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saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministro

saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis gaerTianebuli Stabi


J7 samxedro ganaTlebisa da sabrZolo momzadebis departamenti

ssip iv. javaxiSvilis istoriisa da


eTnologiis instituti

Temur Todua, vaJa kiknaZe

romauli samxedro SenaerTebi


kolxeTsa da iberiaSi
meomris biblioTeka #1

Tbilisi
2008

Tqvens winaSea axali seriis ,,meomris biblioTekis~ pirveli wigni; seria


iTvaliswinebs wignebis mTel wyebas, romlebSic popularulad iqneba gadmocemuli
saqarTvelosa da msoflio istoriis yvelaze saintereso da mniSvnelovani movlenebi.
seriis mizania qarTveli meomris da imedia, ara marto misi, patriotuli aRzrda
da codnis miwodeba misaReb formebSi. seriaSi gaTvaliswinebulia popularuli, magram
maRal profesionalur doneze dawerili saxelmZRvaneloebi; es patara, magram tevadi
da kargad gaformebuli broSurebi mieZRvneba qarTvelTa udides mefe daviTs, Tamars,
giorgi brwyinvales, bagrat III-s, saqarTveloSi warmoebul mTavar da gadamwyvet
brZolebs, XIX_XX ss-is gamoCenil qarTvel oficrebs, saqarTvelosa da msoflio
samxedro istoriis calkeul sakiTxebsa da a.S.
seriis gamocemis iniciatorebi arian iv. javaxiSvilis istoriisa da eTnologiis
instituti da saqarTvelos Tavdacvis saministro.
didi survili da imedi gvaqvs, rom meomarTa da oficerTa garda, saqarTvelos
yoveli moqalaqe siamovnebiT miiRebs am seriis yovel axal wigns.
seriis garekanze moTavsebuli warwera da didi daviTi yvelas Seaxsenebs, rom
brZola saqarTvelosTvis dResac grZeldeba.

vaJa kiknaZe

seriis saredaqcio kolegia:

istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, profesori

vaJa kiknaZe

istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, profesori

Tamaz beraZe

mecnierebaTa doqtori,
vice polkovniki
Temur dalaqiSvili
recenzenti:

istoriis mecnierebaTa
doqtori, profesori

kompiuteruli uzrunvelyofa:
ydis dizaini: giorgi kiknaZe

giorgi qavTaraZe

nino gigani

redaqtori: nargiz xarabaZe


teqnikuri redaqtori: mari WoniSvili
damtkicebuli da samoqmedod SemoRebulia saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis
gaerTianebuli Stabis J7 samxedro ganaTlebisa da sabrZolo
departamentis ufrosis _ polkovnik nodar qviliTaias mier
saqarTvelos SeiaraRebuli Zalebis gaerTianebuli
topografiuli sammarTvelos stamba. 2008 w.
q. Tbilisi, general kvinitaZis q. #20
tel.: +995 32 91-19-83
faqsi: +995 32 91-19-83
2

Stabis

erT dros msoflioSi uZlieresi romis imperia kacobriobis did


interess dResac iwvevs. teqnikur da kulturul miRwevebTan erTad, romma
Seqmna
Zlieri
samxedro
manqana,
romelic
saukuneTa
manZilze
daumarcxebeli iyo. mwyobrad mimavali, mzeze mbrwyinavi oqrovercxlis
arwivebiT Semkuli StandartebiT** 1 , romaeli legionerebi STambeWdavad
gamoiyurebodnen da imdroindel msoflios Tavzars scemdnen. romaeli
jariskacebi da mxedrebi sxvadasxva tipis mZime SubebiT, mWreli
maxvilebiTa da mokle satevrebiT iyvnen aRWurvilebi. maT usafrTxoebas
icavda agreTve, masiuri rkinis farebi da muzaradebi. romis SeiaraRebaSi
Sedioda swrafi da moqnili sabrZolo etlebi, mZimed SeiaraRebuli da
SejavSnuli mxedrebi da cxenebi, balistebi katapultebi da a.S.
romis samxedro teqnikas, xSir SemTxvevaSi, maSindel msoflioSi
analogi ar gaaCnda.
romTan samxedro Serkineba iberiasa (qarTli) da kolxeTsac (egrisi)
mouwia. saqarTvelos teritoria, romisTvis civiluri samyaros Soreul
sazRvars warmoadgenda, amitomac romaelTa damokidebuleba Cveni qveynis
mimarT garkveuli TaviseburebebiT gamoirCeoda.
romis imperiis mTavar strategiul mizans kavkasiaSi warmoadgenda is,
rom qarTul samefoebs Crdilo kavkasiidan ar gadmoeSvaT momTabare,
umarTavi da ,,araciviluri~ tomebi, romlebic mowesrigebuli da
kulturuli romisTvis, sakmao saSiSroebas warmoadgendnen.
qarTveli mefeebi, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, amas kargad iyenebdnen romze
zegavlenis mosaxdenad da Crdilo-kavkasiur tomebs Seusevdnen xolme misi
kontrolis qveS myof samxreT kavkasiis provinciebs. amis gaTvaliswinebiT,
roms erCivna iberiasTan daedo gansakuTrebuli xelSekruleba e.w.
,,romauli mSvidoba~ (,,paqs romana~). am SeTanxmebis Sesabamisad, romze
damokidebuli qveynis mefe iRebda tituls ,,romaelTa megobari da
mokavSire~. romis mxridan, es kargad gaTvlili nabiji iyo. aseTi
statusis qveynebSi, mas ar Wirdeboda didi jaris mudmivi yola.
damokidebuli qveynis Sida saqmeebSic
romi faqtiurad ar ereoda,
moiTxovda ra misgan samxedro-politikur momxreobasa da imperiis
sazRvrebis dacvas.
kolxeTsa da iberiaSi romis mudmivi samxedro erTeulebis gamoCenamde,
romTan iberia-kolxeTis uTrierTobis istoria, mokled aseTi iyo:
Zv. w. I saukuneSi, kolxeTisa da iberiis dasavleTiT, Savi zRvis
samxreT sanapiroze, gansakuTrebiT gaZlierda pontos saxelmwifo. pontos
Zlierebis xanaSi, mas saTaveSi edga miTridate VI evpatori (111-63w.w.). man

ori varskvlaviT aRniSnuli terminebis ganmarteba ix. bolos darTul ganmartebiT


leqsikonSi (danarTi #1)

maSindeli mravali qveyana SeierTa (kolxeTi, bosfori2 , mcire Aarmenia


da mokavSired gaixada didi somxeTis (armeniis) yvelaze saxelganTqmuli
mefe
tigran II (95-55w.w.). pontosa da didi somxeTis gaZlierebas romi win
aRudga, magram Tavdapirvelad, miTridate VI-m kargad gamoiyena mcire
aziis mosaxleobis antiromauli ganwyobileba. marTlac, Tavidan,
adgilobrivi mcxovreblebi, miridate pontoels ganmaTavisufleblad
miiCnevdnen, magram male aRmoCnda, rom isic Cveulebrivi dampyrobeli da
despoti mmarTveli iyo. amis Semdgom, miTridatem mosaxleobaSi ndoba
dakarga. es momenti kargad gamoiyena romma da ramdenjerme sastikad
daamarcxa miTridate. Zv. w. 73 wels romma gadamwyveti dartyma miayena
miTridate evpators. Semdeg, romaelebma TiTqosda uZlevel tigran II-sac
Seuties. Zv.w. 69 wels maT Zalian swrafad aiRes somxeTis axali
dedaqalaqi tigranakerti (mdebareobda md. tigrosis CrdiloeT napiraze;
dRevandeli farkini TurqeTSi).
sainteresoa, rom am brZolaSi somxebis mxares, iberieli (qarTveli)
meomrebic monawilebodnen. Zv. w. 68 wels romis sardali lukulusi da
romis legionebi Zveli somxeTis dedaqalaq artaqsatas (artaSats)
miadgnen (mdebareobda md. araqsze, dRevandeli erevnis samxreTiT). aqac,
somxebs iberielebi da maTi ganTqmuli mSvilodnebi exmarebodnen.
artaSatic swrafad daeca.
Zv. w. 66 wels, lukulusi romSi gaiwvies da is Secvala axalma
sardalma gnenius pompeusma. man mitridates Zalebi mcire somxeTSi
gaanadgura. miTridate kolxeTs Seefara, magram mas Semdeg, rac Svilebis
farnakisa da maxares Ralati Seityo, Zv. w. 63 wels Tavi moikla.
rac Seexeba tigran II-s, man jer Tavisi mokavSire da siZe miTridate
VI gamoacxada Zebnilad da misi TavisTvis didi Tanxa daawesa, Semdeg ki
romaelebs danebda da uzarmazari xarki _ 6000 vercxlis talantis
gadaxada ikisra (zogierTi mkvlevaris gamoangariSebiT, es Tanxa dRevandel
10 ml. dolars Seesabameba).
amis Semdeg, romis uSualo yuradRebis centrSi iberia moeqca.
qarTlis mefe am dros iyo artagi (artoki). man kargad gansaja rom
martod darCenili qarTli romTan verafers gaawyobda da gamoCnda Tu ara
pompeusi, zavi SesTavaza mas. pompeusi TiTqos Tanaxma iyo, magram eWvobda,
rom artagi drois mogebas cdilobda da amitom moulodnelad daesxa Tavs
da armazis cixe aiRo. artagi, mtkvris marcxena napirze gadavida (mcxeTis
dRevandeli rkinigzis sadguris midamoebSi) da mtkvarze xidi dawva.
qarTlis mefem kvlav zavi iTxova da sanacvlod ikisra xidis aRdgena da
romaelTa sursaTiT momarageba. zavi TiTqos daido kidec, magram pompeusi
2

erTi varskvlaviT aRniSnuli geografiuli da sakuTari saxelebis ganmartebebi ix.


