AM Cardinal Sin called Fr. Reuter and ordered him to
find another transmitter. There were three possibilities: dzRH under Col. Honesto
Isleta and Gen. Eduardo Ermita; Far East Broadcasting of Protestant Minister Fred
Magbanua in Valenzuela; and dzRJ (Ramon Jacinto) in Sta. Mesa, under Col.
Ruben Ciron. Inquirer Feb 88

Folksinger Freddie Aguilar, ardent anti-Marcos activist, was with the Hocus Pocus band
in Calapan, Mindoro, the morning after a benefit-concert gig.

Freddie Aguilar: Ang balita, nag-resign na sina Ramos at Enrile. Baka daw mag-
declare uli ng martial law si Marcos. Mabuti pa daw, huwag na akong bumalik sa
Manila, magtago na lang ako sa Mindoro. Sabi ko naman, bakit ako magtatago,
baka isipin niya natatakot ako sa kanya. At saka hindi na 'kako puwedeng mag-
declare si Marcos ng martial law, unlawful na `yon, unconstitutional, kahit doon sa
constitution na ginawa niya, bawal na.
(The news was, Ramos and Enrile had already resigned. There was talk that
Marcos might declare martial law again so my friends were saying I shouldn't go
back to Manila, I should hide in Mindoro. I said, why would I hide? He might think
I'm afraid of him. Besides, I told them, he can't declare martial law anymore
because it's unlawful, unconstitutional, even under his own constitution.)

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Tadiar waited three hours for permission to withdraw

his troops from the Palace. Finally he shouted at Ramas: "This is insane! I am still
waiting for permission to move troops, yet you are ready to move out!"
Veritas Special Oct 86

VILLAMOR AIR BASE - Photos showed two helicopters in Camp Crame. Sotelo
was ordered to prepare two gunships to disable the helicopters and to stop the
rebels from escaping. The go-signal to strike was to be given by President
Marcos. Sotelo met with his pilots and asked for volunteers to fly the mission. No
one volunteered. Sotelo then revealed his plan to fight on the side of the rebels.
They discussed the game plan. Business Day 12 Mar

FORT BONIFACIO, 9:00 AM - Army Commander Ramas called another planning

conference and put together two Provisional Tactical Brigades (PTB) out of the
First Marine Provisional Division (FMPD), each having two battalions and an
armored company, in line with plans drawn up by Brawner. The FMPD was placed
under the command of Brig. Gen. Jose Paez; the 1st PTB under Col. Braulio
Balbas; the 2nd PTB under Col. Eugenio Reyes; and the armor under Maj. Sergio
The idea was that after the crowd was swept away by CDC units in Libis, the
regiment under Balbas would enter Camp Aguinaldo through the Logistics
Command area, take possession of Camp Aguinaldo, then position tanks and
mortar for the bombardment of Camp Crame, after which Marines would pour into
Camp Crame, occupy it and take captives. Reyes's regiment was to come into the
fray in case Balbas's men could not finish the job. Crame would also be under
artillery fire from howitzers positioned at the University of Life, about three
kilometers southeast of Crame. BREAKAWAY p. 53

Tony Abaya: By eight, nine, in the morning, we had about four, five hundred
people all around the house of General Ramos, protecting his family and children.
It was like a mini-EDSA in Alalbang. People from as far as Las Pinas and from all
walks of life were here, taking turns. Many kept going back and forth to EDSA,
keeping in touch.

CAMP CRAME, 9:30 AM - Brig. Gen. Eduardo Ermita, Col. Honesto Isleta, and
retired Col. Noe Andaya prepared the text of a written appeal to AFP units and
individual officers and men to move over to the rebel side. Col. Ruben Ciron
dictated it to a friendly printing press for 50,000 copies by
afternoon. BREAKAWAY p. 63

Gen. Ramos announced that he and Enrile had a majority of the 12 PC-INP
regional and provincial commands, as well as paramilitary groups, backing
them. Inquirer 24 Feb

Ramos set his aides and staff officers, young lieutenants and captains, calling up
classmates and friends in the Marcos-Ver camp.
Fidel Ramos: This sort of psychological play was going on almost the whole day
Sunday. And somehow it worked. We were able to mobilize to our side some
sizable and major components of the AFP.

EDSA "I used to hate the military and the police," Yolanda Lacuesta, wife and
mother, recalled, "but on Sunday I found myself preparing sandwiches for them. I
heard over the radio that they needed food. O had to squeeze through a crowd
just to bring food to the soldiers. I remembered all the times when I cursed them
during rallies and was amazed that now I walked so far and worked so hard for
them. PEOPLE POWER (II) p. 122

AMADO L. LACUESTA, JR. (Screenwriter) - When I first saw the barricade of

sandbags across EDSA near White Plains road, I didn't know whether to cheer or
laugh. It was barely thigh-high and looked puny, as though it couldn't stop a
pushcart. But the young people astride it, waving their banners and laughing and
cheering and flashing the L-sign, did not seem worried. One of them brandished a
home-made placard: "Subok sa Krisis, takot kay Mrs." (Tried in Crises, Afraid of
Mrs.). I pointed it out to my wife and we laughed, flashing the L-sign back at them.
Their enthusiasm was catching.
All around us, people were coming and going in every direction. Everyone
seemed to know why he was there and where he was going. A cheer gathered
momentum. People applauded a truck loaded with empty sacks presumably to be
used for sandbags as it passed on its way to Ortigas.
More people, vehicles, laughter, cheers. I shook my head. This wasn't
revolution. It was fiesta, only more fun. Towards the main gates of Aguinaldo and
Crame, the festive crowds thickened. Vehicles were parked everywhere. The
island and sidewalks were littered with mats, cardboard sheets, even makeshift
cooking stands where people must have kept vigil the night before.
Far away at the corner of Santolan Road, a huge red and black falg spanned the
southbound lane of EDSA. It must have been at least eight feet high and twenty
feet long. Judging by the colors, it must have been the standard of a radical anti-
Marcos group. Beyond it, the controlled riot of people extended to the pedestrian
overpass about half a kilometer farther away.
Besides people, it was a riot of flags at EDSA. The dominant color was bright
yellow, but sinister reds or combinations or red and black also abounded, along
with a sprinkling of white and other colors and combinations. The word "anarchy"
came to mind, but I preferred to be more positive and thought "people power"
instead. Still, it aroused more hope than conviction. Ibid.

MAGELLAN HOTEL, CEBU CITY, 11:00 AM - Mrs. Aquino held a brief press
conference. PEOPLE POWER (I) p. 148

She issued twin calls: to the Filipino people to rally behind rebel Defense Minister
Enrile and Lt. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos, and to decent elements in the military to
"follow the defectors and support the people's will. For the sake of the Filipino
people I ask Mr. Marcos to step down now so we can have a peaceful transition of
government." Inquirer 24 Feb

Cory Aquino: We were thinking of all going home to Manila on a Philippine Air
Lines flight but we were told that PAL was fully booked. Bea Zobel had offered
their plane but Bono Adaza took that plane instead.
FORT BONIFACIO - The Ramas juggernaut was poised for the slam on the
beleaguered camps. But Ver and the other generals left Ramas at the Fort and
rushed to Malacañang to stand behind Marcos during a televised press
conference. BREAKAWAY p. 53

By lunchtime there were around 300,000 to 400,000 MALACAÑANG PALACE

people. Sun Inq Mag1 Jun - The scenery had
become more metallic: the grounds were bristling with armor. There were two
tanks in front of the Administration building, three in front of the Maharlika Hall,
and three more at odd places.
At the Presidential table were Presidential Executive Assistant Juan C. Tuvera,
Agrarian Reform Minister Conrado Estrella, Public Works Minister Jesus Hipolito,
Food Administrator Jesus Tanchangco, Agriculture Minister Salvador Escudero
III, Education Minister Jaime C. Laya, Member of Parliament Teodulo Natividad,
Budget Minister Manuel Alba, MP Salvador Britanico, former Acting Foreign
Minister Pacifico Castro, MIA Manager Luis Tabuena, Isabela Governor Faustino
Dy, Information Minister Gregorio Cendana, Justice Minister Estelito Mendoza,
Justice Buenaventura Guerrero, Assistant Press Secretary Amante Bigornia, MP
Antonio Raquiza, Economic Planning Minister Vicente Valdepenas, and former
Senator Rodolfo Ganzon.
Standing behind them were Gen. Ver, Rear Admiral Ochoco, and lesser stars
Brawner, Carlos Martel, Juanito Veridiano, hamilton Dimaya, Eustaquio
Purugganan, Telesforo Tayko, Serapio Martillano, Pompeyo Vasquez, Victorino
Azada, Arsenio Silva, Evaristo Sanches, Emerson Tangan, and Navy Capt. Danilo
Marcos was in another room talking to Capt. Morales, Maj. Aromin, and two
more - Lt. Col. Jake Malajacan and Maj. Ricardo Brillantes - who had not as yet
made statements on TV. BREAKAWAY p. 54

Sonny Razon: Whenever there was a lull, I would think about my family. What
would happen to them? How would my wife explain this to my kids? If we lose,
we're bandits, rebels. How would my wife tell my kids, explain to them about my
beliefs and my actions?

CEREMONIAL HALL, 12 Noon - Enter Marcos. The four detained officers were
brought in, in two's, by Diego, the PSC lawyer. Ver glared at the captives as the
four men took seats to the President's left. Marcos presented them and said there
were others who had been arrested but were still being interrogated. Malajacan
read his statement and Brillantes his affidavit. Ibid.

President Marcos said his men surrounded the two military camps. His men were
"one artillery shot away because I don't want any overly enthusiastic soldier firing
his weapon. They are around the camp but I told them to stay away." He added
that he was changing the order, moving them closer. Business Day 24 Feb

He scoffed at Enrile's and Ramos's demand, echoed by foreign governments, that

he resign. "Certainly I will not resign on the say-so of those who criticize my
He harped on the vulnerability of the besieged rebels and discouraged outside
intervention in the resolution of the potentially bloody crisis, saying, "It is a local
Also he claimed that the presence of a large number of civilians outside the
two camps did not bother him at all. "If you are going to be frightened by 2,000
civilians, then what is the use of running a government?" Inquirer 24 Feb

Fidel Ramos: We continued to use the phones, my aides and I, to mobilize to our
side other sizable and major components of the AFP. I was calling the
commanders, my young lieutenants and captains were calling their friends, their
wives were calling the wives of other friends on the other side...classmate to
classmate calls, relative to relative calls...this was going on all the time.

VILLAMOR AIR BASE, 1:00 PM - The order to disable the helicopters at Camp
Crame was scrapped. Instead the 15th Strike Wing flew four reconnaisance sorties
the rest of the afternoon. Business Day 12 Mar

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 1:30 PM - Ver gave the command for the "intimidation"
force to jump off towards Aguinaldo and Crame. Ver's idea was for the axe to fall
while Marcos was telling Enrile and Ramos to yield.
Planner of the operation was Tadiar, who modified the plans made in the morning:
the "intimidator" was the 1st Marine Provisional Division with Brig. Gen. Jose
Paez as commanding general. The division had two brigades: the 4th Marine
Provisional Brigade led by Col. Braulio Balbas, Jr., and the 5th Provisional
Brigade led by Col. Eugenio Reyes. Each brigade had two battalions; the 4th
Brigade was to assault and seize the Constabulary headquarters building in Camp
Crame. BREAKAWAY p. 59
CEBU - Immediately after lunch Cory flew to Manila in a private Cessna
plane. Asiaweek 9 Mar

Cory Aquino: We took the same plane that brought us to Cebu. It was a light
plane, a private plane. I think the Cebu tower did not officially inform Manila that I
was a passenger on that plane. Because when I landed at the airport, I didn't see
anybody there except CNN.

Freddie Aguilar: After lunch na noong dumating ako sa Makati galing Batangas.
Paglabas namin ng tollgate, may mga tangke! 'Yung isa, nakatirik doon sa bago
umakyat ng overpass. Sabi ko sa driver, bagalan mo, lolokohin ko lang ng konti
'yung sundalo. Binaba ko yung bintana, sabi ko, pare, saan ang sunog? Ang sama
ng tingin sa akin nung sundalo. Ayun pala, loyalist ni Marcos. Meron pa silang red
(It was after lunch when I arrived in Makati. When we exited at the tollgate, I saw
tanks! One of them, at the mouth of the overpass, wasn't moving. I told my driver
to slow down, I rolled down my window and asked, where's the fire? The soldier
gave me the darkest look. Turned out to be Marcos loyalists. They even had red

EDSA, CUBAO, 1:30 PM - Butz was called to a meeting with Gen. Alfredo Lim, who
was "calm as usual." Lim had been ordered to go to EDSA with army troops and
anti-riot squads to disperse the crowds that were massed around the camps. He
had more than 350 soldiers in several army transport trucks.
Butz suggested that Lim and Ramos dialogue and settle the matter between
From the furniture store where Lim and Butz met, Gen. Lim spoke to Gen. Ramos
by telephone. Gen. Ramos told Gen. Lim to "stay put." Gen. Lim agreed.
Unknown to Butz, Gen. Lim was among the officers in the Metropolitan Police
force who were part of a pre-arranged agreement to comply with disperse or
attack orders by merely going to the scene but taking no antagonistic action. This
group was headed by Gen. Prospero Olivas. Sun Inq Mag 1 Jun

At 2:00 PM, the RAM decided it was time to consolidate forces with Gen. Ramos in
Camp Crame. Enrile prepared to vacate the Ministry building.

At 2:15 the 1st Marine Provisional Division finally jumped off with Tadiar instead
of Paez in the lead.

FORT BONIFACIO - It was a formidable column, spearheaded by armor. Witnesses

counted 6 tanks, 10 APC's, 8 jeeps, and 13 six-by-six trucks. The column rolled
through Forbes road and turned right into EDSA. BREAKAWAY p. 60

At 2:20 Cory arrived in Manila and headed for a sister's house in Wack Wack
Subdivision in Mandaluyong.

At 2:24 Enrile left Camp Aguinaldo to join Ramos in Camp Crame.

EDSA, CAMP GATES - Enrile and his men moved out of Camp Aguinaldo in a very
disciplined formation, his men surrounding him, and accompanied by nuns saying
the rosary and carrying images of the Virgin Mary. Sun Inq Mag 24 Feb
Enrile left behind a small group of soldiers, clerks, and some officers of ISAFP
who had declared their loyalty to the rebels. BREAKAWAY p. 58

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Ver got wind of morale problems in the Army, Air Force,
and Marines. He went to Fort Bonifacio together with Ochoco, Bello, Corrachea,
Brawner, and Col. Ver to give the boys a pep talk. On the advice of his son, Ver
took along detainees Morales, Aromin, Malajacan, and Brillantes to display them
as proof that the reported assassination plot was for real. Op. cit., p. 58

At 2:47 tanks were reported rolling towards Camp Crame from Guadalupe in

EDSA, GUADALUPE To get to her sister's house in Wack Wack, Greenhills, Cory's
party had to go through EDSA. As the column of seven tanks and a contingent of
two Marine battalions rolled down the highway, Cory's car moved right along with
the tanks. Inquirer 25 Feb 90

Cory Aquino: CNN followed me all the way to Wack Wack. We were driving
alongside the tanks, but our car had tinted glass windows so nobody knew that it
was us, except CNN. I don't know, maybe they thought that CNN was following

EDSA, MAKATI - Two cars of civilians (Vangie Durian, Viring Ongkeko, Aida Ciron,
Charito Jackson Chu, Jojo Durian, Jeffrey Gaballes, and Eugene Ongkeko)
coming from the old Makati Hotel cleared the Guadalupe Bridge and saw ahead of
them a convoy of nine to twelve amphibian tanks. They immediately overtook the
tanks and left the convoy behind. As they neared the Ortigas corner EDSA
intersection, they saw hundreds of cars directly ahead of them, possibly going to
reinforce Crame. Behind them they saw some JD and DM buses coming their way.
They stopped and hijacked the buses. "Please help us! The tanks are coming!"
Without thinking twice, the people in the buses jumped out and almost
instinctively formed barricades. Soon the Ortigas/EDSA intersection was jammed
with buses, Mercedes Benzes, and a whole assortment of other cars. In a few
minutes the crowds started pouring in, strengthening the barricades with their
bodies. Mr & Ms 21 Mar

A TEACHER - "What a switch! The military is supposed to protect civilian lives, yet
there we were, prepared to camp out as long as it took to protect military lives
until Marcos gave in, or bombed us off the face of the earth. We didn't really know
what manner of harm they intended to inflict on us. We dared not think about it,
because that would make us afraid. Was David afraid when he faced Goliath? Or
was he not, because God was on his side? God was on our side. We could not be
afraid. Period." NINE LETTERS 1986, p.18

SANGLEY, CAVITE, 3:00 PM - Sotelo got firearms and "felt out" his pilots and no.
2 man. The T-28 pilots, he found out, were with him. But his no. 2 man was a
loyalist. Business Day 12 Mar

Rose Marie Arenas: From Santolan we went to the Mormon church in White
Plains. The gates were closed and we went up the fence, and we saw the tanks
coming up, one after the other, the APC's coming more slowly. So I really cried
and cried and I called up my mother and I said, mom, call Cardinal Sin, send more
people, call everybody. And my daughter said, Mommy, don't worry, they're
calling the reserves from Nueva Ecija, the Ilocos, everybody loyal to those inside.
A TEACHER - "When we got word that the tanks were approaching, EDSA /
we formed our ranks. Then our leader, a priest, in a flash of inspiration,
asked the women to stand out in front, before the barricades. It would,
S - The
we hoped, be doubly hard for the soldiers to shoot women. people
"I was trembling, but I did it. All of us-housewives, businesswomen,
hawkers, nuns-took the front line as we sang and prayed. It was a d
perilous enterprise; but on the other hand, it was a privilege to serve
my country." NINE LETTERS p. 18 The
convoy of tanks slowed down as they approached the barricades. Mr & Ms 21 Mar

The crowds outside the rebel camps had grown from 500 at dawn to over 500,000
by mid-afternoon. Veritas Special Oct 86

The Marines decided to bypass the human sea, turned right before reaching
Ortigas, and crashed through a cement wall into a vacant lot aiming to exit at a
portion of Ortigas, but the exit was again blocked by onrushing masses of people.

Tadiar radioed Gen. Ramas for instructions. Ramas: "Ram through! Ram through
the crowds, regardless of casualties!" Veritas Special Oct 86

The tanks did not move. The soldiers alighted from the tanks, their chests
bemedalled with strings of bullets. The people, some in tears, held their rosaries
tightly. The soldiers, in their rubber shoes, stood straight, their M-16 rifles held at
Vangie Durian whispered, "It's the Marines; then it must be Gen. Tadiar. He is
known as a terror. That's why he is called Tadjak." Viring Ongkeko suggested that
they talk to him and dissuade him from following whatever orders he had. They
rushed forward. A man's voice prodded them on shouting, "Sige ho, kayo na ang
humantad. Hindi kayo papatulan kasi babae kayo." ("Go ahead, they're less likely
to pounce on women.")
Gen. Artemio Tadiar was heavily protected by a group of very fierce-looking
Marines. The women were shoved aside successfully by the butts of rifles. Viring
Ongkeko defiantly asked, "Why do you have to push us with your guns? You only
have to push us with your hands and we will already fall down."
Gen. Tadiar asked his men to take it easy. Aida Ciron (wife of Ruben Ciron, a
senior aide of Enrile) managed to lunge her way in and landed directly at Gen.
Tadiar, literally embracing him. "Temy, you also have a wife and children, please
don't do it!"
Gen. Tadiar tried to get away from her grasp but he couldn't because by then
Vangie Durian was also holding him by the hand. "Temy, you know me, we were
neighbors in Navy Village."
"Is Jess there?" asked Tadiar.
"Yes, and this is my son Jojo." Jojo introduced himself saying, "Sir, I used to
go to your house to play with your son."
Despite the tension and hysteria, the wailing and the crying, formal amenities
were still being observed.
A woman from the bus also went near the general. "General, what are you
going to do?"
"We are not going to hurt civilians. Our orders are to confront Enrile and
Ramos." Gen. Tadiar removed his bullet-proof vest. "See? We are only going to
"But how can you say you will not hurt civilians? Once Enrile and Ramos see
you, they will get nervous. There will be an exchange of gunfire."
While all this was happening, crowds continued to converge around them,
coming from all directions. Soon all the tanks were again facing groups of people.
All kinds of exchanges could be heard. "Marami naman tayo, sugurin na natin
sila!" ... "Bakit kayo sumusunod sa diktador?" ... "We're Filipinos like you! Don't
kill us!"
Some others did their part by simply choking, screaming, crying, or praying.
One group chanted, "Co-ree, Co-ree, Co-ree!"
Then a mestizo, in halting English, broke up the chanting. "I am just an
ordinary citizen. The decision is not mine but all of us. Gen. Tadiar is requesting
that their orders are to confront Enrile. They are allowing us to accompany them.
Papayagan ba natin sila? (Shall we allow them?)"
The people shouted in chorus, "Hindi! Hindi puwede! (No! No way!)"
Tingting Cojuangco arrived. She and Tito Guingona conferred with Gen. Tadiar.
Gen. Tadiar agreed that Tingting and Tito should go to Crame and talk to Enrile.
Tadiar: "I will give you thirty minutes only." Mr & Ms 21 Mar

EDSA, CAMP AGUINALDO GATE - A mammoth crowd met Enrile at the gate.
Chanting, "Johnny! Johnny!" the crowd parted like the Red Sea, allowing Enrile
and his 300-strong security to cross the highway bearing their arms. Inquirer 24

The people linked arms, creating a protective wall for the reformist troops. Col.
Honasan forged ahead to shield Minister Enrile as they crossed the street.
Honasan was very scared when they started out. But when they hit the first row of
people, and the people started to wipe the soldiers' brow, give them food, and
thank them, Honasan knew they had won. "All my fears disappeared. The worst
scenario, for me, was not that we would have been bombed but that the people
might turn against us." PEOPLE POWER (II) p. 155

Sonny Razon: Vic Batac and Red Kapunan were the brains of RAM, but Gringo
was also smart, and he was the one with charisma.

Alex Sembrano: I trained under Gringo, and he was a very highly respected
officer. Whatever he asked you to do, he would do it first, he was that kind of
leader. He also called people by their first name, even the soldiers. That's why he
was really well liked.

EDSA, CRAME GATE - When Enrile had crossed, Butz Aquino whispered to him,
"Minister, talk to the people. Thank them for staying so they will stay longer."
Enrile did so. Climbed the first two of six steps of a platform and started
speaking. But then the people cheered, "Johnny! Johnny!" and just like any
politician, he climbed two more steps to show himself a little bit more, to the
consternation of his security. At first, only his head was above the crowd, but with
all the cheers and applause, he took two more steps, and his planned three-
minute appeal took ten minutes. Sun Inq Mag 1 Jun
Fidel Ramos: Minister Enrile moved to Camp Crame on my suggestion. It's a So
good thing he listened to me. Camp Aguinaldo was too big, more difficult to nn
defend, specially if you don't have enough troops of your own. Also, Camp y
Crame was easier to fill with people. Ra
zon: General Ramos had been asking them to move to Crame since morning pa.
But at that point, they weren't convinced yet of the need to consolidate forces. In
fact, they would have preferred if if Gen. Ramos moved to Aguinaldo instead.

Fidel Ramos: Minister Enrile and I went up to the highest point in the camp, which
is the 4th floor office of our Operations Center. From there we could see about
three kilometers of a sea of humanity filling the highway from Ortigas along EDSA
almost all the way to Cubao.

EDSA, ORTIGAS - Gen. Angel Kanapi and Col. Lisandro Abadia, the Army
Operations Officer, came by helicopter and conferred with Tadiar. Tadiar
recommended an aerial reconnaisance, so the three of them boarded the
helicopter to view the Aguinaldo-Crame area and its environs. Kanapi pointed to
several possible routes of approach, but Tadiar asked him to consider how the
human barricades were thickening by the minute. It had not been an hour since
the last Crame radio appeal for more of "people power." BREAKAWAY p. 60

Sonny Razon: We were at the gate, shouting and cheering along with the people.
Then we went out walking, heading for Ortigas. But the people stopped us. They
told us there were tanks there, and they pushed us back towards Camp Crame.
We were touched by the concern of the people. They used to be angry at us, but
now they were feeding us and protecting us.

