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CHAPTER 9

DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
4.

(a)

(b)

5.

(a)

(b)

The advantages of a product layout are:


n
The use of special purpose equipment can make the overall process more efficient
n
Individual workloads can usually be made to be relatively equivalent
n
It usually results in low variable cost per unit
n
It tends to keep material handling costs relatively low
n
It reduces work-in-process inventories
n
It makes training and supervision easier than with other layout strategies
The disadvantages are:
n
High volume is required because of the large investment needed to set-up the process
n
Work stoppage at any point ties up the whole operation
n
There is a lack of flexibility in handling a variety of products or production rates
The advantages of a process layout are:
n
It can simultaneously handle a wide variety of products or services, especially in terms
of batches or job lots
n
It has considerable flexibility with respect to equipment and labor assignments
The disadvantages of a process layout are:
n
The use of general purpose rather than special purpose equipment tends to make the
overall process somewhat less efficient
n
Orders take more time and money to move through the system because of the difficult
scheduling, setting up the process for a wide variety of orders, and considerable
material handling
n
Labor skill requirements tend to be high because of the use of general purpose
equipment
n
Work-in-process inventories tend to be high

6.

The advantages of work cells are:


n
Reduction in work-in-process inventory
n
Reduction in required floor space
n
Reduced raw material and finished goods inventory
n
Reduced direct labor cost
n
Heightened sense of employee participation
n
Increased utilization of equipment and machinery
n
Reduced investment in machinery and equipment
The disadvantages are:
n
Similar to a product layout
n
High volume is required because of the large investment needed to set-up the process
n
There is a lack of flexibility in handling a variety of products or production rates
n
Requires the use of group technology
n
Requires a high level of training and flexibility on the part of employees
n
Either considerable staff support or imaginative employees are needed for the initial
development of the work cells

17.

A heuristic is a rule of thumb method of problem solving. Line balancing heuristics include:
longest task time, most following tasks, ranked positional weights, shortest task time, and least
number of following tasks.

END-OF-CHAPTER PROBLEMS
9.1

Chapter 9: Layout Strategy

Interstation Activity Matrix


Pickup

Pickup

Verification

Class
Cards
(C)
550
200
0
0

of Status
and Payment
(D)
50
0
750
0

Interstation Distance Matrix-Original Layout


Pickup
Pickup
Paperwork
Advising
Class
and Forms
Station
Cards
(A)
(B)
(C)
Paperwork/Forms (A)
0
30
60
Advising (B)
30
0
30
Class Cards (C)
60
30
0
Verification/Payment (D)
90
60
30

Verification
of Status
and Payment
(D)
90
60
30
0

Paperwork/Forms (A)
Advising (B)
Class Cards (C)
Verification/Payment (D)

Load Distance
A B:
450 30
A C:
550 60
A D:
50 90
B A:
250 30
B C:
200 30
C D:
750 30

Paperwork
and Forms
(A)
0
250
0
0

Advising
Station
(B)
450
0
0
0

13,500
33,000
4,500
7,500
6,000
22,500
87,000

Initial layout:

Instructors Solutions Manual t/a Operations Management

Interstation Distance Matrix-Improved Layout


Pickup
Pickup
Paperwork
Advising
Class
and Forms
Station
Cards
(A)
(B)
(C)
Paperwork/Forms (A)
0
30
30
Advising (B)
30
0
60
Class Cards (C)
30
60
0
Verification/Payment (D)
60
90
30
Load Distance
A B : EMBED
Equation
450 30
A C : EMBED
Equation
550 30
A D:
EMBED
Equation
50 60
B A : EMBED
Equation
250 30
B C:
EMBED
Equation
200 60
C D : EMBED
Equation
750 30

Verification
of Status
and Payment
(D)
60
90
30
0

13,500
16,500
3,000
7,500
12,000
22,500
75,000

Improved layout:

9.2

This matrix includes movements in both directions:


M
W
D
L
G
B

Chapter 9: Layout Strategy

W
125

D
75
0

L
0
75
0

G
50
0
150
20

B
60
0
20
0
0

Here are two optimal layouts:


Room 1

Room 2

Room 3

Room 4

Room 5

Room 6

Room 1

Room 2

Room 3

Room 4

Room 5

Room 6

or

M W : 125 20
M D:
75 40
M G:
50 20
M B:
60 20
W L:
75 20
D G : 150 20
D B:
20 20
L G:
20 20

9.3

Movement-Distance Calculations
2,500
3,000
1,000
1,200
1,500
3,000
400
400
13,000 = Minimum distance movement for both (symmetrical
layouts)

Current layout:

Entrance

Exam I

Exam II

X-ray

Lab, EKG

O.R.