bolos darTuli ganmartebebi (danarTi #2)

aRdgenil xidze gadavida da artagis devna ganagrZo. qarTlis mefe md.


aragvisaken (pelori) gaiqca, sadac mcxeTis meore strategiuli
cixesimagre ,,sisamura~ (wiwamuri) mdebareobda. aragvze gadasvlisas,
artagma kidev dakarga mebrZolebi. amis Semdeg, qarTvelebma brZolis
partizanul meTodebs mimarTes. isini xeebze asulan da iqidan uSendnen
isrebs momxvdurebs. maSin romaelebma tyeebis gaCexva daiwyes. cnobili
berZeni istorikosis plutarqes sityviT, am brZolebSi 9000 qarTveli
meomari daiRupa da 10 000 tyved Cavardnila.
amis Semdeg, artags ukan dasaxevi gza aRar hqonda da man romaelTa
wamoyenebuli yvela piroba usityvod Seasrula, maT Soris iyo isic, rom
sakuTari Svilebi mefem romaelebs mZevlebad misca. amave dros, pompeuss
artagma miarTva, arnaxuli silamazisa da Rirebulebis oqros sareceli,
taxti da magida. pompeusma qarTlis mefes romaelTa ,,megobrisa da
mokavSiris~ tituli uboZa, TviTon ki kolxeTSi gadavida. romaelma
sardalma TiTqmis uomrad gaiara mTeli egrisi da iq mmarTvelad
aristarqe datova.
romis legionerebi saqarTvelos teritoriaze pirvelad, rogorc
aRiniSna, Zv.w. 65 w. gamoCndnen. aq romaelebs, politikuri miznebis garda,
ZiriTadad ekonomikur-strategiuli gamorCena izidavda axali savaWro
gzebis, axali qveynebis Tavisi gavlenis sferoSi moqceva, kavkasiaze
kontrolis daweseba.
kavkasionis qedi bunebrivi winaaRmdegoba iyo Crdilokavkasiuri
momTabare-meomari tomebis transkavkasiasa da mcire aziaSi SemoWris
regulirebisaTvis. am mxriv gansakuTrebiT sayuradReboa mamisonis,
darialisa da derbentis gadasasvlelebi. vis xelSiac es gzebi iyo, mas
SeeZlo garkveuli kontroli gaewia Crdilokavkasieli tomebisaTvis.
romis
aRmosavlur
politikaSi
aRmosavleT
SavizRvispireTis

komunikaciebi aucilebeli iyo parTiis msgavs Zlier saxelmwifosTan


qiSpobisas.
antikuri xanis kolxeTs da iberias geopolitikurad namdvilad
sakvanZo teritoria ekavaT. aq xdeboda aRmosavluri da dasavluri
civilizaciebis garkveuli Tanxvedrac da Sejaxebac.
iberia-kolxeTSi
samxedro-sabrZolo
moqmedebisas
adgilobrivi
mebrZolebi flobdnen da kargad iyenebdnen reliefs, mTebs, xeobebis
Casaketad viwro adgilebs, mTa-gorebze moxerxebulad ganlagebul
TavdacviT nagebobebs, xSir gauval tyeebs, fons mdinareebze. igive
faqtorebi uaryofiTad aisaxeboda momxdurTa (am SemTxvevaSi romaelTa)
samxedro Zalis moqmedebebze. isini ar icnobdnen da taqtikurad sworad
ver iyenebdnen adgilobriv bio-geo-garemos. adgilobrivi pirobebis Sesaxeb
maT sruli informacia ar gaaCndaT. kerZod, bundovani warmodgena hqondaT
mowinaaRmdegis
sameurneo-ekonomikur
baza-resursebze,
raodenobriv-

demografiul mdgomareobaze, fsiqikur ganwyobaze, komunikaciur da


samxedro qmedebebze.
miuxedavad Zlevamosilebisa, pirvel etapze, romma ver moaxerxa Sida
kolxeTis damorCileba. es ver moxerxda verc aristarqes, verc miTridate
pergamonelis da verc polemonis xeliT. ramdenadme gamarTlda
lukulusis winaswarmetyveleba, romelic aRniSnavda am mxaris
damorCileba Zalian Zneliao (plutarqe, lukulusi, 14).
iberia-kolxeTi Tavisi xeobebiT, mTebiT, swrafi, Znelad gadasalaxi
mdinareebiT, uRrani tyeebiT advilad dasamorCilebeli ar iyo. amas
emateboda, agreTve, agresiulad ganwyobili, Zlieri adgilobrivi samefosamTavroebi. zRvispireTisaTvis ki romaelebi am saqmeSi kontrolis gawevas
ukeT axerxebdnen. amaSi maTi ZiriTadi sayrdeni unda yofiliyo sanapiro
qalaqebi, romlebSic, Sida kolxeTisagan gansxvavebiT, antikuri sameurneokulturuli gavlena SedarebiT Zlieri iyo. kolxeTis zRvispireTi is
strategiul-komunikaciuri mxare iyo, romelic aucileblad sWirdeboda
roms Tavisi gavlenis dasamyareblad kavkasiaSi, mcire aziasa da bosforSi.
pirvel etapze kolxeTi pontos samefosa da roms Soris saomari
moqmedebebis asparezad gadaiqca. romma garkveuli zemoqmedeba moaxdina
kolxeTis da Semdeg iberiis ganviTarebis procesze. es zemoqmedeba
uaryofiTi gamodga zRvispireTi romis politikur gavlenaSi moeqca,
xolo zogierT regionSi, romaelTa moqnili, cbieri politikis Sedegad,
arastabiluri mdgomareoba Seiqmna, rac SemdgomSi romisadmi naxevrad
daqvemdebarebuli "samTavroebis" ganviTarebiT dasrulda. romma im
droisaTvis maRalganviTarebulma saxelmwifom, ramdenadme dadebiTi rolic
iTamaSa. kerZod, adgilobrivi mosaxleoba gaecno im droisaTvis mowinave
romaul kulturas; gaecnen axal saomar taqtikas da teqnikas.
saqarTveloSi romauli samxedro SenaerTebis Cadgomis drois Sesaxeb
werilobiT wyaroebSi, samwuxarod, mxolod zogadi miniSnebaa.
ax.w. I s-is iudeveli (ebraeli) istorikosi ioseb flaviusi
mogviTxrobs: "...kolxebis, tavrebis, bosforelebis, pontosa da meotidis
irgvliv mcxovreblebi..., romlebic winaT sakuTar mmarTvelebsac ki ar
scnobdnen, axla 3000 mebrZols hyavs morCilebaSi da amasTanave ormoci
gemi icavs mSvidobas zRvaze, romelzedac uwin curva SeuZlebeli da
SemaZrwunebeli iyo" (iudevelTa siZveleni, II, 16,4). am werilobiT
wyaroSi ax.w. 66 wlis ambebia gadmocemuli. aqedan gamomdinare, romis
samxedro nawilebi saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi imperator neronis dros
ukve Canan. saeWvoa, rom es, winamorbedi imperatorebis: augustusis,
tiberiusis, kaligulas epoqaSi momxdariyo, radgan am droisaTvis
imperiis aRmosavleT sazRvarze mxolod oTxi legioni imyofeboda, rac
sakmarisi ar iyo. am mcire samxedro ZalebiT romi ver SeZlebda
aRmosavleTiT, kerZod kavkasiaSi, msxvili samxedro SenaerTebis ganlagebas.
aqedan gamomdinare, augustuss ar ucdia maxlobel aRmosavleTSi
6

politikuri situacia Seecvala. man romze formalurad damokidebuli


qveynebis markus antoniusis droindeli sistema ucvlelad datova. maT
Soris TvalsaCino rols pontos samefo asrulebda. romaelebma pontos
taxtze kvlav polemon I daamtkices. mas samarTavad zRvispira kolxeTic
eboZa. augustusis memkvidre imperatorebis tiberiusisa da kaligulas
drosac, kolxeTis statusi ar Secvlila. is isev polemonidebis pontos
SemadgenlobaSi darCa. SesaZloa, rom am periodisaTvis kolxeTis sanapiroze pontoelTa garnizonic mdgariyo.
neronis dros imperiis politika aRmosavleTSi kardinalurad
Seicvala. man uaryo winamorbedebis buferul qveynebze dayrdnobis
politika. neronma ax.w. 63 wels polemonidebis samefo gaauqma da is
romis provinciad gamoacxada. amasTanave, gansakuTrebiT yuradReba mieqca
kavkasiis zRvispireTSi romis poziciebis gamyarebas. dasaxuli amocanis
warmatebiT gadaWrisaTvis saWiro iyo imperiis aRmosavleT provinciebSi
mniSvnelovani Zalebis Tavmoyra, rasac ase dabejiTebiT moiTxovda xelisufalTagan
romaelTa
gamocdili
mxedarTmTavari
gneius
domicius

korbuloni (tacitusi, analebi, XIII, 35; XVI, 26).