FORT BONIFACIO - In the middle of Ver's speech, Brawner left to rush to his
Scout Ranger Regiment where there was also a morale problem involving about
20 PMA alumni among the officers whose hearts were with the Reformists.
Brawner promised them reforms and asked them for time to implement these. Just
the same, Lt. Noel Buan turned over his firearm and said he was leaving to join
Enrile and Ramos. He was prevailed upon to wait another day. Op. cit., p. 58

EDSA, ORTIGAS - Kanapi and Abadia flew back to Ramas. Op. cit., p. 60

RADIO VERITAS - Regional Trial Court Judge Alfredo Tadiar appealed to his
nephew Gen. Artemio Tadiar, Commander of the Philippine Marines, to support
the stand taken by Ramos and Enrile. "Make the right decision on the basis of
evidence and intellect. Bear in mind, the future of this generation is at stake."
Inquirer 25 Feb

LOUIE AGNIR - The now famous "Uncle Fred" made his historic appeal to Gen.
Tadiar over Radio Veritas. "Artemio, this is your Uncle Fred. Your Aunt Florence
and I and all your cousins are here in Crame. Now, Boy, please listen to me" Many
cheered Uncle Fred and Aunt Florence and the nameless cousins that day. So did
I, with much joy and thanksgiving. Philippine Star 25 Feb 88
Gen. Tadiar stood on top of a tank and spoke, asking the people to Aquino
either allow them to pass or they will use the backdoor. The people got on
shouted, top of a
"Hindi puwede! Mamamatay tayong lahat dito! (No way! We will all die tank and
here!)" Mr & Ms 21 Mar spoke.
He told the people about Gen. Lim, hoping that Gen. Tadiar would also "stay put."
In closing, he said to Gen. Tadiar, "General, you say higher authorities gave you
the order to disperse us. Well, the higher authority-the Chief of Staff we recognize-
is Gen. Ramos, and the Commander-in-Chief we recognize is Cory Aquino, and we
know they didn't order you to disperse us. Besides, we are fighting for our
freedoms, and if it's necessary to die, we're prepared to die."

Tadiar was angry. He wanted Butz to pacify, not agitate, the crowd. Sun Inq Mag 1

The tanks roared their engines. Butz almost fell to the ground. Mr & Ms 21 Mar

Butz was helped down and was made to sit in front of the tank. There were two
nuns slightly in front, one to his left, one to his right.

"The sound alone gave me the jitters. And from my angle, the tank looked like it's
as big as a house! The tank moved forward for about a meter. "People were crying
and praying and singing all at the same time." Butz waited for the nuns to move
but "they didn't budge!" So he stayed. "You know, bahala na!" Sun Inq Mag 1 Jun

Only as death became an immediate possibility did the general mood become
grimmer and graver, more serious, though still outwardly lighthearted. The
smiling crowds dancing forth to meet cannon and tank with crocus and cross,
with roses and rosaries, were performing the ultimate sacrament of grace under

The crocus ribbons we tied on signified tiger yellow, however striped with black.
Philippine activism was at last putting a tiger in its tank. QUARTET p. 28

Joe Alejandro: That was scary. You realize that people become
heroes unintentionally. Because when human barricades are
formed and somebody clutches your arm, you cannot just
struggle out, you simply are locked-in in three, four, five layers
of people, and at that moment you're scared.

"We were told to link arms," Lulu T. Castaneda, wife and mother,
recalled. "I looked at the faces of the people around me and
especialy at the man to my right who was holding on tightly to
my arm. My big concern was: I am going to die with this man
and I don't know his name. As utter strangers, we faced what
seemed like imminent death together.
"I did say the Act of Contrition truly and heartily. And I said
the Haily Mary, especially the part which goes: pray for us now
and at the hour of our death. That seemed the same at that
moment: now and the hour of our death. I really knew then what
it means to ask the Blessed Mother to be with me with all of us
at the hour of our death. PEOPLE POWER (II) p. 124

LARRY HENARES: I heard this little old lady say with a starry-eyed smile to another little
old lady, as she pushed hard against the advancing tank: "Seguro naman, hindi tayo
pababayaan ni Santo Nino, ha?" (I am sure Baby Jesus won't let us down, will he?) Mr
& Ms. 7 Mar

The tanks stopped. The people clapped, cheered, found time to wipe their tears.
The crowd got bigger, swelled to thousands. Mr & Ms 21 Mar

Out of this confrontation, ordinary street Filipinos, Tondo people and faceless, joined
with the middle class, and both discovered a kind of spontaneous collective will that they
had never exerted before, and a common bond they had never nurtured. It electrified
them. Tears streamed down faces. Some began to sing. "People Power" was born.
DYNASTY p. 415
Joe Alejandro: And then when the tanks stop, that's when you see
big men throw up. Their adrenalin is so high, they throw up. But the
women...the women have guts. They don't throw up.
EDSA, ORTIGAS, 4:20 PM - Abadia came back to convey Ramas's instructions to
Tadiar. Two Marine battalions were to be "injected" into Camp Aguinaldo while the
armored units and other elements of the division were to be sent back to Fort
Bonifacio. Balbas's battalions were picked for the Aguinaldo mission. The rest of
the division went home. BREAKAWAY pp. 60-61

Joe Alejandro: But it isn't that the people weren't willing or ready to fight. Many of
the civilians had firearms. Many told me, in case of anything, it's in the trunk of the
car. If the soldiers had fired, the people would have fired back.

EDSA - By Sunday afternoon, Manila was delirious. The boulevard between the
army camps was a human sea, the crowd surging and receding like a tide as
government forces arrived and retreated and returned. Demonstrators carried
banners demanding Marcos's resignation. Rebel soldiers, their flag patches
inverted, mingled with the throng. IN OUR IMAGE p. 418

The predominance of yellow in the crowd was clear evidence that the people
perceived the reformist forces as supporting Cory. IMPOSSIBLE DREAM p. 391

Sonny Razon: People power came as a surprise to me because the people used to
look down on the military, specially since Ninoy's assassination and then Gen.
Ver's trial. Plus, our plans were all wrecked! Who would side with losers? When
suddenly, wow! People power!

Cory Aquino: It was surprising, yes, because during the seven years and seven
months of my husband's incarceration, the Filipino people were not all that
courageous. it was very difficult to get people to join us in our protest movement.
During my husband's hunger strike, for instance, we had mass everyday for forty
days at Greenhills and I was so grateful then if we would have two hundred
attending; even at that, they were mostly relatives and my closest friends, and the
nuns-the sisters were really very courageous. But then it all changed after Ninoy
was assassinated. So I guess it was a building-up. I guess people don't really
change overnight, you have to keep on working on yourself to build up that
courage and that strength and that confidence. And while it is true, I was
surprised, it was a very welcome change, and I felt that whatever happened, at
least we had very brave Filipinos standing up for the cause.

Eggie Apostol: We were hoping for justice. That whoever killed Ninoy and could
do it to anybody else in the country could be brought to face the music. But I did
not expect people power. I thought something would happen - that maybe
individual acts would bring about certain things - but not the way it happened
during the four days, of whole groups, millions of people coming. That was
something completely new and unexpected.

CAMP CRAME - Enrile learned that a column of seven tanks plus a contingent of
two Marine battalions, moving towards their direction from Fort Bonifacio had
been stopped by the people at the intersection of Ortigas and EDSA. He also
learned that there was another contingent of tanks prepositioned on the Cubao
side whose guns were trained at Camp Crame.
Enrile made two calls: the first to the US Ambassador, for him to inform his
government so that the White House could at least caution the palace to take a
more prudent course; the second to Gen. Ver to tell him, "If you kill us, you and
the President will go down in history as butchers of your own officers and men, of
the Filipino people, and of foreign mediamen."
Ver's reply: I will tell them not to push the civilians. Sun Inq Mag 16 Mar

Fidel Ramos: I could foresee four, maybe five, scenarios. One was an artillery
bombardment. Artillery were reported to have been moved from Fort Bonifacio to
the ULTRA stadium in Pasig, and that's not really very far away, as far as an
artillery shell flies, and the crews were starting to position themselves.

Freddie Aguilar: I wanted to go to Veritas, baka may maitulong ako, pero dumaan
muna ako sa bahay, sa Quezon City. Ang misis ko, wala, nagpa-panic-buying. Ang
nanay ko, umiiyak dahil nga wala ako e nagkakagulo na. Sabi ko, susubo lang ako
ng konti tapos pupunta 'ko sa Veritas. Bakit ka pupunta doon, sabi niya, e
pasasabugin 'yon?. Sabi ko naman, e anong gusto n'yo, magtago ako, e ito 'yung
matagal ko nang pinapangarap na mangyari para matapos na ang paghihirap ng
Pilipino. Sabi naman ng kapatid ko, hayaan n'yo siya, 'Nay, inumpisahan niya,
hayaan n'yong tapusin.
(I went home first. My wife was out, panic-buying. My mother was crying because
she was worried about me. I said I just wanted a bite to eat and then I was going to
Veritas. It's going to be blown up! she said. Why go there? What would you have
me do? I asked. Hide? When I've been waiting such a long time for something like
this? In the end she decided to let me be, to let me finish what I had started.)

CAMP CRAME - A common friend of the President's and Enrile's reached Enrile
and requested him to call the President at the Palace. Enrile was reluctant, but MP
Alfonso Reyno of Cagayan insisted. Ibid.

During the conversation, Marcos offered absolute amnesty to the rebel troops
should they surrender right away. Inquirer 24 Feb

Enrile asked Marcos to stop the tanks but Marcos said he couldn't do that
because they were already taking up their positions. He told Enrile, however, that
he would ask the tank commanders not to shoot "temporarily." Enrile said his
group would not fire the first shot. Business Day 24 Feb

Freddie Aguilar: Pagdating ko sa Fairview, awa ng Diyos, ang dami nang tao sa
Veritas. May mga 50 reformists in the vicinity. I was talking to them and sabi nila,
mabuti na rin 'yung nangyari, nang magkaalaman na kung ano talaga.
(There were lots of people in Veritas, Fairview, and some 50 reformist soliers in
the vicinity. They were glad in a way about the rebellion, they said; it was time that
we all found out what was what.)

RADIO VERTAS, Afternoon: "We received a letter asking Radio Veritas to stop
broadcasting," recounted Orly Punzalan. "I cannot establish now who sent it but
the threat was that, if we didn't shut up, somebody was going to bomb this place
at eight o'clock in the evening. Manila Chronicle 25 Feb 87

6:30 PM - Radio Veritas signed off the air. After its transmitter was sabotaged by
armed men early Sunday morning, they had operated on an emergency
transmitter which finally gave out. BAYAN KO! p. 130

CAMP CRAME, 6:30 PM: At a press conference, Enrile told newsmen of Marcos's
offer of absolute amnesty to the rebel troops should they surrender right away.
However, Enrile said, the officers' corps of the rebel troops belonging to the RAM
rejected the offer. They had decided that their demand for President Marcos's
resignation was "not negotiable ... the matter has reached a point where the
bottomline is for the President to step down." Inquirer 24 Feb

Ramos announced the formation of a New Armed Forces of the

Philippines. Sunday Times Mag 9 Mar

Ramos told newsmen that military commanders of 40 provinces in all twelve

regions and the four districts of Metro Manila had pledged loyalty. Ramos said he
had 17 armoured tanks and two helicopters ready if Marcos-Ver troops attacked.
Asiaweek 9 Mar

The general pledged to put the "New Armed Forces" at the service of "newly-
constituted authorities", a reference to an Aquino-led provisional government.
BAYAN KO! p. 130

Enrile expected the situation "to get lively" by nightfall. Ramos declared, "We are
not running away." Although he acknowledged that two battalions of Ver's Scout
Rangers and one Marine battalion under Brig. Gen. Artemio Tadiar are ready to
advance from Camp Aguinaldo across the highway; and a column of APCs was on
its way down Ortigas Ave. Asiaweek 9 Mar

Ramos named at least six field Brigadier Generals who had joined his forces:
Tomas Manlongat, Renato de Villa, Dionisio Tan-gatue, Carlos Aguilar, Benjamin
Ignacio and Rodrigo Gutang. These were apart from the four police
superintendents of the same rank in Metro Manila: Narciso Cabrera, Alfredo Lim,
Ruben Escarcha and Alfredo Yson, and about a score of colonels and lieutenant
colonels in command of troops. Manila Times 24 Feb

Enrile said that firearms would not be distributed to thousands of opposition

supporters preventing troops from advancing on the camp. Any fighting would be
done by the rebels themselves. Malaya 24 Feb

Cory Aquino: In the evening I was briefed by opposition leaders who had been to
Crame. While we waited for Doy who had gone to Crame first, we were discussing
what the next move would be.

CAMP CRAME, Evening - Salvador Laurel arrived, just in from Cebu, to

"congratulate Minister Enrile and General Ramos for their great act of courage."
The three then retired to Ramos's curtained office.
Venerable opposition leader Lorenzo Tanada, 87, came to promise mass
actions saying, "We won't stop until we get through that barricade at Mendiola!"
Rene Saguisag and Teodoro Locsin conferred with Ramos and Enrile and decided
to ask Aquino to go on the air later in the evening to appeal for non-violence.
Ramos ordered leaflets dropped to Marcos loyalists: "What good is killing each
other now? Let us join hands and together build a better tomorrow. Be heroes
without having to die. Show the world we believe in God and we are a truly
Christian country." Asiaweek9 Mar

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 7:00 PM - Ver was called to the Maharlika Lounge where
the Papal Nuncio, Monsignor Bruno Torpigliani, Ricardo Cardinal Vidal, and
Monsignor Severino Pelayo were waiting for him. The Nuncio had a letter for
Marcos from Pope John Paul II appealing for a peaceful settlement of the issue.
Jaime Cardinal Sin was not with the party because hit men were reportedly out to
get him. BREAKAWAY p. 58

WASHINGTON, D.C. Evening (Manila Time) - The White House issued a statement
questioning the "credibility and legitimacy" of Philippine President Ferdinand
Marcos's government, and saying it shared the concerns of the rebellious military
leaders demanding his resignation.
The statement stopped short of endorsing the actions of Defense Minister Juan
Ponce Enrile and Deputy AFP Chief Fidel V. Ramos. Malaya 24 Feb

The US offered to help Marcos leave the island nation in a US aircraft, said a
congressional source. Times Journal 25 Feb

Fidel Ramos: Another avenue of approach was from the backside through
Horseshoe Village in San Juan, by Infantry and Special Scout Rangers. A third
was through the backdoor of Camp Aguinaldo, and then maneuvering so that they
could fire broadside at Camp Crame.

LIBIS, QUEZON CITY, 8:00 PM - Col. Balbas reported to Tadiar that his unit was
stopped by human barricades and that all possible approaches to Camp
Aguinaldo were full of people. Tadiar ordered him to return to Fort
Bonifacio. BREAKAWAY p. 61

CAMP CRAME, 8:30 PM - More soldiers were pinning to their uniforms the Reform
Movement's symbol: a small national flag with the red uppermost. The two
thousand printed were not enough for "an endless stream" of supporters from
everywhere. Asiaweek 9 Mar

Cory Aquino: When Doy came back from Camp Crame, he told us that there was a
proposal to set up a military-civilian junta. Among the civilians would be, of
course, me and Doy. I think Celing Palma was also being mentioned, and possibly
Senator Tanada. Of course, I could not agree to something like that.

Freddie Aguilar: May show ako that night sa Hobbit House. So kain ako, bihis.
Sabi ko sa misis ko babalik muna ako sa Veritas, kasama ang bayaw ko. Pero sa
Crame ako tumuloy, parang hinila ang kamay ko. Nakapasok pa kami ng Santolan
kahit may barricade na dahil nakilala ako ng mga tao. Pero hanggang kalagitnaan
lang ng sementeryo ng San Juan kasi may barricade na ng ATOM doon. So,
ginawa ko, ibinarricade ko na rin ang kotse. Sabi ko sa bayaw ko, doon muna siya,
'wag iiwan ang kotse. Kako, pag dumating yung tangke, alisin mo yung gitara.
Hindi na baleng masira yung kotse, 'wag lang yung gitara.
(I had a show that night at Hobbit House. So I had to go home, eat, get dressed. I
told my wife I was going back to Veritas with my brother-in-law but I ended up
driving to Crame. Despite barricades, we were able to enter Santolan because the
people recognized me and let me drive through. But we only got halfway past the
San Juan cemetery, where there was an ATOM barricade. What I did was, I added
my car to the barricade. I asked my brother-in-law to stay and watch it, and if
tanks came, to save my guitar. Never mind the car.)

VILLAMOR AIR BASE - Pilots and crew of the 15th Strike Wing were instructed to
be at the flight line by 5:00 AM the following day. The duty officer in Sangley was
instructed to gather the staff at the Wing Operation Center to listen to Sotelo's
briefing on radio. Sotelo asked his supply officer to send 10 M-16's and two boxes
of ammunition by land "to equip the guards" - a ruse, as Sotelo intended them for
the Wing. Business Day 12 Mar

Fidel Ramos: A very dangerous approach was through Santolan Road coming
from the Libis side. Fortunately people were gathered around there and it would
have taken a very massive crowd dispersal effort to clear the street. And a final
approach was by air, a helicopter assault, which could easily have been
successful because we had no air power, or not enough, to counter any air attack.

FORT BONIFACIO - Ramas and his associates were busy up to midnight devising
another way to capture the Aguinaldo-Crame area. Gen. Victor Natividad, who had
replaced the ailing Olivas as head of the Metropolitan Command, was a big help.
He showed how the stubborn human barricades could be
breached. BREAKAWAY p. 61

Freddie Aguilar: Inikot ako ng tao all the way to the EDSA gate, tapos sinamahan
ako ng sundalo all the way to the office of Ramos and Enrile. Nandoon sina
Armida at Chito Ponce Enrile, at maraming reporters and foreign correspondents.
Mayamaya pinapasok ang press, sumama ako, kinamayan ko si Ramos at si
Enrile, tapos lumabas na 'ko. I stayed there for a while until lumapit sa akin 'yung
isang babae, she said she worked with Minister Enrile. Kung maaari daw, tulungan
ko ang Gate 2, wala daw tao, lahat na sa EDSA, e ang balita daw, doon papasukin
ng Marines kasi wala ngang tao. Ang ginawa ko, tumawag ako sa Hobbit House
para humiram ng sound system. Ang problema, mga 12:30 pa magiging available,
may show nga kasi ako.
(The people took me all the way around to the EDSA gate, then a soldier
accompanied me all the way to the office of Ramos and Enrile. Armida and Chito
Ponce Enrile, and lots of reporters and foreign correspondents were waiting
outside. I went in with the press and shook the hands of Ramos and Enrile. Then I
was hanging around outside when a girl from Enrile's staff asked if I could help
out sa Gate Two which needed more people, in case the Marines came. Before
going down I called Hobbit House and borrowed the sound system. But it would
be available only at 12:30, after my act.)

WASHINGTON, D.C., Around 10 PM (Manila Time) - The National Security Planning

Group gathered in Shultz's house in Maryland. Those present included Caspar
Weinberger, Michael Armacost, John Poindexter, Robert Gates, and Philip Habib.
Shultz had just received a message from Bosworth: "Marcos will not draw the
conclusion that he must leave unless President Reagan puts it to him directly. Go
for a dignified transition out." The problem now was plain if difficult: how to
persuade Reagan to tell Marcos to quit. IN OUR IMAGE p. 419

DZRH - Mrs. Aquino called on other government officials to emulate Alampay and
on Metro Manila residents to continue supporting the two rebellious government
officials. Malaya 24 Feb

That evening, Mrs. Aquino also met with Ramos and Enrile who came to see her in
Wack Wack.

CORY AQUINO: "I just asked them what the circumstances were surrounding their
going to Crame and Aguinaldo." Inquirer Feb 90

Cory Aquino: I called for them but they never came together; they couldn't both be
away from the camp at the same time. I remember feeling more comfortable with
Eddie Ramos than with Johnny Ponce Enrile. Maybe given the background that I
never had to deal with Eddie during the incarceration of Ninoy. It was always with
Johnny Ponce Enrile.

Evening - GMA CHANNEL 7 announced on video, using its character generator,

that the rebel group was already in control and that Mr. Marcos had fled the
country. Sunday Times 23 Mar

Freddie Aguilar: Pagbaba ko sa Gate Two, there were only 4 nuns yata and 4
seminarians and one priest na nagma-man ng gate; meron ding ilang soldiers and
about 25 people sa labas na inaantok yata, siguro pagod na. A girl with a mike
announced my name. 'Yung mga natutulog-tulog na, nagising, hinahanap ako. So I
waved. Lapit naman sila, padami nang padami, naging 50, naging 60, hanggang
sa, the next thing you know, hundreds na 'yung nandoon. Sabi ko sa kanila, "Aalis
muna ako, kukuha ako ng sound system." Sabi ng mga tao, in unison, "Walang
aalis! Walang aalis!" Sabi ko, "E kukunin ko 'yung sound system para magkaroon
tayo ng kantahan dito." Sumigaw sila, in unison pa rin, "Gitara! Gitara!" May
dumating na gitara. Galing sa isang seminarista sa kabilang barricade. Sabi ko,
sige, pero isang kanta lang, kasi kako naghahabol ako ng oras. "Anong gusto
niyong kanta?" "Katarungan!" Di kinanta ko. Palakpakan. "Pangako niyo, walang
aalis," sabi ko, "at pangako ko, dito sa gate na ito ako babalik. At hindi lang sound
system ang dadalhin ko, magdadala ako ng banda para hindi kayo antukin."
(There were only a few nuns and seminarians and a priest manning the gate, and a
few soldiers and about 25 people outside who looked like they were falling asleep
from weariness. When my name was announced, the sleepy sat up, looking for
me. I waved and they came closer, and more people started coming, 50, then 60,
then hundreds. I said I was leaving to get a sound system. The people shouted in
unison, "No one's leaving! No one's leaving!" I said I had to get the sound system
so we could have some music. The crowd shouted, still in unison, for a guitar.
And a guitar came, from a seminarian at the next barricade. I asked them what
song they wanted to hear. They asked for "Katarungan" ("Justice") and I sang it.
Before leaving, I made them promise to stay where they were and I promised to be
back not just with a sound system but with a live band to wake everyone up.)

MARYLAND, USA, 11:30 P.M. - At the Bethesda home of Secretary of State George
Shultz, the President's special envoy Philip Habib presented a report on his Manila
trip. In attendance were Caspar Weinberger, Secretary of Defense; Admiral William
Crowe Jr., chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; Robert Gates, deputy director for
Intelligence of the CIA; and John Poindexter, the National Security Adviser.
Also present were three officials who had been preoccupied with the Philippine
crisis for months: Michael Armacost, Undersecretary of State for Political Affairs;
Paul Wolfowitz, Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs;
and Richard Armitage, Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security
The group agreed on four principles which were subsequently presented to
President Reagan: Marcos's ability to govern with the consent of his people had
ended; any effort by him to crush the reform movement would only worsen the
situation; it was of great importance to the US that force not be used; it would be
damaging to US standing in the world if Marcos were treated like the Shah of Iran,
who was admitted to the US for medical treatment but was not permitted by the
Carter Administration to remain. Time 10 Mar

Reagan dictated a personal message to his friend appealing to him not to use
force. The message was flashed to Ambassador Bosworth in Manila who
telephoned Marcos. Veritas Special Oct 86

Freddie Aguilar: Sa Hobbit House, after mga 5 songs, I told the tourists, "I'm sorry,
ladies and gentlemen, I cannot finish the show tonight. But if you want to join us
in Crame, you're welcome. We need more people in Crame." Sama naman sila,
about ten cars, mostly mga suki kong foreign correspondents.

QUEZON CITY - Radio Veritas broadcaster June Keithley was asked by Jesuit
James Reuter to proceed to DZRH.
The staff wasn't too happy to see her. The station had just replayed Marcos's
press conference. News director Rey Langit told her to leave her phone number
so they could call her in case her services were needed.
Fr. Reuter considered DZFE in Bulacan, then decided on DZRJ on Ramon
Magsaysay Avenue, Sta. Mesa, Manila. Manila Times 3 Mar

Col. Ciron called to say that he was moving the frequency of dzRJ, slowly, from
810 to the 840 kilohertz of Radio Veritas, and invited June Keithley to take over.
Inquirer Feb 88

Fidel Ramos: Radyo Bandido was arranged through the efforts of Col. Ruben
Ciron of Minister Enrile's staff who's in radio broadcasting. The station would
continue to use the Radio Veritas code sign but it was really the old DZRJ. It was a
great relief. We were afraid that we had lost our major propaganda arm when
Veritas's signal died down.
Keithley quietly got in touch with a bunch of friends and revealed that she could
gain access to a new media facility. Quickly film director Peque Gallaga took
command of organizing a ragtag group capable of manning and operating a rebel
radio station. Malaya 28 Feb

Shortly after Keithley arrived, Lyca Benitez Brown came with friends, one of whom
knew how to handle the radio equipment, and another who acted as look-out for
tanks or troops coming from Malacañang. Manila Times 3 Mar

Eggie Apostol: That evening I was back again in Alabang, keeping vigil with Mrs.
Enrile. You know, not talking to each other, we were just praying the rosary and
just being very nervous. We didn't know how it was going to end. It was like a

Ming Ramos: Maybe we were afraid inside but we were quite calm. I told the
children to pack small bags, just a few things, in case we had to leave. We were all
listening for helicopters that might land and take us, knowing that if Ver got
desperate, he'd do anything. I don't think we slept. We didn't put on our
nightgowns. We had our jeans on, and jackets, because the night was cool. I
remember lying down with my sneakers on.

