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ED 107 Principles of Teaching

Lesson 10: Teaching Strategies

Guiding Principles in the Selection and Use of Teaching Strategies
Brain- Based Strategies

Guiding Principles in the Selection and Use of Teaching Strategies

A teaching strategy is the method used to deliver information in the
classroom, online or in some other medium.
The goal of a teaching strategy is to facilitate learning to motivate
learners to engage them in learning and to help them focus.
1. Learning is an active process.
- actively engage the learners in learning activities if we want them to
learn what we intend to teach.
- give students opportunities to participate in classroom activities
- Hands-on-minds learning
- Research shows
75% retention rates in learning by doing
90% retention rates learning by teaching others
Summary quote:
What I hear, I forget.
What I see, I remember.
What I do, I understand.

2. The more senses that are involved in learning, the more and the
better the learning.
Humans are intensely visual animals. The eyes contain nearly 70
percent of the bodys receptors and send millions of signals along the
optic nerves to the visual processing center of the brain we take in
more information visually that through any of the other senses.

3. Emotion has the power to increase retention and learning.

- The more emotionally involved the students, more learning occurs
and the greater is the lesson impact.
- Bring in emotion into the class
- Recognize the power of emotion to increase retention

4. Learning is meaningful when it is connected to the students

everyday life.
- The meaningfulness & relevance of what we teach is considerably
reduced by our practice of teaching simply for testing.
- answering pedagogy
- Students see meaning in learning when teachers show the
connectedness of the lessons to the everyday concern and life of
the students.
5. Good teaching goes beyond recall of information
- Teaching should reach the levels of application, analysis,
synthesis, and evaluation to hone our students thinking skills.
6. An integrated teaching approach is far more effective than
teaching isolated bits of information.
- Consider the Multiple Intelligences (MI) & varied learning styles

(LS) of students in an instructional approach.

Possess a repertoire of teaching and testing strategies and
techniques to reach a full range of students varied learning styles
and multiple intelligences.

An integrated approach incorporates successful, research-based and

brain-based instructional strategies.
1. Rehearsal or constant attention.
2. Build neural networks through concrete experience, symbolic learning
and abstract learning.
3. Engage students in learning experience.
4. More learning occurs through sight. Visual information is more
effective on mind processes and remembering.
5. Recall is easier when it is embedded in music or rhyme.

Brain- Based Strategies

Brain-based education is actually a no-brainer. Heres a simple,
but essential premise: the brain is intimately involved in, and connected
with, everything educators and students do at school.
Brain-based education is best understood in three words:
engagement, strategies and principles. You must engage your learners
and do it with strategies that are based on real science.
1. Involving students in real-life or authentic problem solving
Sometimes students ask us when and where they need this and
that they are learning in school.
This question implies that students hardly see the relevance and
practical application of what theyre taught in school maybe because we
give hypothetical studies that have convergent and neat answers or
hypothetical cases that are far removed from real life (Wolfe, 2001).
Students in fifth grade class were challenged by their teacher to
determine whether public opinion in their city matched that of the
country in public poll regarding the selection of a presidential candidate.
The students researched how polls are conducted, studied data

collection, and learned how to form questions. After conducting a mini

poll at the school, they tabulated their results, and discussed the
reasons for the differences.
2. Using projects to increase meaning and motivation
Projects may not necessarily be based on problems.
1. Example in item number 1 may be made a project.
2. The class will work together on a presentation of World War II
memories and produce an extremely poignant recording of a song from
the era and display collages of photos and other memorabilia (Michel
Simkins, 2002).
3. Simulations and role plays as meaning makers
Not all curriculum topics can be addressed through authentic
problem solving and projects.
At times these activities are not feasible, so simulations which are
not real events are our resort.
A sari-sari store to give elementary students experience in making
budget, stay within budget and counting change for bills.
4. Classroom strategies using visual processing
A picture is worth ten thousand words.
This being the case we make it a point to have visual aids. Visuals

are powerful aids in retention as well as in understanding. This help

students organize their thinking.


For Analogy

Hierarchical topical organizer


Episode Pattern Organizer

Concept Pattern Organizer

Time- Sequence Pattern in Arbitration

Process/ Cause-Effect Pattern for Negotiation

5. Songs, jingles and raps

Content can be more easily learned when they give it a tune or
make it into rhyme through personally composed songs, jingles and raps.
Adding movement to the music or rhyme provides an extra sensory
input to the brain and probably enhances learning.
Stop, stop, stop the words
With a little dot

Use a period at the end

So theyll know to stop (Wolfe, 2001)
6. Mnemonic Strategies
Assist students in recalling important information.
We count the peaks and valleys of our knuckles.
StalaCtites - found on the Ceiling
StalaGmites found on the Ground

7. Writing Strategies
Make students write their own word problems and make
them ask their classmates to solve them or ask the students to write
down what they are learning or confused about by the use of incomplete

I think calculators Factoring is easy if I am hard up in
In Social Studies, you make them write dialogues, speeches, letter,
newspaper eulogies.
8. Active Review
Instead of the teacher conducting the review, students are given
their turn.
Review days are planned and organized to give enough time for

students to prepare for the holding of a review. It also strengthens

9. Hands-on-activities
Concrete experience is one of the best ways to make long-lasting
neural connections. Aristotle said: What we have to learn to do, we learn
by doing.
An integrated approach is also interdisciplinary and
If you teach science, you connect the topic for environment with
the kinds of pollution and global climatic changes within the science
subject itself.
An instructional approach is also integrated when it includes
the acquisition of knowledge, skills as well as values.
10. There is no such thing as best teaching method. The best
method is one that works, the one that yields results.
There are factors to consider in the choice of teaching method:
1. The instructional objective
2. The nature of the subject matter
3. The learners
4. The teacher
5. School policies

Corpuz, Brenda B. & Gloria G. Salandanan. (2003).
Principles and Strategies of Teaching.Quezon City: Lorimar
Publishing Co.
http://Effective Teaching Strategies.html
http://Teaching strategies.html