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Assignment9

Assignment9
Due:8:30pmonSunday,November1,2015
Youwillreceivenocreditforitemsyoucompleteaftertheassignmentisdue.GradingPolicy

ImagesProducedbyDifferentConcaveMirrorsConceptualQuestion
Thesameobjectisplacedatdifferentdistancesd infrontofsixdifferentconcavesphericalmirrors.Eachmirrorhasthefocallengthf listedbelow.

PartA
Which,ifany,ofthesescenariosproducearealimage?Which,ifany,ofthesescenariosproduceavirtualimage?
Sortthefollowingscenariosintotheappropriatebins.

Hint1.Howtodrawaprincipalraydiagram
Thepropertiesoftheimagecanbedeterminedgraphicallybydrawingaprincipalraydiagram.Startbydrawingtworaysfromtheobject,coming
fromthesamepoint.Drawonerayparalleltotheopticalaxisitsreflectedraywillgothroughthefocalpoint.Drawtheotherraygoingthroughthe
focalpointitsreflectedraywillbeparalleltotheopticalaxis.Theimagewillbeformedatthepointwherethetworaysintersect.(Youmightneed
toextendthereflectedraysstraightbackthroughthemirrortofindtheintersectionpoint.)

Hint2.Definitionofarealimage
Arealimageisanimagethatisformedwhenlightraysoriginatingfromanobjectarereflectedoffthemirrorandintersect.Ifthelightraysfromthe
objectintersectonlywhentheyareextendedthroughthemirror,thentheimageformedisvirtual.

Hint3.Principalraysforobjectswithinthefocallength

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Hint4.Principalraysforobjectsoutsidethefocallength

ANSWER:

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PartB
Which,ifany,ofthesescenariosproduceaninvertedimage?Which,ifany,ofthesescenariosproduceanuprightimage?
Sortthefollowingscenariosintotheappropriatebins.
ANSWER:

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PartC
Ranktheimagesonthebasisofthemagnitudeoftheirmagnification.
Rankthesefromlargesttosmallest.Torankitemsasequivalent,overlapthem.

Hint1.Ratiooffocallengthtoobjectdistancefromfocalpoint
Youcandeterminethemagnificationoftheimageusingtheobjectdistance,d ,andfocallength,f .Theratioofthefocallengthtoobjectdistance
fromthefocalpointisallyouneed.
Recallthattheobjectdistance,d ,ismeasuredfromtheplaneofthemirror.Asketchofthemirrorwillhelpyoutovisualizethedistancesgiven
andratioyourequire.

Hint2.Objectatthefocalpoint
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d = f

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Ifanobjectislocatedexactlyatthefocalpointofthemirror,d
ineitherdirection,theimagesizedecreases.

= f

,theimageis"infinitely"large.Astheobjectmovesawayfromthefocalpoint,

ANSWER:

Correct

Problem24.10
Examiningyourimageinaconvexmirrorwhoseradiusofcurvatureis24.4cm,youstandwiththetipofyournose11.0cmfromthesurfaceofthemirror.

PartA
Whereistheimageofyournoselocated?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
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ANSWER:
s

= 5.78cm

Correct

PartB
Whatisitsmagnification?
ANSWER:
m

= 0.526

Correct

PartC
Yourearis10.0cmbehindthetipofyournosewhereistheimageofyourearlocated?
Expressyouranswerwiththeappropriateunits.
ANSWER:
s

= 7.72cm

Correct

PartD
Whatisitsmagnification?
ANSWER:

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m

= 0.367

Correct

PhETTutorial:GeometricOptics
LearningGoal:
Tounderstandhowthepropertiesofaconvexlensandthedistancebetweentheobjectandthelensaffecttheimage.
Forthistutorial,usethePhETsimulationGeometricOptics.Thissimulationallowsyoutoexperimentwithpropertiesofaconvexlensandseehowthe
resultingimagechanges.

Startthesimulation.Whenyouclickthesimulationlink,youmaybeaskedwhethertorun,open,orsavethefile.Choosetorunoropenit.
Youcandragthelensandtheobjecttoanylocationandseetheresultingimage.Youcanadjustthecurvatureofthelens,therefractiveindexofthelens
material,andthediameterofthelens,usingthesliderbarsatthetop.
Feelfreetoplayaroundwiththesimulation.Whenyouaredone,beginpartA.