EDSA - The crowd had thinned since the retreat of the tanks but not for a moment
throughout the night were the barricades left unmanned. The vigilantes sat on the grassy
lots just off the highway and kept themselves awake by telling stories of the uprising so
that from one group to another passed accounts of this period of civil disobedience. How
four daughters of Presidents - Nini Quezon, Vicky Quirino, Rosie Osmena, and Linda
Garcia - made the rounds of the embassies urging foreign diplomats not to recognize
Marcos as President-elect. How some people were saying that Cardinal Sin had to be
"coaxed" to make a statement on the Enrile-Ramos rebellion and that his call to the
faithful was originally intended to ask them merely to bring food to the rebels. How other
people were vexed by the pussyfooting of the Papal Nuncio and were sarcastically
suggesting that he deliver the invocation at the Marcos inaugural. How Lino Brocka and
Behn Cervantes were proving to be the true machos of showbiz; unscared champions of
the opposition throughout the campaign and now militant heroes of the resistance. How
Nora Aunor, booed on her first visit to the rebel camp, had shown spunk by returning for
a second visit to reaffirm her solidarity with the revolution. How Gen. Ramos had
become "The Nora Aunor of the Revolution," cheered and mobbed everywhere he went
by people wanting to touch and kiss him. And how his wife Ming was complaining about
his telling everyone who asked that she and the children were at home. "Why are you
announcing where we are? What if they take us as hostages?" Cooly replied Eddie
Ramos: "If any of you are kidnapped, I am not going to compromise!" QUARTET 47-48

CAMP CRAME, Midnight : Gen. Ramos took a jog around the perimeter with two
guards but no sidearm. Asiaweek 9 Mar
A JOURNALIST, Midnight - We sat with two radios, a Radio Veritas and a second
short-wave. Veritas, knocked off the air, was beaming from some clandestine
radio station which a few of us knew was barely a kilometer away from where the
Evil One resided. "Lord preserve Ketly - that's our pet name for June Keithley -
they'll kill her in cold blood if they discover where she is."

RADYO BANDIDO, 12:10 AM - Keithley's broadcast began with the playing of

Mambo Magsaysay, the campaign song identified with Radio Veritas, "hoping
people would recognize the song and know us as DZRV."
All she had were a small pamphlet on civil disobedience and a phone patch to
Gen. Ramos's headquarters. Manila Times 3 Mar

Beside June were two young boys, Paulo 15 and Gabe 13 years, sons of Tony and
Monina Mercado. They manned the VHF transceiver link with Fr. Reuter and Gen.
Ramos. Inquirer Feb 88

Keithley was on the air when Gallaga's group arrived at the booth atop the J & T
building. A skeleton force was operating the facility and June was getting lost in
the plethora of new equipment that she had to instantly be familiar with.
It was agreed not to air the radio station's call sign and frequency as it would
alarm Marcos's troops. A phone-in number was announced instead and shortly,
there was a barrage of calls. Malaya 28 Feb
ORLY PUNZALAN "When our newsmen discovered that June Keithley was on
Radyo Bandido, they started feeding her news. Harry Gasser, Bishop Baccani, Jun
Tana, and the rest of the boys helped. Poor June Keithley. She did not have a
mobile unit, did not have a crew. All she had was a radio station and a telephone
whose number was not even supposed to be announced.Manila Chronicle Feb 87

AN MERCADO (Student) My brother Gabe called to tell me that June Keithley was
broacasting again. The Voice of Truth could be heard on 810 of the AM band. I
asked him where they were, trying to sound as demanding as possible, as I was
sure my mother would be very worried. He said he could not tell me. It was a
secret. PEOPLE POWER p. 191

Fidel Ramos: We were very lucky to have been able to hook up in that manner
because to the audience, to the outside world, it appeared that our momentum
continued and did not diminish with the demise of Radio Veritas.

A JOURNALIST - Through some ingenious phone patch, we heard Gen. Ramos

from time to time, directing his troops from Radyo Bandido, cajoling, pleading, but
in a most dignified way, with Artemio Tadiar, chief of the Marines who manned the
ominous tanks. He reminded Temy of Christianly duties to God and to fellow man.
"You will be treated with compassion and understanding and love." Then he said
that any soldier who did not defect now would "be dealt with accordingly." Enrile
went on the air and affirmed, "...they would be dealt with severely," almost
blowing Gen. Ramos' PR efforts to smithereens. NINE LETTERS p. 28

FORT BONIFACIO - The Ver strategists looked for another way to "inject" Marines
into Camp Aguinaldo, from where an assault on Camp Crame would be launched.
Brawner was at the drawing board. At first he thought of shuttling the Marines by
air. Risky. The land route would be safer. Following a suggestion from Natividad,
CDC units would be utilized to sweep away human barricades so that the Marines
could enter Camp Aguinaldo by way of Libis. BREAKAWAY p. 71
Freddie Aguilar: Pagbalik ko sa Crame, nandoon pa rin 'yung
When I got back to Crame, the nuns were still there,
mga madre. Sila pa rin. Nagbibigay ng inspirational talks.
giving inspirational talks. They stayed on and on, these
Kumakanta ng inspirational songs. Sila pa rin. Hindi talaga
nuns and seminarians and priests. A solid force. This
umaalis doon, the nuns and seminarians and priests. Grabe
was after midnight already. So we set up and the band
alaga. Solid na solid. After midnight na 'to. So nag set-up na
started playing. The sleepyheads woke up to the rock 'n
kami. Tugtugan na. 'Yung mga taong aantok-antok, nagising sa
roll. And people with cameras started coming to record
ock 'n roll. Nagdatingan din 'yung mga merong camera. Para
the event. For lights, people turned on their flashlights
may ilaw, people turned on their flashlights at itinuro sa amin. It
and shone them on us. It was really something.
was really something.
AROUND CAMP CRAME, 1:00 AM - On a call by Cardinal Sin and other Catholic
bishops, church bells rang eerily and households walked out to the streets in
residential sectors surrounding Camp Crame when word spread that Mr.
Marcos's forces were going to attack the rebels' stronghold. Bulletin Today 25

housands of people were camped outside the Philippine Constabulary

headquarters overnight to form a human shield against any attack by forces loyal
to President Marcos.
As hours passed, the question on everyone's mind was, "When will the
Marines strike?" Rumors spread fast and wide each time Marines were reported to
be assembling; droves of men, women, and children set off to block the roads.
Buses had been pulled across streets, tires set ablaze, and lines or rocks and
sandbags set up, although they would not stop tanks. People kept up their spirits
with songs and prayers at makeshift altars.
The main gate, on which several people were perched, looked like a Christmas
tree, festooned with banners and lit with searchlights. Soldiers armed with
automatic weapons, heavy machine guns, and grenade launchers lounged around
the gate. Some briefed civilians on how to throw petrol bombs as nuns sang
hymns and gave out food. There seemed to be about 1,000 officers, although the
rebels would not give numbers. Bulletin 25 Feb

RADYO BANDIDO - News of defections trickle in through the night, Cory speaks
briefly, and whenever Ketly runs out of things to say, or whenever the tension
needs easing, she spinned an old scratchy version of Mambo Magsaysay. June
also played Bayan Ko intermittently. NINE LETTERS p. 28

Cory Aquino: I was hardly sleeping. While I would lie in bed and pretend to sleep, I didn't
really. I guess the adrenalin just flowed and maybe that is why I wasn't conscious of the
time. Events were overlapping. One day just seemed to go on into the next.

DZRJ, STA. MESA, MANILA On the 12th floor of the building where the radio
station was, in the center of the city, June was really terrified. She said, over the
transceiver: "There are only six of us here three boys and three girls. The place is
so tiny! There is only one door! If the military come to that door, with an Armalte,
there is no escape! Only the window! And the closest ledge is four stories down!"
Monina, mother of the Mercado boys, phoned the office and said: "Could I have
my sons back? They are in danger!" PEOPLE POWER (II) p. 191

When Monina wanted her children back, Fr. Reuter said, "Give your children a
chance to be heroes!" Inquirer Feb 88

CRAME WAR ROOM, 2:03 AM - Ramos lit up a cigar and reported that a Huey
helicopter had been flown in by defecting Air Force pilots. On his mahogany table
were a book by Dred Schwarz entitled "You Can Trust the Communists (To Be
Communists)", a Bible open at Psalm 91, and a back issue of Asiaweek with
himself on the cover. Asiaweek 9 Mar

ddie Aguilar: There was a huge crowd gathered by now. I was to

y lumapit. Enough na daw ang tugtugan, napakaraming tao to close the show by singing Bayan Ko. Before tha
daw. Kantahin ko na daw ang Bayan Ko to close the show. repeated what the priests and nuns were saying to
o kinausap ko muna ang mga tao. Inulit ko 'yung sinasabi the people in the barricades - to be united, to avoid
rywhere ng mga pare't madre, na magkaisa, huwag gagamit violence, to avoid taunting the enemy. We didn't w
dahas, huwag manunukso o manunuya ng kaaway. Hindi anyone with a gun getting upset and starting to
maiiwasan, baka meron diyang may dalang baril, what if he shoot. It's not that we were being cowards. But wh
ts shooting, e di naloko na tayong lahat. Hindi naman sa do we have to kill each other. Then I sang Bayan K
wag tayo, pero why do we have to kill each other. All around, to strengthen the sense of nationalism and make t
oon ang pini-preach. Tapos kinanta ko ang Bayan Ko, people even braver.
mpatindi ng nationalism. Siyempre tatapang lalo sila.

FORT BONIFACIO, 3:00 AM - Ramas ordered two Marine battalions to prepare for
another attack. General Tadiar had a choice of commanders - the level-headed
Col. Balbas or the gung-ho Col. Reyes. Balbas had just arrived back, exhausted
from a 10-hour patrol around the rebel camps. Tadiar sensibly selected the well-
rested Col. Reyes. But when an aide approached him for the order, Tadiar blurted
out the name of Balbas. Veritas Special Oct 86

Balbas's 4th Marine regiment was reinforced by armor: 3 LVTH's and 3 V-150's.
Army CDC battalions would lead the way through EDSA, turning right before
Ortigas, going via Rodriguez St. and then to Santolan by way of Libis, then push
beyond to the LogCom main gate. BREAKAWAY p. 71

CAMP CRAME - Ramos told huddled journalists that an attack was expected by
daybreak from loyalist troops two kilometers away on Santolan Road. On radio he
appealed to the people "to meet the forces organized by Marcos and
Ver." Asiaweek 9 Mar

RADYO BANDIDO With sophisticated radio locators, Ver's forces could not find
dzRB simply because it was much too close, practically towering over
Malacanang. They never knew how tantalizingly close their helicopters were to the
radio tower they could have so easily bombed.
As Monina Mercado walked up to the 12th floor, she saw something that made
her realize that God and destiny were with the Filipino people.
Crowding every step of the way up the spiral staircase were nuns sitting,
kneeling, reciting the rosary. With them, a lone man, Ariston Estrada. A battalion
of armed soldiers could not have attacked the station without drowning in a sea of
martyrs' blood. Inquirer Feb 88

WASHINGTON, D.C., Around 3:00 AM (Manila Time) - The National Security

Planning Group met in Shultz's office, now with an acute sense of urgency.
Bosworth in Manila reported that Marcos might attack the rebels at daybreak. A
decision by Reagan was vital before then.
Shultz personally wrote a step-by-step script for Reagan, proposing that Laxalt
fly to Manila with a presidential message urging Marcos to resign, with Habib
accompanying him to broker the transition. IN OUR IMAGE pp. 419-420

CAMP CRAME WAR ROOM, 3:30 AM - Gen. Ramos had just come in from a
jogging tour around the camp. His cheeks glowed with sweat. He opened a box of
Tabacalera Flor Fina and toyed with a cigar while Minister Enrile, seated on his
left, puffed a smoke. Brigadier General Eduardo Ermita, a commanding general of
the joint staff Civil Relations Services, held a copy of St. Francis of Assisi's
prayer. But it was in English. Could somebody please translate it into Pilipino?
The room buzzed about the imminent "attack." Officers filed in and out of the
room, making their way around a floor of bodies, cameras and armalites. Coffee
flowed. The room tensed with the report that three tanks had been sighted in
Santolan. Gen. Ramos sent plainclothesmen to "verify." Minister Enrile
concentrated on a Philippine Daily Inquirer as photographer Melvyn Calderon
waited for the best angle. Three doctors sat quietly behind Enrile; the image of the
Virgin Mary serenely looked on Ramos' back. Mr. & Ms. 28 Feb

RADYO BANDIDO, Past 3:30 AM - Enrile warned the people through radio that two
armored personnel carriers were on their way towards Ortigas. A look-out man on
top of VV Soliven building had sent Enrile the information. QUARTET p. 58

EDSA, ORTIGAS - The human barricade braced itself for another eternity of
suspense. A bottle of vodka was gulped down in a matter of minutes. The nuns
started the prayers, kneeling down in front of the barricade. The APCs were
coming...time again for flag-waving, for kapit-bisig, for praying.
But again the APCs, upon reaching the edge of the human barricade, hesitated,
stalled, backed off, turned around, retreated. Again, euphoria! Ibid.

Freddie Aguilar: Sa Gate Two, biglang nagkasahan sabay-sabay 'yung mga

sundalo. Sabi ko, ano 'to? Guerra na? Tapos ang tagal, nakabitin kami, you don't
know whether there'll be shooting or not. Ang maririnig mo lang, 'yung kasahan,
ganoon. Ang pakiramdam, 'yung parang sa sine, pag suspense na.
(At Gate Two, the soldiers suddenly cocked their weapons. What's this? I thought.
Is it war? And then for a long time, we were hanging in suspense, just like in the
movies, all you hear are the sound of guns being cocked.)

THE WHITE HOUSE, WASHINGTON, D.C., Around 4:00 AM (Manila Time) - Reagan
remarked at a National Security Council meeting that Marcos had to be
"approached carefully" and "asked rather than told" to depart. He declined to
telephone Marcos and tell him to go, nor would he send him a personal message.
Nor would he countenance a replay of Jimmy Carter's refusal to allow the shah to
enter the United States until he was near death. Marcos, he affirmed, could have
asylum in America.
Shultz called Bosworth in Manila, ordered him to inform Marcos that his "time was
up" and that "we will make the transition as peaceful as possible." IN OUR IMAGE
p. 420

FORT BONIFACIO, 4:14 AM - Balbas's regiment and supporting units jumped off
from Bonifacio. This time the Marines moved more efficiently than they did the
previous day. The CDC units under the direction of Brig. Gen. Victor Natividad
would use tear gas to breach the human barricades at Libis. BREAKAWAY p. 71

METRO MANILA, Before Dawn - Batasan members were awakened by Minority

Floorleader Pepito Laurel's office and directed to proceed to UNIDO president Doy
Laurel's residence at 6:30 AM for a meeting. Inquirer 26 Feb

CAMP CRAME WAR ROOM, 4:30 AM - Gen. Ramos received a note, and he broke
into a wide grin. "Good news. Everybody is defecting to our side." Pushing back
his eyeglasses, the general stretched to his full height. Retired Brig. Gen.
Guillermo Picache, commissioner of the National Pollution Control, was joining
the rebel forces because "there is so much pollution in the Marcos government."
The room rocked with cheers. Another good news: the three tanks sighted earlier
turned out to be garbage trucks. Gen. Ramos was amused. "That's symbolic. After
all, we have been getting nothing but garbage all these years." Mr. & Ms. 28 Feb -
6 Mar


June Keithley relayed information to Gen. Ramos. A caller from Fort Bonifacio had
just reported that "soldiers are massing and are about to leave for Camp Crame."

CAMP CRAME WAR ROOM, 5:10 AM - Ramos reported: "An overwhelming military
force has been assembled and directed to move against us." Asiaweek 9 Mar

RADYO BANDIDO - Ramos broadcasted an appeal for more people. June Keithley
reported on the "deteriorating" defense situation to her listeners. BREAKAWAY p.

Fidel Ramos: I called upon everyone who was not needed in headquarters-either
they were not part of our staff or of our operations center-to seek a safer place. I
advised all foreign nationals that we would no longer be responsible for their
safety. Also, over the radio I advised the foreign embassies that we were
expecting an attack and requested them to inform the outside world of this.

RADYO BANDIDO - The broadcast was from Camp Aguinaldo now, from the rear
gate which was a weak spot. Sneaky of those terrorists; they knew where it hurt
the most. Ketly was about to sweat blood. "Magkakapatid tayo," she said again
and again to the soldiers. She reminded them that the civvies were unarmed and
The Dynamic Duo took their turn at the mike. They repeated their invitation to
the soldiers to lay down their guns. To the lambs, they gave instructions on what
to do in case of tear gas attack. NINE LETTERS p. 29

LIBIS, SANTOLAN Sitting there in the half-dark, Wawel Mercado, a student, could
hear singing. There was a group from Tondo and they were singing ballads. I had
never heard those songs before, but they were very deep, very sad. We all knew
there wasdanger out there, somewhere. That was why many of us really didn't talk
for any length of time. We smiled or chuckled but no one really laughed out loud.
The singing, however, went on almost all through the night. Perhaps singing is
ingrained in the Filipino. He sings when he is scared. PEOPLE POWER (II) p. 192

SANTOLAN, OUTSIDE CAMP AGUINALDO, Around 5:00 AM - It was a large crowd,

but the only vehicle was a large truck blocking the road. As the morning light
began creeping across the Manila sky, an announcement came over loud-
speakers broadcasting the Catholic pro-rebel Radio Veritas that an attack by
troops loyal to President Marcos was imminent.
The announcer's voice reverberated off nearby buildings as she appealed to
the crowd: "Shine your flashlights on your faces to show that you are love and
compassion, invoke the Virgin who protected the Philippines during the Japanese
occupation, start the church bells ringing." Business Day 25 Feb

CRAME WAR ROOM - Rebel troopers prepared for battle. San Andres asked that
final absolution be given him and his men. The men embraced and bade one
another farewell. The radio played the PMA song, everyone stood up to sing it,
some of them with tears welling in their eyes. Sunday Times Mag 2 Mar
Fidel Ramos: We were saying goodbye to the world and to each other. People
started reaching out for their bibles, looking for their favorite passages. In my
case I looked for Psalm 91, which is the psalm devoted to the protection of
soldiers, and we found it very comforting.

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Marcos angrily rejected Bosworth and, going on

television, claimed to be in control. IN OUR IMAGE p. 420

President Marcos accused former Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and ex-Vice
Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos of wanting to grab power and run the
government under a junta composed of Jaime Cardinal Sin, Corazon Aquino,
Ramos, and a representative from business as members.
Marcos said it was now obvious that Enrile and Ramos organized the coup
d'etat that was supposed to take place Sunday morning. With this development
Marcos said he considered Enrile and Ramos "guilty of rebellion and inciting to
rebellion." Therefore he was "duty-bound to execute the law and the Constitution-
the law of the land does not allow rebellion."
Marcos said he still believed that a peaceful solution could be found to solve
the crisis. "But I intend to enforce the law and I have enough power under the
Constitution." Business Day 24 Feb

Jose Almonte: Because of what the previous regime was doing -arresting people,
even changing the structure of property and ownership - on grounds of national
security, my feeling was that the action RAM was planning to take was the only
right thing to do. The cumulation of all the actions of the Marcos administration
had led to serious decay in the values of the people, even, to a sense of if we had lost our soul as a nation. And being among those
legally authorized to handle the coercive powers of the state, we felt that it was up
to us to do something about the situation.

Freddie Aguilar: Merong radyo sa opisina nina Ramos at Enrile. Naririnig ko kung
anong inuutos ni Marcos. Full assault na, by land and by air. Diyos ko, eto na,
'kako, lulusubin na kami! Nagkasahan na naman 'yung mga sundalo.
(Over the radio in Ramos' and Enrile's office, I heard Marcos's orders. Full assault,
by land and by air. God, here it comes, I thought, they're coming to get us! Once
again, the soldiers cocked their weapons.)

FORT BONIFACIO - Ver and Ramas gave the signal for an all-out attack by riot
police using tear gas, Marine artillery, helicopter gunships, and low level jet
bombers. Veritas Special Oct 86

CAMP CRAME - Over transistor radios, Marcos was heard vowing, "We'll wipe
them out. It is obvious they are committing rebellion." Over Radio Veritas came
Enrile's reply: "I am not going to surrender."Time 10 Mar

Freddie Aguilar: Nawala bigla 'yung mga sundalo, pati 'yung foreign
correspondents. Apat na lang kami. Yung isa, photographer-reporter na Muslim,
kinukunan ako ng litrato. Yung dalawa, tauhan ni Fr. Reuter na nagma-man ng
VHS radio. Tinginan kami.
(Suddenly the soldiers and foreign correspondents disappeared. We were just
four people in the room. A Muslim photographer-reporter who was taking my
picture, and the two guys of Fr. Reuter who were manning the VHS radio. We
exchanged looks. )

VILLAMOR AIR BASE, 5:15 AM - Sotelo asked the pilots if anybody wanted to back
out. No one did. By coincidence, they received their first mission to fly two
gunships to Fort Bonifacio. Sotelo used this as his cover. Business Day 12 Mar

THE WHITE HOUSE - Reagan still did not call publicly for the dictator to step
down. The President flashed a private message to Marcos-his old friend was
welcome to the US.
Publicly, the White House announced that the US would cut off all military aid if
Marcos used force against the rebels. But shortly after the message was released,
clouds of gas rose around Camp Crame. Veritas Special Oct 86

Rose Marie Arenas: That was the first time I really felt afraid because I had never
been tear-gassed in my whole life, and my son was just a baby at the time and he
was in the back of the car.

SANTOLAN, OUTSIDE CAMP AGUINALDO, 5:15 AM - Several tear gas bombs

suddenly exploded, pushing the crowd back a few paces to wash their eyes and
cover their faces with wet handkerchiefs.
Out of the acrid smoke of the tear gas, the ghost-like figures of two members of
a special anti-riot unit emerged, their black helmets glistening, their faces
protected by gas masks. Business Day 25 Feb

As riot troopers dispersed the crowds with truncheons and teargas, Col. Balbas's
column broke through the east wall of Camp Aguinaldo and took up positions
facing the rebel Camp Crame. Veritas Special Oct 86

Hundreds of loyalists marched toward the civilian ranks headed by young

seminarians and priests. The loyalist forces, which were soon joined by an Army
unit, tried to advance on the crowd, wielding their truncheons and exploding more
tear gas, but found themselves blocked by determined civilians. The crowd sang
the National Anthem, prayed and applauded the loyalist troops, but refused to
budge. Business Day 25 Feb

Freddie Aguilar: Nakikinig ako sa Walkman ko. Nadinig ko si Keithley, tumatawag,

we need more people, our brothers are being teargassed. (I was listening to
Keithley on my Walkman. She was calling for more people.)

A JOURNALIST - The people were holding their ground. A strong gust of wind (I
found out later) blew the teargas in the direction of the attackers. I'll never
underestimate the power of prayer again. The soldiers seemed suitably impressed
too. They ceased their attack and crosed over, to be welcomed with bear hugs and
cheers. Quite a scene. NINE LETTERS p. 29-30

Sonny Razon: We were telling Gen. Ramos that if we were shelled, or hit with
helicopter fire, the first to go would be the third floor where we were. So we
suggested moving down to the second floor. But he wouldn't go down! So what
we did was to place a bomb blanket on top of his table-like what you do in
explosives disposal; you cover the bomb with a blanket so that in case it
detonates, there won't be any shrapnel. My plan was, when the shooting started,
I'd force him down under the table.

Alex Sembrano: In case we were attacked, we would retreat to the Greenhills side
where we had some 4 vehicles and soldiers waiting for us.

CAMP CRAME, Outside the War Room, 6:00 AM - A group of reporters huddled
around a small transistor. Cardinal Sin was on the air. "May we come to a peaceful
solution to our crises. ... I will bless the men in uniform, but only those who are for
peace. Col. Luis San Andres, Gen. Ramos's public information man, smiled. "Huh,
how's that for final absolution?" By the time Cardinal Sin said Amen, a soldier
ordered everyone to leave the room. No one moved. The whirring of a helicopter
broke the reporters' conversations. Mr. & Ms. 28 Feb - 6 Mar

Freddie Aguilar: Eto na 'yung helicopter, naririnig ko, papalapit nang papalapit,
palakas nang palakas. Tinginan kaming apat. Walang kumikibo.
(I could hear helicopters coming, closer and closer, louder and louder. The four of
us exchanged looks. No one moved.)

ABOVE CAMP CRAME - All five gunships in the air, Sotelo felt serene. His pilot
circled Camp Crame once. Business Day 12 Mar

Fidel Ramos: It was just before dawn, when you could barely see the outline of
anything in the sky. The sound of approaching helicopters filled the air.

Alex Sembrano: When those choppers came, that was the really scary part. We
were just waiting. We had orders not to fire, not to shoot, unless they shot at us
first. We were just waiting for the first round to hit us.

Rene Cruz: In the air, Sotelo's gunships were circling Camp Crame. We mistook
the first pass for surveillance. We were sure that in the next pass, they'd start
firing. All of us were really apprehensive. First, tanks and Marines. Now, the Air
Force. We thought it was the beginning of the end. So I told the people, 'Disperse!
Take cover!'