R.R.

Casts

Patient movement = 6,700 feet

Instructors Solutions Manual t/a Operations Management

Improved layout:

Entrance

Exam I

Lab, EKG

O.R.

Exam II

X-ray

R.R.

Casts

Patient movement = 4,800 feet (shown in Figure 9.17 of text)


Improved layout:

Entrance

Exam I

Lab, EKG

O.R.

Exam II

X-ray

Casts

R.R.

Patient movement = 4,700 feet


More improved layout (with Exam rooms swapped):

Entrance

Exam II

Lab, EKG

O.R.

Exam I

X-ray

Casts

R.R.

Patient movement = 4,500 feet


Note that this final solution reflects common sense, or the result of ones intuition. We
simply allocate the spaces in the order in which the tasks are usually performed. We usually start at
the entrance, proceed to an examination room; from the examination room, proceed for either xrays or lab tests, then (a) leave the facility, (b) go to get a cast put on, or (c) go for surgery.

Chapter 9: Layout Strategy

9.4

Layout 1:
Refrig.
(1)

1
0
5
3
3
0

1
2
3
4
5

Counter
(2)

Trip Matrix
2
3
4
8
13
0
0
3
3
12
0
4
0
0
0
8
4
10

Sink
(3)

5
0
8
0
5
0

Storage
(4)

1
2
3
4
5

1
0
4
8
12
16

Stove
(5)

Distance Matrix
2
3
4
4
8
12
0
4
8
4
0
4
8
4
0
12
8
4

5
16
12
8
4
0

Tij Dij 600 with rooms fixed (504, if not fixed; 560, if the sink is fixed in one location)
Layout 2:
Sink
(3)

Refrig.
(1)

1
2
3
4
5

1
0
5
3
3
0

Storage
(4)

Counter
(2)

Trip Matrix
2
3
4
8
13
0
0
3
3
12
0
4
0
0
0
8
4
10

5
0
8
0
5
0

Stove
(5)

1
2
3
4
5

1
0
7
8
12
14

Distance Matrix
2
3
4
7
8
12
0
5
6
5
0
4
6
4
0
7
9
6

5
14
7
9
6
0

Tij Dij 602 (if rooms are fixed; 566 if not; and 595 if sink is fixed at one location)
9.5

Layout 3:
Refrig.
(1)

Counter
(2)

Sink
(3)
Storage
(4)

Stove
(5)
Trip Matrix

Distance Matrix

Instructors Solutions Manual t/a Operations Management

1
2
3
4
5

1
0
5
3
3
0

2
8
0
12
0
8

3
13
3
0
0
4

4
0
3
4
0
10

5
0
8
0
5
0

1
2
3
4
5

1
0
4
8
12
14

2
4
0
4
8
10

3
8
4
0
3
8

4
12
8
3
0
4

5
14
10
8
4
0

Tij Dij 564 (if rooms are fixed; 474 if unfixed)


9.6

(a)

Layout 4:
Counter
(2)

Sink
(3)

Storage
(4)

Refrig.
(1)

1
2
3
4
5

Stove
(5)

1
0
5
3
3
0

Trip Matrix
2
3
4
8
13
0
0
3
3
12
0
4
0
0
0
8
4
10

5
0
8
0
5
0

1
2
3
4
5

1
0
5
8
11
13

Distance Matrix
2
3
4
5
8
11
0
4
8
4
0
4
8
4
0
11
8
5

5
13
11
8
5
0

Tij Dij 609

Chapter 9: Layout Strategy

(b)

Layout 5

ref-1
coun-2
sink-3
stor-4
stov-5

Trip Matrix
2
3
4
8
13
0
0
3
3
12
0
4
0
0
0
8
4
10

1
0
5
3
3
0

5
0
8
0
5
0

ref-1
coun-2
sink-3
stor-4
stov-5

1
0
4
12
12
4

Distance Matrix
2
3
4
4
12
12
0
3
4
3
0
4
4
4
0
4
4
3

5
4
4
4
3
0

Tij Dij 478


Solution: Refrig in Room 3 (where sink was); Counter in Room 4 (where storage was); Sink
in Room 2 (where counter was); Storage in Room 1 (where Refrig was); Stove in Room 5 (no
change)
9.7

