Code No: RR321003

Set No. 1

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 BIO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION (Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) With neat diagrams explain the terms Resting Potential and Active potential. How are these generated in Muscles? (b) With the help of sketches explain about polarized cell and depolarized cell. [8+8] 2. (a) With the help of a neat block diagram explain the principle of operation of heart lung machine. (b) Explain how the ECG wave form helps in assessing the functioning of the heart. [8+8] 3. (a) What is a Transducer? Explain its importance in biomedical instrumentation? (b) What is the necessity of signal conditioning and processing circuits in biomedical instrumentation? [8+8] 4. (a) What is bio-feedback instrumentation. Explain how it is used in ECG and EMG. (b) What are the differences in amplification and bandwidth requirement of amplifiers for ECG and EMG? [8+8] 5. (a) Explain the lead configuration in ECG with neat sketches (b) Draw the basic building blocks of electro cardiograph and explain. [8+8] 6. (a) With a neat block diagram explain the working principle and operation of various blocks in an EEG recorder. (b) What type of electrodes are used and how they are placed on the skull in order to record EEG signal. Explain with a neat sketch. [8+8] 7. (a) With a circuit diagram explain the working of a short wave diathermy unit. (b) Explain the terms w.r.t shortwave diathermy treatment: i. Condensor method. ii. Inductive method. 8. Write short notes on: (a) Displays used in patient monitoring system. (b) Calibration and repeatability of patient monitoring equipment. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1 of 1 [8+8] [8+8]

Code No: RR321003

Set No. 2

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 BIO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION (Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) With the help of a neat diagram explain the relationship between the action potential and muscle contraction. (b) What is stimulus threshold? Explain the terms absolute refractory period and relative refractory period. [6+10] 2. (a) Give the classification of heart sounds based on their origin and explain briefly about each. (b) Explain how the heart sounds are measured or recorded? 3. (a) What is half cell potential? Explain briefly. (b) With neat sketches explain the sources of noise while recording low level signals? [6+10] 4. (a) Draw and explain a typical strength-duration curve. (b) Derive the expressions for rheobase and chronaxie. 5. Write short notes on (a) Electrodes and leads in ECG (b) Einthonen triangle. 6. (a) List out typical EEG recording artifacts. (b) With a neat block diagram explain the principle of operation of an EEG telemetry system. [6+10] 7. (a) What is fibrillation? With a schematic diagram, explain the working of a DC fibrillator. (b) Write brief note on the following: i. Defibrillator electrodes ii. Implantable defibrillators. 8. (a) Describe in detail the system components of a CT Machine. (b) Explain the image quality considerations that are to be taken care of in a CT Machine. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8] [8+8] [8+8] [10+6]

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Code No: RR321003

Set No. 3

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 BIO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION (Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Explain how action potentials are generated in the muscles. Also explain Depolarization and Repolarization of cells. (b) What are the different types of Bioelectric potentials generated in the body ? Explain. [8+8] 2. (a) With the help of a neat sketch explain about the physiology of the heart. (b) What are the different parts and how bioelectrical potentials are generated within it? [8+8] 3. (a) What is a Transducer? Explain its importance in biomedical instrumentation? (b) What is the necessity of signal conditioning and processing circuits in biomedical instrumentation? [8+8] 4. (a) Explain the measurement of conduction velocities in motor nerves. (b) Discuss any two types of FM transmitters with their merits & demerits, used for the transmission of EMG signal. [6+10] 5. (a) Discuss the differences between the unipolar and bipolar types of ECG recording electrodes. (b) Describe the colour coding of the ECG electrodes. [10+6]

6. (a) What is meant by the 10 - 20 EEG electrode placement system? Describe it. (b) Name five common EEG machine malfunctions. [10+6]

7. (a) What is fibrillation? With a schematic diagram, explain the working of a DC fibrillator. (b) Write brief note on the following: i. Defibrillator electrodes ii. Implantable defibrillators. 8. Write short notes on: (a) Displays used in patient monitoring system. (b) Calibration and repeatability of patient monitoring equipment. ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8] [8+8]

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Code No: RR321003

Set No. 4

III B.Tech Supplimentary Examinations, Aug/Sep 2008 BIO-MEDICAL INSTRUMENTATION (Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering) Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80 Answer any FIVE Questions All Questions carry equal marks ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ 1. (a) Draw the structure of a living cell of our body and explain its constituents. (b) Discuss the different ways of transport of ions through the cell membrane. [8+8] 2. (a) With the help of a neat sketch explain the functioning of the heart. (b) With the help of a neat diagram explain the working principle of heart lung machine. [8+8] 3. (a) What is half cell potential? Explain briefly. (b) With neat sketches explain the sources of noise while recording low level signals? [6+10] 4. (a) Explain the measurement of conduction velocities in motor nerves. (b) Discuss any two types of FM transmitters with their merits & demerits, used for the transmission of EMG signal. [6+10] 5. (a) Derive the relationship between the standard limb leads and the augmented limb leads. (b) Discuss the interpretation of any four abnormalities diagnosed using ECG, giving the waveforms in each case. [8+8] 6. (a) Explain the clinical value of the EEG and also describe the various characteristics of an abnormal EEG. (b) Discuss about the type of electrodes used in the measurement of EEG and also different locations of these electrodes on the skull in order to take the EEG. [8+8] 7. (a) With the help of a neat block diagram explain the working of an external pacemaker. (b) Write short notes on short wave diathermy. 8. (a) Describe a digital computer along with its biomedical applications. (b) Describe any one of the biomedical equipment controlled by a microprocessor. [8+8] ⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆ [8+8]

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