CAMP CRAME - At the crack of dawn Monday, Marine battalions began advancing
from all directions. Then the roar of a dozen helicopters reached a terrifying
crescendo. Soldiers bit their lips. Guns cocked. Squads ran to position. Reporters
took cover. They were outnumbered and outarmed. Mr & Ms. 28 Feb

ABOVE CAMP CRAME - On the second turn Sotelo's pilot slowed down and
proceeded to land. Business Day 12 Mar

Freddie Aguilar: Naku, sabi ko, eto na yata, nag-landing! Lulusubin yata kami by
foot. Hinihintay ko na lang 'yung BANG! 'Yun na 'yon e. Alam kong uunahin 'yung
building namin dahil nandoon sina Enrile at Ramos. Patay kami dito, parang
ganoon ang nasa isip ko. Tapos biglang nagsigawan sila. Sigawan.
(I could hear them landing. I thought maybe they were coming at us on foot. I
waited for the first bang, which would be it. Our building was the prime target
since it contained Ramos and Enrile. I was sure we were dead ducks. Then I heard
shouts. People were shouting.)
Rene Cruz: All of a sudden I saw that the helicopters were now coming in slowly,
with lights on. I knew then that they were on our side. But I was afraid that the
people might not realize it and fire at them, so I ran out and I was shouting like
anything: 'Do not fire! They are coming in for us! They are joining us!'

CRAME GROUNDS, 6:20 AM - Seven Sikorskys bristling with rockets and cannon
landed on the parade ground. The rebels braced themselves for a bloody attack.
Asiaweek 9 Mar

Out came airmen waving white flags and giving the L sign, a symbol of the
opposition. Time 3 Mar

The chopper crews disembarked in formation. There was a tense silence. Then a
burst of clapping and cheering filled the air. A gigantic sigh of relief came. Smiles
flashed. The man of the minute was Col. Antonio sotelo who led 16 combat pilots
in a dramatic march to HQ. Mr & Ms. 28 Feb

Rebel soldiers hugged the crews, and nuns walked onto the field to give them
flowers. Bulletin 25 Feb

Col. Antonio Sotelo said he was defecting with the entire elite 15th Strike Wing of
the Philippine Air Force. He was cheered wildly by the crowd of soldiers and
civilians who were expecting an air bombardment. Sotelo went up to the War
Room where he was met with a tearful embrace by Ramos and his men. Sunday
Times Mag 2 Mar

Fidel Ramos: Rene Cruz came bursting through the backdoor - our escape hatch -
announcing that the Air Force had joined us. With him were Col. Sotelo and
several of his pilots. There was instant applause and jubilation. It was totally
unexpected. This was a major turning point in the revolution. Suddenly we had air
power-the First NAFP Air Force.

ANTONIO SOTELO - "Minister Enrile with tears in his eyes hugged each and every
one of us. Gen. Ramos and all the rest did the same thing. Morale went up 1000
percent. The enemy's morale went down 1000 per cent." Veritas 16 Mar

Rene Cruz: At the time we really thought it was a miracle. What were our chances?
If they had attacked us, we had nothing. We could fight maybe one day, two days,
that's all.

Fidel Ramos: One of the first things we planned was a symbolic attack - using the
helicopters of Col. Sotelo - against some targets in Malacañang, just to show that
the rebels had acquired air attack capability.

CAMP AGUINALDO - Looking down from the high ground of Aguinaldo's golf
course, Balbas had awesome firepower "boresighted" on the rebel headquarters
only 200 meters away: 3 howitzers, 28 mortars, 6 rocket launchers, 6 machine
guns, and 1000 rifles. Veritas Special Oct 86

Balbas got a briefing from Estrellado of ISAFP, not knowing that the unit had
already joined the other side. Estrellado, tongue in cheek, gave an exaggerated
picture of Camp Crame's strength. BREAKAWAY p. 71
MANILA BAY - Commodore Tagumpay Jardiniano, Chief of the Naval Defense
Force, held a conference of 50 officers on a gunboat. The graying commodore
apologized to his men: "As early as Saturday I committed my unit in support of
the Minister and Gen. Ramos for what I believe is a cause worth fighting for."
After a stunned silence, the officers jumped to their feet and applauded. Soon a
rebel frigate dropped anchor off the Pasig River and trained its guns on the
Palace. Veritas Special Oct 86

Keithley got a call from someone claiming to represent the Presidential Security
Command who said that Marcos "had just taken off." Then June got a call from
Cory Aquino who said she had been told that Marcos had departed. This was
followed by a call from Gen. Ramos announcing a "confirmed report" of the
departure of the Marcos family. QUARTET p. 57

6:27 AM - Keithley announced that "Mr. Marcos and Bongbong have just taken off
from the Manila International Airport." She added-also falsely-that Ver's wife and
Imelda Marcos left at 3:00 PM, Sunday, and Marcos daughters Imee and Irene the
night before, leaving Gen. Ver "alone in Malacañang."
Keithley told loyalist troops, "You are not fighting for anything or anyone
anymore." The report was replayed for fifteen minutes and was credited with
breaking the determination of the attacking Marines. Asiaweek 9 Mar

A JOURNALIST - The unbelievable news was that Marcos, Imelda and Ver had fled
the country, and Marcos was presently in Guam. A shockwave of silence gripped
the crowd, followed by wild whooping and cheering. Men and women openly wept
with joy; strangers, hugged, danced, sang. NINE LETTERS p. 30

MANDALUYONG, Doy Laurel's Residence, 6:30 AM - The topic of conversation

was the setting up of a provisional government. Louie Villafuerte, Bobbit Sanchez,
and Bono Adaza were designated to liaison with Minister Enrile on the subject.

CAMP CRAME, Around the same time - Enrile asked LABAN vice-president Tito
Guingona to get in touch with Cory Aquino and Doy Laurel about setting up a
provisional government. Enrile ordered that a skeletal cabinet be fashioned. He
stressed that it should not be a military junta, but purely civilian government, and
that the forces under him and Ramos wil constitute its military arm. Inquirer 26

MBS TV CHANNEL 4, 7:00 AM - The announcement that President Marcos and his
family had fled the country prompted a group of August Twenty-One Movement
(ATOM) members headed by former Bureau of Land Transportation Chairman
Mariano Santiago to go about taking over MBS 4, the government television
station. Philippine Daily Express 25 Feb

Fidel Ramos: We were on a high, so to speak, because of the 15th Strike Wing's
defection to our side. Then came this news about the withdrawal of Marcos from
Malacañang. I asked our intelligence staff to verify it from an asset inside
Malacañang. Sabi daw, "Opo, nakaalis na" or words to that effect. So we went
outside, Minister Enrile and I, to render a progress report to the people. Later on
we made some speeches from the flagpole area inside the camp. I was jumping
for joy because that's how happy we felt.
CAMP CRAME, Around 7:30 AM - Enrile and Ramos, surrounded by rebel troops,
addressed the crowd inside and outside the camp. "This is the day of our
liberation!" Enrile announced to a wildly cheering crowd. Sunday Times Mag 2
Mar 86

The usually bland Ramos followed Enrile on the podium. Today he was absolutely
ebullient, raising his clenched fist in the air and invoking People Power like a
civilian politician.
At the end of his speech the general, displaying a dash of uncharacteristic
frivolity, did a frog jump into the air, which drew squeals of delight from the
crowd. IMPOSSIBLE DREAM p. 398

Two fighter bombers were seen, as if to follow up the attack that never was. The
planes circled over Crame, tilted their wings and flew off in the direction of Clark.
Their pilots had orders to bomb the camp but they didn't carry out their orders.
The pilots were rebel officers. BREAKAWAY p. 80

Sonny Razon: The lead pilot was the late Major Baula. Luckily he was sympathetic
to RAM. He had orders to bomb or strafe Crame but he did not.

Rene Cruz: They were going to bomb us. Suddenly they saw a big big cross, from
Cubao to Ortigas, and the length of Santolan across, filled with people. It's what
stopped them, they say.

LUIS D. BELTRAN - The rejoicing at Marcos's departure (whether supposed or

real) was almost manic. People cried in joy, ran out in the streets, embraced and
hugged each other as if someone had announced that the Bubonic Plague was
over. Inquirer 25 Feb
Strangers flashed wide grins at each other.
Children in yellow T-shirts jumped in the
Freddie Aguilar: streets waving yellow banners. Motorists
Ako, question mark. Ganyan ba kadali si Marcos? Hindi honked their horns to the now familiar beat,
ako makapaniwala. Sobrang bilis naman ng rebolusyong "La-ban...La-ban...!" Teenagers aboard
ito, sabi ko. Tapos biglang narinig ko 'yung zoom zoom vehicles joyously waved the Philippine flag.
ng dalawang jet. Nag-join na din pala. Nakinig uli ako sa Soldiers at Camp Crame flashed the L-sign
radyo. Si Marcos nagsasalita. Inikot ko yung dial. Lahat at passersby shouting, "Maligayang
ng station si Marcos. Sabi ko sa katabi ko, si Marcos, Bagong Taon! (Happy New Year!)" Posters
nagsasalita. Sabi niya, hindi, tape 'yan. urging everyone to pray for peace were
I couldn't believe it was that easy to get rid of Marcos. It immediately replaced by new ones
was going too fast, this revolution. Then I heard the proclaiming the Filipino people's victory.
zooming of two jets that had also just joined the rebels. I Tears rolled down the faces of the
tuned in to the radio again. Marcos was talking. I turned multitude, including rebel Defense Minister
the dial. Marcos was on all the stations. I told the guy Juan Ponce Enrile who, together with ally
beside me, it's Marcos. The guy said, no, that's a tape AFP chief Lt. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos, threw
recording. open the gates of Camp Crame to share
with the people the moment of rejoicing.
Soldiers and civilians embraced one
another. Malaya 25 Feb
Tito Guingona was unable to locate Cory right away. Dropping by MP Cecilia
Munoz Palma's place, he met instead with LABAN statesmen Senators Lorenzo
Tanada, Jose Diokno, and Jovito Salonga, who all backed up the idea of
immediately forming a civilian government with Cory at the helm. Cory contacted
Tito at Palma's place. Inquirer 26 Feb

Cory Aquino: In the morning of Monday, when I met with the leaders of the
opposition - Pepe Diokno, Jovy Salonga, Celing Palma, and Senator Tanada, Joker
Arroyo was also there - they said, we just want you to know that your name is no
longer being mentioned by Johnny Ponce Enrile in Crame. Whereas on the first
day, my name was constantly being mentioned, even on Sunday, on Monday
things had apparently changed, taken a 180-degree turn, and I agreed with the
opposition leaders that it was imperative that I took my oath of office. So we called
in the lawyers, Neptali Gonzalez and Rene Saguisag, to prepare the oath that I
would be taking that afternoon.

DZRJ - Corazon Aquino thanked the people for support "given not only to me and
Doy Laurel but to Gen. Ramos and Minister Enrile" and urged them to continue
"peaceful non-violent moves." Asiaweek 9 Mar

For a moment the historians were ready to mark February 24, 1986 as the "L-day."
At exactly 9:00 AM however, President Marcos appeared on television and
declared a state of emergency throughout the archipelago. Malaya 25 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Marcos ordered Cendana to put him and his family on
TV to disprove the story of his departure. BREAKAWAY p. 76

The crowds were pounding at the gates, demanding that the guards let them in
because the Marcoses had left. Op. cit., p.79

Malacañang again summoned the generals to be on TV with Marcos to disprove

Keithley's report. Op. cit., p. 78

Reporter Vic Tanedo came early in response to Cendana's invitation. He saw Mrs.
Marcos crying in the President's study. Marcos was talking into the telephone and
Tanedo guessed it was President Reagan at the other end because Marcos was
saying, "But Mr. President, I have to do this."
When Mrs. Marcos stepped out of the study, her eyes now dry, she was met by
reporter Amy Pamintuan who told her about the mob outside. Mrs. Marcos said
she would take her car and ride out there where she could wave at the people to
prove that the Marcoses were still in the country.
Mrs. Marcos had gone down to board her car when Marcos emerged from his
study and had aides call her back. Marcos told her to wake up the children for
their TV appearance. Op. cit., p. 79

Alex Sembrano: It was General Paiso who first told me about Marcos. "Marcos just
came out on TV," he said. "He's still here, you know. It isn't true that he has left.
Can you get in touch with the general?" So I called up Major Razon by radio and I
told him the news. He said, "Okay, we're going back in."

MBS TV 4, BOHOL AVE. - Santiago talked to the station's security officer, a certain
Col. Ronas, and tried to persuade him to abandon the station and stop the airing
of President Marcos's Sunday night message. Ronas however said he and his
men would not leave but defend it.
A few minutes later, two truckloads of reformist soldiers emerged from Quezon
Avenue and started to surround the compound. Before the troopers could
position themselves, two gunshots rang out, apparently fired by a sniper on the
second level of Channel 4's transmitter tower. Soon reformists returned fire as the
crowd ran for cover. Then there was a long lull. Daily Express 25 Feb

LUIS D. BELTRAN - 8:38 A.M. Events were overtaking every effort of

newspapermen to report the flow of news... The Filipino people were either
completely informed or misinformed depending on which radio station or which
TV channel you were hearing or watching.
The instant media were in total confusion, and with Radio Veritas knocked out,
it was anybody's guess who was telling the truth. In the meantime we in the
Inquirer together with the rest of news media were in no better position. The wires
filed stories and withdrew them in rapid succession. UPI, for example, filed a story
that Marcos was still in charge and then withdrew it as having been inadvertently
filed. Our own reporters were out in the field with all our photographers, and their
stories were in as much conflict as all of the rest.
If our journalism those days was technically faulty-as in that issue in which we
had three headlines-please remember that we were putting out the Inquirer in
between looking over our shoulders waiting for troops to take us away. Inquirer
25 Feb

Eggie Apostol: It was like a circus. The unexpected was there all the time and of
course there was the thrill of being mentioned as going to be put into prison. We
had to keep looking at our backs. At the same time we were so angry that I think
the outrage was stronger than the feeling of danger.

MENDIOLA, MANILA, Early Morning - Apparently brought by rumors that Marcos

had fled the country, several hundred people gathered near Mendiola Bridge, only
to find the usual dense row of barricades still in place, along with combat-ready
Marines wearing white armbands.
There were at least 50 soldiers toting Armalites and grenade launchers; a sand-
bagged emplacement on one side of the bridge behind the wire sprouted what
looked like the muzzle of an M-60 machinegun, with a long belt of ammunition
trailing onto the pavement.
Far from being daunted by the sight of arms and troops, the people started
doing something which would have been unthinkable (and possibly fatal) just
weeks ago: they started dismantling the barricade.
While the Marines watched, the iron horses (so long a famous symbol for
frustrated demonstrators) were dragged towards waiting companions who started
tearing them apart with rocks, small pliers and bare hands.
"A remembrance," said one man as he displayed a strip of barbed wire he had
twisted off. Strips were bent into circles and then decorated with yellow ribbons.
About four of the iron barriers were stripped bare before the Marines fired
warning shots into the air (a student said later that someone had thrown a rock at
them), sending people scampering down CM Recto Ave. Manila Times 25 Feb

CAMP AGUINALDO - Soldiers of opposing sides were in plain view of one another,
with nobody having the desire to shoot at the "enemy."
Right within Aguinaldo were Lt. Col. Jerry Albano and his Security and Escort
Battalion of 200 officers and men, a unit of GHQ command that decided on the
first day to join the troops protecting Enrile and Ramos. Albano was wearing the
miniature Philippine flag as shoulder patch which Enrile and Ramos and
everybody else in the rebel camp was wearing. On this day the flag had the sun
pointed down to indicate it was Day 3 of the revolution. The patch was turned
clockwise 90 degrees everyday, starting with the sun up.
Also in the camp were soldiers belonging to the El Diablo group dedicated to
reform at the enlisted men's level and to deal with organized crime with a mailed
fist. They took positions observing the left flank of Balbas's troops. Albano's
battalion was poised to hit from the right.
At Balbas's rear, some distance away to be out of sight, was Task Force Delta,
composed of Camp Crame constables. Although these rebel units had Balbas's
Marines boxed in, they would not be taking any hostile action. Their orders were
not to fire unless fired upon. BREAKAWAY p. 77

MBS TV CHANNEL 4, 9:15 AM - Marcos went on the air. Imelda and daughter Irene
were seated a little to his right. Grandson Borgy was running all over the place.
Bongbong emerged later, dressed in fatigues.
Marcos declared a state of emergency even as he castigated the press and
broadcast media for their partisanship and irresponsibility in announcing that he
had fallen. Malaya Sun Mag 23 Mar

CAMP CRAME - Enrile and Ramos were about to hold a press conference.
Civilians as well as reporters were crammed into the pressroom.
Someone turned on the TV. Marcos was announcing that, contrary to reports,
he had not left the country. He stressed that he had no plans to resign or concede.
Mr & Ms21 Mar

Freddie Aguilar: Nagkagulo na! Pinatakbo 'yung isa para sabihin sa mga taong
'wag munang magsiuwian.
(Utter chaos! Someone was sent running to tell the people not to go home yet.)

Enrile checked and learned that Marcos was indeed still in Malacañang. He
instructed Gen. Ramos to send a team "to take over Channel 4." In the meantime
he sent a helicopter group "to fly over Malacañang and hit the area with rockets."
His order was not to hit the Palace itself "because we do not want to harm the
President." QUARTET p. 85

Fidel Ramos: Of course we were very disappointed to hear that Mr. Marcos was
still in Malacañang. I told everybody, "Well, we just have to go back to work." First
we dispatched teams to try to capture or control Channel 4 which was being used
to beam the messages of Mr. Marcos. Then we proceeded with the planned action
against Malacañang.

CAMP AGUINALDO, 9:00 AM - Gen. Josephus Ramas gave Balbas and his Marines
the "kill order." With his artillery ready to fire at pointblank range, Balbas lied to
Ramas. "We are still positioning the cannons and we are looking for maps."
Ramas: "The President is on the other line waiting for compliance!" Veritas
Special Oct 86

Balbas tried to contact Tadiar to check if Ramas's order was really cleared by
Marcos. Balbas was told Tadiar had gone to Malacañang. He tried to reach
Brawner but nobody knew where Brawner was. BREAKAWAY p. 77
MBS TV CHANNEL 4 - President Marcos said that the government's "maximum
tolerance" policy had been lifted. The government would now defend all
installations, including communications, and freedom of the air, so that the
government could operate more smoothly.
He said radio and television stations should not broadcast any news about
military operations without first confirming them from the Office of Media Affairs.
Also, his inauguration would go on as scheduled tomorrow noon. He appealed
to civilians being used as human barricades to get out of the line of fire just in
case hostilities took place. Daily Express 25 Feb

CAMP AGUINALDO, 9:20 AM - Ramas again barked the command through the
radio: "Colonel, fire your howitzers now!" Balbas replied, "Sir, I am still
positioning the cannons." BREAKAWAY p. 77

EDSA - Frantic efforts got the people back to the barricades. This time, millions
took to the streets. Sun Inq Mag 1 Jun

June Keithley: Until now, marami ang nagsasabi, 'June, propaganda lahat 'yon,
nagpagamit ka lang.' Sabi nila, at that specific time when I announced the news na
umalis na si Marcos, kakaunti ang tao sa EDSA. Marami ang natakot lumabas
dahil nagti-teargas na sa Libis. Pero, on hearing the news of Marcos's departure,
nagsidatingan na lahat ng tao. The crowd not only doubled, but tripled. And then
came the news na hindi pa nakakaalis si Marcos. And so these people daw were
trapped in EDSA to become a bigger buffer force between the Marcos military and
the rebels.
(Until now I am told, "June, that was all propaganda, you were used." They say
that when I announced the news that Marcos had left, there were not too many
people in EDSA. Most people had stayed home because of the teargassing in
Libis. But on hearing of Marcos's departure, the people started pouring in. ... Then
came the news that Marcos hadn't left yet. By then the people were trapped in
EDSA and had grown into a bigger buffer force between the Marcos military and
the rebels.)

Fidel Ramos: I think it was a comedy of errors, really. I cannot claim credit for
deliberately creating that situation. I do admit having used propaganda techniques
for the purpose of enhancing the morale of the people while demoralizing the
elements hostile to us. But in this particular case, we were on the receiving end of
the news. Pina-verify pa nga namin. Siguro there were clear signs of departure or

MBS TV CHANNEL 4 - In the middle of Marcos's presscon, Gen. Ver requested the
President's permission to attack Camp Crame. However Mr. Marcos restrained
Ver. "My order is not to attack." He added though that "if any attempt is made to
take over any military installation," Ver and all military commanders were to
defend their personnel and installations with small-arms fire.
The President was emphatic in his directive against the use of any heavy weapons
like tanks, mortars, recoilless rifles, and others. However he authorized the use of
anti-aircraft weapons against some helicopters taken by some rebel military men.
25 Feb
CAMP AGUINALDO - After frantic efforts with the telephone, Balbas finally got
connected with Tadiar who was at the Community Hall in Malacañang Park with
other generals.
"Sir, I have been receiving orders from Gen. Ramas to fire the LVTH-6's at
Camp Crame. Is this cleared by Malacañang?" Tadiar asked him to wait while he
verified. He drove off toward the Palace. BREAKAWAY p. 78

CAMP CRAME - Major Charles Hotchkiss's 20th Air Commando Squadron of the
15th Strike Wing got its first mission: cripple the Malacañang radio transmitter.
One Sikorsky gunship was sent up. Ibid.

Fidel Ramos: We also continued that morning to gather more units to our side.
The 5th Fighter Wing finally declared for the Enrile-Ramos forces, as well as Clark
Air Base under Col. Romy David. It was not all propaganda. Especially when I was
reporting about important units of combat forces defecting to us, that wasn't
propaganda. When I said we now have the 12 regional commands of the PC-INP-
countrywide 'yan-I had first verified that with each of them or, if they were not
around, with their deputy commanders. When it was about military defections,
there was a basis in truth and reality for what we were saying. Because when
there is a crisis, you cannot use propaganda, you cannot use bola, kailangan
talagang nakausap mo sila, talagang nangako sila na susuportahan ka. Kung
nambobola ka lang, lalong hindi ka nila susuportahan.

CAMP CRAME - The gunship returned within minutes. The pilot could not see the
Evangelista and his co-pilot 1st Lt. Richelieu Halagao were instructed to inflict
"just the desired amount of damage." They were to hit Malacañang with a few
rockets to rattle, but not hurt, its occupants. Ibid.

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Tadiar met with Gen. Ver who told him that Marcos
indeed approved the fire order.
Tadiar picked up the phone to Balbas in Camp Aguinaldo. "I think the order of
Ramas has been cleared. So you may fire."
"Sir, if I may," said Balbas, "the people have been let inside Crame already and we
will be hurting a lot of civilians."
Tadiar paused. "Then hold your fire and use your discretion." Veritas Special Oct

Alex Sembrano: It was mostly psychological warfare. Like with Col. Balbas-
General Ramos asked his relatives, his wife and children, to call Col. Balbas and
tell him that they were in EDSA. That's why Balbas couldn't pull the trigger.

MBS TV COMPOUND - Following an exchange of gunfire a demonstrator waving a

yellow Cory banner crossed the street and scaled the wall of the compound. At
this juncture, a wounded Army man came out from the compound signalling the
surrender of troops outside the building. Bulletin 25 Feb

USA - Shultz and Armacost met at the State Department with Blas Ople, Marcos's
Minister of Labor, who came to plead the Philippine President's case. The
Americans gave Ople a blunt message: Marcos had lost control of his army, the
troops under Gen. Ver are ineffectual, and if Marcos does not step down, the
country could be heading for civil war. Time10 Mar
CHANNEL 4, 9:56 AM - Marcos was still on. As he was about to answer a
reporter's question of how he was in control, the television screen blacked out.
Malaya Sunday Mag 23 Mar

Fidel Ramos: The capture of Channel 4 was effected by then Major Rudy
Aguinaldo who became governor of Cagayan, assisted by my senior aide, Major
Sonny Razon. And on the streets they were supported by people power organized
by Col. Mar Santiago, who used to be chief of the Land Transportation Office. In a
sense, the false alarm turned out to be a good thing because it spurred us to
greater actions. Like taking over as much of the media as possible.

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Marcos was visibly disturbed although he continued

with the presscon as if nothing happened. Information Minister Gregorio Cendana
was less composed as he fiddled around with the television's channel selector.
His face dropped as he saw that all other channels except 4 were on the air.
Inquirer 28 Feb

MALACAÑANG PARK, 10:00 AM - The Presidential helicopters landed in the

Pangarap complex across the river from the Palace. The Air Force group was
composed of five pilots and four soldiers. QUARTET p. 62

NAGTAHAN SIDE, MALACANANG, 10:15 AM - Marines and Presidential Security

Command troopers in full battle gear kept cocking their automatic rifles as a
crowd of about 3,000 began inching towards Malacanang.
Several V-150 commando cars with mounted cannons started blocking Nagtahan
Bridge by mid-morning. The maneuver was met with jeers from area residents and
people who marched all the way from Camp Crame, one of whom was waving a
huge Philippine flag. Veritas Extra 25 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Tommy Manotoc received a call from JUSMAG's Brig.

Gen. Ted Allen who offered American helicopters or navy boats to transport the
ailing Marcos and his entourage out of the beleaguered Palace. MALACAÑANG p.

OVERHEAD - Evangelista's gunship popped up behind the Manila Post Office, and
in seconds was poised to fire at the palace.
The attack came so fast that although many handheld guns blazed at the
helicopter as it sped over the Palace, only one bullet, probably from an Armalite,
went through its right side. Anti-aircraft guns in the tanks failed to fire.