Task
A
B
C
D
E
F

(b)
(c)

Performance Time
(in minutes)
1
1
4
1
2
4
13

Task Must Follow


This Task

A, B
B, C
D
E

400 minutes
5 minutes unit
80 units
ti 13 2.6 3 stations
Minimum number of stations
CT
5

Cycle time

(a) &
(d)

Station 2
(1)
B

(1)
A

Station 4

(1)
D

(4)
C

(2)
E

(4)
F

Station 3

Station 1
(e)

Efficiency

13 minutes
0.65 65%
4 stations 5 minutes

Multiple layouts are possible.

Instructors Solutions Manual t/a Operations Management

9.8

Performance Time
(in minutes)
4
7
6
5
6
7
8
6
49

Task
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

Task Must Follow


This Task

A, B
C
D
E
E
F, G

480 minutes
9.6 minutes
50 units
ti 49 51
Minimum number of stations
. 6 stations
cycle time 9.6
Cycle time

Station 2
(7)
B
Station 1
(4)
A

Station 4
(5)
D

Station 5
(6)
E

(6)
C
Station 3

Station 7
(7)
F

Station 8
(6)
H

(8)
G
Station 6

Efficiency

49 minutes
0.638
8 stations 9.6 minutes*

or
Efficiency = 63.8%
*

9.9

(a)

Longest operation time

E
F

G
(b)

There are multiple alternatives. Here is one that does not violate any procedures.
Station
1

Chapter 9: Layout Strategy

Tasks
A, D

2
3
4
(c)

B, G
C, F
H, E

Each alternative has an overall efficiency of 92.5%.

9.10
Task
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J

Performance Time
(in minutes)
1
3
2
4
1
3
2
5
1
3
25

Task Must Follow


This Task

A
B
B
C, D
A
F
G
E, H
I

400 minutes
6.67 minutes unit
60 units
ti 25 3.75 or 4 workstations
Minimum number of stations
cycle time 6.67
Cycle time

Note: Four stations with a 7-minute cycle time is possible. However, efficiency becomes
25
89.3%
47
and production drops to 57 from the required 60 units. One five-station solution (there are multiple
answers) is:
Station 2
(1)
A

(2)
C

(3)
B

(1)
E
(4)
D

Station 1

(3)
F

Station 5

(2)
G

(1)
I

(3)
J

Station 3

(5)
H
Station 4

Theoretical:
Efficiency

10

25 minutes
0.749 75%
5 stations 6.67 minutes

Instructors Solutions Manual t/a Operations Management

Actual:
Efficiency

9.11

25 minutes
0.837 84%
5 stations 6.00 minutes

Performance Time
(in minutes)
1
1
2
1
3
1
1
2
1
13

Task
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I

(1)
B

Task Must Follow


This Task

A
A
C
C
C
D, E, F
B
G, H

(2)
H

Station 3

(1)
A

(1)
I

(1)
D
(2)
C

Station 2
(3)
E

Station 1

(1)
F
Efficiency

(1)
G
Station 5

Station 4

13 minutes
0.78
5 stations 3.33 minutes

or Efficiency = 78%. Multiple layouts with this efficiency exist.


9.12 (a)

Resolving Problem 9.11 with a production time of 300 minutes per day:
300 minutes
5 minutes unit
60 units
ti 13 2.6 or 3 workstations
Minimum number of stations
cycle time 5
Cycle time

Chapter 9: Layout Strategy

11

(1)
B

(2)
H

(1)
A

(1)
I

(1)
D
(2)
C
(3)
E

Station 1
Station 2

(1)
G
Station 3

(1)
F
Efficiency

13 minutes
0.867
3 stations 5 minutes

or Efficiency = 86.7%. Multiple layouts with this efficiency exist.