imperiis komunikaciebis sisuste gansakuTrebiT kapadokiasa da mcire
armeniaSi SeimCneoda. es xarvezi romaelebma nawilobriv Seavses ax.w. 57
wlidan, rodesac dasavleTidan kapadokia-armeniis sazRvarze XII da XV
legionebi gadmoisroles. maT aqve ramdenime strategiuli sasimagro
nagebobac aages. amgvari RonisZiebebis gatarebis Semdgom nerons saSualeba
mieca kavkasiaSi gabeduli samxedro operaciebi ewarmoebina.
ax.w. 60 wels romaelebma daimorCiles armenia. iberia ki romis vasalmokavSired iqca (tacitusi, analebi, XIV, 23, 25, 26). kolxeTi galatiis
provinciis SemadgenlobaSi moeqca. aq, rogorc Cans, neronma mcire
garnizonebi Caayena. am mosazrebis sasargeblod metyvelebs ara marto
neronis zemoxsenebuli zogadkavkasiuri politika, aramed konkretuli
garemoebebic. kerZod, am periodisaTvis roms aRmosavleTis sazRvarTan
sakmarisi samxedro Zalebi ar gaaCnda, raTa maTi garkveuli nawili
kolxeTis
sanapirozec
ganelagebina;
gamoricxulia,
rom
iseTi
geopolitikuri
mniSvnelobis
regioni
rogoric
saqarTvelos
SavizRvispireTi iyo, romaelebs daucvelad daetovebinaT. aRniSnuli
RonisZiebis gatarebis gareSe, neroni araTu ver SeZlebda kavkasiaSi Tavisi
poziciebis ganmtkicebas, aramed Crdilo kavkasiis mTielTa Semotevasac
ver SeaCerebda; is verc zRvaze vaWrobis usafrTxoebas uzrunvelyofda.
sxva sakiTxia, Tu ra raodenobis sajariso nawilebi iyo aq
dislocirebuli. ioseb flaviusis zemoT motanili cnobis mixedviT ise
Cans,
TiTqosda romi pontospireTis yvela xalxs akontrolebda.
sawinaaRmdegos metyvelebs Tundac is faqti, rom magaliTad, sanebi
arianes drosac romaelebs ar emorCilebodnen (flavius ariane,
"periplusi...", 11). kolxeTis sanapiroze dislocirebuli romis sajariso
7

nawilebi mcirericxovani unda yofiliyo, radgan arianes inspeqtirebis


drosac, isini aq arcTu ise mravalricxovani Canan.
kolxeTis sanapiroze romis samxedro SenaerTebis ganlagebis zusti
TariRi ucnobia. amasTan dakavSirebiT, sayuradReboa, plinius ufrosis
cnoba afsarosisa da sebastopolisis Sesaxeb. pliniusi afsarossa da
sebastopoliss "kastellum"-ebs uwodebs, magram arafers gvamcnobs maTi
agebis droze. Tu mxedvelobaSi miviRebT imas, rom kastelumSi, rogorc
wesi, igulisxmeba qvis safortifikacio nageboba, romelze adre iq xis
simagre unda yofiliyo. amasTanave, Tu gaviTvaliswinebT kapadokiis
sazRvarTan XII da XV legionebis Cadgomis dros, e. i. 57 wels, maSin
SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom afsarossa da sebastopolisSi romis mcire
garnizonebi ax.w. I s. dasasrulisaTvis ukve ganlagebuli iyo, amas
garkveulwilad, arqeologiuri monacemebic mowmoben.
gonio-afsarosis nacixaris teritoriaze aRmoCnda wiTellakiani jamis
Zir-gverdis fragmenti sandliani fexis terfis gamosaxulebiT da meomris
reliefurgamosaxulebiani Wraqi. orive ax.w. I s-is meore naxevriT
TariRdeba. orive romaelTa Semotanili unda iyos. aseTi nivTebi, mxolod
im teritoriebze gvxvdeba, sadac romauli garnizonebi idga. romis
sajariso formirebebis unda iyos, agreTve, soxumis cixis teritoriaze
dadasturebuli, ax.w. I s-is sinopuri warmomavlobis amforebi (oryuriani,
wagrZelebulZiriani WurWeli). romaul garnizons ukavSirdeba q. soxumSi
aRmoCenili ax.w. I s-is nagebobac.
ax.w.
I
s-is
arqeologiuri
masalebi
fasisidan
"natexebis"
namosaxlarze aRmoCenili sinopuri amforebiT Semoifargleba. arianes
gadmocemiT, fasisis cixis kedeli winaT Tixisa iyo da masze xis koSkebi
idga, magram axla kedeli da koSkebi gamomwvari agurisaganaa gakeTebuli
(flavius ariane, "periplusi...", 9). rogorc am cnobidan irkveva, es cixe
Cveulebrivi xis droebiTi sasimagro nageboba yofila. am tipis nagebobebi
funqcionirebda imperiis sazRvrebze mudmivi samxedro banakis agebamde.
msgavsi naSTebi aRmoCenilia britaneTSi, rain-dunaispireTSi da isini,
upiratesad, ax.w. I saukunisTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli. fasisSi romis
garnizoni, afsarosisa da sebastopolisis Tanadroulad unda Camdgariyo.
Cans, romauli garnizonebi saqarTvelos zRvispireTSi ax.w. I s-is
dasasrulisaTvis ukve idgnen da ZiriTadad afsarosSi, fasisSi da
sebastopolisSi iyvnen dislocirebuli. es ki e.w. pontos limesis
arsebobas eWvqveS ayenebs. sayuradReboa, rom aqauri garnizonebi ZiriTadad
damxmare SenaerTebisagan Sedgeboda; TviT limesi, romelSic kargad
gamarTuli
sakomunikacio
qselis
sistema
da
raodenobrivad
mravalricxovani jari igulisxmeba, aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis fizikurgeografiuli sirTuleebisa da garnizonebis simciris gamo aq ver
Seiqmneboda.
niSandoblivia,
rom
romaeli
avtorebi
saqarTvelos
zRvispireTis TavdacviT xazs limesad ar ixsenieben. isini mas umetes
8

SemTxvevaSi- "sazRvrad" moixsenieben. imperiis samxedro ZalebiT dacul am


zRvispira punqtebs ponto-kavkasiis sazRvari unda ewodos. maT ZiriTad
amocanas warmoadgenda romaelTa poziciebis ganmtkiceba samxreT kavkasiaSi
da CrdiloeT kavkasiis gakontroleba. xsenebuli sasazRvro-gamagrebuli
punqtebis daniSnulebas Seadgenda Crdilo kavkasielTa Tavdasxmebis
aRkveTa; kabotaJuri navigaciisa da vaWrobis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofa
zRvispireTSi.
rogorc aRvniSneT, ponto-kavkasiis sasazRvro simagreebi neronis
epoqaSi iwyeben Camoyalibebas. imperator neronis dawyebuli Zalisxmeva
ganagrZo vespasianem (ax.w. 69-79 ww.). vespasianes saxels ukavSireben
imperiis aRmosavleTis sazRvris modernizacias da dacvis sistemis
reorganizacias.
ax.w. 70-ian wlebSi vespasianem garnizonebi siria-palestinis xazze
ganalaga, legionerTa SenaerTebi egviptesa da arabeTSi Caayena. mis drosve
cixesimagreebi aigo qalaqebSi palmira, bostra da herasi. gansakuTrebuli yuradReba daeTmo kapadokiasa da mcire armeniaSi sasazRvro xazis
modernizebasac. satalasa da melitenes Soris arsebuli teritoria
romaelebma cixesimagreebiTa da fortebiT mtkiced gaamagres, riTac
daiwyo zemoevfratis limesis formireba. zemoevfratis limesis didi
qalaqebi da cixesimagreebi, iseve rogorc aRmosavleTis danarCen sazRvrebze ganlagebuli kastelumebis qseli, erTmaneTTan dakavSirebuli yofila
mcire fortebiT, saguSagoebiTa da qvafeniliani gzebiT. AamJamad, satalatrapezuntis monakveTze, arqeologiurad xuTi aseTi fortia gamovlenili.
AmaTgan, erTi Sualeduri kastelumi aRmoCenilia satalis cixesimagris
dasavleTiT. misi farTobi 37 x 55 m-ia. amgvari fortis nangrevebi,
satalis cixesimagris aRmosavleTiT, dRevandeli baiburTis gzazec
aRmoCnda.
satala-trapezuntis cixesimagreTa sistemaSi unda yofiliyo CarTuli
satalidan 20 km-ze mdebare saguSagos nangrevebic. am saguSagos
CrdiloeTiT aris kidev ori simagre, sadac mxolod koSkebis nangrevebiRaa
SemorCenili. aRniSnuli simagreebi sworkuTxa konfiguraciisaa da
kuTxeebi naxevarwriuli koSkebiTaa daboloebuli. zemoevfratis limesis
es fortebi da sadarajo saguSagoebi, dagegmarebisa da zomis mixedviT,
mcire
kontingentis
sajariso
nawilebis
droebiTi
sadgomebia.