MALACAÑANG PALACE - When the bombs fell on Malacanang, all the Marcoses,
from the president to the smallest grandchild descended to the ground floor, near
the elevator, where it was safest. MALACAÑANG p. 121

The generals and other officers scrambled for armored vests. The First Family
huddled in a room and came out of the attack unscathed. Marcos went through
the incident calmly. Then he was angry. Cendana knew another press conference
was in the offing. BREAKAWAY p. 83

The 15th Strike Wing fired six rockets, hitting the room of Imelda Marcos and the
garden. Damage was negligible but it conveyed the warning that the rebel force
could strike any target at will. Business Day 12 Mar

One rocket hit the garden of Dona Josefa Edralin Marcos's garden, about 30 to 50
meters from the helicopters. Some shrapnels hit the choppers but they were still
flyable. QUARTET p. 62

Gate 2 was strafed, wounding the ankles of two soldiers on guard and damaging
the Audi sportscar of Presidential son-in-law Gregorio Araneta. Mr & Ms 21 Mar

In a rage following the rocket attack, Gen. Ver radioed the Wing commander of the
F-5 Fighters then over Malacañang. "This is Gen. Ver! Bomb Camp Crame
"Yes, sir!" answered the rebel squadron commander. "Proceeding to bomb
Malacañang Palace now!" Marcos had lost his jet fighters. Veritas Special Oct 86

CAMP AGUINALDO - Balbas got a "frantic call" from Col. Irwin Ver, Commander of
the Palace Guard, ordering a "full attack" on the rebels. Lying boldly, Ver said the
Palace was hit and they suffered 10 casualties. Ibid.

This was followed by a call from Tadiar asking if Balbas had fired as ordered.
Balbas replied, "Sir, there is danger that there would be an unacceptable number
of civilian casualties." BREAKAWAY p. 83

MBS TV COMPOUND - The Reformists and their supporters formed ad hoc

committees. Tony Santos for production, Fr. Efren Datu for radio, Orly Punzalan
for TV, Judge Gutierrez for accreditation, and Jose Mari Velez for news. Malaya
Sun Mag 13 Apr

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Presidential Press Staff head Lito Gorospe was forced
to phonepatch Marcos with crony-owned Broadcast City housing Channels 2, 9,
and 13. From his home Gorospe held together two telephone headpieces, Marcos
on one line, Broadcast City on the other. But Gorospe had a partyline who lifted
the phone all of a sudden. And a giggly girl's voice went on the air: "Hello? Hello?
Who's this?" Inquirer 28 Feb

CAMP AGUINALDO - Another order came from Ramas to fire the howitzers and
mortars at Crame. Balbas came back with a familiar tune. "Sir, we are looking for
maps and positioning the cannons and mortars."
Ramas told Balbas, "General Oropesa is going there by helicopter to supervise
the operation." BREAKAWAY p. 83

CAMP CRAME - Gador of the Cagayan 100 intercepted the message about
Oropesa's going to Camp Aguinaldo. Op. cit., p. 84

MALACANANG PALACE, 11:30 AM - Sgt. Reginaldo Albano received a document

signed by Marcos, addressed to Ver:
"An emergency now exists on account of the conspiracy to assassinate the
President and the First Lady and carry out a coup d'etat. The emergency is
exacerbated from day to day by continuing news reports, comments, interviews,
and feature stories which purvey orchestrated false propaganda to inflame public
passions and conceal the fact that the government is stable and is in full control
throughout the country.
"In view of the foregoing, you are hereby ordered to close down operations of
all newspapers of so-called `Alternative press' specifically those listed hereunder:
"(1) The Philippine Inquirer (2) Malaya & We Forum (3) Veritas (4) Mr & Ms (5)
The Manila Times (6) Business Day (7) Sun Times (8) Free Press.
"You shall implement this order immediately." Inquirer 29 May

MBS TV COMPOUND, 11:30 AM - The people took over Channel 4 amid applause
and the familiar "Cory! Cory! Cory!" chant, accompanied by car horns blasting
away in unison. A big yellow-clad crowd walked victoriously up Bohol Avenue
towards the station. At the intersection of Bohol and Cebu Avenues, a yellow pick-
up truck was parked, its public address system playing the Ave Maria hymn. A
priest astride the truck set up an improvised altar for a thanksgiving Mass.
On the sidewalk in front of MBS 4, the crowd cheered as the lobby portrait of
Marcos was carried out and burned. Inquirer 25 Feb

11:45 AM - Radio Veritas began broadcasting with MBS 4 facilities. Maan

Hontiveros sent a note to Col. Santiago, who was inside the compound, that she
and a technical TV crew were ready to help start up telecasting on the newly
liberated MBS 4. Ibid.

MALACAÑANG PARK - The helicopter crews were getting restless. They expected
to fly out the President and his family but no orders came. They consulted their
commander who was a relative of Mrs. Marcos. He said they could do whatever
they wanted: stay in Malacañang, retire to Villamor, or go over to Crame. The
commander assured them that their names had already been submitted to Crame
so they would not be harmed there.
Since the pilots considered themselves professionals, neither loyalists nor
reformists, but soldiers assigned to fly the President, whoever the President might
be, they decided to stay on. QUARTET p. 63

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Watching the President grope from hallway to bedroom,

Aruiza realized that the momentum of events was now too swift for the President's
reflexes. The gloom of dusk seemed to have descended on his mind; through this
fog, the reality of conflict and danger at times broke, a pin of light touched his
consciousness long enough to provoke a spark of alertness and a flash of the old
will power. Then the medicines brought their peculiar twilight again, and the calm
and contentment of his bedroom filled his ailing body once more. He could not
have, even if he wanted to, reacted except languidly to the mounting peril.
MALACAÑANG pp. 127-8

Sonny Razon: By this time we had civilians with us who had radios and were
monitoring the frequency of Gen. Ver. There was this general whom Gen. Ramas
ordered: 'Get the helicopters from Villamor, pick up the Rangers, and proceed to
Camp Aguinaldo.' One of us suggested that we beat them to the helicopters in
CAMP CRAME, 12:00 NOON - Sotelo dispatched three gunships. "Look for helicopters,
Huey or whatever, anywhere in the air or on the ground, and shoot them. Business Day
12 Mar

The three helicopters flew over Bonifacio. There was no helicopter on the ground there.
They then turned to Villamor. There were five helicopters aligned at the flight line with
crew obviously preparing the aircraft.
Hotchkiss caught their radio frequency and said, "I ask you to vacate the area. Get
out of the helicopters and just vanish because I have orders to destroy the helicopters."
The reply: "Come and get it."
When the tarmac was cleared, the raiders strafed the five helicopters on the ground
with fifty caliber bullets. All were completely crippled. One exploded. There were also C-
130's, Fokkers, Nomads and other planes there. Not one of them grazed by a single
bullet. Neat job. BREAKAWAY p. 87

CAMP AGUINALDO - Balbas received a call and instructions from Tadiar.

"Establish a modus vivendi with the hostile forces. Tell them you are withdrawing.
Then take your unit back to Bonifacio right away."
By 12:30 PM the Marines pulled out by way of the Logistics Command, took the
route along Rodriquez Avenue and Shaw Boulevard. The human barricades along
Shaw broke ranks for them to go through smoothly. Op. cit., p. 85

Freddie Aguilar: Kausap ko sina Armida nung dumating ang misis ko, nag-donate
ng bigas, at para kumustahin ako. Sabi ko, mukhang OK naman, hindi delikado
pag araw. Ang feeling ko nga, nakakaistorbo pa ako sa mga tao, pag nakikita nila
ako, nagkakagulo na, humihingi ng kanta, e halos wala pa 'kong tulog. Sabi ko,
babalik na lang ako mamayang gabi.
(I was chatting with Armida when my wife arrived. She brought a sack of rice and
wanted to know how we were. I said it was less dangerous during the day. In fact I
felt like I was just disturbing the peace because when people saw me, they'd shout
for some singing and I wasn't up to it. I hardly had any sleep. I told them I'd be
back that night.)

Rose Marie Arenas: We were praying with the nuns. The priests were saying mass
here, mass there. There were trucks coming in with lots of coffee and food, tons
and tons of food, and more barricades.

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 1:00 PM - Ver gave secret orders to Piccio to launch an

air attack on Crame. Piccio replied, "But, sir, we have no more gunships. They
have just been destroyed."
Ver looked around for pilots at Malacañang. He got a few. But he could not give
them planes. Thefighter-bombers were at Clark without gas. Op. cit., p. 87

MBS-4 - Tito Cruz, a senior newscaster of Radio Veritas recalled the moment he
stepped foot inside the radio station. "It was so dark . When I entered the booth I
had to use my lighter to see the right switches."
Cruz's first words on the air were: "I would like to announce to the public that
MBS-4 has been secured by the forces of the people. Let us pray and thank God
for our freedom." Manila Times 26 Feb

THE NEW CHANNEL 4, 1:25 PM - "Channel 4 is back on the air to serve the people.
Now you will get the truth from this channel." With these words Orly Punzalan
inaugurated the New Channel 4.
Maan Hontiveros, feisty producer of Ms. Ellaneous, a defunct Channel 4 program,
continued with, "I'm very happy to be a part of the first free broadcast of Channel
4." Malaya Sun Mag 13 Apr

Maan and Orly called on the former technicians of ABS-CBN, whose facilities were
used by the government during the martial law era, to report back to work. Manila
Times 26 Feb

The first few hours on the air were scraped together by Hontiveros and mostly
Radio Veritas mainstays Punzalan, Frankie Batacan, Keithley, Frs. Ben, Larry, and
Guido, Harry Gasser, and Bishop Buhain. Mr & Ms 7 Mar

Complaints and appeals poured in from various sectors. Through radio and TV
broadcasts, people were mobilized and sent to areas where vast crowds were
needed to ward off attacks of Marcos loyalist forces, notably MBS-4 itself, and
Camps Crame and Aguinaldo.
A few callers suggested names for the "liberation" radio and TV stations.
Radyo Pilipino, they complained, was already being used by radio stations owned
by presidential crony Eduardo Cojuangco. Interesting names cropped up: Radyo
Cory, Radyo Laban, Radyo Ninoy, Radyo Pinoy.
Tia Dely, the famous radio personality, came with a batch of favorite Pilipino
songs. The Radio Veritas staff, in its haste to man the government stations, forgot
to bring the hot hits of the past weeks, Mambo Magsaysay and Onward Christian
Entertainers, TV and movie stars also came to the station to broadcast news
and to perform. There were Jim Paredes, Noel Trinidad, Subas Herrero who
jubilantly said before the camera: "Tama na, sobra na!" and then paused. "Ang
sarap sabihin (on the air) ano?"
Nobody captured the feeling better than Tia Dely. She said on air, "Sa wakas,
nagbubukang liwayway na rin. (At long last, we are seeing the dawn.)" Manila
Times 26 Feb

BOHOL AVENUE - The people sprang into action to defend the new-found
freedom of the airwaves. Metro Manila Transit buses were immediately
commissioned into the service as barricades at crucial entry points to the
facilities. A milling crowd maintained barricades for the next 34 hours, many
barricaders shunting back and forth from Bohol Avenue to the Crame area. Ibid.

SANTOLAN, LIBIS, 2:00 PM - A jeepload and a truckload of Philippine Marines

screeched to a halt in front of a human barricade of 200 boys and girls from the
Ateneo University. The Marines demanded to pass to assault Camp Crame. The
kids-of high school and college age-shook their heads and refused to budge. They
pleaded with the soldiers to go back, or else join the revolution. Stand-off.
After a half hour, the Marine officer-in-charge lost patience. He gave the order,
"Fix bayonets!" as the horrifed nuns and priests and kids, who had linked arms,
listened. Then he instructed his men: "When you advance, don't think of anything.
Just thrust your way through." They started marching forward in lockstep, their
sharp bayonets glistening.
At the last minute, the priests ordered the students to give way-and the Marines
pushed their way through. Many students fell to the ground or hugged each other,
sobbing in anger and frustration. PEOPLE POWER (II) 1986, p. 208-209

MANDALUYONG, 2:00 PM - In Doy Laurel's residence, the Batasan members

continued the plans for putting up a new government. Cory Aquino joined the
group as did Guingona and Palma.
The MP's recommended that the new government not be provisional in nature,
but constitutional, de jure, and permanent. The MP's tackled the question of
documentation of the event, such as the procedure of the proclamation, the
drafting of the text, the framework to be followed. A unanimous decision was also
made to have a proclamation ceremony on Monday evening.
Lastly they tackled the list of Cabinet positions as well as the vital publc
utilities to be filled up. Laurel presented Cory with his listing of 15 Cabinet
positions, together with suggested names to fill them. One eyewitness said it
made Cory's eyes pop out. Inquirer 26 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE, About 3 PM - Ambassador Peter Sung of Singapore

called with an urgent message from his government to the president. Singapore
was offering President Marcos its hospitality and inviting him and his family to fly
After hearing it, the president was silent, but after the brief pause, he said he
had no intention of leaving the country and was nevertheless grateful to Prime
Minister Lee Kuan Yew for his and his government's solicitude. MALACAÑANG
p. 129

EDSA, 3:00 PM - An overflowing crowd filled up EDSA from Cubao to Ortigas

Avenue, the Santolan Road from San Juan up to Libis, Murphy, and all subsidiary
streets surrounding Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. Bulletin 25 Feb

People power was still at its greatest-in power and intensity-as more than two
million people converged on the Cubao area to Greenhills and the vicinity of
Ortigas to Antipolo to protect Enrile, Ramos, and other officials. Op. cit.

Fidel Ramos: Regarding the number of people who were in EDSA, this is where
there was a little exaggeration because we were encouraging the people to come
and to stay.
BARRICADES - The sights
were a near-surreal melange
of burning tires, activist flags,
and streamers, tents,
vendors, sandbags, vehicles,
portable radios, candles,
percussionists marching to
the Ati-Atihan beat, foreign
entertainment personalities
trying to catch attention with
cheap gimmicks, and
religious altars everywhere.
The atmosphere was
generally relaxed and festive,
almost like a carnival where
crowds endlessly streamed
past each other, old friends and old acquaintances meeting and reuniting with one
another, strangers throwing sandwiches and biscuits to the crowd, and families
distributing other food and refreshments. Everywhere one turned his head, there
were ubiquitous images of the Blessed Mary. Religious icons as part of the
To be sure, the barricades consisted of several layers: private cars, panels,
buses, garbage trucks, sandbags, ropes and strings; the religious statues and the
people standing, kneeling in prayer, or slumped on the pavements, sometimes
arms inter-linked. Malaya Sunday Mag 9 Mar

THE NEW CHANNEL 4 - In came the superstars, the not-so stars, the
propagandists of Cory. The station became a Cory-Enrile-Ramos propaganda
machine non-stop 24 hours. Ibid.

Volunteers turned up en masse: stars, telephone receptionists, food brigades,

technicians, cameramen, many abandoning posts at the other TV and radio
stations where the Marcos grip refused to relax.
The 24-hour teleplay featured everything from Mommy-I'm-fine messages to
requests for toothbrushes to T-shirts to briefs (for soldiers who hadn't changed
for days); from reports of defections to news on what the rest of the world thought
of the situation; from discussions of legalese to stories about people power.
The crudity of the show's programming was explained by sources to be the result
of the cannibalization of the station. Millions of pesos worth of equipment were
said to be lost. Keys to the OB vans, cameras, and other equipment were reported
Cameramen and other technicians undertook their jobs without knowing
whether there was a possibility of relief since recruitment of technicians took a
slightly more troublesome route than the recruitment of stars who seemed to pour
in continuously.
Jumpy security men at the gates had to bar hordes of people-whether they
were Con-Con delegates or volunteers-for fear of infiltrators. Aesthetics took a
while to establish. Mr & Ms 7 Mar
CAMP CRAME, Afternoon Ramos and Enrile were watching the first television
boradcast over Channel 4. They applauded when a military officer explained why
soldiers should pledge their allegiance to the rebel forces.
The conversation turned to other issues. Ramos told Enrile his stand on
political detainees: "We can work with the cause-oriented ones, but we have to
keep out the hardcore communists."
Enrile asked that Brig. Gen. Gen. Samuel Soriano, chief of the legal affairs
division of the Ministry of National Defense, be called by telephone. He instructed
him to "review expeditiously" the cases of all political detainees "who have
unjustly been detained under the Marcos government," preparatory to their
release. Business Day 26 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 3:00 PM - Ochoco called for a conference to plan the

defense of Malacañang and counter-action to regain ground lost to Enrile and
Ramos. The outcome was the organization of a Malacañang Defense Group with
Ochoco as chief, Brawner as his assistant for operations. The group intended to
retake television and radio stations already in rebel hands.

Ver directed Col. Romeo Ochoco of the Air Force to arrange for the evacuation of
his close friend, Mrs. Edna Camcam, and her children. Op. cit., p. 88

Mrs. Brawner called up her husband, exerted pressure on him to join the other
side, reported that Commodore Tagumpay Jardiniano and some other PMA
classmates were already in Camp Crame. Op. cit., p. 90

GMA CHANNEL 7, QUEZON CITY - A group of Army men on board a truck and
jeep swooped down on Channel 7, a television station located a few blocks away
from MBS 4. The Army group, estimated at 30 men led by Lt. Leo Carisa, secured
the compound which houses Channel 7, DWLS-FM and several radio stations.
Carisa said they were ordered to secure the Channel 7 compound to stop it from
broadcasting anti-government propaganda.
Starwatcher Inday Badiday was broadcasting over 7's DZBB when the loyalists
entered the station, demanding that she go off the air. Inday refused to relinquish
her air waves except on the orders of the station head. Bulletin 25 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Col. Romeo Lim phoned Brawner from Ranger

headquarters to report a "serious morale problem" among the troops. Brawner
asked for permission to go to his headquarters. Ver declined. Brawner called up
Ramas. Ramas said he would consult with Marcos. After 10 minutes, Ver told
Brawner he could go but he should convince his boys to do their duty.

Rene Cruz: It really felt like a miracle was happening. Soldiers not firing even
when ordered to, my own children and wife out in EDSA and actually enjoying it,
and the weather so nice and cool throughout the four days.

MIKE MARABUT My children and the older grandchildren were all at EDSA. Not
always together, but for the next three days they would just go home to have
lunch or dinner and then go back to the highway on their own.
Were we afraid of whatever? Yes. In our conversations, it all came out. What do
we do if the planes fire on the crowd? What do we do if the soldiers use tear gas?
What do we do if there is panic in the crowd?
We instructed one another. Try to stay near a wall. Lie on the ground if there is
firing. Always have a handkerchief or towel, wet if possible, in case of tear gas.
Stay cool. Business World 24 Feb 95

Joe Almonte: If there was any in RAM that really planned on violence, it was our
group, a small group. The miracle is that the plans we put up did not happen. As
Gen. Ramos would say, EDSA must have been scripted in heaven. We were only
acting out what the Lord, as commander-in-chief, must have wanted to happen.
On the part of the people, everything was spontaneous, no one commanded
anyone to stand before a tank, but they did, voluntarily.

Rose Marie Arenas: You could see that there was that sharing going on with
Filipinos in that four days' ordeal. We can be good if we want to be good, religious
if we want to be religious, and spiritual, very spiritual. Everybody was receiving
holy communion, praying together, and my tears were going down my cheeks,
because when you hear men praying and singing, parang it's so touching, more
than the girls, 'no?

MBS RADYO PILIPINO, 3:55 PM - For the first time in almost three years, Bayan Ko
was played on the government radio station. Hearing the patriotic song sent
shivers down our spines. It was hard to believe that the Fiipino classic, which had
been banned from the airlanes by the Office of Media Affairs because it was
considered an "opposition song," was now being played over DWIM, now called
Radyo Pilipino. Manila Times 26 Feb

GMA CHANNEL 7 - Inday Badiday was ordered to sign off. When she and the rest
of the Channel 7 crew marched out of the buildings, they found a huge crowd of
citizens already setting up barricades around the grounds. Mr & Ms 7 Mar

MANDALUYONG - In a closed-door meeting of Opposition leaders at the residence

of former Speaker Jose B. Laurel . Malaya 25 Feb

. . . opposition and some KBL members signed a proclamation of Mrs. Corazon

Aquino and former Senator Salvador Laurel as duly elected candidates in the
February 7 elections. Bulletin 25 Feb

Fidel Ramos: There were constant meetings between Minister Enrile and Mrs.
Aquino's representatives. There was talk of a provisional kind of government, a
junta, if you want to call it that, consisting mostly of civilians and a few from the
military to run the government temporarily, assuming that we won. But we left all
that planning to Minister Enrile. We in the military weren't too concerned at the
time about what our role would be. We left that in the hands of civilian leaders.

EDSA / ORTIGAS, Afternoon - Mrs. Corazon Aquino emerged for the first time
since Saturday. There was clamor during the weekend for Mrs. Aquino's visible
presence to inspire the thousands of people who had trooped to and held vigil
around Camp Crame.
In the company of family members and close supporters, Mrs. Aquino emerged
from the main entrance of the Philippine Overseas Employment Agency (POEA)
building and spoke from a makeshift stage built on the building's front steps.
Business Day 25 Feb
CORAZON AQUINO: "We have recovered our freedoms, our rights, and our dignity
with much courage and, we thank God, with little blood. I enjoin the people to
keep the spirit of peace as we remove the last vestiges of tyranny, to be firm and
compassionate. Let us not, now that we have won, descend to the level of the evil
forces we have defeated.
"I have always said I can be magnanimous in victory, no more hate, no more
fighting. I appeal to all Filipinos of both sides of the struggle. This is now the time
for peace, the time for healing." Bulletin 25 Feb

Cory Aquino: I had already said on Radio Veritas that I would be going to EDSA.
For security reasons I did not announce the specific time. Anyway, it was Peping
and my security who decided that POEA would be the best and safest place for
me, so that's where I went Up to now, I think, Johnny Ponce Enrile disputes that I
was there. But there were so many priests and nuns there. And I had sung again
the "Our Father." But we didn't stay long, at the most maybe 15, 20 minutes. It was
really fast, because it had been impressed upon me that if something happened to
me there, it would really be very bad. I was really prepared to do whatever was
necessary, but they said, no, no, it's important that you stay alive.

MANDALUYONG, 4:30 PM - A provisional government was set up immediately

after Aquino and Laurel were proclaimed. Malaya
25 Feb

Batasan members agreed that the posts of Prime Minister, Finance, Defense, and
Foreign Affairs should be the first posts to be filled up. Inquirer 26 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE, 4:30 PM - Ver and Ramas decided to launch a final

"suicide assault" on the rebels. Veritas Special
Oct 86

Tadiar is alerted to prepare one Marine battalion to operate with Army elements in
an assault on Crame. BREAKAWAY p. 89.

US EMBASSY - Through their intelligence network the Embassy learned of the

plan and flashed the news to Washington. Veritas Special Oct 86

THE WHITE HOUSE, 6:00 PM (Manila Time) - President Reagan was awakened by
his National Security advisor, Admiral Poindexter. Reagan finally agreed to
publicly call on Marcos to resign. Ibid.

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Tadiar summoned all his staff officers and unit
commanders, and called for a consensus. The consensus: the Marines would no
longer take part in military operations that would result in the unnecessary death
or wounding of innocent civilians. There were no objections to defensive
operations for the protection of the President. BREAKAWAY p. 89

FORT BONIFACIO - Brig. Gen. Ramon Cannu told Brawner to talk to his men at
once because they were unwilling to go on a mission directed by Marcos. Brawner
summoned all the Ranger officers and told them he had made up his mind not to
comply with that mission order either. He warned them that this decision should
not be known to adjacent units because they could move against the Rangers. He
asked the officers to explain the situation to their men. Op. cit., p. 90
ARMY CONFERENCE ROOM - Tadiar attended discussions on the new plan to
attack Crame as ordered by Marcos. The plan was to use elements of the 42nd
Infantry Battalion from Quezon province and elements of the Marines for an
assault on Crame. The route to be taken from Bonifacio to the objective was
Nagtahan-Greenhills-Santolan. A reconnaisance team was sent out to try the
route. It came back with the report that hundreds of thousands of people were
barricading the way. Civilian casualties could not be avoided. Ramas and Oropesa
asked Abadia for his recommendation. Abadia was for informing Marcos that the
plan was not feasible. Marcos agreed but asked that other options be explored.
The next plan was for a mortar attack on Crame from Rosario Bridge in Pasig,
about three or four kilometers away. Abadia said no. Palafox recommended that
the 54th Infantry move from Camp Aguinaldo to Fort Bonifacio for the attack.
Abadia and Ramas vetoed the idea. No new plan was sent up to Marcos. Op. cit.,
p. 89

Fidel Ramos: The other side had a lot of guns but, because the particular situation
was a little different from what they had been expecting, they weren't able to
respond right away; they took a while adjusting to the new situation. De kahon
kasi kung mag-isip. Kami naman dito, como very fluid 'yung situation namin, we
had to think fast, plan fast, and act fast.