PartA
Aconvexlensisatransparentinstrumentthatusesrefractiontobendandfocuslightfromanobject,formingasharpimage.We'llfirstinvestigatehow
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thelensproducesanimagefromapointsourceoflight(alamp).
SelectScreenatupperright,whichmakestheobjectalampandgivesablackscreenthatcanbedraggedaround.
SelectManyraysatupperlefttoseehowthelensbendssomeoftheraysoflightfromthelamp.
Withthelamppositionedfartotheleftofthelens,youshouldseethattheraysthatgothroughthelensconvergetoapoint.Ifthescreenisplacedwhere
thebeamsconverge,theimageonthescreenwillbeinfocus(itwillbeasmalldotoflightsincethatiswhattheobjectlookslikeinthiscase).The
screenisthenatthefocalplane.Asthelampismovedclosertothelens,thedistancebetweenthefocalplaneandthelens_____.
ANSWER:
decreases.
remainsthesame.
increases.

Correct
Whenthelampisclosertothelens,theraysgoingintothelensaredivergingmorequicklythanwhenthelampisfurtheraway.Thus,aftergoing
throughthelens,theyaren'tconvergingasquickly,soittakesalongerdistanceforthemtofocus.

PartB
Thehorizontalbluelinethroughthemiddleofthelensiscalledtheopticalaxis.Asthelampismovedaboveorbelowtheaxis,keepingthehorizontal
distancetothecenterofthelensconstant,howdoesthehorizontaldistancefromthelenstotheimagechange?
ANSWER:
Itincreases.
Itdoesnotchange.
Itdecreases.

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Thisexplainswhywerefertoafocalplane.Allobjectswiththesamehorizontaldistancetothelenswillbefocusedbythelensonthesameplane.
Youcanseethisbyselecting2ndPointandplacingoneofthelampsaboveoriginallamp.

PartC
Dotheraysthatgothroughthelensalwaysconvergeontherightsideofthelens(formingarealimage),regardlessofthepositionofthelamp?
ANSWER:
Noifthelampisveryclosetothelens,theraysdon'tconverge.
Noifthelampisveryfaraway,theraysdon'tconverge.
Yes

Correct
ThetwoyellowX's(oneithersideofthelens)arecalledfocalpoints.Thedistancebetweenafocalpointandthelensiscalledthefocallengthofthe
lens.Iftheobjectisclosertothelensthanthisdistance,thelenscannotbendtheraysenoughforthemtoconverge.
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PartD
Placethelampsothatthepointlikesourceisdirectlyontheleftfocalpoint.Whathappenstotheraysthatpassthroughthelensontherightsideofthe
lens?
ANSWER:
Theyareparallel.
Theydiverge.
Theyconverge.

Correct
Whentheobjectisatthefocalpoint,theraysneitherdivergenorconverge,butareperfectlyparallel.Conversely,iftheobjectwereatinfinity,the
raysgoingfromtheobjecttothelenswouldbeparallel,andafterpassingthroughthelens,theywouldconvergeatthefocalpoint.

PartE
Thefocallength____________whentherefractiveindexofthelensisincreasedand__________whenthecurvatureradiusofthelensisincreased.
ANSWER:
decreases/increases
increases/decreases
decreases/decreases
increases/increases

Correct
Ahigherindexofrefractioncausestheraysoflighttobendmore(goingintoandcomingoutofthelens).Theraysthereforefocusmorequickly,and
thefocallengthisshorter.Ifthesurfaceofthelenswheretherayentersisparalleltothesurfacewheretherayexits,theraywillnotbebentatall.
Thegreatertheanglebetweenthetwosurfaceswheretherayentersandleavesthelens(asisthecaseforasmallerradiusofcurvature),themore
theoutgoingraywillbebentrelativetotheincomingray.

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PartF
Thefocallength__________whenthediameterofthelensisincreased.
ANSWER:
doesnotchange
increases
decreases

Correct
Thefocallengthdoesnotdependonthelens'sdiameteragreaterdiametersimplyallowsmorelighttobefocused.

