What are the elements of music?

y y y y y y Melody is a succession of notes heard as some sort of unit. It is a single line of tones that moves up, down, or stays the same using steps, skips and repeated tones. Harmony is the relationship between two or more simultaneous pitches or pitch simultaneities. Rhythm is the variation of the accentuation of sounds over time. Tone color is timbre. Form is the structure of a particular piece, how its parts are put together to make the whole. Pitch is the perception of the frequency of the sound experienced, and is perceived as how low or high ma sound is, and maybe further described as definite pitch or indefinite pitch. It includes: melody, harmony, tonality, tessitura, and tuning or temperature (Ibid). Timbre is the quality of a sound, determined by the fundamental and its spectra: overtones or harmonics and envelope, and varies between voices and types and kinds of musical instruments, which are tools used to produce sound. It includes: tone color and articulation (Ibid). Intensity, or dynamics, is how loud or quiet a sound is and includes how stressed a sound is or articulation. Duration is the temporal aspect of music; time. It includes: pulse, beat, rhythm, rhythmic density, meter, tempo (Ibid).

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What are the voice classifications?
Voice classification is the process by which human voices are evaluated and are thereby designated into voice types. These qualities include but are not limited to: vocal range, vocal weight, vocal tessitura, vocal timbre, and vocal transition points such as breaks and lifts within the voice. Voice classification is a tool for singers, composers, venues, and listeners to categorize vocal properties, and to associate possible roles with potential voices.

What is the instrumental music?
An instrumental is a musical composition or recording without lyrics or any other sort of vocal music; all of the music is produced by musical instruments. An instrumental version of a song which otherwise features vocals, is also known as a -1 (pronounced minus one).

What are the different musical instruments?
The most commonly used system in use in the west today divides instruments into string instruments, wind instruments and percussion instruments.

What are the properties of musical sound?
Sound is a travelling wave which is an oscillation of pressure transmitted through a solid, liquid, or gas, composed of frequencies within the range of hearing and of level sufficiently strong to be heard, or the sensation stimulated in organs of hearing by such vibrations. Pitch is the property of a sound that allows the construction of melodies; pitches are compared as higher and lower , and are qualified as frequencies (cycles per second, or hertz), corresponding very nearly to the repetition of sound waves. Durations, and their beginnings and endings, maybe described as long, short, or taking a specific amount of time. Often duration is described according to terms borrowed from descriptions of pitch.

Research the development of music in the Philippines?
Kundiman (originally spelled Cundiman) is a genre of traditional Filipino love songs. The lyrics of the Kundiman are written in Tagalog. The melody is characterized by a smooth, flowing and gentle rhythm with dramatic intervals. Kundiman was the traditional means of serenade in the Philippines. The Harana or Kundiman is a lyrical song made popular in the Philippine Islands, which dates back to the Spanish period. Composed in the Mexican-Spanish tradition, the music is characterized by a minor key at the beginning and shifts to a major key in the second half. Its lyrics depict romantic theme, usually portraying love, passion, or sadness. The Cariñosa (meaning loving or affectionate one), is a Philippine national dance from the Maria Clara suite of the Philippine folk dances, where the fan, and handkerchief plays an instrument role s its places the couple in romance scenario. The dance is similar to the Jarabe Tapatio. The cariñosa is accompanied with Hispanic music, and language. The Rondalla is performed on ensembles comprising mandolin instruments of various sizes bandurria composed on the Iberian tradition. Other instruments including guitars, is also performed. Since the year 2000, the quality and diversity of Philippine music video has greatly improved.

What is Literature?
Literature is the art of written works. Literally translated, the word means acquaintance with letters (from Latin littera letter), and therefore the academic study of literature is known as letters (as in the phrase Arts and letters ). In Western culture the most basic written literary types include fiction and nonfiction

What are the classifications of literature?
Classification is a figure of speech linking a proper noun to a common noun using the or other articles. Tagalong is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 22 million people.

What are the uses of Literature?
Most of the notable literature of the Philippines was written during the Spanish period. Philippine literature is written in Spanish, Filipino, English, and other native Philippine languages. Compared to other Asian nations, the Philippine Islands has very few artifacts that show evidence of Asian writing. However, a script called Baybayin, was used in Luzon when the Spaniards settled the Islands in 1521. The Spaniards recorded that Indigenous people in Manila, and among other native groups in the Philippines, wrote on bamboo, and specially prepared Arecaceae plm leaves, using knives, and styli. They were using the primitive Tagalog script which had basic symbols. These were the vowels a/e, I, and o/u. Each basic consonantal symbol had the inherent a sound: ka, ga, nga, ta, da, na, pa, ba, ma, ya, la, wa, sa, and ha.

A diacritical mark, called kudlit , modified the sound of the symbol. The kudlit could be a dot, a line, or even an arrowhead. When placed above the symbol, it changed the inherent sound of the symbol from a/e to I, placed below, the sound became o/u. Thus a ba/be with a kudlit placed above became a bi, if the kudlit was placed below, the symbol became a bo/bu. In 1863, the Spanish government introduced public education. This had an important role in the rise of an educated class called the Ilustrado (meaning, well-informed). Members of this group included the Philippine national hero, Jose Rizal, who wrote literary novels in Spanish. His novels included Noli Me Tangere (Touch Me Not), and El Filibusterismo (The Reign of Greed), considered a Philippine classical literature. Other popular writers include Francisco Balagtas who is recognized for this novel called Florante at Laura (Florante and Laura). The Philippine historical documents such as the national anthem, the Malolos Constitution or Constitucion Politica de Malolos, and the revolutionary propaganda is also considered a classical literature. Philippine literature propagated in the Spanish language, especially in the writings of Marcelo H. Del Pilar who produced the La Solidaridad ( The Solidarity). In Cebu City, the first Spanish newspaper, El Boletín de Cebú (The bulletin of Cebu), was published in 1890. The greatest portion of Spanish literature made by Philippine scholars was written during the American period. One of the Philippines famous writers, Claro M. Recto, continued writing in Spanish. Other well-known Spanish language writers were Isidro Marfori, Cecilio Apostol, Fernando Guerrero, Flavio Zaragoza Cano, Jesus Balmori, Enrique Fernandez Lumba, and Francisco Zaragoza. Propaganda, moralizing, psychological continuum of the individual therapeutic value.

What are the specific elements of literature?
A literary element (or element of literature) is an individual aspect or characteristic of a whole work of literature. Emotional intellectual and humanistic Literary elements are not used by authors; rather, they exist inherently in forms of literature and are derived by the readers of a work in question. Theme, characterization, conflict, setting, protagonist, antagonist, and point of view are among the many literary elements that exist. They can be about the setting, plot, or even the characters. An example of this is foreshadowing. Literary elements are most frequently used to aid discussion on a work or better understand a work of literature. For instance, the New York State English/ Language Arts Regents Exam requires that students utilized and discuss literary elements relating to specific works in two of their four essays, much like many other high school exams statewide.

What are the media of literature?
Media of Literature are: A poem is a composition written in verse (although verse has been equally used for epic and dramatic fiction). Poems rely heavily on imagery, precise word choice, and metaphor; they may take the form of measures consisting of patterns of stresses (metric feet) or of patterns of different-length syllables (as in classical prosody); and they may or may not utilized rhyme. One

cannot readily characterize poetry precisely. Typically though, poetry as a form of literature makes some significant use of the formal properties of the words it uses the properties of the written or spoken form of the words, independent of their meaning. Meter depends on syllables and on rhythms of speech; rhyme and alliteration depend on the sounds of words.

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