CAMP CRAME - Roman Cruz Jr.'s letter of resignation from his position as
chairman of the nation's flag carrier, Philippine Air Lines, and from all his other
government positions, dated February 23, was brought by PAL Executive Vice-
President Martin Bonoan.
The resignation was addressed to President Corazon C. Aquino, making Cruz
the first government official to recognize her as duly elected President of the
He also sent another letter, this time addressed to President Marcos, where he
gave as a major reason "the circumstances under which the elections were
conducted." Inquirer 25 Feb

EDSA, Late Afternoon - Hundreds of thousands of people cruised past one

another, passing by still-bigger stationary crowds. In front of the Crame gate, Fr.
Frederick Fermin, OP, former rector of UST, megaphone in hand, was talking to
UST people seated and cordoned off. "We are very fortunate that Mr. Marcos is
NOT an alumnus of UST..." This, as other university groups (Ateneo Law, San
Beda undergrads, Maryknoll Sisters, etc.) huddled in their own spots.
As one elbowed his way through the crowd, he saw another group forming a
circle, heads up, eyes closed and hands slightly raised with palms open,
mumbling a prayer and then singing the Lord's Prayer. A few feet away, young
fans were screaming at the sight of Ricky Davao, Jay Ilagan, Gina Alajar, and Amy
Austria together. Still farther, a family had apportioned and roped off several
square feet of the road from the traffic island with a makeshift shelter, stool, a
large cooler, and charcoal stove. Land-grabbing! Yet nobody minded.
Everyone was friendly and helpful. When evening came, the cheerful mood
grew solemn, the people's smiles rarer, and the fingers turning the rosary beads
faster. By then it was not just religion working. It was faith. Malaya Sunday Mag 9

Cory Aquino: Somehow it took the lawyers so long to prepare my oath of office. It
was a question of whom do I pledge allegiance to? Finally they decided that it
would be to the fundamental law of the land. I remember waiting. When we
returned from POEA, it was finally ready. But then, I was saying, I don't want to
take my oath when it's dark because we will also be endangering the lives of the
people. I said we'd just do it on Tuesday.

Joe Alejandro: I was going back and forth, EDSA and Alabang. I was most
impressed by the crowd in EDSA . Everybody followed instructions. At the same
time everybody was taking the initiative. You go to EDSA, if you're seen with a
knife, you're thrown out. It was as peaceful as that. Yet in all that seeming
confusion, you could drive your car in and people would give way. It was a very
orderly crowd.

Rose Marie Arenas: We would go home once in a while. The first time we went
home we had to make pakiusap to both the rebels and the government to please
let us pass because there's a baby in the back. So it was sort of my small son who
helped us get through to go home. And then pagbalik, we said the baby has to go
back, our relatives are inside, the brothers and sisters are there; they were all very
nice, no one was impolite.

Rene Cruz: The whole four days, there was no report of pickpocketing, no
mugging, no untoward incident.

Jose Almonte: After EDSA this guy asked me to write him a commendation. I
asked what his contribution to EDSA was. He said he was there with his camera,
taking pictures. I said, let me see some pictures. He said he had none. I said, why
not, if he was there taking pictures? He said, "Sir, because I had no film." So I
said, how can you say you were taking pictures if you had no film? "It's like this,
sir," he explained, "I pretended to take pictures of the pickpockets I knew so they
wouldn't pick pockets." Not that it was necessary. Did anyone lose anything in
EDSA? No. But this guy was there to make sure it did not happen. I gave him a
very good commendation.

THE NEW CHANNEL 4, 6:00 PM - Live from Camp Crame Enrile and Ramos held a
press conference attended by local and foreign media representatives. They
announced an "almost complete" takeover and control of the New Armed Forces
of the People. Ramos said the Strike Wing's defection was followed by that of the
entire naval force led by Commodore Tagumpay Jardiniano; the enitre 5th Figher
Wing at the Basa Air Base in Pampanga; also the 800-strong command at the
Clark Air Base led by Col. Romeo David. "These render the loyalists practically
without air and naval strength." Bulletin 25 Feb

WASHINGTON, D.C., 7:30 PM - The United States endorsed the provisional

government of Mrs. Corazon Aquino, abandoning a 20-year ally in Mr. Marcos for
the sake of a "peaceful transition" in the Philippines.
The full text: "We have heard disturbing reports of a possible attack by forces
loyal to Gen. Ver against elements of the forces who have given their support to
General Ramos and Minister Enrile.
"We urge those contemplating such action to stop. President Marcos had
pledged to refrain from initiating violence and we appeal to him, to those loyal to
him, and all other Filipino people to continue to do so.
"Attempts to prolong the life of the present regime by violence are futile. A
solution to this crisis can only be achieved through a peaceful transition to a new
government." Times Journal 25 Feb

Jose Almonte: Our objectives were totally non-political. We were not angling for
any political position. We were not after money or power. All we wanted was for a
new government to give the people their due. We agreed that after the action we
would all go back to our own small tasks."

USA - Blas Ople talked to Marcos by telephone. The Philippine President was
angry that while his Palace was being threatened and his television station taken
over, the US was telling him not to defend himself. He told Ople that Mrs. Marcos
was there beside him and "she doesn't want to leave." Time 10 Mar

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Arrangements were made for a televised interview with

the President on Channel 9. Retired Brig. Gen. Pacifico Lopez de Leon was sent
out for this chore. Cendana did not invite any reporter to cover the event.
Explained an aide of Cendana: "The President does not want to talk with the press
corps any more. He does not want them to see how empty the Palace is."

CHANNELS 2, 9, 13 - Three television stations phonepatched Marcos from

Malacañang Palace. Malaya Sunday Mag 23 Mar

The first half of the nearly two-hour interview was conducted with a three-man
panel of interviewers (including Ruther Batuigas and a Gen. Pacifico de Leon)
assembled by Channel 9 which televised only still photos of Marcos in different
poses, leading countless interviewers to wonder if it was indeed Marcos they were
hearing over the airwaves. Malaya 25 Feb

Marcos denied that the voice was that of Willie Nepomuceno, as claimed by an
irreverent caller. Malaya Sunday Mag 23 Mar

Marcos said his family "is cowering in terror in Malacañang because of the threat
of bombarding by helicopter" but he vowed he would defend the Palace "to the
last breath of my life, the last drop of my blood." He said he had "no intention of
going abroad" or of resigning. Malaya 25 Feb

8:10 PM - Marcos appeared live on TV with Mrs. Marcos, son Bongbong, daughter
Imee, and grandchildren. "All of us in Malacañang are dressed and prepared for
any eventuality," Marcos said as the camera panned to Bongbong at the sidelines
who was wearing a military fatigue uniform. Op. cit.

The President called on loyal followers to report to the Mendiola Street barricade
near Malacañang to enlist and be issued firearms or call him by telephone or
come to his inauguration at the Palace tomorrow.
He reiterated that the country was under a state of emergency under which the
government could take over broadcast media.
Mr. Marcos appealed to the people to obey orders only from him because he
was the duly constituted authority under the Constitution. He assailed Defense
Minister Juan Ponce Enrile and ex-Vice Chief of Staff Lt. Gen. Fidel V. Ramos with
trying to take power from Cory Aquino and former Senator Salvador H. Laurel.
"I am appealing to the citizenry not to believe in this illicit, illegal, and immoral
third force," adding that Enrile and Ramos were riding on Mrs. Aquino's popularity
but that they would use her and grab power. Op. cit.

Ruther Batuigas asked him if he was imposing curfew and he replied, "Well, now
that you mention it, I hereby declare curfew all over the country from 6 PM to 6 AM
effective tonight." Malaya Sunday Mag 23 Mar

Fidel Ramos: We also continued to counter with our own version every item of
information or any announcement coming from Malacanang. We made sure we
dominated the information and propaganda war.

THE NEW CHANNEL 4 - Dissident Defense Minister Juan Ponce Enrile appeared
on TV to tell the people to ignore Mr. Marcos's orders because he was an "illegal
President." Manila Times 25 Feb

Opposition lawmakers were frenziedly contacting colleagues from the KBL,

inviting them to attend a special session of the Batasang Pambansa to reconsider
the legislature's proclamation of President Marcos as winner in the February 7
special Presidential election.
But the old lion from Batac, ailing and grievously wounded, still held out at the
Presidential Palace, apparently determined to stand his ground, and like his
adversaries in Camp Crame, was prepared to stick it out to the bitter end. Bulletin
25 Feb

WACK WACK, MANDALUYONG - A much smaller group than the Batasan's met at
the residence of Cory's relative. Present, aside from the President-elect and Vice
President-elect, were LABAN President Jovy Salonga, Aquino spokesmen Rene
Saguisag and Teddy Locsin Jr., and adviser Jaime Ongpin.
The group tackled specific nominations of the Cabinet. Deliberations dragged
on a bit, necessitating postponement of the proclamation. Inquirer 26 Feb

A contentious issue between Mrs. Aquino and the Enrile-Ramos group was where
to hold her inauguration. Three groups of Aquino advisers said it should take
place at Club Filipino, claiming it was there that the first Filipino women's
organization was formed during the Spanish regime. Enrile wanted it at the multi-
purpose hall of Camp Crame, the rebel headquarters, citing security problems if
they left the camp. The politicians, however, could not accept the idea of a new
President sworn in inside a military camp. Asiaweek 9 Mar

Fidel Ramos: Some of us wanted to hold the inauguration in Crame, of course,

because that was where most of the action had taken place. But others preferred
that it be held in Club Filipino. The majority prevailed.

8:30 or 9:00 PM - The group disbanded. Before then, the appointments of Doy
Laurel as Prime Minister, Juan Ponce Enrile as Defense Minister, and Fidel Ramos
as Chief of Staff had been made. Inquirer 26 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Chief Justice of the Supreme Court Ramon Aquino and
his son had dinner with the Marcos girls, Imee and Irene, and their husbands.
Imee talked about the Metro Pop. Irene made plans to go out with her music
crowd. Bongbong Marcos was dressed in fatigues and relished it. "Feel na feel ko
ang get-up ko ngayon," he told the Aquinos.
Only the two sons-in-law of the Marcoses - Greggy Araneta and Tommy
Manotoc - seemed worried about the situation. The Palace was one big fortress,
with military men sleeping all over the place, including the corridors.
They sat up till 11:00 PM talking. Inquirer 5 Mar

Rose Marie Arenas: My friend Francis Lee who owns two or three Chinese
restaurants was cooking and cooking. So was my cook who makes the best
siopao and siomai. We were also delivering food to the relatives of General Ramos
in Alabang and to the nuns and the crowd who had gathered outside the house. I
even talkedto Ming.

DOWNTOWN MANILA - The curfew crowds roaming all over downtown Manila as
well as the wide-open fleshpots of the tourist belt were just as large as the hordes
of concerned citizens manning EDSA and Santolan and Ortigas, not to mention
the equally militant sectors of San Rafael and Mendiola and Legarda and the Sta.
Mesa rotonda. QUARTET p. 70

Ming Ramos: People kept coming. We prepared coffee for them but they said not
to worry. And people kept sending food. They thought we didn't have any. There
was so much food, our youngest daughter Margie gained a few pounds.

Margie Ramos: There were sandwiches, doughnuts, spaghetti, hamburgers, juice,

all sorts of food. What a waste if you just stare at it, 'di ba?

BEHN CERVANTES - Inside Channel 4 are numerous military men to secure the
place, plus hordes of media men, entertainers and kibitzers who know when
opportunity strikes. There are going to be new shows, new bosses, new
opportunities. After a day of power, there are also signs of new Ronnies and new
Ritas. Worse yet are the self-appointed Tita Marys.
In the spirit of forgiveness and an acceptance of the fact that human beings are
survivors, you decide to ignore these performers who are, after all, the most
experienced in the dog-eat-dog world of that other world called Entertainment.
However, when some Johnny-come-lately, you are told, has to approve a formal
organizational statement you have, you say, "No way!" When martial law was
declared and Censorship was the thing, you did not follow the rule. Who is this
Johnny who has the unoffical power to approve or disapprove? In your mind you
say "Up yours!" and read the statement anyway.
The space is small in that studio. The executive office upstairs even smaller.
Not all of these self-appointed bosses will be taken in. In time they will collide and
survivors will remain.
Here we go again! Business Day 14 Mar

EDSA - Tuesday began with midnight fireworks. Persisting rumors of Marcos's fall
and flight prompted many to celebrate by exploding rockets and firecrackers.
NAGTAHAN BRIDGE, Past Midnight - Several were wounded when Army soldiers
fired through the barbed wire barricades at a crowd of rebel supporters who had
turned back a column of armored vehicles heading towards Channel 4. Sunday
Times Mag 2 Mar

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Marcos's two sons-in-law were supervising the packing

of dozens of crates of family possessions, including hundreds of thousands of
dollars in gold bullion and bonds, more than a million dollars worth of freshly
printed pesos, as well as artifacts and jewels. These were delivered by boat to a
bayfront lawn adjacent to the US Embassy. Weeks earlier, a number of bulkier
items, mainly large oil paintings and other works of art, had been packed and
shipped out of the country at the direction of the First Lady.
There was little sleep in the palace that night as aides scurried from room to
room, sifting through cabinets and boxes filled with documents, receipts, letters,
many of them incriminating. Imelda Marcos was able to provide little advice to her
husband. She seemed dazed, drifting in and out of her private chapel where she
knelt and prayed. Marcos's son Bongbong and General Ver were arguing
desperately with him to stay and fight. WORTH DYING FOR pp. 297-298

NAGTAHAN BRIDGE, Past Midnight - Several were wounded when Army soldiers
fired through the barbed wire barricades at a crowd of rebel supporters who had
turned back a column of armored vehicles heading towards Channel 4.
Sunday Times Mag 2 Mar
Marcos's two sons-in-law were supervising the packing of dozens of crates of
family possessions, including hundreds of thousands of dollars in gold bullion
and bonds, more than a million dollars worth of freshly printed pesos, as well as
artifacts and jewels. These were delivered by boat to a bayfront lawn adjacent to
the US Embassy. Weeks earlier, a number of bulkier items, mainly large oil
paintings and other works of art, had been packed and shipped out of the country
at the direction of the First Lady.
There was little sleep in the palace that night as aides scurried from room to
room, sifting through cabinets and boxes filled with documents, receipts, letters,
many of them incriminating. Imelda Marcos was able to provide little advice to her
husband. She seemed dazed, drifting in and out of her private chapel where she
knelt and prayed. Marcos's son Bongbong and General Ver were arguing
desperately with him to stay and fight. WORTH DYING FOR pp. 297-298

A couple of foreign correspondent friends keep vigil with you in Channel 4. They
have noticed the obvious game of the little generals dreaming of executive media
positions and their solicitous concern for the instructions given them by Ramos
and Enrile. The entertainers are still being cute or trying to be profound. It is
getting less and less pleasant being in such company, but there is constant threat
of an assault, so you stay. It will be good for a story. Besides, when something
like this is about to occur, you are nailed to your position. Is it because you wish
to help, or just be a part of it? You already are, so why not be where the action is?
Business Day 17 Mar

2:45 AM (Manila Time) - Shultz, Habib, and Armacost were in the Capitol building,
secretly briefing thirty key members of Congress, including Marcos friend Senator
Paul Laxalt of Nevada. A telephone call from Marcos to Laxalt interrupted the
session. Marcos wanted the word straight from Reagan. Was the statement about
a "transition" real or another State Department plot? With Shultz, Habib, and
Armacost hovering over him, Laxalt confirmed the statement. The conversation
lasted twenty minutes, Marcos's raspy voice betraying his exhaustion. He essayed
alternatives, like a "power sharing deal with Cory." After all, he said, he was a
veteran at fighting Communists and negotiating with foreign creditors. Floating
another idea, he might serve as Cory's "senior adviser" while remaining president
until the end of his original term in 1987. Laxalt promised to consult Reagan and
call him back. IN OUR IMAGE p. 421

Imelda called US First Lady Nancy Reagan also to ask what the Reagan message
was all about. Nancy promised to go and ask her husband. QUARTET p. 78

3:00 AM (Manila Time) - Alejandro Melchor, attempting to negotiate Marcos's exit,
was asked by members of the National Security Council to telephone Cardinal Sin
in Manila to secure the Archbishop's intervention with Aquino over the deal.
Veritas Special Oct 86
3:30 AM - The Marines were jubilant over the news that Marcos had just cancelled
his order for them to attack Camp Crame using mortars. BREAKAWAY p. 108


3:45 AM - Two RF-27 and two C-130 planes used as troop transports took off on a
mission of ferrying reinforcements ordered by Ver. The pilots changed flight plans
and landed at Clark where they were frozen for the duration of the revolution.
Pilots at Basa Air Base did the same thing with five T-33s, ten F5's, and seven F8s.
The C-130 from Legaspi City carrying troops to augment the security at the MIA
also flew to Clark. The 5th Fighter Wing and the 220th Heavy Airlift Wing thus
completed their transfer, lock, stock, and barrel, to the rebel side. Ibid.

The US had not yet secured Ver's agreement to leave the Palace with Marcos. The
US officials contacted two CIA officers-both former station chiefs in Manila-to
work out a compromise that would get Ver out of Malacañang. "In return for not
ordering an attack, the US would guarantee the safety of Ver and his
family." Veritas Special Oct 86

Despite a warning sent to him from Washington hinting that he would not be
allowed to leave with Marcos if he did not freeze his troops, Ver was not giving up
on his efforts to retake the television and radio stations.
Brawner was called by Kanapi to report to Army headquarters at Fort
Bonifacio. Brawner did not respond. Instead he prepared to report to Camp
Crame. BREAKAWAY p. 109

CAMP CRAME - Ramos ordered Brawner to hold and consolidate the Army base at
Fort Bonifacio.
Martel's defection put under Gen. Ramos's control the modern executive jets,
helicopters, and other aircraft used by the Marcos family and his top officials.
Inquirer 26 Feb

5:00 AM - Marcos and Imelda got their respective replies from Washington.
Immediately Marcos asked if Reagan was telling him to step down. "President
Reagan," replied Laxalt, "is not in a position to make that kind of demand."
After a pause Marcos asked, "Senator, what do you think? Should I step
Laxalt's answer was forthright: "Mr. President, I'm not bound by diplomatic
restraint. I'm only talking for myself. I think you should cut, and cut cleanly. The
time has come."
At that, the phone seemed to go dead. Laxalt was alarmed by the long silence.
"Mr. President, are you still there?" he finally exclaimed.
"Yes, I'm still here," said Marcos in a faint low voice. "I am so very very
Nancy's words were no more comforting than Laxalt's. If Marcos avoids
violence and cooperates in a peaceful transition of governance, he would be
invited to live in the United States. QUARTET p. 78
Still unable to accept the finality of it, Ferdinand called his labor minister, Blas
Ople, an old ally, who was in Washington. Ople confirmed the overwhelmingly
negative attitude there. As gently as he could, Ople asked why they did not simply
leave. Ferdinand said it was Imelda's idea - she was reluctant to go. "She is here
beside me. She does not want to leave." There it was. DYNASTY p. 418


5:00 AM - Many fearful residents started leaving Metro Manila, grabbing every
available means of transport out of the embattled metropolis. According to
dispatcher Sen Magat, "Passenger volume was similar to that seen during
Christmas and Holy Week." Malaya 26 Feb

5:30 AM - Marcos cancelled the still-standing orders to loyalists to fire on Camp
Crame, then he joined his family. His family had been urging him to leave, to no
avail. Imelda had resisted the idea for a time but now she too was resigned to the
prospect. He had continued to insist that he would stay and fight, but had urged
the family to go. Now however something in his demeanor told them to proceed
with arrangements for all of them to leave. Son-in-law Tommy Manotoc called a
friend at the US Embassy and gave the "go" signal they had been waiting for since
Sunday night. IMPOSSIBLE DREAM p. 404


The sun had barely risen. Negotiations between Cory's camp and the military
revolutionaries had been going on since early evening of the 24th. The Reformist
generals were professionaly appalled at Cory's announcement that she intended
to hold the ceremony at Club Filipino, a suburban country club just a kilometer
away from enemy lines.
"It's within mortar range and we can't seal it off. It's almost indefensible-a
tactical nightmare. From a security standpoint we'd be far better off if we held it in
Camp Crame. We could fly her there in an unmarked civilian chopper," said the
"You must realize that in the end, it's all up to her," replied a sleepy and
haggard Peping Cojuangco, Cory's brother and secretary-general of her party.
Cory explained, "Camp Crame was the first place where Ninoy, where every
political detainee was brought during the martial law years. Filipinos once lived in
dread of being taken there. Today it may be a place of heroism, but unfortunately
a lot of tortures, executions, and summary detentions took place there in the past.
The second thing is, I have already told the people that I will be at Club Filipino,
and I fully intend to keep my promise. I chose it because it is a neutral and public
place. And I absolutely refuse to take a helicopter."
The generals and advisers left to make whatever security arrangements they
could. PEOPLE POWER (II) pp. 233-234

Cory Aquino
That morning of Tuesday, Fr. Joaquin Bernas and Jimmy Ongpin came to see me
accompanied by two generals. Fr. Bernas took me aside and said, "You know,
they really want you to go to Crame and take your oath of office there, and some
of the generals can't understand why you don't seem to trust them." I said it was
not a question of trust, it was just that I had already announced that I would hold it
at the Club Filipino,arrangements had been made. Also, I wanted to go to a civilian
place, plus Club Filipino had always been identified with the opposition then
against Marcos.
CLUB FILIPINO, SAN JUAN, 6:00 AM - The vicinity was ablaze with yellow as
people started to pour in. Most of the early birds came from an all-night vigil in
nearby Camp Crame. Malaya 26 Feb

Cameramen took pictures of the Marcoses from the improvised stage on which
the oathtaking had been intended to take place. From the balcony Marcos
delivered a strongly worded speech in Pilipino. He was cheered everytime his
fighting mood took a peak. The crowd shouted, "Martial law! Martial law!"

Imelda, grim-faced, led the crowd in singing her theme song, Dahil Sa Iyo. Later
the President and the First Lady withdrew into their rooms, not to be seen
again. Asiaweek 9 Mar

Imelda's son and daughters were in repeated contact with the US Embassy
arranging for their evacuation from Malacañang. The First Family kept their plans
for abdication secret from all but their closest aides.
Washington was still working to ensure Ver would board the helicopter out of
the Palace with the Marcoses. Veritas Special Oct 86

Newsmen stopped Ver briefly as he walked across the hall. He was asked about
his plans. He replied, smiling, "We have not fired a single shot." He appeared less
worried than Mrs. Marcos. BREAKAWAY p. 116

Jose Almonte: Ver's failure was fundamental. His army didn't have a cause; they
didn't have the people with them. Look at the Iraqi war. Obviously Saddam
Hussein's forces will be defeated-it's really a disparity in relative combat power.
But to lose nearly a hundred thousand soldiers to POW camps indicates to you
that the soldiers do not really believe in what they're fighting for. If only half that
figure decided to die where they were-assuming na lang na mahina sila masyado,
and every five Iraqis kill only one of the coalition force-50,000 divided by 5 is
10,000. That's 10,000 allied soldiers they could have killed if only they had faith in
the cause they were fighting for. But there was more cause to give up rather than

PALACE GROUNDS - Marcos's followers were grouped into platoons to form a

more organized people power. With nearly a thousand people involved, the
platoons had about 35 people in each, arranged in columns of three. A witness
attested to the sight of platoons marching to military drills. He expected they
would later be given arms to defend their President, but they were never given
armaments. Mr & Ms 21 Mar
MALACAÑANG OPERATIONS CENTER, 1:30 PM - The telephone rang. The caller
was the Manila CIA Station Chief Norbett Garrett and he insisted on talking to Gen.
"Tell him I'm busy."
Garrett insisted. Finally Ver took the call. Veritas Special Oct 86

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Aruiza saw Fe Roa Gimenez, Mrs. Marcos's private

secretary, emptying her desk of papers. At first, she fed them to the shredder but
it was slow work. Aruiza suggested that she pile them all in one place and he
would order the boys to burn them. If Gimenez knew of their departure, she was
not telling, but Aruiza overheard her calling up close associates for help to get rid
of confidential papers. MALACAÑANG p. 147

CAMP CRAME - Defections continued. A reception area was established at the

Crame grandstand to usher soldiers of all ranks into the NAFP. Ramos received
Brawner and his entire Ranger regiment. Officers and men of Piccio streamed in.
Army and naval officers and men. Many of them were practically pushed in by
relatives at the barricades. BREAKAWAY p. 118

THE NEW CHANNEL 4 - Jaime Cardinal Sin issued a statement in a telephone

interview: "I pledge support to the new government headed by Mrs. Corazon
Aquino, Doy Laurel, and Fidel Ramos, and I congratulate them on their victory."
Malaya 26 Feb

MALACAÑANG OPERATIONS CENTER - Ver called Marcos, and then Garrett

again. At 3:30 PM Ver went into his office and changed into civilian
clothes. Veritas Special Oct 86

CRAME WAR ROOM - About fourteen generals and colonels were standing around
Enrile as he put on his bullet-proof vest and buckled on his pistol. Enrile was
talking to the men as he finished dressing. He said, "I just spoke to the President."
Cory had already been inaugurated...but to Enrile "the President" meant Marcos.
He said, "Marcos is willing to negotiate for a graceful exit. I promised that we
would not harm him and his family. He also asked about Ver. I said I would have to
discuss this with the men."
He had finished dressing and was now standing still. Suddenly it was a real
message. He said, "Gentlemen, we can no longer offer allegiance to our old
commander-in-chief. If you watched the inauguration this morning, you saw that
the people really want Cory. Our allegiance is to the people. And the people are
represented by Cory."
Everyone stood stock still. there was a hushed silence. It was like a funeral. "The
King is dead. Long live the King!"
Then Enrile said, "This morning, on my way to the inauguration, I heard the people
shouting, `We love our soldiers!' I never heard that before in my life. In all my
years with the military, I never heard that. We have to be worthy of that. Our
allegiance is to the people." PEOPLE POWER (II) P. 236

Cory Aquino: The fact of the matter was, Marcos was still president. He was in the
seat of authority, he had all the military under him except for those rebels, and in
fact all of government was still under him. Here I was, going through the motions,
but everything was just in limbo.