PartG
Makethecurvatureradius0.6m,therefractiveindex1.5,andthediameter0.6m.Placethelampsothatthesourceoflightis120cmfromthemiddle
ofthelens(usetheruler).
Thefocallengthofthelensis____________,andthefocalplaneis___________fromthelens.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Usetherulertomeasurethedistancefromthecenterofthelenstoeitherofthefocalpoints.Thisisthefocallength.Then,usetherulerto
measurethedistancefromthecenterofthelenstowheretheraysconverge(thelocationoftheimage).
ANSWER:
30cm/120cm
60cm/180cm
60cm/60cm
60cm/120cm
120cm/120cm

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Forthislens,whentheobjectis120cmaway,theimageisthesamedistanceontheothersideofthelens.

PartH
Now,movethelampsothatitis90cmfromthecenterofthelens.
Howfarfromthelensistheimage?
ANSWER:
160cm
120cm
90cm
180cm
60cm

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Thedistancestotheobject,s theimage,s andthefocallength,f ,arerelatedbythelensequation:
1
s

1
s

1
f

Ifs decreases,thens mustincrease(asyoufoundinPartA).Noticethat,asyoufoundinPartF,s =


s ifs istwicethefocallengthofthelens
(1/120+1/120=1/60).

PartI
Now,let'slookattheimagesofextendedobjects.DeselectScreen.Youshouldseeapencilastheobjectanditsimage.Everypointonthepencilemits
rayslikeapointsource.SelectingManyraysshowsraysfromthepencilstip.
Movethepencilaround,andlookattheresultingimage.Howdoesthesizeoftheimagedependonthepositionofthepencil(keepthedistancegreater
thanthefocallengthofthelens)?
ANSWER:

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Thesizeoftheimagedoesn'tchange.
Thesizeoftheimagedecreasesasthedistancefromthepenciltothelensdecreases.
Thesizeoftheimageincreasesasthedistancefromthepenciltothelensdecreases.

Correct
Theimagegetsverybigastheobjectapproachesthefocalpoint.

PartJ
ThemagnificationofanobjectisdefinedasM
h

,whereh istheheightoftheimageandhistheheightoftheobject.Iftheimageisinverted,then

isnegative.

Placethepencil90cmfromthelens.Whatisthemagnificationoftheimage(besurethecurvatureradiusisstill0.6mandtherefractiveindexis1.5)?
ANSWER:

2.0

1.0

0.5

1.5

Correct
Noticethattheimageisalsotwiceasfarfromthelensastheobject.

PartK
HowfarfromthelensdoesthepencilneedtobeforthemagnificationM tobe1?
ANSWER:

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180cm
It'simpossible!
60cm
120cm

Correct
Noticethat,asyousawearlierforthislens,whentheobjectis120cmaway,theimageisalso120cm,sotheratioofthedistancess ands is
s
equaltoone.Infact,asyoumighthaveguessedbynow,themagnificationcanalsobeexpressedasM = s .

PhETInteractiveSimulations
UniversityofColorado
http://phet.colorado.edu

RayTracingforaConcaveMirror
AnobjectOisplacedatthelocationshowninfrontofaconcavesphericalmirror.Useraytracingtodeterminethelocationandsizeofthereflectedimage.As
youwork,keepinmindthefollowingpropertiesofprincipalrays:
1. Arayparalleltotheaxis,afterreflection,passesthroughthefocalpointFofaconcavemirrororappearstocomefromthe(virtual)focalpointof
aconvexmirror.
2. Araythrough(orproceedingtoward)thefocalpointFisreflectedparalleltotheaxis.
3. ArayalongtheradiusthroughorawayfromthecenterofcurvatureCintersectsthesurfacenormallyandisreflectedbackalongitsoriginalpath.
4. AraytothevertexVisreflected,formingequalangleswiththeopticaxis.

PartA
Tracethepathofarayemittedfromthetipoftheobjectthroughthefocalpointofthemirrorandthenthereflectedraythatresults.Startbyextendingthe
existingrayemittedfromthetipoftheobject.Thencreatethereflectedray.
Drawthevectorforthereflectedraystartingfromthepointwheretheincidentfocalrayhitsthemirror.Thelocationandorientationofthe
vectorwillbegraded.Thelengthofthevectorwillnotbegraded.
ANSWER:

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Correct

PartB
Nowtracethepathofarayemittedfromthetipoftheobjectparalleltotheaxisofthemirrorandthenthereflectedraythatresults.Startbyextendingthe
existingrayemittedfromthetipoftheobject.Thencreatethereflectedray.
Drawthevectorforthereflectedraystartingfromthepointwheretheincidentfocalrayhitsthemirror.Thelocationandorientationofthe
vectorwillbegraded.Thelengthofthevectorwillnotbegraded.
ANSWER:

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Correct

PartC
Now,usingthetworaysyouhavetraced,drawtheimageoftheobjectatthecorrectlocation,withthecorrectorientationandsize.
Drawthevectorendingattheintersectionofthereflectedrays.Thelocation,orientation,andlengthofthevectorwillbegraded.