zemoevfratis limesidan interess iwvevs gaC-darvazexis simagre, romelic


Cveulebriv saTvalTvalo punqts warmoadgenda da sworkuTxa formisa iyo.
is 20-mde mebrZols Tu daitevda. zemoevfratis limess ganekuTvneba
simagre pagnik-oreni, romlis mSeneblobac ax.w. III s. damTavrda. pagnikorenis simagre sworkuTxaa. reliefis gamo CrdiloeTis kedels
rkaliseburi
forma
aqvs.
cixe
aRWurvili
yofila
TerTmeti
naxevarwriuli koSkiTa da oTxi karibWiT. cixesimagris centrSi idga

pretoriumis Senoba, xolo Crdilo-dasavleTis kedelTan arsebuli


nageboba, sajinibo unda yofiliyo. pagnik-orenis cixesimagre erT
kohortas itevda. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom aq, ax.w. I s-Si, samSeneblo
samuSaoebSi monawileoba mieRo IV retiul mxedarTa kohortas, romlis
mudmivi adgilsamyofeli pagnik-orenidan 80 km-ze analibaSi mdebareobda.
zemoevfratis kavkasiasTan axlo myofi sasimagro sistemaTa, bolo
rgoli satala da melitene iyo. satala da melitene XV da XII
legionebis Stab-binas warmoadgenda. aq mdebareobda kavkasiaSi romaelTa
veqsilaciebis ZiriTadi gamanawilebeli baza. satalis cixesimagre
mdebareobda strategiulad mniSvnelovan adgilze. is kavkasiisaken da
kaspiisaken mimaval gzebs da SavizRvispireTis sanapiroebsac uwevda
kontrols.
satalis cixesimagre kvadratuli formisaa da aRWurvili iyo
sworkuTxa koSkebiT, romlebic erTimeorisagan Tanabari manZiliT iyvnen
daSorebuli. cixesimagres CrdiloeTiT da aRmosavleTiT hqonda karibWe.
satalis teritoriaze dRemde SemorCenilia romauli kastelumebisaTvis
damaxasiaTebeli abanos, sakanalizacio koleqtorisa da akvedukis naSTebi.
melitenes
kastelumic
kvadratuli
konfiguraciisaa.
kargadaa
SemorCenili aRmosavleTi kedeli koSkebiTurT. koSkebi naxevarwriulia,
nagebia riyis qvebiT da kirxsnariT. cixesimagris garSemo samoqalaqo
dasaxleba iyo, romelsac traianem qalaqis statusi mianiWa. prokopi
kesarielis cnobiT, melitene mravalricxovani qalaqi yofila. aq taZrebi,
amfiTeatri, abano da sxva nagebobani mdgara. melitenes samxreTiT iwyeboda
siriis limesi, xolo satala sasimagro nagebobaTa qseliT ukavSirdeboda
trapezunts. trapezunti romaul xanaSi mniSvnelovani ekonomikuri da
samxedro-strategiuli centri iyo. aniketis ajanyebis Semdeg, aq XII da
XV legionebis veqsilaciebi iyvnen dabanakebuli, xolo III s-Si I ponturi
legioni. trapezuntidan saTaves iRebda ponto-kavkasiis sasazRvro
sistema, romlis rolic vespasianes dros mniSvnelovnad gaizarda.
vespasianes dros iberiis dedaqalaqSi romauli garnizoni ar idga.
mcxeTaSi jerjerobiT romauli legionis damRebi ar dadasturebula.
Tumca romaelTa monawileoba mcxeTis safortifikacio samuSaoebSi eWvs
ar unda iwvevdes, rasac adasturebs mcxeTaSi aRmoCenili, ax.w. 75 wliT
daTariRebuli
imperator
vespasianes
warwera.
masSi
naTqvamia:
"TviTmpyrobelma keisarma vespasiane sebastosma... iberTa mefes, miTridates,
mefe farsmanisa da amazaspis Zes, keisris megobarsa da romaelTa moyvarul
xalxs es kedlebi ganumtkices". mcxeTis gamagreba unda dawyebuliyo
alanTa meore Semosevis Semdeg, raTa win aRdgomoda maT xelmeore
Semosevas. vespasianes es RonisZieba qarTlis Zvel dedaqalaqSi megobruli
Jesti iyo iberielebisadmi, am ukanasknelTa gansakuTrebuli wvlilisaTvis
alanTa winaaRmdeg brZolaSi. gamoricxuli ar aris, rom romauli
10

samxedro SenaerTebi darialis xeobaSi idgnen. gamagrebas swored am


xeobaSi, pliniusi ixseniebs, romelic agebuli yofila agresiul
momTabareTa Sekavebis mizniT. pliniusis mier moxseniebuli cixesimagre
kumania darialis cixes unda warmoadgendes. `kumania~ _ darialis cixe
bunebriv borcvzea aSenebuli da mdinare Tergi Camoudis.
Sidacixis teritoriaze arqeologiuri gaTxrebis Sedegad gamovlinda
didi zomis qvebiT nagebi Senobebi. cixis samxreTiT dafiqsirda samarxebi,
romlebic romaul samyaros unda ukavSirdebodes. darialis xeobaSi
romaelTa calkeuli SenaerTebi adrianes drosac (ax.w. 117-138 ww.) unda
mdgariyo. ioane lides (`bunebis istoria~, VI, 30). cnobiT, arianes
mounaxulebia dariali. cnobilia, rom kapadokiis legati _ flavius
ariane mxolod im punqtebSi Cadioda, sadac romaelTa garnizonebi iyo
dislocirebuli.
domicianes droidan (ax.w. 81-96 ww.) aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis
mowesrigebulma TavdacviTma sistemam garkveulwilad xeli Seuwyo
romaelTa poziciebis ganmtkicebas kavkasiis albaneTSic. beiuk-daSSi
aRmoCenili laTinuri warweridan irkveva, rom domicianem gagzavna XII
legionis nawilebi albaneTSi, raTa mas Tvalyuri edevnebina e.w. kaspiis
karebis samxreT gadasasvlelebisaTvis. gamoricxuli ar aris, rom
aRniSnuli legionis nawilebi centralur albaneTSi dabanakebuliyo. XII
legionis saxeli moxseniebulia md. araqsis marcxena sanapirozec, sof.
kariamnaSi aRmoCenil qvazec. svetoniusis cnobiT, aRniSnuli legioni
sarmatebTan brZolaSi damarcxda.
somexi istorikosi movses xorenacic (V s.) gviambobs, domicianes
mmarTvelobis dros, armeniaSi romaelTa warumatebeli laSqrobis Sesaxeb
(movses xorenaci, 1984, gv. 145). albaT, XII legionis zogierTi SenaerTi
alan-sarmatebTan brZolas Seewira. vespasianes droidan ponto-kavkasiis
sasazRvro sistema sakmaod warmatebiT moqmedebs. am sistemis cixesimagreebi, imperator adrianes davalebiT, 131 wels sagangebod moinaxula da
TavdacviTunarianoba Seamowma kapadokiis legatma flavius arianem. arianes,
rogorc es misi "periplusidan" Cans, pirvelad afsarosis cixesimagre da
aq mdgomi garnizonis sabrZolo mzadyofna Seumowmebia. arianes cnobiT,
"afsarosSi... dgas xuTi speira" (flavius ariane, periplusi..., 6),
romelsac tradiciulad xuT kohortad, anu naxevarlegionad Targmnidnen.
Sesabamisad, mkvlevarTa umravlesobas afsarosis romauli samxedro
SenaerTebi legionur garnizonad miaCndaT.
faiumSi (egvipte) aRmoCenilma papirusma da gonioSi dadasturebulma
romauli samxedro SenaerTis tvifrma naTeli mohfines am bundovan
sakiTxs. ax.w. II s-is papirusze moxseniebulia afsarosSi mdgari
klavdiusis saxelobis II kohortis veterani marciali; faiumis am
fragmentis cnobis siswores dokumenturad adasturebs gonios kastelumis
11

centralur nawilSi arqeologiuri gaTxrebisas, ax.w. II s-is fenaSi


aRmoCenili romauli samxedro SenaerTis damRebic.
es kohorta ax.w. II s-Si kapadokiaSi ganlagebul damxmare kohortas
warmoadgenda. arianes mier afsarosSi dasaxelebul danarCen oTx
kohortasac damxmare nawilad miiCneven, rac arqeologiuri masalebiT
dasturdeba. kastelumis centralur nawilSi savaraudod pretoriumis
teritoriaze, aRmoCnda damRiani aguri. damRa ase ikiTxeba: `sagi~,
romelic mSvildosanTa kohortas niSnavs. amgvari kohorta damxmare
samxedro SenaerTi iyo. aseTi tipis samxedro nawilebi dislocirebuli
iyvnen siriaSi da dunaispireTSi.
afsarosis kastelumis centralur nawilSi warweriani brinjaos
kandelabri aRmoCnda: misi laTinuri warwera gvamcnobs, rom iq romis
armiis damxmare SenaerTi idga. aRsaniSnavia, rom romis imperator markus
aureliusis saxelobis damxmare kohortebi dunaispireTis provinciebSic
idgnen.
afsarosSi ganlagebuli romauli samxedro SenaerTebis xasiaTisa da
maTi funqciis TvalsazrisiT, interess iwvevs kidev erTi damRa, romelic
datanilia wyalsadenis milze. isic kastelumis centralur nawilSia
aRmoCenili. wyalsadenis mili ax.w. II saukunisaa. masze gamosaxulia niSani
`X~, romelic X legionis aRmniSvnelia. es legioni ax.w. I s-is
dasasruls siriaSi iyo dabanakebuli, mogvianebiT ki palestinaSi.
aRsaniSnavia, rom adrianes epoqaSi am legionis jariskacebis mieraa
gamarTuli wyalsadenis sistema kesariaSi. ar aris gamoricxuli, rom
aRniSnuli legionis samSeneblo-sainJinro SenaerTebi, amave mizniT
afsarosSi specialurad gadmoesrolaT.
zemoTganxiluli damRebi, rogorc adre iTqva, dokumenturad
adastureben arianes cnobas afsarosSi dislocirebuli xuTi kohortis
Sesaxeb, romlebic damxmare kohortebi iyvnen da ara legionuri samxedro
SenaerTebi. sayuradReboa, rom arianeseuli "speira" daaxloebiT laTinuri
"manipul"-is pirdapiri Targmania da kohortis 1/3, 150-200 kacian razms
udris. ramdenadac Teoriulad
xuTi speira kohortanaxevaria, is
daaxloebiT 1000 jariskacs unda iTvlides, rac Seesabameba afsarosis
kastelumis tevadobas.
afsarosis simagris zomidan (1.95 x 2.45 m). gamomdinare, is
daaxloebiT aTas jariskacs itevda, rac aq sakmaod did Zalas
warmoadgenda. unda iTqvas, rom afsarosis garnizoni sagrZnoblad
Warbobda fasisis, sebastopolisisa da pitiuntis garnizonTa raodenobas.
afsarosis
cixesimagris
aseTi
mniSvneloba
misi
geostrategiuli
mdebareobiT iyo ganpirobebuli. afsarosi uSualod emezobleboda iberiis
im droisaTvis Zlier samefos, saidanac imperiis aRmosavleT provinciebs,
Crdilo kavkasiis mTielTa saxiT, didi safrTxe emuqreboda. amgvari
safrTxe, rom realurad arsebobda, amaze miuTiTebs is faqti, rom farsman
12