With the Marcos regime crumbling by the hour, Enrile introduced Gringo Honasan
to a jubilant crowd outside their headquarters as the man who precipitated the
President's fall.
Honasan denied plotting to kill Marcos and told the crowd: "We did not plan
any coup d'etat or assasination. Our action was purely for the purpose of
Honasan won fame for his 1970's exploits against Muslim separatist rebels in
the southern Philippines. Many soldiers remembered him as the paratrooper who
once jumped out of a plane with a python draped around his neck. Manila Times 1

TOMAS MORATO / TIMOG JUNCTION, 3:45 PM - A truck and a jeep of loyalist

soldiers, firing indiscriminately at crowds of people, forced their way through the
barricades. The loyalists caught most of the people by surprise and hit at least
two women and a man in their thighs. A car parked along Morato was also riddled
with bullets.
But "people power" prevailed. Those manning the barricades held their ground.
The loyalists, identified with their white armbands, were forced to find their way
out through the side streets of Morato. Business Day 26 Feb

NAGTAHAN BRIDGE, STA. MESA, Early Afternoon - Some 300 to 400 Marcos
loyalists who came from the proclamation rally of President Marcos at
Malacanang Palace clashed with thousands of pro-Cory supportersand
bystanders at the foot of Nagtahan Bridge.
Tension ran high when the loyalists, waving small Philippine flags, tried to
cross the intersection on their way home while being escorted by two battalions
of Navy and Army Jungle Fighters headed by Lt. Col. Valerio Santiago and Col.
C.F. Fortuno. Two armored personnel carriers and a "Commando" Chemite tank
rolled to the intersection in a show of force as thousands of Cory supporters
heckled the loyalists. Ibid.

MALACAÑANG PARK, 4:00 PM - Ver, in civilian attire, joined the group of the
Community Hall, among them Ochoco, Pattugalan, Zumel, Varona, Col. Ochoco,
and Col. Ver. (It is probable he told them he was leaving with the First Family.)

MALACANANG PALACE, Also around 4:00 PM - Imelda Marcos called Metro

Manila Vice Governor Mel Mathay and asked how things were for them, whether
they could still turn the tide. Mathay told Imelda frankly that at least in Metro
Manila all was lost and that they should give up. Inquirer 28 Feb

Malacañang was under siege. Three rows of barbed wire separated the Marcos
troops from thousands of people looking grimly determined. Earlier, there had
been a skirmish at Nagtahan, with the crowd pelting the Marines with stones and
bottles. QUARTET p. 93

EDSA, 4:30 PM Newly installed Defense Minister Enrile and Chief of Staff Ramos
marched out of Camp Crame to retake Camp Aguinaldo. Enrile was back at his
familiar desk for the first time in three days. Ramos entered General Ver's office
and tried out the office chair. He spoke twice to crowds of civilian supporters who
had foolowed him into Camp Aguinaldo and assured them that it would
henceforth remain a camp of the people. Mr & Ms. 28 Feb

INSIDE MALACAÑANG - Tommy Manotoc told Mrs. Marcos of Brig. Gen. Ted
Allen's offer of American helicopters or navy boats to transport the ailing Marcos
and his entourage out of the beleaguered Palace. Aruiza told her that the situation
outside Malacañang looked very bad. Mrs. Marcos instructed Aruiza to inform the
president, and Manotoc to relay Allen's call.
Marcos was lying in a hospital bed that was pushed to the right side of his
spacious room. His eyes were closed. Surrounding him, perched on chairs or
tiptoeing around, were his doctors, nurses, and attendants. A handful of security
agents and valets stood guard on one side. Mattresses littered the floor. The
grandchildren had slept on them, also on the modest presidential bed, which was
unmade. Hundreds of books were piled everywhere in the room, and on his table
were stacked papers and documents.
Dr. Juanita Zagala told Aruiza that Marcos was feverish, 39 degrees.
The president must have heard them murmuring because he opened his eyes.
Aruiza explained the situation outside. If the mob got in, if the rebel soldiers got
in, there would be carnage. Painfully, Marcos struggled up, helped by his nurses.
On his feet at last, he ordered his security, Alex Ganut Jr., Jovencio Luga, and
Ben Sarmiento, to pack his clothes, his books and papers, and then told Aruiza to
call up Enrile from his bedroom.
Tommy Manotoc brought up Allen's offer. MALACAÑANG pp.149-150

Fidel Ramos
Personally I was not aware of some of the backroom maneuverings that were
taking place although I was constantly in touch with the US Defense and Air Force
attache, Col. Halley, who was assigned as my counterpart by the US Ambassador.
However, I never asked for any troop reinforcement from them. Never. I
maintained that this was a Filipino operation.


Two pillboxes exploded just inside the ranks of shield-carrying riot police sent to
reinforce the troopers. The armored personnel carriers were rolled to the fringe of
the intersection, causing the large crowd of Marcos loyalists and pro-Cory
supporters to back off while the soldiers began to cock their rifles.
Tension increased when a new, larger and more organized group of
demonstrators arrived, waving giant yellow and red baners bearing labor and
student organizations' seals. The tension was diffused when Cols. Santiago and
Fortuno met with crowd leaders, among them priests and lawyers. An agreement
was reached for both sides to police their ranks and loyalists to put away their
small Philippine flags, these being the cause of tension.
"We caution you, however, not to insist on moving forward as we have been
ordered to hold position at all costs," said Santiago. "If you insist on this, we will
be forced to fire. Business Day 26 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Between 5:00 and 6:00 PM the President called Enrile
again. "Will you kindly tell your security to come to the vicinity of the Palace to
stop these people who are firing at the Palace?"
Enrile said he would ask Gen. Ramos to send a contingent to look at the
situation. Marcos asked, "Will you please contact Ambassador Bosworth and ask
him if he could make available Gen. Teddy Allen and his group to be my security
escort, because I want to leave the Palace."
"Surely, Mr. President."
Enrile called Ambassador Bosworth and relayed the message. After a while
Amb. Bosworth called him back and said, "Please ask Gen. Ramos to get in touch
with me so that we can explain to him the details of the evacuation of the
President from the Palace." Sun Inq Mag 16 Mar

CAMP AGUINALDO - Emerging from a lengthy high-level conference with other

commanders of the New Armed Forces of the Philippines, including newly
installed Chief of Staff Gen. Fidel V. Ramos, Defense Minister Enrile held a news
conference and disclosed that beleaguered Ferdinand E. Marcos was seeking safe
conduct for himself and his family. "There may be a possibility that a dialogue can
be undertaken in a neutral area regarding the exit of the Marcos family." Inquirer
26 Feb

Cory Aquino
Early in the evening, I was back in Wack Wack, talking with opposition leaders,
when Ambassador Bosworth called me up to say that the Marcoses had finally
been persuaded to leave. Their sons-in-law had been able to convince them that it
would be the best thing to do.

Fidel Ramos
I spent some time coordinating with Ambassador Bosworth who was arranging
the helicopter flight to Clark of the President's family and friends. I was to make
sure that there would be no interference or disturbance of movements by those
from the US Embassy or from the US Armed Forces in the vicinity of the Army-
Navy Club up to the embassy grounds. There were really two plans: one by
helicopter, the other by navy boat.

Jose Almonte
We had nothing to do with that decision of Marcos to leave; that was between him
and the Americans. What we wanted was to keep him here and submit him to the
people for trial. I daresay that if he had stayed and the people tried him and he
was convicted, then maybe the character of the present political situation would
be different. If he had been convicted, so, too, his cronies; then we would have no
PCGG problems now.

USA - Presidential Spokesman Larry Speakes was quoted as saying, "There are
things we know that we're not talking about at this moment and for obvious
reasons. We know what's going on in the Philippines, but we're not talking.
Malaya 26 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE - After talking to Enrile, the president told Tommy

Manotoc to call up his friend at the US Embassy and accept the offer of
transportation out of the Palace. Everyone began to pack, not only the president's
clothes, books, and papers, but also the boxes of money that had been stored
since the campaign in the bedroom.
The First Lady's attendants started to put her things together too. The three
agents manning the telephone booth had unhooked their phones to help Fe Roa
Gimenez. The traffic between the bedrooms upstairs and Heroes Hall below grew
more frenzied as all kinds of luggage made their way down. There were carton
boxes, garment bags, duffel bags, traveling bags, leather bags, attache cases,
Louis Vuitton bags, suitcases, and just plain boxes packed but their flaps left
Aruiza ran into a serious problem when he could not open Marcos's steel safe
in the bedroom. Fatigue, medication, and lack of sleep had blotted out the
combination from the president's memory and there was no way of getting at its
Marcos decided not to waste time over the safe's combination. Instead he
picked up a brown Samsonite attache case, gave it to a valet and told him, under
pain of his displeasure, not to open it or part with it. (In Honolulu, when he lay
dying in the hospital, Mrs. Marcos and Ferdinand Jr. decided to open the attache
case, expecting to find some valuable documents. To their surprise it contained a
Philippine flag, neatly folded. That flag now covers him where he lies in the
toolshed in Honolulu.) MALACAÑANG pp. 152- 153

The escort officers of the Marcoses went into a huddle and discussed their own
contingency plans. They saw household employees packing bags, boxes,
suitcases belonging to the Marcoses.
Greggy Araneta asked the escort officers to sound out their men for volunteers
to accompany the Marcoses should they decide to leave the Palace. Capt. Nestor
Sadiarin and 7 men volunteered. Op. cit., p. 119

WACK WACK, MANDALUYONG - Prime Minister Cesar Virata contacted President

Cory Aquino by phone. Mr. Virata informed Mrs. Aquino that he had just gotten a
phone message from the Americans requesting him to be the "honest broker" in
negotiating the departure of Mr. Marcos "in safety" from the Palace. Malacañang
was already besieged with angry and chanting crowds. Virata asked President
Aquino if she wanted to impose any "conditions" on the departure of Marcos. Mrs.
Aquino replied, "Tell him it's okay to go-my only condition is that he leave the
country." Virata said he would see "the President (meaning Marcos) immediately"
to convey the message. Inquirer 28 Feb

MALACAÑANG PALACE - The President told his remaining Cabinet Ministers and
friends that he was decided on dying in the Palace. His family pleaded with him, in
tears, to take the helicopter to Clark. Inquirer 27 Feb
6:30 PM - Military officers ordered remaining Malacañang personnel, even those
on the night shift, to evacuate.
The President's daughters were in tears pleading with their father to make the
departure for the US. They reasoned that they could not possibly come out of the
situation alive, and their children, the President's grandchildren, were with
them. Mr & Ms 21 Mar

After sunset, Ver and his son Irwin left Marcos and crossed to their headquarters
on the other side of the Pasig River.

"It's all over,"

Irwin Ver told his stunned aides. He stripped off his flak jacket and bulletproof
vest and wandered over to his quarters.

After shaking hands with those present, Gen. Ver went back to the Palace. The
general had thanked his commanders but he did none the courtesy of saying he
was leaving. Veritas Special Oct 86

7:00 PM - The US Embassy notified the Palace of arrangements and gave the
Marcoses two hours to leave the Palace.
Marcos called Ver again to his study. Ver went alone, after giving instructions
to his sons Irwin, Wyrlo, and Rexor to meet him there.
When Ver saw Marcos, he was told of a report that the Marines were about to
storm the Palace. Instead of verifying the information, Ver held his arms up, then
struck his right fist into his left palm as if in desperation. Mrs. Marcos cried on her
husband's shoulder. Marcos comforted her. BREAKAWAY p. 120

ARUIZA - Things were in an uproar, all of us running around, grabbing at

possessions, shouting last-minute instructions, trying to remember admonitions.

WACK WACK, MANDALUYONG - Cory received a phone call from US Ambassador

Bosworth telling her that Marcos was ready to leave the Palace but was asking to
stay for at least two days in Paoay, his home in the north.
Cory's initial reaction was: "Poor man, let us give him two days."
But MP Palma and others did not agree. They believed that given the chance,
Marcos might regroup his forces or extend his stay indefinitely.
Cory called Ambassador Bosworth to say that she could not grant the request.
Marcos should leave the country. PEOPLE POWER (II) p. 240

Fidel Ramos: Both Minister Enrile and I wanted whatever was for the greater good
of the greater number of Filipinos, which was to have the thing settled as fast as
possible and in a bloodless peaceful way. There are still many emotional Ilocanos
who think I should have stepped in and provided Mr. Marcos the chance to go to
Ilocos Norte at least to say goodbye. But at the time any deviation from the plan
would have given the remaining loyalist forces the opportunity to create a rallying
point, mobilize military units, and come storming back to Manila. We couldn't let
that happen while the Aquino government was still consolidating its forces.

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Back on the Palace side of the river, the scene was
chaotic. Baggage was being carried down to small watercraft on the river; there
were big fires around the place. They were burning something-documents.
The boats loaded with baggage headed across the river, up to the golf course
where the US helicopters were due to land.
Marcos called Gen. Pattugalan to inquire how the Palace barricades were being
manned. He was lucid and "seemed very controlled."
"See that the barricades stay intact...prevent the people from coming in at all
costs," Marcos ordered. Veritas Special Oct 86

MALACAÑANG PARK, 7:30 PM - Two American helicopters from Clark touched

down on the Pangarap golf course. Half an hour later, two other helicopters
landed. BREAKAWAY p. 120

All the names of those departing were cleared with Aquino, including the name of
her cousin, the notorious crony Eduardo Cojuangco. Veritas Special Oct 86

The family of Ver and his sons, Ambassador Eduardo Cojuangco and his family,
motored to Clark to join the Marcos party. BREAKAWAY p. 120

8:40 PM - A convoy of cars filled with security men made their escape to Clark Air
Base in Pampanga. Mr & Ms 21 Mar

MENDIOLA, 8:45 PM - The night was cool, a little windy. The atmosphere was
charged, yet the mammoth crowd of students and workers appeared relaxed and
tired. Red banners dominated the air as they wafted in the breezy and bright night.
These were the people who were supposed to be the "hotheads" and "agitators."
Most belonged to the BAYAN and KMU and militant student's groups. I did not
notice nor hear any agitation from their ranks.
The heckling and agitation emanated from the crowds that were either on the
rooftops or outside the BAYAN forces.
The marshalls cordoned their ranks with linked arms. Sectors were grouped
together. Most were young men and women-the martial law babies-now besieging
the last rampart of the dictatorship.
Up front, seminarians and priests and nuns formed a buffer between the
barbed wires and the first phalanx of militants.
In the middle of the sea of militants, a jeepney served as stage, headquarters,
food depot and clinic all at the same time. (I remembered all the flashy cars
encircling Crame and TV 4.) Malaya Sunday Mag 21 Mar

LINO BROCKA - Minsan pa, maniwala ka, nakatayong ganyan ang mga sundalo,
nariyan naman ang puwersa ng BAYAN. Hintayan. Tense talaga. Biglang may
tumawid sa bridge mula sa BAYAN side papuntang mga sundalo. May dalang
pagkain. Alam mo ba ang ginawa ng mga sundalo? Ibinaba ang mga baril nila-at
pumalakpak! Pagkatapos, kumain nang kumain. Dios ko, sabi namin, tao rin pala
sila. Gutom na gutom sila! E ayun, matapos nilang kumain, tinanganan uli ang
baril nila! Sunday Times Mag 16 Mar

(Once again, the military and BAYAN forces were standing face to face, waiting for
someone to make the next move. It was really tense. Suddenly someone from the
BAYAN side crossed the bridge towards the soldiers, carrying food. You know
what the soldiers did? They put down their guns-and clapped. Then they ate and
ate. God! I said, they're human too! They're so hungry! Well, but after eating, they
took up their guns again.)
MALACAÑANG PALACE - It was time to go. Marcos lingered at his bedroom door,
saying nothing, his face undecipherable. He shuffled forward, slowly and
interminably towards the elevator. Seconds before he stepped in, he threw
another look around him.
Once below, he had 50 yards to traverse from the elevator door to the Heroes
Hall landing. The hall was cramped with luggage waiting to be moved across the
river and then put in helicopters that were coming from the US Embassy grounds.
Each soldier that Marcos passed looked at him gravely and executed a slow,
sad salute, no longer the snappy gesture of better days. Reaching the landing and
visibly exhausted, Marcos stopped, looked around for a seat, and chose a valise
to sit on. Aruiza asked one of the boys to pull up a chair from somewhere. Marcos
moved weakly to the chair, still saying nothing, crumpling a soft golf hat in his
hands. Agents were burning documents nearby. Imee asked them to stop because
the fire was growing and the smoke bothered her. She feared an asthma attack.
The Marcos grandchildren gathered around him, clinging to him, saying
"Wowo" for "Lolo," and all he could offer them was this weak and distracted
smile. The members of the household staff, the last ones to leave the Palace, were
serving us hot dinner. Two of them, Susan Reyes and Danny Almazan, steadfast
to the end, approached Marcos to ask if he wanted to eat. They were weeping.
Marcos shook his head, then touched them gently, blessing them, the nearest to a
farewell the household staff received that night. MALACAÑANG pp. 156-7

RECEPTION HALL - Just minutes before they were to leave, the First Lady called
in the last of the few personnel sticking it out with them at the Palace, mostly the
remaining close-in security. She began handing out P10,000 to each in payroll
envelopes. She later handed over the task to Babes Romualdez, her PR man.
The First Family made their get-away from the Reception Hall where all of them
gathered during those final hours, down a flight of stairs to Heroes Hall, boarding
the Presidential barge to cross the Pasig River till they reached the lawn of
Malacañang Park where the two helicopters awaited them. Mr & Ms 21 Mar

Enrile was waiting (for Marcos) in the shadows, covered by his own RAM guard.
The two men had worked together closely for nearly thirty years, enriching each
other beyond most men's fantasies. They knew things about each other that
nobody else knew. According to witnesses, the meeting ended with words of
conciliation and a long embrace between the two men. DYNASTY p.419

ARUIZA - I caught sight of the young Ferdinand. Still in his crumpled fatigues, he
stuck to his father, his rifle ready at his hip. His eyes swept the scene. He was
guarding his father the way the close-in security agents did. Only the night before,
he had planned to gather a few select men to try and retake the government TV
station, to put to test the training he had received with the Rangers and the
Marines. I was set to join him but the president got wind of it and put his foot
down. MALACAÑANG p. 158

Some late sixth sense stirred formless fears about the future, for at the door of the
helicopter, Marcos suddenly struggled. He railed at Ganut and at another agent,
Restituto Alipio, struggling to free himself, beating weakly at the men, angry for
the first time since Feb 22. He did not want to board the helicopter. He did not
want to leave. Op. cit., pp. 159-160
MALACAÑANG PARK - Five US helicopters (each with a crew of four) were
utilized. The Marcos entourage was picked up across the Pasig River from the
Palace, and the entire party crossed the river by powerboat. Jolly Benitez missed
the "last boat" and frantically hired a banca to ferry him across.
A solid gold statue of a Santo Nino (with a golden cloak), approximately three
to four feet in height, adorned with a gold necklace featuring a huge diamond
pendant, was loaded on one helicopter by four men. Gold bars and crates of
"other stuff" were loaded, too.
The fugitive First Lady was decked out in a terno and was, as always,
impeccably well-groomed. She fit her earplugs upside down, probably to avoid
messing her coiffured hair, and constantly checked her make-up.
Armed Forces Chief Gen. Fabian Ver clambered aboard his chopper with an Uzi
slung around his neck. When asked by a crewman to unload the automatic pistol's
ammunition for "safety reasons," Ver testily retorted: "Don't fuck with me!"
One pilot was already revving up for a take-off when a man dressed in combat
uniform furiously motioned him to have the door opened. The flight engineer
stuck his head out and explained that they already had the maximum number of
passengers on board. He menacingly pointed the high-powered gun he was
carrying at the pilot, pushing his way in, growling, "I'm his goddamn son!" (They
took his word for it, since the goddamn father was in another chopper.) Mr & Ms
14 Mar

ARUIZA - There were 55 of us, divided into two shuttles of two helicopters each.
Mrs. Marcos, Ferdinand Jr., Col. Ratcliffe, Captains Villa, Sadiarin, and Espadero,
and Jose Conrado (Joly) Benitez boarded the first helicopter. It could not take
additional passengers since it was full of Mrs. Marcos's luggage. MALACAÑANG
pp. 159-160

9:05 PM - A helicopter groaned away from the Palace grounds. A second

helicopter lifted off at about the same time. Malaya 26 Feb

Marcos and his family took the first helicopter, Ver and his sons the second. Some
belongings were ferried to the US Embassy on a small boat to be taken from there
to Clark. BREAKAWAY p. 120

The second chopper that lifted immediately after the first one was airborne carried
the president, Tommy and Imee, Greggy and Irene, their children, the doctors and
nurses, the security agents and valets.
Fifteen minutes later, two more helicopters landed. Major Monino Veridiano and
the rest of the party took off right away because the American pilots feared the
Palace was surrounded by rebel soldiers who were shooting indiscriminately at
our people. MALACAÑANG PP. 159-10

9:25 PM - At least two (more) choppers left Malacañang, sources said. Malaya 26

MENDIOLA - A fresh contingent of mixed "red" and "yellow" marchers arrived

from Legarda to the cheers of the crowd. The mob outside the militants' ranks was
swelling. Word spread that Marcos had left. There were, however, reports that
some 300 ex-convict loyalists were standing their ground in the Palace and willing
to shoot it out to the end.
Gays, transvestites, crisscrossed the rallyists exclaiming, "Wala na si Marcos!
Makikita ko na rin ang Malacañang! Appear!" At the barbed wires sealing the
bridge, a streamer was planted beside the BAYAN flag that read: "Koalisyon
Mamamayan Laban sa Diktadura." Another: "Reject the US-sponsored Fascist
It was symbolic that the workers, the youth, and the urban poor-the so-called
basic masses, the most exploited and oppressed during Marcos's 20 years-were
here in Mendiola delivering the final blow to the gasping dictatorship, providing a
buffer between an unorganized and enraged mob and Malacañang with its 300 or
so hold-out loyalists. Malaya Sun Mag 23 Mar

The first indications that Mr. Marcos had left the presidential palace came when
about 1,000 Marines fortifying his residence suddenly withdrew and returned to
their barracks, believed to be either in Fort Bonifacio or Camp Crame. Malaya 26

NAGTAHAN BRIDGE The jubilant crowd surged at the soldiers, shook hands with
them, carried Lt. Col. Norberto Santiago, and put a yellow ribbon around his head.
Some of the people sang a Christmas carol, "Ang Pasko Ay Sumapit (Chritmas Is
Here)." Business Day 26 Feb

VILLA SAN MIGUEL, MANDALUYONG When the news came that the Marcoses
were gone, Cardinal Sin sent word to the Pink Nuns and the Carmelites and the
Poor Clares that they could now stop their fast. He gifted them with ice cream and
cake to break their fast on. QUARTET p. 108

HILARION M. HENARES, JR. - At 9:30 Cardinal Sin sent three lechons to the
starving nuns, and my daughter Rosanna burst into our bedroom crying, "It's
over! Marcos has fled!"
My wife Cecilia fell to her knees, sobbing softly, and praying. Rosanna lifted
her to her feet, "No, mamma, no tears, no prayers, not yet."
"Why not?" I screamed.
"Heaven is empty. God, Our Lady, the saints, and all the angels are here,
dancing in the streets. Come, let's join them!" Inquirer Feb 88

CLARK AIR BASE, PAMPANGA, 9:45 PM - Marcos was met by US Ambassador

Stephen Bosworth. He also got a "welcome" from hundreds who massed at the
main gate of the base to chant "Co-ree!" while a convoy of some fifty vehicles
held a noise barrage for twenty minutes along the base's perimeter
fence. PEOPLE POWER (I) p. 171

9:52 PM - DZRH was the first to announce the news: "The Marcoses have fled the
country!" Malaya 8 Feb

Shortly after 10:00 PM - US Air Force TV station FEN confirmed Marcos's

departure. Manila Times 26 Feb

WACK WACK, MANDALUYONG - Ambassador Bosworth called Cory to say that

Marcos had left. Cool as always, Cory turned to Palma and the others after she put
the phone down. She said simply, "Marcos has left." She said it as if it were the
most ordinary thing. Everyone shouted jubilantly. Cory did not. PEOPLE POWER
(II) p. 240

Cory Aquino: According to Steve Bosworth, once they got to Clark the Marcoses
were asking if they could go to Paoay after resting for the night in Clark. I said, is
Marcos dying? No, but he's feeling very tired. Well, in that case, I said, he can stay
for the night in Clark but the following morning they just have to go. I never even
considered Paoay. If he were dying, my goodness, let him die in Clark or
wherever. But I was assured by Steve Bosworth that he was in no danger of dying.

Freddie Aguilar: May show na naman ako sa Hobbit that night. I was on my way
nang mabalita na wala na si Marcos. This I gotta see, sabi ko. Shinort-cut ko na
naman ang show. Sabi ko sa foreigners sumama na lang sila sa Malacanang. Ang
dami namin.
(I was on my way to Hobbit when I heard that Marcos was gone. Again, I cut short
my show and invited the foreigners to come with me to Malacanang.)