Hint1.Imageformation(tipofthearrow)
Sinceboththefocalrayandparallelrayreflectfromthetipoftheobject,wheretheycrossisthelocationoftheimageofthetipoftheobject.

Hint2.Imageformation(baseofthearrow)
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Ifyouweretodrawthefocalrayandparallelrayfromthebaseoftheobject,whichliesonthecentralaxisofthemirror,theserayswouldboth
traveltowardandreflectfromthemirroralongthecentralaxis.Thisimpliesthatifthebaseoftheobjectliesonthecentralaxis,thebaseofthe
imageliesonthecentralaxis.
ANSWER:

Correct
Youcouldhavedrawnadditionalrayssuchastherayincidentfromthetipoftheobjectthatstrikesthevertexofthemirroranditscorresponding
reflectedray.However,tworaysareoftenenoughtodeterminetheimagelocation.

RayTracingforaConvexMirror
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AnobjectOisplacedatthelocationshowninfrontofaconvexsphericalmirror.Useraytracingtodeterminethelocationandsizeoftheimageinthemirror.
Asyouwork,keepinmindthefollowingpropertiesofprincipalrays:
1. Arayparalleltotheaxis,afterreflection,passesthroughthefocalpointFofaconcavemirrororappearstocomefromthe(virtual)focalpointof
aconvexmirror.
2. Araythrough(orproceedingtoward)thefocalpointFisreflectedparalleltotheaxis.
3. ArayalongtheradiusthroughorawayfromthecenterofcurvatureCintersectsthesurfacenormallyandisreflectedbackalongitsoriginalpath.
4. AraytothevertexVisreflected,formingequalangleswiththeopticaxis.

PartA
Tracethepathofarayemittedfromthetipoftheobjecttowardthefocalpointofthemirrorandthenthereflectedraythatresults.Startbyextendingthe
existingrayemittedfromthetipoftheobject.Thencreatethereflectedray.
Drawthevectorforthereflectedraystartingfromthepointwheretheincidentfocalrayhitsthemirror.Thelocationandorientationofthe
vectorwillbegraded.Thelengthofthevectorwillnotbegraded.
ANSWER:

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Correct

PartB
Nowtracethepathofarayemittedfromthetipoftheobjectparalleltotheaxisofthemirrorandthenthereflectedraythatresults.Startbyextendingthe
existingrayemittedfromthetipoftheobject.Thencreatethereflectedray.
Drawthevectorforthereflectedraystartingfromthepointwheretheincidentfocalrayhitsthemirror.Thelocationandorientationofthe
vectorwillbegraded.Thelengthofthevectorwillnotbegraded.

Hint1.Constructingthereflectedray
Accordingtopoint#1intheproblemintroduction,thereflectedraywillappeartohaveoriginatedfromthefocalpoint.Trydrawingavectorfromthe
focalpointthroughthepointwheretheincidentrayhitsthemirror.Thenshortenthisvectorsothatitsstartpointisonthemirror,withoutchanging
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itsangle.Alternatively,youcandrawanunlabeledvectorextendingfromthefocalpointandpassingthroughthepointwheretheincidentrayhits
themirror.Thenyoucandrawthereflectedrayontopoftheunlabeledvector.Keepinmindthattheunlabeledvectorshouldnotbepartofyour
submission.
ANSWER:

Correct

PartC
Whattypeofimageoftheobjectwilltheconvexmirrorcreate?
ANSWER:

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Avirtualimagebehindthemirror.
Arealimageinfrontofthemirror.

Correct

PartD
Now,usingthetworaysyouhavetraced,drawtheimageoftheobjectatthecorrectlocation,withthecorrectorientationandsize.Startbyextendingthe
existingvirtualraysfromthesurfaceofthemirrorwherethereflectedraystouchthemirror.
Drawthevectorendingattheintersectionofthevirtualrays.Thelocation,orientation,andlengthofthevectorwillbegraded.