II dros iberielebma darialis kari gauRes alanebs da isini romis


imperiis aRmosavleT provinciebs Seusies.
rac Seexeba afsarosis sasimagro nagebobas, rogorc es arianes
aRweridan Cans, is mis dros ukve iyo xis cixesimagris tipis
mudmivmoqmedi kastelumi. am bolo xanebSi arqeologiuri gaTxrebis
Sedegad, cixesimagris samxreTi kedlis monakveTSi gamovlinda uZveles
nagebobaTa naSTebi, romlebic qronologiurad win uswrebda arianes
inspeqtirebis periods da ax.w. I s-is meore naxevriT TariRdeba. gonioafsarosis dRemde kargad Semonaxuli kastelumi ki gviandelia. afsarosis
kastelumi, romauli cixesimagreebis saerTo standartebidan gamomdinare,
saSualo sididis banakebis kategorias unda miekuTvnos.
goniodan CrdiloeTiT, 60 km-ze mdebareobda fasisis cixesimagre. aq,
arianes cnobiT, mdgara "400 rCeuli" meomari, romelic raodenobrivad
erT kohortas Seesabameboda. arianesave TqmiT, fasisis garnizoni
lodsatyorcni manqanebiT iyo aRWurvili. damxmare samxedro SenaerTebs ki
ax.w. II s-Si, rogorc wesi, satyorcni iaraR-mowyobilobebi ar hqondaT.
balistebi, onagrebi da katapultebi mxolod legionebis teqnikur
aRWurvilobaSi Sedioda.
SesaZlebelia, rom fasisSi legionuri kohorta idga. arianes TqmiT,
cixesimagre "imdagvarad yofila mowyobili, rom veravin miuaxlovdeboda"
(flavius ariane, periplusi.... 9). arianes mier naxseneb fasisze SesaZlo
TavdasxmaSi safiqrebelia iberielebi igulisxmebodnen. albaT swored amiT
iyo ganpirobebuli fasisis cixesimagris gamagrebis saWiroeba da samxedro
manqanebiT aRWurva. amave mizans emsaxureboda, aseve, arianes mier aq
Catarebuli RonisZiebani, romelic fasisis navsadgurisa da samoqalaqo
dasaxlebis gamagrebaSi gamoixata.
samwuxarod,
fasisis
arianeseuli
kastelumi
arqeologiurad
jerjerobiT ar aris Seswavlili. mis Sesaxeb zogadi warmodgena gveqmneba
diubua de monperes mier Sedgenili sqematuri gegmiT. am gegmis Tanaxmad,
cixesimagre oTxkuTxa formisaa, kuTxeebSi mrgvali koSkebiT. misi
aRweriT, arianes droindeli da diubuas mier aRwerili cixesimagre foTis
navsadguridan 5 km-is daSorebiT mdebareobda, xolo md. rionidan 500 m-is
manZilze. cixis kedlebs Soris manZili udrida 1.60 x 1.80 m. aqedan
gamomdinare, albaT, fasisis arianeseuli cixe, erTi kohortisaTvis unda
yofiliyo gaTvaliswinebuli.
ase rom, arianes droisaTvis, fasisi da misi midamoebi saimedod
yofila daculi. fasisis Semogarenis gamagreba-ganmtkicebis TvalsazrisiT,
interess iwvevs sof. moedanSi (lanCxuTis r-ni) dafiqsirebuli Zveli
sasimagro nagebobis kvali. aq anakref masalaSi aRmoCnda romauli damRiani
aguris fragmenti. SemorCenilia sami aso `leg~. damRa SesaZloa XV
legionisa iyos. rac Seexeba mis TariRs, es Zalze rTuli dasadgenia,
Tumca varaudis gamoTqma mainc SesaZlebelia. rogorc cnobilia, IV s-is
13

meore naxevridan, sof. moednis siaxloves mdebare romaelTa erT-erT


mniSvnelovan sayrden punqtSi fasisSi romauli garnizoni aRar idga.
Sesabamisad, fasisisa da mis midamoebSi romaul sasimagro nagebobebsac
funqcionireba unda Seewyvita. aqedan gamomdinare, aRwerili aguri,
zogadad III-IV ss-is pirveli naxevriT SeiZleba daTariRdes.
sof. moedanSi aRmoCenili sasimagro nageboba, romelic zRvis
dRevandeli sanapirodan foTamde pirdapiri xaziT 10 km-is daSorebiT
mdebareobda da rac mTavaria, romauli damRiani aguri, gvafiqrebinebs aq
raRac
gamagrebul
punqts,
romelic
fasisis
cixes
uecari
Tavdasxmebisagan icavda.
sof. moedanSi aRmoCenili romauli damRiani aguri dokumenturad
adasturebs, rom romaelebi zRvis sanapiro zolTan erTad, ramdenadme
akontrolebdnen kolxeT-lazikis Sida regionebsac. erTi aseTi punqti,
rogorc Cans, md. sufsis marjvena napiras, dRevandel sof. moedanTan
arsebula. aseTive punqti unda yofiliyo, Cveni azriT, arqeopolisinoqalaqevi, rasac garkveulwilad mowmobs iq aRmoCenili konstantine
didis spilenZis moneta. amgvari monetebi ki, rogorc wesi, Cndeba iq
sadac romaelTa samxedro kontingenti idga. fasisis midamoebis gamagrebis
sistemaSi unda yofiliyo CarTuli, vaSnaric. marTalia, is romaulbizantiur werilobiT wyaroebSi ar ixsenieba, rac imiT unda aixsnas, rom
bizantieli istorikosebi, umTavresad lazikis im punqtebs asaxavdnen,
sadac samxedro operaciebi mimdinareobda. "vaSnaris" Tavdapirveli
cixesimagre, romelic kvadratuli formisaa da romauli kastelumis
principiTaa nagebi, aseTi varaudis safuZvels gvaZlevs.
romaelTa samxedro aqtiuroba iberiis samefos sazRvrebTan xels ar
aZlevda iberiis xelisufalT. droTa ganmavlobaSi, cxadia, amas garkveuli
reaqcia unda mohyoloda. iberiis mefem farsman II protestis niSnad,
darialis kari gauxsna alanebs da isini Seusia kapadokiasa da armenias.
alanebi, dion kasiusis gadmocemiT - "kapadokiis mmarTvelis flavius
arianes mier SeSinebulebi, saomar moqmedebas wyveten". arianes mier
Catarebul samxedro RonisZiebebsa da SavizRvispira cixesimagreebis
ganaxleba-ganmtkicebas, mefe farsmanze zegavlena unda moexdina. amis
Semdeg, adrianem mas "megobrobisa da mokavSireobis" motiviT, elius
spartianes cnobiT, "saCuqrad misca spilo da 50 kaciani kohorta". fm
kohortis raodenobis, statusisa Tu funqciis Sesaxeb samecniero
literaturaSi azrTa sxvadasxvaobaa. mkvlevarTa erTi nawilis azriT, es
kohorta 500 jariskacisagan Sedgeboda da sagarnizono iyo, xolo meoreni
mas 50 jariskacian sainJinro nawilad miiCnevs.
marTalia, elius spartianesTan 50 kaciani kohortaa naxsenebi, magram
es gadamwerTa Secdoma unda iyos. teqstSi weria "kohorta". cnobilia,
rom romauli kohorta 500-600 jariskacisagan Sedgeboda. es ki ukve
seriozuli Zala iyo. aqedan gamomdinare, vfiqrobT, rom xsenebuli
14