(b)

Resolving Problem 9.11 with a production time of 400 minutes per day:
400 minutes
6.67 minutes unit
60 units
ti 13 195
Minimum number of stations
. or 2 workstations
cycle time 6.675
Cycle time

(1)
B

(2)
H

(1)
A

(1)
D
Station 1

(2)
C

(3)
E

Station 2

Station 3
(1)
I

(1)
G

(1)
F
Efficiency

13 minutes
0.649
3 stations 6.67 minutes

or Efficiency = 64.9%. Multiple layouts with this efficiency exist.


operating time
CT
min. cycle time = 3 minutes (Activity E time)
400
133.33 or 133
output
3

9.13 Output

9.14

12

Task

Performance Time
(in minutes)

Task Must Follow


This Task

Instructors Solutions Manual t/a Operations Management

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L
M

0.1
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.1
0.2
0.1
0.2
0.2
0.1
1.8
Cycle time

Minimum number of stations

A
B
B
B
C, D, E
A
G
H
I
F
J, K
L

5 hours 5 days 60 minutes hours 1,500

= 0.5 minutes bottle


3,000 bottles
3,000

ti
cycle time
(0.1)
E

18
.
3.6 or 4 workstations
0.5
Station 3
Station 4

(0.1)
A

(0.1)
B

(0.2)
D

(0.2)
F

(0.1)
G

(0.2)
L

(0.1)
M

(0.1)
J

(0.1)
C

Station 1

(0.2)
K

(0.2)
I
(0.1)
H

Efficiency

Station 2

18
. minutes
0.90
0.5 minutes 4 stations

or
Efficiency = 90%
9.15 Resolving Problem 9.14 with double the original demand:
Cycle time
Minimum number of stations

Chapter 9: Layout Strategy

5 hours 5 days 60 minutes


0.25 minutes unit
6,000 units
.
ti 18
7.2 or 8 workstations
cycle time 0.25

13

Station 6
(0.1)
E
Station 9
(0.1)
A

(0.1)
B

(0.2)
D

Station 1

(0.2)
F

Station 2

(0.2)
K

Station 7

(0.1)
C

(0.2)
L

Station 8

(0.1)
M
Station 10

(0.1)
J

Station 5
(0.2)
I

(0.1)
G

(0.1)
H

Station 4

Station 3
Efficiency

18
. minutes
0.72
0.25 minutes 10 stations

or Efficiency = 72%. Multiple layouts exist with the same efficiency.


9.16

Performance Time
(in minutes)
5
3
4
3
6
1
4
2
28

Task
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

Task Must Follow


This Task

A
B
B
C
C
D, E, F
G

Minimum number of stations

ti
cycle time

28
4 workstations
7

The work activities may be grouped, however, into no fewer than five workstations without
violating precedence requirements.
(4)
C

Station 4

Station 1
(5)
A

(6)
E

(3)
B

(1)
Station 3 F

(4)
G

(2)
H
Station 5

(3)
D
Station 2

14

Instructors Solutions Manual t/a Operations Management

Efficiency

28
28

0.80
5 7 35

or
Efficiency = 80%
Several other balances are also possible. One of them is to place A alone, tasks B and C together, D
and F together, E by itself, and G and H together.
9.17

Task
A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H
I
J
K
L

Performance Time
(in minutes)
13
4
10
10
6
12
5
6
7
5
4
15
97

Task Must Follow


This Task

A
B

D
E
E
F, G
H
H
I, J
C, K

Cycle time
Minimum number of stations

25,200 seconds
18 seconds unit
1,400 units

ti
cycle time

97
5.4 or 6 workstations
18

Station 1
(13)
A

(4)
B

Station 6
(15)
L

(10)
C

(12)
F

Station 4

(7)
I

Station 2
(10)
D

(6)
E

Station 3

(5)
G

(6)
H

Station 5

(4)
K

(5)
J

Total idle time 11 seconds


97 seconds
Efficiency
0.898
6 stations 18 seconds

Chapter 9: Layout Strategy

15

or
Efficiency 89.8%
9.18 There are three alternatives:
Station
1
2
3
4
5

Alternative 1 Tasks Alternative 2 Tasks Alternative 3 Tasks


A, B, F
A, B
A, F, G
C, D
C, D
H, B
E
F, G
C, D
G, H
E
E
I
H, I
I

Each alternative has an efficiency of 86.67%.


CT

16

480
OT
implies 3
, so output 160
output
Demand

Instructors Solutions Manual t/a Operations Management