Hint1.Virtualextension
Avirtualextensionisarayonthevirtualsideofthemirrorthatrepresentsthepaththatthereflectedrayappearstohavefollowedinsidethemirror.
Todrawavirtualextension,simplyextendthevirtualrayonthevirtualsideofthemirrorwithoutchangingitsdirection.

Hint2.Imageformation(tipofthearrow)
Sinceboththefocalrayandparallelrayreflectfromthetipoftheobject,wheretheycrossisthelocationoftheimageofthetipoftheobject.

Hint3.Imageformation(baseofthearrow)
Ifyouweretodrawthefocalrayandparallelrayfromthebaseoftheobject,whichliesonthecentralaxisofthemirror,theserayswouldboth
traveltowardandreflectfromthemirroralongthecentralaxis.Thisimpliesthatifthebaseoftheobjectliesonthecentralaxis,thebaseofthe
imageliesonthecentralaxis.
ANSWER:

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Correct
Thesimpleraytracingyouworkedthroughinthisproblemisthestartingpointforthephotorealisticsceneryandlightingeffectsthatarecommonin
computergames.

HowDeepIstheGoldfish?
Atankwhosebottomisamirrorisfilledwithwatertoadepthof20.9cm.Asmallfishfloatsmotionless8.00cmunderthesurfaceofthewater.

PartA
Whatistheapparentdepthofthefishwhenviewedatnormalincidencetothewater?
Expressyouranswerincentimeters.Use1.33fortheindexofrefractionofwater.
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Hint1.Usetheobjectimagerelation
Recallthattheobjectimagerelationforasphericalrefractingsurfaceisgivenbytheequation
na
sa

nb
sb

nb na
R

wheres a istheobjectdistanceinthematerialwithindexofrefractionn a ,s b istheimagedistanceinthematerialwithindexofrefractionn b ,and


Ristheradiusofcurvatureofthesurface.

Hint2.Radiusofcurvatureofthesurface
Noticethatthesurfaceofthewaterinthefishbowlisessentiallyflat.Asaresult,theradiusofcurvatureofthissurfaceisinfinite.
ANSWER:
6.02 cm

Correct

PartB
Whatistheapparentdepthofthereflectionofthefishinthebottomofthetankwhenviewedatnormalincidence?
Expressyouranswerincentimeters.Use1.33fortheindexofrefractionofwater.

Hint1.Followthepathoflight
Keepinmindthatthelighthastobouncefromthebottomofthefish,downtothemirror,andthenbackupandoutofthewatertotheviewer.First
thinkofhowfardownthefishwouldappeariftheindexofrefractionwerethesameinthewaterasout.Youcanusethelawofreflectionfora
planemirrortodeterminewherethefishwouldappearwithoutthewater.Thenapplythecorrectionfortherealrefractionduetothewater.
ANSWER:
25.4 cm

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Problem24.28
Toapersonswimming0.770mbeneaththesurfaceofthewaterinaswimmingpool,thedivingboarddirectlyoverheadappearstobeaheightof5.35m
abovetheswimmer.

PartA
Whatistheactualheightofthedivingboardabovethesurfaceofthewater?
ANSWER:
h

= 3.44 m

Correct

RayTracinginLensesandMirrors
Weusuallylocatetheimageformedbyanobjectbylookingfortheintersectionofjusttwooftherayscomingfromthatobject,andweusuallychoosethese
tworaystobeassimpletodrawaspossible.Infact,alltherayscomingfromtheobjectthatpassthroughthelensmustconvergeatthelocationofthe
image.Inthisproblemyouwillbeaskedtoidentifysomeoftheseotherrays,whicharenotsosimpletodraw.

PartA

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Thefirstfigureshowsanobjecttotheleftofaconverginglens.Thefocalpointofthelensis
labeledF.Fiveraysaredrawnfromthetipoftheobjecttothelens,butonlyoneofthemis
tracedthroughthelenscorrectly.Choosetheraythatistracedcorrectly.