kohorta sagarnizono samsaxurisaTvis iyo gaTvaliswinebuli. igi XV


legionis mebrZolebiT iyo dakompleqtebuli, romelTa erTi nawilic
pitiuntSi idga. teqstSi xsenebul kohortas ramdenime funqciis
Sesruleba unda dakisreboda. am funqciaTagan umTavresi iyo darialis
gadmosasvlelebis gakontroleba, saidanac imperiis sazRvrebs alanebis
saxiT saSiSroeba emuqreboda. amitomac Zneli misaxvedri ar unda iyos,
rom aRniSnuli kohorta swored darialis xeobaSi unda dabanakebuliyo da
ara iberiis sxva romelime punqtSi. am kohortasve unda dakisreboda,
iberiis xelisufalTa moqmedebis gakontrolebac, rasac diplomatiuri
gziT adriane ver axerxebda. masve evaleboda albaT savaWro magistralebis
kontroli.
adrianes mier iberiaSi gamogzavnilma kohortam, rogorc amas Semdgomi
movlenebis analizi cxadyofs, garkveuli misia Seasrula. swored misi
qarTlSi Cadgomis Semdeg, werilobiTi wyaroebis Tanaxmad, Semosevebi
imperiis teritoriaze aRar ganaxlebula.
iberiaSi dislocirebuli kohortis mxardaWeriT, adrianes legatma
flavius arianem, iberia-romis urTierTobaTa mowesrigeba ramdenadme
SeZlo. albaT arianes iberiaSi elCobisas gadawyda farsman mefis romSi
stumrobis sakiTxic. Tumca es adrianes mmarTvelobis dros ver moxerxda,
radgan adrianes imperatorobis miwuruls politikuri viTareba romSi
garTulda, imperatori da senatorebi erTmaneTs daupirispirdnen. cxadia,
aseT situaciaSi sagareo sakiTxebi gverdze gadaideboda. farsmanis viziti
q. romSi arianes elCobidan iberiaSi mcire xnis Semdeg, antoninus piusis
imperatorobis dasawyisSi Sedga.
erT-erTi cixesimagre, romelic arianem daaTvaliera sebastopolisi
(axlandel q. soxumTan) iyo. aq, arianes sityvebiT - "moxerxda
jariskacebisaTvis xelfasis micema, cxenebisa da iaraRis daTvaliereba,
mxedrebis varjiSi ..., avadmyofebis monaxuleba, puris maragis Semowmeba,
kedlebisa da Txrilebis Semovla" (flavius ariane, periplusi ..., 10).
rogorc am aRweridan irkveva, sebastopolisis garnizoni, ZiriTadad,
kavaleriis nawilebisagan Sedgeboda, magram konkretulad ar aris
dasaxelebuli maTi raodenoba. Tu sebastopolisis adreuli, ax.w. I-II ss.
daTariRebuli kastelumis farTobiT (0,7 ha) vimsjelebT, misi garnizoni
200 jariskacs ar aRemateboda. Tu es asea, maSin sebastopolisis
Tavdapirveli kastelumi numeruli, anu mcire cixesimagris kategorias
unda mivakuTvnoT, xolo misi garnizoni damxmare jaris Sereuli
qvedanayofebi unda yofiliyo. damxmare jaris nawilebi sasazRvro
numerebi, romis regularuli armiis nawilebi ar iyvnen. isini, rogorc
wesi araromaelebisagan kompleqtdeboda.
ariane arafers ambobs mis mier sebastopolisSi Catarebul samSeneblo
saqmianobis Sesaxeb, magram arsebobs am faqtis damadasturebeli laTinuri

15

lapidaruli (qvaze Sesrulebuli) warwera. is aRmoCnda q. soxumis


navsadguris damcavi qvis jebiris wyobaSi dafiqsirebul kirqvis filaze.
sebastopolisis kastelumi kvadratuli formisaa da mozrdili
lodebiT, kirxsnariTa da aguris fenebiT nagebi. nawilobriv SemorCenilia
Svidi koSki, xolo mTlianad CrdiloeTi mxaris kedeli (sigrZe 80
m), romelsac momrgvalebuli kuTxeebi aqvs, kedlis sisqe 2,30 m; gegmaSi
amgvari formis cixesimagreebi momrgvalebuli kuTxeebiT, damaxasiaTebelia
ax.w. I s-is dasasrulisa da II s-is dasawyisis romauli kastelumebisaTvis.
sebastopolisis II s-is romauli garnizoni damxmare jaris Sereuli
qvedanayofebi unda yofiliyo. sebastopolisSi, arianes dros, albaT,
afsarosTan SedarebiT mcirericxovani razmi idga, rac paradoqsulia,
vinaidan sebastopolisi xom am dros romaelTa erT-erTi ukiduresi
sasazRvro forpostia dasavleT kavkasiaSi. sebastopoliss evaleboda
imperiis ukiduresi aRmosavleTi sazRvris dacva CrdiloeT kavkasiis
mTielebisagan. sebastopoliss savaWro-ekonomikuri mniSvnelobac hqonda
aq gadadioda mniSvnelovani savaWro-satransporto gza, romlis gamarTuli
moqmedebiT romaelebi Zalze dainteresebuli iyvnen.
sebastopolisi warmoadgenda sakontaqto adgils da SesaZloa
strategiul placdarmsac CrdiloeT SavizRvispireTis qalaqebis mimarT.
Znelia gadaWriT iTqvas, Tu ratom idga ax.w. II s. sebastopolisSi
romaelTa aseTi mcirericxovani garnizoni. savaraudoa, es imiT yofiliyo
gamowveuli, rom am dros romaelTa umTavresi forposti afsarosi iyo.
albaT, aqedan eloda imperiis aRmosavleTis sazRvars gaZlierebuli
iberiis samefosagan yvelaze meti saSiSroeba, da ara sebastopolisis
monakveTidan.
amrigad, ax.w. II s-is pirvel naxevarSi, rogorc es arianes cnobebidan
irkveva, romaelTa ZiriTadi samxedro-sayrdeni punqti aRmosavleT
SavizRvispireTis CrdiloeT nawilSi sebastopolisi yofila. swored aq
dausrulebia Tavisi sainspeqcio mogzauroba flavius arianes da aqve
Seutyvia kimeriuli bosforis mefis kotisis gardacvalebis ambavi.
amitomac arianes aRuweria gza dioskuria-sebastopolisidan bosforamde,
raTa Tuki imperatori rames moisurvebda bosforTan dakavSirebiT, am gzis
Sesaxeb scodnoda. pirvel aseT sayuradRebo punqtad bosforisaken mimaval
gzaze ariane asaxelebs pitiunts (biWvintas), romelsac igi patara
navsadgomad moixseniebs. arianes cnobidan Cans, rom mis dros aq romauli
samxedro SenaerTi ar idga. arianemde pitiuntSi garnizoni rom mdgariyo,
is mas gakvriT mainc moixseniebda. garda amisa, ariane konkretulad
uTiTebs, rom dioskuriasTan "mTavrdeba romaelTa samflobeloebi pontos
marjvena mxares mcuravTaTvis" (flavius ariane, periplusi ..., 17).
romauli samxedro SenaerTebis pitiuntSi Cadgomis drois sakiTxs
naTels hfens kastelumis teritoriaze aRmoCenili erTi laTinurenovani
warwera. am warweris mixedviT pitiuntSi romauli garnizoni 135-152 ww.
16

Soris Camdgara. ax.w. II s-is SuaxanebisTvis, biWvintaSi romaelTa samxedro


SenaerTebis yofnas damatebiT mowmobs is faqtic, rom ucxouri nawarmi da
monetebi meti raodenobiT swored am droidan vrceldeba. aRniSnul
xanaSive unda dawyebuliyo aq kastelumis mSenebloba, romelSic, rogorc
amas biWvintis naqalaqarze aRmoCenili legionis tvifriani keramikuli
filis fragmentebi adastureben, monawileobas Rebuloben legionuri
sainJinro-samSeneblo nawilebi.
biWvintaSi jerjerobiT sami aseTi fragmentia dadasturebuli. erTi
fragmenti dafiqsirda inkitis tbasTan arsebuli mrgvali koSkis ax.w. II-III
ss-is fenaSi. aRniSnuli damRis msgavsi, XV legionis damRiani keramikuli
filebi da kramitebi didi raodenobiTaa aRmoCenili satalaSi, sadac
mdebareobda am legionis mudmivi Stab-bina. swored isini warmoadgenen XV
legionis biWvintis damRebis zust analogebs. ase rom, ax.w. II s-is Sua
wlebSi, pitiuntSi Cayenebulia XV legionis veqsilacia, romlis
raodenoba, biWvintis kastelumis zomebis mixedviT (1.40 x 1.70 m), erT
kohortas ar aRemateboda. aqedan gamomdinare, pitiuntis kastelumic
sakohorto, saSualo sididis cixesimagred unda CaiTvalos. pitiuntis XV
legionis garnizonis mTavar funqcias imperiis Soreuli misadgomebis
CrdiloeT kavkasiis mTielebisagan dacva warmoadgenda. Ggarnizoni, rogorc
biWvintis # 18 koSkis IV s-is fenaSi aRmoCenili balistis RerZis
nawili adasturebs, qvis satyorcni manqaniT yofila aRWurvili.
cnobilia, rom XV legioni, romlis formirebac cezaris dros
dasrulda, Tavdapirvelad panoniaSi idga, Semdeg emonaSi. aqedan is
gadayvanil iqna karnintumSi. ax.w. 57 wels alanTa aqtivizaciisa da
parTiasTan mosalodneli omis gamo, XV legioni romaelebma aRmosavleTSi
gadmoisroles. imperator vespasianes dros, XV legioni siriidan
kapadokiaSi gaagzavnes. salegiono banaki moewyo satalaSi. aRniSnul
xanebSi afrikidan kapadokiaSi gadmoiyvanes aseve XII elviseburi legioni,
romelic imperator titusis dros, meliteneSi dabanakda.
pitiuntis garda, ax.w. II-III ss.-Si am legionis veqsilaciebi unda
mdgariyvnen, agreTve afsarossa (sof. gonio) da sebastopolisSi (q.
soxumi). kolxeTis sanapiro am dros e.w. kapadokiis kompleqsSi Sedioda,
amitom xsenebuli romauli garnizonebi kapadokiis legats emorCileboda.
kolxeTis zRvispira simagreebis garnizonebi aRmosavleT kapadokiaSi
dabanakebul XII da XV legionebis SenaerTebiT kompleqtdebodnen.
niSandoblivia isic, rom ax.w. II-III ss.-Si rize-aTena-xofas xazze, anu
samxreT-aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi, aRniSnuli legionebis veqsilaciebi
idgnen. gamoricxuli ar aris, rom ax.w. III-IV ss-Si aq trapezuntSi
mudmivad myofi I ponturi legionis veqsilaciebic mdgariyvnen.
rac Seexeba romauli garnizonebis Semadgenlobas, is, ZiriTadad,
qveiTebisa da kavaleriisagan Sedgeboda. am qvedanayofebis garda, aRniSnul
punqtebSi romaelTa flotis calkeuli SenaerTebic unda mdgariyo. amgvar
17