Fidel Ramos: I had left Crame to go to Malacanang after giving Gen. Cabrera,
superintendent of the Western District, instructions to keep order in the vicinity. I
promised to be there in 45 minutes. But the crowds were very very thick in Sta.
Mesa, everyone was celebrating, it was like Christmas and New Year and
birthdays all rolled into one. We were heading back for Crame when I got a radio
message asking me to report to President Aquino in Wack Wack.

LINO BROCKA - Sugod paabante, sugod paatras. Umuulan ang bato mula sa
Marcos loyalists na nakulong sa loob ng Malacañang. Walang malay na
tinakbuhan na sila ng presidente nila. Pero, Manay, nakakahiya bang sabihin, di
mo yata maaalis sa Pinoy, sa gitna ng batuhan at stampede, tuwing may camera
lights, tigil kami, kuntodo luhod 'yung mga nasa harap para 'wag matakpan ang
mga nasa likod, sabay ngisi at L sign! Pa-picture! Kuha yung mga nakatingala.
Kuha yong nasa tabi ng tangke. Cut to cut na ganyan. Tapos, ayan, umuulan na
naman ang mga bato, putok ang ulo ng iba, duguan, ang gulo! Tapos, dating ang
mga madre, may dalang tatlong karosa, kumakanta, Ama Namin. Sabi ko, wala na
si Makoy! Panalo na! Sunday Times Mag 16 Mar

(At Malacanang it was now advance and now retreat. Stones were raining from the
Marcos loyalists trapped inside the Palace grounds; they didn't know their
president had run out on them. What's embarrassing to mention is the vanity you
just can't take away from the Pinoy. In the midst of all that stoning and stampede,
the moment camera lights flashed, we all froze, those in front kneeling down so as
not to cover those behind, and everybody grinning and flashing the L sighn. Pa-
picture! Afterwards, on with the rain of stones, on with the broken heads, on with
the blood, on with the riot! How brave really is the Pinoy, with a gun or
without.) QUARTET pp. 93-94

10:15 PM - As the mob dismantled the barbed wire structures, the militants stood
up, tightened their ranks, and dispersed. Why did they disperse? Why did they not
lead or join the mob that "conquered" Malacañang? Malaya Sunday Mag 23 Mar

EDSA AND ELSEWHERE - Dancing in the streets, of course, fireworks, horn-

honking and drum-beating, laughing, crying and embracing. Monumental traffic
jams. Thousands staged a victory march from Crame to Malacañang, and
everywhere people occupied the streets in cathartic celebration. Sunday Times
Mag 2 Mar

Fidel Ramos: I assured President Aquino that the country was under the control of
her new government. The President gave instructions about maintaining order
and she also wanted to know the line-up of commanders that I was contemplating.

Cory Aquino: We were already deciding who would be in the cabinet and, even
then, we were already having problems. As you know I was brought to the
presidency by people power and people power was composed of people from the
left, others from the right, and then there are the moderates. That first night
should have warned me that things would not be all that rosy and friendly in my
first cabinet.

MENDIOLA, 10:50 PM - The crowd that stood vigil outside the bridge swelled to
more than a million. Those in front of the barbed wires started cutting strands for

INSIDE THE PALACE - Servants left behind prayed in a chapel. Some had tears
streaming down their faces as they chanted over and over again: "God have
mercy on us."
Before the crowd arrived, reporters wandered freely through the ornate rooms
of the Spanish-colonial palace where only hours before Marcos was sworn in for a
fourth term and vowed he would never resign.
Downstairs, tables were overturned and paper littered the floor. In a huge
ornate reception room with mirrors on every wall and chandeliers hanging from
the ceiling, a half-eaten meal - it looked like a curry in aluminum foil containers -
lay on a banqueting table.
Maps with voting figures showing how Marcos had fared in the disputed Feb. 7
presidential election that led to his downfall were on display in an ante-room.
Rifles, a machine gun, and bandoliers of bullets lay nearby. Manila Times 27 Feb

Cory Aquino
I hope it will never happen again, this business of no transition. Most presidents
have the advantage of a transition period - before it was from the second Tuesday
of November until January first - they have the luxury of time to think things out,
especially in the selection of the cabinet. I never had that. On the other hand, if
Marcos had not cheated me, if he had just accepted the will of the people, he
would have stayed in the Philippines and still have been able to control
parliament. And I would have had to deal with that parliament. I guess it was the
trade-off. If I had been given a transition period, we would not have been able to
restore democracy as fast. Certainly it wasn't only to my advantage but to the
advantage of the Filipino people. So given that, I think it was providential that
Marcos did what he did, because it gave rise to my non-violent protest movement
and then to people power at EDSA.

The Marcoses fled so hastily that they abandoned scores of precious family
mementos as well as a lavish half-eaten meal in their silver service, a half-dozen
wide-screen television sets, costly stereo units, a double freezer stuffed with
imported American steaks, and even a 10-foot-high closet packed with the former
first lady's nightgowns.
Beside Mrs. Marcos's 12-foot-wide bed, there was even a half-eaten banana.
The one thing Mrs. Marcos did take along, though, was her famed jewelry
collection. Two large jewelry display cases were empty, and the floors of Mrs.
Marcos's bedroom were strewn with empty jewelry boxes.
Her husband's gymnasium-sized bedroom was a living statement of a chronic
condition of ill-health that Marcos had always denied. Beside her husband's
kingsize bed was a specially fitted hospital bed connected to an oxygen machine
and an intravenous bottle containing an unlabeled clear liquid. In the ceremonial
bedroom stood a sophisticated piece of medical equipment called the "Centurion
Magnotherapy," designed to treat chronic and degenerative illnesses of the heart,
lungs and kidneys.
On a second-floor balcony was a large blackboard depicting a detailed map of
Camp Crame. Beside the map were notes listing the rebels' possible strength in
men and arms.
In a pile of documents stamped "top secret and confidential" near the former
president's bed, there was a letter from Ramos to Marcos dated Feb. 19, three
days before Ramos joined Enrile in defying the Marcos regime. The letter warned
the President that a recent flurry of "midnight appointments or assignments"
within top military ranks by Ver "is not good for the Armed Forces of the
Beside the two pillows on Marcos's unmade bed was another souvenir that the
President had left behind: his World War II Army helmet. Business Day 27 Feb

PALACE GATES, 11:30 PM - The people coming from Mendiola Bridge surged
towards the gate, prompting the more than 100 civilian Marcos loyalists to flee in
every direction. Palace gates were forcibly opened. Hundreds of looters, who were
among the first to enter Malacañang, climbed up the Administration building.
Thousands of documents were thrown out of the windows while some valuables
were carted away. An unidentified student from Philippine Marine Institute was
reported killed inside the building. Veritas 2 Mar

Equipment was carted off (not even phone directories were spared), mimeograph
stencils ripped off their machines and the contents of desks dumped on the floor.
Pictures of Marcos and his wife were smashed. One boy paraded wearing a
ceremonial spiked helmet.
Young men sat behind desks, pretending to be bureaucrats picking up phones
and receiving calls (the phones were still functioning). The records office was
vandalized, the people leaving most of the typewriters alone, but dumping papers,
files and books on the floor. A lady's shoe posed incongruously on a typewriter.
Outside, about 10,000 people had gotten in or were trying to get in. Couples sat
under trees or strolled down lanes posing for photographs. Young men clambered
up abandoned tanks and cheered. In the lurid light of incandescent lamps, the
scene was surrealistic.
Fireworks were bursting the bells of nearby San Beda were ringing. At
Maharlika Hall, a young man waved a large Philippine flag from the balcony, a la
Malolos. Searching for souvenirs, or loot, people spared nothing, taking radios,
TV sets, pieces of papers, even plants. Cushions, clothes and other objects were
hurled out, stopping only when angry people started chanting: "Wag sirain."
Manila Times 27 Feb

ROLANDO A. DOMINGO "My first impression was of a Mardi Gras. Two girls were
dancing on top of a car. Inside the Palace my impression was that it was all
decorated with capiz shell. Every room was a mess. People pushed and shoved
and looted. Finally I simply refused to go any farther; I just stood there and let my
eyes absorb what there was to be seen. Two people were hurrying away with a
valuable-looking frame, the portrait in it torn out. A man in sandals held a box of
vegetables high over his head. A group was hastily bundling up what looked like
dresses or curtains. A man was hiding a handful of M-16 magazine clups under
his jacket. There were soldiers around by they made no move to stop the looters.
They just milled around in a daze. I left early. Of my vigils, this at Malacanang was
the shortest and the most shocking." QUARTET p. 95

Freddie Aguilar: May nasalubong ako, may dalang paso. Okey lang, 'kako,
souvenir. Maya-maya, may isa, sako ng bigas ang dala. Magnanakaw na 'yon ah.
Kinausap ko ang mga tao. Walang p.a. kaya sumisigaw ako. Sana ho, 'kako, 'wag
tayong magnakaw, 'wag tayong mag-vandalize. Okey lang kung mag-usyoso tayo
pero 'wag nating sisirain. 'Wag nating ibunton sa palasyo ang galit natin sa dating
presidente. Nakakahiya sa bagong presidente natin kung dadatnan niyang wasak-
wasak itong Malacanang. Tapos noon, umalis ako para mai-report ito sa Channel
(I saw someone carrying out a flowerpot; that seemed okay, just a souvenir. Then I
saw one carrying out a sack of rice; now that was stealing. I had to shout to be
heard. I asked the people to please not steal or vandalize. I said it was okay to
look around, but not to destroy. Let's not vent our anger at the former president
on the palace, I said. It would be a shame if, when the new president comes, she
finds Malacanang a wreck.)

MALACAÑANG PALACE - Some of the angry crowd caught a number of security

men and members of the Palace household loading ten pieces of luggage and
other valuables belonging to the First Family into a rubber boat behind the Palace
that would take them to the US Embassy compound via the Pasig River where
another American chopper was to pick them up. BREAKAWAY P. 121

Freddie Aguilar: Pagdating ko sa Channel 4, ang dami nang balimbing! 'Yung mga
hindi ko nakita sa struggle, biglang pumapapel. Sila ang nagbibigay ng rules.
Kesyo pumirma daw muna ako. Palibhasa, ako naman e Kristiyano, hangga't
maaari ayaw kong bumasag ng mukha ng may mukha, pumirma ako. Saan ba 'ko
puwede mag-report? Pinapasok ako. Nakita ko sa loob sina Peque Gallaga, sina
Danny Javier. Tapos 'yung mga unggoy na cameramen, nung sabihin kong magre-
report sana ako tungkol sa mga magnanakaw sa Malacanang, sabi 'wag ko sabihin
'yung pagnanakaw. Mga sipsip! Mga lintik! Nagtaas ako ng boses. Sino ba kayo?
Bakit biglang nandito kayong lahat? At bakit ninyo sasabihin sa akin na hindi ako
puwedeng mag-report ng totoo? Kaya nga nagkaleche-leche ang bayan natin,
dahil sa kasinungalingang ganyan, ngayon babalik na naman kayo. Nagngingitngit
ako talaga. Kung puwede lang, suntukan na lang e.
(In Channel 4, the balimbings were out in full force, people who were never part of
the struggle but who now acted like they were. They had rules, like I was told I had
to sign-in first. Being a good non-violent Christian, I controlled myself and signed.
Inside I saw Peque Gallaga and Danny Javier's group. Then there were these
cameramen who, when they learned that I was going to report on the looting of
Malacanang, told me not to mention the looting. (Expletives) I was so angry I
raised my voice. Who are you guys anyway? What are you all doing here? And
how dare you tell me that I am not allowed to report the truth! It's precisely the
reason why our country has become a basket case, because of all the lying. Now
you want to go back to that? I was so mad, I would have settled it with a fistfight.)

BEHIND THE PALACE - The security men and household members jumped into
the murky Pasig River to avoid the mob. Luckily not one of them drowned. The
luggage containing money, jewelry, documents, and other valuables were looted
right on the spot. Not one of the looters, however, was able to enter the Palace as
security men had locked the main entrance leading to the rooms and offices of the
President and the First Lady and their children. Ibid.

Freddie Aguilar: Nagsalita ako sa TV at nanawagan ako sa mga nasa Malacanang

na itigil na ang pagnanakaw at pagbabasag. Sana 'kako, bantayan na lang nila ang
palasyo para sa bagong presidente. Alam mo ang kasabisabi nung isang unggoy
sa Channel 4? "Mga kaibigan diyan sa Malacanang," sabi niya, "binibigyan namin
kayo ng 30 minutes para umalis diyan!" May time limit pa! Off the air, sabi ko sa
kanila, sa mga nakaharap sa camera, "I bet you my eggs, you cannot make those
people leave, kahit ipadala mo pa ang mga reformists diyan, hindi nila
mapapaalis." Hindi sila nakakibo. Mga burgis ba. Mga porma.
(I went on TV and pleaded with the people in Malacanang to stop the looting and
vandalizing. I suggested that they guard the palace instead for the new president.
You know what one of the monkeys in Channel 4 said? He said on cam, "Friends,
we are giving you 30 minutes to leave the premises!" He actually gave them a time
limit! Off the air, I said to them, "I bet you my eggs, even if you send in the
reformists, you cannot make those people leave.")

MALACANANG - Not all the media folk who toured the Palace that midnight saw
the most pathetic evidence of Mr. Marcos's funk during his "hora de verdad". In
his bathroom were found his black combat boots, his trousers, and a mess of
disposable diapers. Boots, trousers and diapers were all soiled with excrement. In
a moment of shock or a fit of panic, Mr. Marcos had shitted in his pants. That he
could no longer control his bladder was evident during the campaign, when he
traveled with a urinal. It now appears that he had also lost, or was losing, control
of his bowels too and this would explain why the Marcoses had boxes and boxes
of disposable diapers.
At any rate, it seems all too proper that one of the last things Mr. Marcos did in
the Palace was to defile it. QUARTET pp. 99-10

Fidel Ramos: We really did not expect to achieve our objectives in such a short
period and almost without bloodshed. I believe the credit should go to, one, a
credible leader supported by the people in the person of Cory Aquino; two, a core
of reform-minded military professionals led by Enrile and myself; three, people
power; and four, a divine commander-in-chief who saw to it that people and
events fell into place in the nick of time.

CORINTA BARRANCO - "The gates were open but people were clambering over
the fence, impatient to get inside. Branches had been broken off from the trees
along the fence and carried away as souvenirs. Everyone wanted a souvenir of
this visit to Malacanang. Fortunately, by then, the Palace had been secured by
General Ramos's men and the looting had stopped. Through a window I caught a
glimpse of the famous chandeliers, all ablaze, as if the former tenants were still
there. On the balcony where Marcos had addressed his paid audience at noon
now stood a poster of Cory and Doy. People were milling around, wreaking havoc
on the manicured lawns. I thought: if Imelda could see this she'd faint!" Op. cit.
pp. 95-96

Cory Aquino: I would change nothing about EDSA. I think it was perfect the way it
was. Everything was so spontaneous. There was no director. It was really the
people wanting to make changes happen and they did make them happen. It was
the people themselves coming together and becoming one and finally identifying
with each other. I had always hoped and dreamed that we Filipinos could be more
intensely nationalistic, and EDSA was it. Finally, Filipino people were identifying
with all that's good about the Filipino - the sharing of the food, the praying
together, the kindness and support shown for everybody, the total giving of
oneself I don't want that changed. In fact I want many EDSAs to happen (although
I don't think that's possible, it was one of a kind), or at least for us to learn the
lessons of EDSA. We will never get the entire picture, of course, with so many
things happening to so many different people, but the important thing is, for once
the Filipinos shone and the Philippines was finally known throughout the world
for something very good. In the past we were known throughout the world, but for
something very bad. EDSA changed all that.

When Cory Aquino went home that night after a hectic day, and placed her head
on her pillow to claim the rest she had earned at the end of a long long trail,
between the closing of her eyes and the coming of sleep, in that twilight zone of
wakefulness where thoughts and plans and prayers dwell, perhaps her mind
wandered back to some warm private moment of her life with Ninoy, and she must
have whispered into the night, "You're right, Ninoy. The Filipino is worth dying
for." Mr & Ms. 7 Mar

CLARK AIR FORCE BASE - The fugitives rested nearly eight hours before
proceeding to Guam at 5:12 AM, Wednesday, aboard a USAF C-9 Nightingale
Hospital Aircraft which the Geneva convention protects from forced landings. A
second plane, bearing General Ver and other supporters, left at 5:22AM. Their
destination: Andersen Air Base, Guam, USA. Asiaweek 9 Mar

CLARK AIR FORCE BASE - Shortly before they were to leave the base, the
deposed President asked his American pilots if they can take him to his home
province. The pilots retorted in a rather curt manner that their orders were to take
him out of the Philippines. It was on the flight to Guam that the President had to
be sedated, to stop him from insisting on flying to the north. Mr. & Ms. 21-27 Mar
President at first refused to leave Philippine
soil and insisted on being flown to Paoay,
Ilocos Norte. American officials hurriedly
communicated with the heads of the rebel
forces, General Ramos and Minister Enrile,
who earlier gave the go-signal for Marcos to
leave the country.
The rebel chiefs said no way could Marcos
be allowed to seek refuge in Ilocos as this
would enable him to regroup with his loyalist
forces. By 5:05 AM of Wednesday, Marcos
was finally convinced to take the US Air Force
plane to Guam. Inquirer 28 Feb


provided two jet aircraft, capable of
transporting 500 persons - a Boeing 707 and a
B-747. The Marcos party was given security
during the operation by US Marines.
Mr. Marcos begged to be taken to Laoag
because, he said, he "wanted to spend one
last night in Ilocos." Arriving at Paoay's
lakeside Malacañang of the North, the former
president's mood shifted to aggression. He
instructed his aides to organize an "Ilocano Army" to fight its way back to Metro
Manila and "recover" the capital.
He rang up up Deputy Premier and Minister of Local Governments Jose Roño
and told him of his plans. Roño, aghast, counseled him against a "countercoup."
He asserted, "Please spare out people a bloodbath!"
He then telephoned Minister of Trade and Industry Roberto Ongpin, insisting,
"Bobby, I'd like to make a last stand in Paoay!" Ongpin, equally taken aback,
advised Mr. Marcos: "Think of the millions of Filipinos who are going to die if you
start a civil war!"
He boarded his US Air Force Plane at 0:15 AM Wednesday morning and finally
departed with his family. Inquirer 28 Feb

CLARK AIR FORCE BASE - The presidential party stayed at the base until 5:00
AM, Wednesday. During the night, there was a bitter exchange between Ferdinand
and American officials. He demanded to be flown to his home in the Ilocos. They
had orders from President Reagan and the joint chiefs of staff to fly him to
America. At 4:00 AM, Ferdinand stopped arguing and the sleepy and sullen group
began boarding jet transports for Guam and Hawaii. Dynasty pp. 419-420
The 10th anniversary of EDSA is just about three months away, and already I hear
voices tilting with the truth and casting a different net about what happened
February 22-25, 1986. Imelda Marcos contends that the late dictator was the real
hero of EDSA because her late husband stopped his soldiery led by Gen. Fabian
Ver from subjecting the huge human mass at EDSA to history's bloodiest
massacre. Imelda is back in business at the Lower House, as usual extolling "the
good, the true and the beautiful," largely meaning herself and the departed
dictator. Ah, the deep, resonant, wondrous chiming of bells that I heard during
EDSA is now being dribbled out of memory! Those responsible are out to rewrite
those four days in February 1986 that shook the world. The RAM, led by Col.
Gregorio Honasan, has laid claim to EDSA, as has former minister now senator
Juan Ponce Enrile. In 1994, but for the watchful eyes of some EDSA veterans and
this writer, the eighth anniversary of EDSA would have been relegated to a

The EDSA keyword of People Power has been scratched out in a draft
memorandum prepared by Lennie de Jesus (bosswoman of the Presidential
Management Staff). What would have prevailed was the initial blast of Philippines
2000 whose author was, and remains, Gen. Jose Almonte. Cory Aquino and Jaime
Cardinal Sin had been left out of the official ceremony which excluded the EDSA
shrine. And if EDSA's faithful had not tolled the alarm bells, the ninth anniversary
would have been a paean to the government's economic genius. All exhibits
would have been economic.

Well, we fought. And President Ramos, then highly sensitive to public opinion,
ordered the draft memo of Lennie de Jesus shredded. The main rites switched
back to the EDSA shrine where the president was only too happy to share stellar
roles with Cory Aquino and Cardinal Sin.

Now I hear voices again and they bother me a lot. Now a senator, Greg the
erstwhile Gringo Honasan describes as "shrill" and "hysterical" anybody who
wants the RAM to surrender its cache of combat weapons. They will need that for
"leverage" and will yield them only when the last Whereas and Therefore has been
nailed to the government-RAM peace agreement and the Seal of the Republic
affixed. Leverage is simply an offshoot of Joe Almonte's doctrine laying the
Malacañang's protective hand on the RAM. Remember? Joe-Al, RAM's
acknowledged godfather, told the RAM not to disband, not to surrender their
arms, to remain intact. They would be needed, he said, to exert pressure on
politicians who resisted reforms. If this is not blackmail, I don't know what is.

Don't ever forget that Honasan and Co., together with then defense minister Juan
Ponce Enrile, claimed EDSA as their creation. And now they have reconciled with
President Fidel Ramos who joined them at EDSA. And I am not exactly sure I
agree with this latest statement of Senator Enrile, assuming he was correctly
quoted: "That's why Eddie (Ramos) and I, together with the RAMboys and majority
of out people, revolted and toppled the Marcos regime."

JPE made that statement to rebut Imelda Marcos's claim that he and Ramos were
the blood-stained janissaries of martial rule, not her husband. Study that
statement well. Yes, JPE mutinied with his RAM boys led by Honasan. Yes, FVR,
who was on outs with Gen. Fabian Ver, joined the mutineers at Camp Crame. But
it was a Palace mutiny that backfired and failed because the dictator caught them
in the act. And so they all escaped to Camp Crame as a fatally wounded corrida
bull seeks the shadows to say their last prayers. And perhaps to die.

I will not deny them their courage. They had courage.

But I do deny them their claim that they were the heroes of EDSA. Why? Because
EDSA was a different event altogether. EDSA did not come about because they
launched a Palace coup. EDSA came about because of a long string of events and
happenings that built up like a blast furnace and an ignition system in the heart of
the citizenry immediately after the assassination of Benigno Aquino Jr. August 21,
1983. Out of Ninoy's death, People Power emerged like a newborn baby bawling
out the joy of getting out of his mother's womb.

People Power started dawn of the following day, August 22, 1983, when the tens,
then hundreds, then thousands, then tens of thousands threaded their way to the
Aquino residence in Quezon City to view his remains. People Power thronged the
highways by the hundreds of thousands as Ninoy's body was brought by his
family to Concepcion, Tarlac, and back. People Power poured all over Metro
Manila as Benigno Aquino Jr. was laid to rest August 30, 1983 inside a simple
white-washed tomb at the Manila Memorial cemetery. People Power exploded in
the weeks and months thereafter as the biggest demonstrations in the Philippines'
history choked the streets of the metropolis. People Power was such that Imelda
Marcos for the first time really got scared and trembled with her husband in

People Power. Its ignition system worked again when Jaime Cardinal Sin and the
Church called on the people to protect the lives of Mssrs. Enrile, Ramos, and

People Power and the Camp Crame mutineers were actually alien to each other. It
was a Christianity that closed ranks at the behest of the Church to protect
Christians who would have been slain by the dictatorship. But People Power had
no love lost for the mutineers. The latter were considered admirable men of virtue,
principle, and patriotism who revolted because of love of country. People Power
remained the haunting hand of Ninoy Aquino which bore busted rosary beads
when the military assassinated him at the Manila International Airport. And that
hand was the shadow over EDSA.
Colonel Honasan and Co. were part of this military that conspired ....Ninoy's
to kill Ninoy willingly and gleefully on the instructions of face was
Malacañang. Let us not forget that. dust and
dirt-speckled, bruised from his headlong fall from stairs to tarmac. But there was
the slightest suggestion of a smile around his closed lips. Ninoy seemed to be
telling the dictator that in the end, he, Ninoy, won and he, Ferdinand Marcos,

I have to recapitulate things over and over again because the present refuses to
honor the past. Those in power would not rewrite EDSA to serve their own
ignominious purposes. They refuse to see the past as it was, EDSA as it was,
Ninoy as he was assassinated by his soldier-escort. The past brings its baggage
of truth and undistorted reality. For men of ambition, men who would use power
for power's sake, the past must be bent like a pretzel and soaked in the musk of
humbug, cant, and pretense.

Notice that the men who rule us today would want Ninoy's name to be swept adrift
by the four winds, pillaged of its heroism and nobility, forgotten. Theirs is the
world of tawdry and tinsel imagination, the core and center of which is a
Centennial Tower that touches nothing in the sky but the emptiness of vainglory.
Funny, but they claim their watering place was EDSA. And if we the people were
there, well, we were sucked into the greatness of their deed. That is what they

The rewriting of EDSA has long begun. But we who were there will not allow them to get
away with it.

Teodoro C. Benigno
The Philippine Star
17 November 1995