Hint1.Howtoapproachthisproblem
Alloftheraysshownaresimilarlytothestandardraysusedtodrawraydiagrams(i.e.,paralleltothelens'axis,passingthroughthefocalpoint,or
passingthroughthecenterofthelens).Tofigureoutifarayiscorrectlydrawn,thinkaboutthestandardraythatisclosesttotherayyouare
lookingat.Considerwhatwouldhappentothestandardrayasyoumovedtheleftsideslightlytoalignitwiththerayyouarelookingat.
ANSWER:
ray1
ray2
ray3
ray4
ray5

Correct

PartB
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Thesecondfigureshowsanobjecttotherightofaconcavemirror.ThefocalpointofthemirrorislabeledF.Fourraysareshownreflectingoffthemirror,
butonlyoneofthemisdrawncorrectly.Choosetheraythatistracedcorrectly.

Hint1.Howtoapproachthisproblem
Alloftheraysshownaresimilartothestandardraysusedtodrawraydiagrams(i.e.,paralleltothemirror'saxis,passingthroughthefocalpoint,
orpassingthroughthecenterofthemirror).Tofigureoutifarayiscorrectlydrawn,thinkaboutthestandardraythatisclosesttotherayyouare
lookingat.Considerwhatwouldhappentothestandardrayasyoumovedtheleftsideslightlytoalignitwiththerayyouarelookingat.
ANSWER:
ray1
ray2
ray3
ray4

Correct

Problem24.44
Aconverginglenswithafocallengthof12.6cmformsavirtualimage8.10mmtall,16.8cmtotherightofthelens.
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PartA
Determinethepositionoftheobject.
ANSWER:
s

= 7.20 cm

Correct

PartB
Determinethesizeoftheobject.
ANSWER:
|y|

= 0.347 cm

Correct

PartC
Istheimageerectorinverted?
ANSWER:
Theimageiserect.
Theimageisinverted.

Correct

PartD
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Aretheobjectandimageonthesamesideoroppositesidesofthelens?
ANSWER:
onthesameside
onoppositesides

Correct

MultipleChoiceProblem24.03

PartA
Ifasinglelensformsavirtualimage,wecanconcludethat
ANSWER:
Itisaconverginglens.
Itisadiverginglens.
Itcouldbeeithertypeoflens.

Correct

UnderstandingLenses
LearningGoal:
Tolearnthequantitativeuseofthelensequation,aswellashowtodeterminequalitativepropertiesofsolutions.
Inworkingwithlenses,therearethreeimportantquantitiestoconsider:Theobjectdistances isthedistancealongtheaxisofthelenstotheobject.The
imagedistances isthedistancealongtheaxisofthelenstotheimage.Thefocallengthf isanintrinsicpropertyofthelens.Thesethreequantitiesare
relatedthroughtheequation
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1
s

1
f

Notethatthisequationisvalidonlyforthin,sphericallenses.Unlessotherwisespecified,alensproblemalwaysassumesthatyouareusingthin,spherical
lenses.
Theequationaboveallowsyoutocalculatethelocationsofimagesandobjects.Frequently,youwillalsobeinterestedinthesizeoftheimageorobject,
particularlyifyouareconsideringamagnifyingglassormicroscope.Theratioofthesizeofanimagetothesizeoftheobjectiscalledthemagnification.Itis
givenby
m=

wherey istheheightoftheimageandyistheheightoftheobject.Thesecondequalityallowsyoutofindthesizeoftheimage(orobject)withthe
informationprovidedbythethinlensequation.
Allofthequantitiesintheaboveequationscantakebothpositiveandnegativevalues.Positivedistancescorrespondtorealimagesorobjects,while
negativedistancescorrespondtovirtualimagesorobjects.Positiveheightscorrespondtouprightimagesorobjects,whilenegativeheightscorrespondto
invertedimagesorobjects.Thefollowingtablesummarizestheseproperties:
s
s

y
y

positive

negative

real

virtual

real

virtual

upright

inverted

upright

inverted

Thefocallengthf canalsobepositiveornegative.Apositivefocallengthcorrespondstoaconverginglens,whileanegativefocallengthcorrespondstoa
diverginglens.
Consideranobjectwiths = 12 cm thatproducesanimagewiths = 15 cm .Notethatwheneveryouareworkingwithaphysicalobject,theobjectdistance
willbepositive(inmultipleopticssetups,youwillencounter"objects"thatareactuallyimages,butthatisnotapossibilityinthisproblem).Apositiveimage
distancemeansthattheimageisformedonthesideofthelensfromwhichthelightemerges.