mosazrebas erTgvarad mxars uWers zogierTi arapirdapiri cnoba. kerZod,


yuradRebas ipyrobs ioseb flaviusis cnoba Sav zRvaze "mSvidobis
damcveli" ormoci xomaldis Sesaxeb.
savaraudod, ax.w. I s-is miwuruls kolxeTis sanapiroze ganlagebuli
sazRvao floti ravenis eskadrisa an meziur-flaviusiseuli flotis
nawilebisagan unda yofiliyo Semdgari. cnobilia, rom CrdiloeT
SavizRvispireTis sanapiroebs, rogorc aq aRmoCenili werilobiTi Zeglebi
mowmoben, swored am flotis xomaldebi icavdnen. ax.w. I s-is meore
naxevridan Sav zRvaze stabilurobis SenarCunebis mizniT, specialuri
"pontos floti" iqmneba.
amrigad, ax.w. II s-Si ponto-kavkasiis sasazRvro gamagrebebSi
pitiuntis CarTviT, mTavrdeba am sistemis organizaciuli gaformeba. aq
sistemis avanpostis rols aRniSnuli droidan, pitiunti asrulebs.
swored,
pitiuntisa
da
aRmosavleT
SavizRvispireTis
danarCeni
cixesimagreebis qselis meSveobiT, romis imperia ax.w. III s-is Sua xanebamde
garkveulwilad akontrolebda transkavkasias, uzrunvelyofda sazRvao
vaWrobis usafrTxoebas.
ax.w. III s-is Sua xanebidan ponto-kavkasiis sasazRvro simagreTa
jaWvSi garkveuli texili SeiniSneba, rac aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi
guTebis laSqrobebs ukavSirdeba. rogorc cnobilia, ax.w. 238 wlidan
iwyeba romis imperiis dunaispireTisa da balkaneTis provinciebze guTebis
Semosevebi.
maTi
laSqrobebi
mxolod
balkaneT-dunaispireTiT
ar
Semofarglula. ax.w. III s-is 40-ian wlebSi guTebis Tavdasxmebis Sedegad
CrdiloeT SavizRvispireTis qalaqebi ganadgurda. ax.w. 252-267 ww. guTebma
mcire aziasa da Savi zRvis sanapiroebze laSqrobebi moawyves. laSqrobaTa
talRam saqarTvelos zRvispireTsac gadauara.
SavizRvispireTis
aRmosavleT
sanapiros
dasaxlebebze
guTebis
laSqrobaTa Sesaxeb mogviTxrobs bizantieli istorikosi zosime:
"rodesac guTebma daiwyes mooxreba yvelafrisa, rac gzaSi xvdebodaT,
pontos
sanapiros
mcxovreblebi
gaiqcnen
gamagrebul
adgilebSi.
barbarosebi pirvel yovlisa Tavs daesxnen biWvintas, romelic
SemozRuduli iyo uzarmazari kedliT da romelsac hqonda kargad
mowyobili navsadguri. Aadgilobrivi jaris saTaveSi idga sukesianusi. man
mTeli Tavisi jarebiT Seutia barbarosebs da gareka isini. guTebma imis
SiSiT, rom sxva simagreebis mcvelebmac ar gaigon da ar SeuerTdnen
biWvintis jarebs da sabolood ar gagvanadgurono...xelT igdes
xomaldebi, rac ki SeeZloT da Zalian SeSinebulebma mohkurcxles, ise,
rom biWvintasTan brZolebSi bevri Tavisi meomari dahkarges. eqvsinis
pontos sanapiros mcxovreblebi, romlebic gadarCnen sukesianusis
strategobis wyalobiT, imedovnebdnen, rom guTebi, romlebic amnairad
ukuqceul iqnen, verasodes ver gabedavdnen gadmosvlas. magram, rodesac

18

imperatoma valerianem sukesianusi gaiwvia da samefo karze misca


Tanamdeboba, da mihyo xeli antioqiis saqmeebis mogvarebas da mis
dasaxlebas, maSin guTebi kvlav gamoCndnen; bosforelebs gamoarTves
xomaldebi da gadavidnen aziaSi. maT bosforelebs aRar daubrunes
xomaldebi, rogorc winaT, da arc Sin gauSves, aramed am xomaldebiT
miadgnen fasiss, sadac rogorc amboben, aSenebuli iyo fasisis artemides
taZari da aietis sasaxle. maT scades am taZris aReba, magram unayofod;
amis Semdeg pirdapir wavidnen biWvintisaken. es cixe aiRes maT
daubrkolebriv, mTeli misi mcveli jari gawyvites da ganagrZes gza.
iSoves didi raodenoba xomaldebisa da curvisaTvis gamoiyenes tyveebi,
romlebmac icodnen niCbebis xmareba".
pitiuntis II-III ss. kastelumis gegma jerjerobiT ar aris
gamovlenili, magram gviandeli cixesimagris zomebi ZiriTad monaxazSi mas
emTxveva. pitiuntis kastelumi sworkuTxaa da msgavsebas poulobs
satalis, abritusis, afsarosis III-IV ss. kastelumebTan. zogadad maT
Soris sxvaoba koSkebis moyvanilobasa da raodenobaSic Cans. Tu
abritusisa da Svicendorfis kastelumebi Sesabamisad aRWurvili iyo 25
da 28 koSkiT, an satalasi 22 koSkiT, afsarosisa da pitiuntis
cixesimagreebis kedlebi ki 22 da 27 koSkiT yofila gamagrebuli. Tu
satalisa da sebastopolisis kuTxeebis koSkebi kvadratuli formisaa,
pitiuntis dasavleTi kuTxis koSkebi ki e.w. maraoseburia. am mxriv,
pitiuntis kuTxis koSkebi axlos dgas boiotros da Svicendorfis
kastelumebis kuTxis koSkebTan, romlebic III da IV ss. Cans agebuli.
saerTod unda iTqvas, rom pitiuntis galavnis koSkebis wamyvan
formas, iseve rogorc afsarosisa da sebastopolisisa, kvadratuli tipis
koSkebi warmoadgenen. amgvari tipis koSkebi ki, rogorc cnobilia,
naklebad efeqturi iyo da maleve ingreoda artileriiT, vidre wriuli an
mravalwaxnaga koSkebi, romelTa ageba SedarebiT ZviradRirebuli da
Sromatevadi iyo.
marTalia, mravalwaxnaga koSkebi pitiuntis sasimagro nagebobasac
hqonda, magram sadReisod aq gamovlenili 27 koSkidan mxolod xuTiodea
aseTi. ori maTgani garedan xuTwaxnagaa, xolo danarCeni rvawaxnaga,
romlebic "kanabes" galavnis samxreT mxareze mdebareobs. aseTi tipis
koSkebis arseboba, am monakveTis strategiuli mniSvnelobiT unda aixsnas.
amasve mowmobs samxreTiTve Carigebuli koSkebis simravle (13 koSki) da,
rac mTavaria, # 18 xuTwaxnaga koSkSi aRmoCenili balistis detali.
aRsaniSnavia, rom aRniSnuli koSki specialuri saartilerio satyorcni
meqanizmebisaTvis
iyo
gaTvaliswinebuli.
vfiqrobT,
amave
miznebs
emsaxureboda, aseve me-5 da me-6 e.w. maraoseburi formis koSkebi.
vfiqrobT, savaWro-saxelosno tipis _- "vikus"-is rangis samosaxloebi
unda yofiliyo pitiuntisa da fasisis romauli qalaquri dasaxlebebi,
rogoric xSirad iqmneboda msgavsi punqtebis sakohorto kastelebTan.
19

