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x y r

2

(0,r)

(-r,0)

(r,0)

(0,-r)

So points on this circle must satisfy this equation.

The equation of this circle would be

x y 1

2

(0,1)

(-1,0)

(1,0)

(0,-1)

So points on this circle must satisfy this equation.

Let's pick a point on the circle. We'll choose a point where the

x is 1/2. If the x is 1/2, what is the y value?

You can see there

2

2

x y 1

are two y values.

2

They can be found

x

=

1/2

1

2

by putting 1/2 into

y

1

the equation for x

(0,1) 1 3

2

,

3

2

2

2

4

3

y

2

(-1,0)

(1,0)

1

3

,

(0,-1)

We'll look at a

larger version

of this and

make a right

triangle.

We know all of the sides of this triangle. The bottom leg is just

the x value of the point, the other leg is just the y value and

the hypotenuse is always 1 because it is a radius of the circle.

(0,1)

(-1,0)

1 3

,

2 2

3

2

sin

(1,0)

1

2

(0,-1)

tan

cos

3

2 3

1

2

1

21

1 2

3

2 3

1

2

Notice the sine is just the y value of the unit circle point and the

cosine is just the x value.

point on the unit circle, the y value is the sine, the x value is

the cosine and y/x is the tangent.

2 2

2

2

(-1,0)

(0,1)

sin

1

3

,

2 2

(1,0)

tan

(0,-1)

1

3

2 , 2

cos

2

2

2

2 1

2

We divide the unit circle into various pieces and learn the point

values so we can then from memory find trig functions.

Here is the unit circle divided into 8 pieces. Can you figure

out how many degrees are in each division?

These are

0,1

easy to

2 2

2 2

90

memorize

,

,

2 2 135

2 2

since they

45

all have the

2

sin 225

same value

2

with

45

1,0 180

0 1,0 different

signs

depending

225

on the

2

2

315

2

2

quadrant.

270

2

2

2

2

0,1 with how many degrees an

angle would be and the point on the unit circle that corresponds

with the terminal side of the angle. We could then find any of the

trig functions.

0,1

2 2

,

2 2

1,0

7

sin

1353

180

5

4225

2

2

2

2

,

2

2

90

3

2

270

2 2

2 , 2

45

4

0 1,0

7

4 315

2

0,1

The circle is 2 all the way around so half way is . The upper

half is divided into 4 pieces so each piece is /4.

Here is the unit circle divided into 12 pieces. Can you figure

out how many degrees are in each division?

You'll need

1 3

1 3

0

,

1

,

to

,

2 2

cos 330 3

2 2

90

2

memorize

120

60

3 1

,

3 1 these too

2 2

150

but you

2 ,2

30

can see

the pattern.

30

1,0 180

0 1,0

210

3 1

330 3 , 1

2 2

240

2 2

270 300

sin 240

3

2

1

3

,

2 2

0,1

1

3

,

2 2

We can again label the points on the circle and the sine is the y

value, the cosine is the x value and the tangent is y over x.

1 3

,

2 2

0,1

3 1

,

2 2

120

1 3

,

2 2

90

60

150

30

30 6

0

1,0 180

3 1

2 ,2

1,0

210

3 1

,

2 2

330

240

1

3

,

2 2

270

300

0,1

3 1

2 , 2

We'll

see

them all

put

together

on the

unit

circle on

the next

screen.

1

3

,

2 2

It is still halfway around the circle and the upper half is divided

into 6 pieces so each piece is /6.

You should

memorize

this. This is

a great

reference

because

you can

figure out

the trig

functions of

all these

angles

quickly.

1

3

,

2

2

In fact sin 780 = sin 60

since that is just another

360 beyond 420.

Because the sine

values are equal for

coterminal angles that

are multiples of 360

added to an angle, we

say that the sine is

periodic with a period

of 360 or 2.

, 3

2

2

All the way around is 360 so well need more than that. We

see that it will be the same as sin 60 since they are

coterminal angles. So sin 420 = sin 60.

3

undef

Let's label

the unit

circle with

values of

the tangent.

(Remember

this is just

y/x)

3

3

3

3

3

3

1

3

1

3

,

2

2

undef

3

3

of positive vs. negative angles.

What is cos ?

3

1

2

What is cos ?

3

1

2

Remember negative

angle means to go

clockwise

, 3

2

2

cos cos

What is sin ?

3

3

2

What is sin ?

3

, 3

2

2

sin sin

What is tan ?

3

What is tan ?

3

, 3

2

2

What is the domain? (remember domain means the legal

things you can put in for ).

You can put in anything you want

so the domain is all real

numbers.

What is the range? (remember range means what you get out

of the function).

The range is: -1 sin 1

(0, 1)

answer that. What is the

lowest and highest value

youd ever get for sine?

(sine is the y value so what

is the lowest and highest y

value?)

(1, 0)

(-1, 0)

(0, -1)

What is the domain? (remember domain means the legal

things you can put in for ).

You can put in anything you want

so the domain is all real

numbers.

What is the range? (remember range means what you get out

of the function).

The range is: -1 cos 1

(0, 1)

answer that. What is the

lowest and highest value

youd ever get for cosine?

(cosine is the x value so

what is the lowest and

highest x value?)

(-1, 0)

(1, 0)

(0, -1)

What is the domain? (remember domain means the legal things

you can put in for ).

Tangent is y/x so we will have an

illegal if x is 0. x is 0 at 90 (or /2)

or any odd multiple of 90

The domain then is all real numbers except odd multiples of

90 or /2.

What is the range? (remember range means what you get out

of the function).

If we take any y/x, we could end up getting any value

so range is all real numbers.

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