PartA
Findthefocallengthofthelensthatproducestheimagedescribedintheproblemintroductionusingthethinlensequation.
Expressyouranswerincentimeters,asafractionortothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:

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Assignment9
f

= 6.67 cm

Correct

PartB
Consideringthesignoff ,isthelensconvergingordiverging?
ANSWER:
converging
diverging

Correct

PartC
Whatisthemagnificationmofthelens?
Expressyouranswerasafractionortothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
m

= 1.25

Correct

PartD
Thinkaboutthesignofs andthesignofy ,whichyoucanfindfromthemagnificationequation,knowingthataphysicalobjectisalwaysconsidered
upright.Whichofthefollowingdescribesthenatureandorientationoftheimage?
ANSWER:
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realandupright
realandinverted
virtualandupright
virtualandinverted

Correct
Nowconsideradiverginglenswithfocallengthf

= 15 cm

,producinganuprightimagethatis5/9astallastheobject.

PartE
Istheimagerealorvirtual?Thinkaboutthemagnificationandhowitrelatestothesignofs .
ANSWER:
real
virtual

Correct

PartF
Whatistheobjectdistance?Youwillneedtousethemagnificationequationtofindarelationshipbetweens ands .Thensubstituteintothethinlens
equationtosolvefors .
Expressyouranswerincentimeters,asafractionortothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
s

= 12.0 cm

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Correct

PartG
Whatistheimagedistance?
Expressyouranswerincentimeters,asafractionortothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
s

= 6.67 cm

Correct
Alensplacedattheoriginwithitsaxispointingalongthexaxisproducesarealinvertedimageatx

= 24 cm

thatistwiceastallastheobject.

PartH
Whatistheimagedistance?
Expressyouranswerincentimeters,asafractionortothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
s

= 24.0 cm

Correct

PartI
Whatisthexcoordinateoftheobject?Keepinmindthatarealimageandarealobjectshouldbeonoppositesidesofthelens.
Expressyouranswerincentimeters,asafractionortothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
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x

= 12.0 cm

Correct

PartJ
Isthelensconvergingordiverging?
ANSWER:
converging
diverging

Correct
Youcansolvethelensequationfors intermsofs andf .Ifyoudothisandthensubstituteyourresultintothemagnificationequation,youwillsee
thattheonlywaytoobtainanimageofarealobjectthatislargerthantheobjectitselfiswithaconverginglens.

PartK
Findthefocallengthofthelens.
Expressyouranswerincentimeters,asafractionortothreesignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
f

= 8.00 cm

Correct

RayTracingandImageFormationwithaConcaveLens
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Aconcavelensrefractsparallelraysinsuchawaythattheyarebentawayfromtheaxisofthelens.Forthisreason,aconcavelensisreferredtoasa
diverginglens.

PartA
Considerthefollowingdiagrams,whereFrepresentsthefocalpointofaconcavelens.Inthesediagrams,theimageformedbythelensisobtainedusing
theraytracingtechnique.Whichdiagramsareaccurate?
TypeAifyouthinkthatonlydiagramAiscorrect,typeABifyouthinkthatonlydiagrams
AandBarecorrect,andsoon.

Hint1.Arayparalleltothelensaxis
Arayparalleltotheaxisofaconcavelensisrefractedalongalinethatextendsbackthroughthefocalpointonthesamesideofthelens.

Hint2.Araythatpassesthroughthefocalpoint
Araythatisdirectedtowardthefocalpointontheothersideofthelensisrefractedparalleltothelensaxis.

Hint3.Araythatpassesthroughthemiddleofthelens
Araythatpassesthroughthemiddleofaconcavelenscontinuesonitsoriginaldirectionwithessentiallynodisplacementafterpassingthrough
thelens.
ANSWER:
AC
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Aconcavelensalwaysformsanimagethatisonthesamesideofthelensastheobject.

PartB
Ifthefocallengthoftheconcavelensis7.50cm,atwhatdistanced o fromthelensshouldanobjectbeplacedsothatitsimageisformed3.70cm
fromthelens?
Expressyouranswerincentimeters.

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem
Todeterminetheobjectdistanceyoucanusethethinlensequation,butbecarefultoassignthecorrectsigntoeachquantityinvolvedinthe
equation.

Hint2.Thethinlensequation
Thethinlensequationforalenswithafocallengthf is
1
do

1
di

1
f

whered o andd i aretheobjectdistanceandtheimagedistance,respectively.

Hint3.Findtheimagedistance
Whatistheimagedistanced i foraconcavelensthatformsanimage3.70cmfromthelens?
Expressyouranswerincentimeters.

Hint1.Signconventionforimagedistances
Conventionallytheimagedistancehasapositivesignwhentheimageisontheoppositesideofthelensfromtheobject(arealimage),and
anegativesignwhentheimageisonthesamesideofthelensastheobject(avirtualimage).
ANSWER:

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di

= 3.70 cm

ANSWER:
do

= 7.30 cm

Correct

PartC
WhatisthemagnificationmproducedbytheconcavelensdescribedinPartB?
Expressyouranswernumerically.

Hint1.Magnification
Themagnificationmproducedbyalensisgivenbytheformula
m=

di
do

whered o andd i aretheobjectdistanceandtheimagedistance,respectively.


ANSWER:
m

= 0.507

Correct

PartD
Whereshouldtheobjectbemovedtohavealargermagnification?
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Assignment9

Hint1.Magnificationandimagesize.
Recallthatalargermagnificationcorrespondstoalargerimage.YoumayfindtheraydiagramsfoundinPartAhelpfulindetermininghowthesize
oftheimagevariesastheobjectismovedcloserorfartherfromthelens.
ANSWER:
Theobjectshouldbemovedclosertothelens.
Theobjectshouldbemovedfartherfromthelens.
Theobjectshouldbemovedtothefocalpointofthelens.
Theobjectshouldnotbemovedclosertothelensthanthefocalpoint.

Correct

Problem24.54
Thefigureshowsasmallplantnearathinlens.Therayshownisoneoftheprincipalraysforthelens.Eachsquare
is1.5cmalongthehorizontaldirection,buttheverticaldirectionisnottothesamescale.Useinformationfromthe
diagramtoanswerthefollowingquestions:

PartA
Usingonlytherayshown,decidewhattypeoflensthisis.
ANSWER:

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converging
diverging

Correct

PartB
Whatisthefocallengthofthelens?
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
f

= 4.5 cm

Correct

PartC
Calculatewheretheimageshouldbe.
Expressyouranswerusingtwosignificantfigures.
ANSWER:
s

= 2.3 cm

Correct

VideoTutor:PartiallyCoveringaLens
First,launchthevideobelow.Youwillbeaskedtouseyourknowledgeofphysicstopredicttheoutcomeofanexperiment.Then,closethevideowindowand
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Assignment9

answerthequestionatright.Youcanwatchthevideoagainatanypoint.

PartA
Supposewereplacethelensinthevideowithonethathasalongerfocallength.Tokeeptheimagesharp,howshouldwemovethescreen?

Hint1.Howtoapproachtheproblem.
Ifyouhadtosolvethisproblemforanumericalresult,youcouldusethethinlensequation,whichrelatesthedistancesbetweenthebulb,lens,
andscreentothefocallengthofthelens.
However,sincethequestionisqualitative,letsusearaydiagram.Alenswithalongerfocallengthisonethatrefractsrayslessstrongly:

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Hereisaprincipalraydiagramforthelenswiththeshorterfocallength.Theobjectrepresentsthebulb,andtheimagedistanceS iswhereyou
needtoplacethescreentogetasharpimage:

Now,constructanequivalentdiagramforthelenswiththelongerfocallength.WilltheimagedistanceS (thedistancetothescreen)begreater,
smaller,orthesame?

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ANSWER:
Towardthelens
Awayfromthelens
Thereisnoneedtomovethescreen.

Correct
Ifweincreasef ,thenwemustincreasethedistancebetweenthelensandthescreeninordertogetasharpimage.

Problem24.62
An3.85mmtallobjectis23.0cmfromthecenterofasilveredsphericalglassChristmastreeornament5.80cmindiameter.

PartA
Whatisthepositionofitsimage(measuredfromthecenteroftheornament)?
ANSWER:
d

= 1.55 cm

Correct

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PartB
Whatistheheightofitsimage?
ANSWER:

|y |

= 0.259 mm

AnswerRequested
ScoreSummary:
Yourscoreonthisassignmentis90.0%.
Youreceived135.07outofapossibletotalof150points.

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