aseTi tipis samosaxloTa moqmedebis areali cixe-qalaqis farglebs ar


scildeboda. romauli praqtikidan gamomdinare, amgvari samosaxloebis
mcxovrebTa ZiriTadi kontingenti, rogorc es fasisis magaliTidanac Cans,
vaWrebi iyvnen. maT xelSi iyo Tavmoyrili qalaqsa da sofels Soris
savaWro urTierTobis mTeli meqanizmi. vfiqrobT, am socialuri
kategoriis saSuamavlo gziT unda iyos moxvedrili kolxeTis zRvispira,
Sida da mTian regionebSi importuli produqciis garkveuli nawili.
aRniSnuli punqtebis romauli samosaxloebis statusisa da funqciaze
msjeloba garkveulwilad, hipoTezuria. miuxedavad amisa, dabejiTebiT
SeiZleba iTqvas, rom pitiuntis, sebastopolisisa da fasisis romauli
dasaxlebebi SezRuduli, arastandartuli xasiaTisa iyo. isini rigiT,
samxedro bunebis cixe-qalaqebad rCebodnen. romauli garnizonebisa da
Sesabamisad, veteranebis simciriTve iyo ganpirobebuli iberia-kolxeTSi
romauli kulturis gavlenis sakmaod dabali donec.
aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi romauli qalaquri tipis dasaxlebebis
warmoqmnisa da maTi ganviTarebis procesi Taviseburi, gansxvavebuli gziT
warimarTa. aq, romauli, klasikuri tipis kanabebi ar warmoqmnila.
sebastopolissa
da
afsarosSi
romauli
samxedro
SenaerTebis
samosaxloebis funqcias adgilobrivi saqalaqo centrebi Tu rigiTi
dasaxlebebi asrulebdnen. pitiuntisa da fasisis kastelebTan ki arsebobda
arastandartuli, mcire savaWro-saxelosnos tipis romauli dasaxlebebi,
romelTa "moqmedebis are" ZiriTadad sanapiro zoliT Semoifargleboda.
guTebis Tavdasxmebis Sedegad, ax.w. III s-is Sua xanebSi pontokavkasiis sasazRvro sistemis nawilma (afsarosi-gonio, fasisi-foTi,
sebastopolisi-soxumi, pitiunti-biWvinta da sxv.) droebiT Sewyvita
moqmedeba. ax.w. III s-is 70-iani wlebidan romis imperiaSi stabiluri
mdgomareobis damyarebis Semdgom, ponto-kavkasiis sasazRvro sistema
gamococxlda.
zosimes cnobebidan irkveva, rom guTebs aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTi
orjer daulaSqravT. pirveli Tavdasxma, romelic ax.w. 256 w. momxdara,
guTebis damarcxebiT damTavrebula. meore laSqroba ki ax.w. 257 wels
moewyo da pirvelTan SedarebiT ufro masStaburi xasiaTisa yofila.
guTebis Tavdasxmebi am dros aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis araerT
dasaxlebul punqts Seexo. zosimes Tanaxmad, guTebs Tavdapirvelad alya
fasisisaTvis
SemourtyamT,
magram
uSedegod.
fasisis
damcvelebma
momxdurni ukuaqcies, rac, erTi SexedviT, gaocebas iwvevs, vinaidan
guTebma TiTqmis daubrkoleblad aiRes iseTi Zlieri da mravalricxovani
meomrebiT daculi qalaqebi rogoric iyo trapezunti, gorgipia,
filipopolisi, pitiunti da sxvebi. es maSin, roca fasiss mxolod
mcirericxovani garnizoni icavda.
fasisidan ukuqcevis Semdeg, rogorc zosime gadmogvcems, guTebs
pitiuntisaken gaulaSqriaT da is iolad auRiaT. aq datrialebuli
20

katastrofa arqeologiuradac kargad dasturdeba. naqalaqaris TiTqmis


yvela ubanze Zlieri ngrevisa da xanZris kvali Cans. cixe-qalaqis
dasavleT karibWis misadgomebTan gamovlinda brZolaSi daRupul adamianTa
uwesrigod Cayrili ConCxebis grova. pitiuntze guTebis Tavdasxmis suraTi
kargad aisaxa, agreTve, numizmatikur masalaSic. biWvintis bedi, rogorc
Cans, sebastopolissac gauziarebia, rasac mowmobs sebastopolisis cixis
kedlis gareT dadasturebuli Zlieri xanZris kvali.
ax.w. 270 wlidan romis imperiis mdgomareoba mniSvnelovnad
gaumjobesda. romaelebma naisasTan brZolaSi daamarcxes guTebi da
dunaispireTidan garekes, balkaneT-dunaispireTis provinciebSi mSvidoba
damyarda. bosforis mefe savromat IV kvlav "keisrisa da romaelTa
megobris" tituls atarebda. iranSi ax.w. 272 wels Saburis
gardacvalebis Semdeg taxtisaTvis brZola daiwyo. am brZolaSi gaimarjva
nersem, romelic iZulebuli gaxda romaelebTan zavi daedo. am droisaTvis
romaelebma TiTqmis mTlianad aRadgines aRmosavleTis sazRvari. swored am
periodSi unda momxdariyo ponto-kavkasiis sazRvris aRdgena - ganmtkiceba.
magaliTad, ax.w. III s-is Sua xanebidan, romaelebma trapezuntSi I ponturi
legioni Caayenes. amave periodidan unda dawyebuliyo sebastopolisis
kastelumis gadakeTeba-gafarToeba. gviandeli cixesimagris farTobi 2
heqtari iyo da ukve erT kohortas itevda.
romis xelisufalni guTebis Semosevebis Semdegac dainteresebas
iCendnen pitiuntis gamagreba-gaZlierebis mimarTulebiT. ax.w. IV s-is
dasawyisSi, romaelebs biWvinta-pitiuntis saqalaqo dasaxlebisaTvis
sasimagro nagebobani SemouvliaT. rac Seexeba Tavad kastelums, rogorc
amas XXII TxrilSi aRmoCenili Tavdacvis meore rigis kedeli mowmobs,
samoqalaqo dasaxlebis xarjze gafarToebula, rac, albaT, Tavis mxriv
garnizonis mebrZolTa raodenobis gazrdaze miuTiTebs. am droisaTvis
cixesimagres SeeZlo daaxloebiT 700-800 jariskaci daetia. ax.w. III s-is
bolos an IV s-is dasawyisSi unda aRdgeniliyo afsarosis (gonio)
kastelumic, romelic dRemdea SemorCenili. am periodis afsarosis
kastelumi sworkuTxaa da 22 koSkiTaa gamagrebuli. kedlebi (sisqe 2,302,40 m) mcire zomis qvaTlilebisagan aris nagebi.
afsarosis kastelumi pitiuntis II-III ss.-is cixesimagresTan, aseve
satalisa da abritusis III da IV ss.-is kastelumebTan garkveul msgavsebas
poulobs. magram maT Soris koSkebis moyvanilobasa da raodenobaSic Cans
sxvaoba. afsarosis samxreT-dasavleTi kuTxisa da samxreTi kedlis
koSkebis moyvaniloba gegmaSi naliseburi konfiguraciisa. afsarosis
kastelumi
keTilmowyobili
da
teqnikurad
gamarTuli
yofila.
arqeologiuri gaTxrebisas, cixesimagris teritoriaze gamovlenilia
yazarmebi, abano, sameurneo daniSnulebis nagebobebi, koleqtorisa da
wyalsadenis rTuli sistema da sxv. petra-cixisZiric, rogorc es uaxlesi

21

arqeologiuri masalebiT dasturdeba, amave periodSi unda aRdgeniliyo. am


dros cixisZiri romaelebs eWiraT.
romauli xanis safortifikacio sistema cixisZirSi jerjerobiT ar
aris gamovlenili. dRemde SemorCenili cixesimagris naSTebi ki
adrebizantiuri periodisaa. adrebizantiur epoqas miakuTvneben mkvlevarebi
CrdiloeT borcvze ganlagebul safortifikacio nagebobebs. isini ormagi
kedlebiT iyo samxreT-dasavleT borcvze arsebul wriul koSkTan
dakavSirebuli. ormagi kedlidan dasavleTiT mdebare galavani SedarebiT
maRalia da ZiriTad kedels warmoadgens. ZiriTadi kedlis samxreTdasavleT nawilSi aRmoCnda karibWe, romelsac dasavleTis mxridan
sworkuTxa koSki icavda. gviandeli TavdacviTi nagebobis zomebi, rogorc
Cans, unda emTxveodes romauli xanis safortifikacio sistemas. cixisZiris
abanoebi IV s-iT TariRdeba da zogadad kastelumis tipis abanoebs
ganekuTvneba.
soxumis gviandeli II cixesimagre, pirvelTan SedarebiT ufro didi
zomisaa, misi farTobi 2,5 ha, riTac is pitiuntis kastelumis sidides
uaxlovdeba. aseTi farTobis cixe Tavisuflad daitevda erT kohortas
(daaxloebiT 500 jariskacs) da is sakohorto anu saSualo cixesimagris
kategorias ganekuTvneba. meore cixis kedlebi srulad araa SemorCenili.
nawilobriv SemorCenilia cixis dasavleTi, xolo mTlianad aRmosavleTis
kedeli. am ukanasknelis sigrZe 140 m-ia. meore cixesimagre, pirvelis
msgavsad, gegmaSi kvadratuli formisaa. galavnis sisqe 2 m-mde aRwevs, rac
siganiT Camouvardeba Zveli drois gamoCenili samxedro xurotmoZRvris
filon bizantielis mier rekomendirebul galavnis maqsimalur zomas
daaxloebiT 4.20 m.
antikuri fortifikaciis tradiciuli wesebis Tanaxmad, galavnis
siganes unda Seedgina aranakleb 1/2 simaRlisa. SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom
sebastopolisis meore cixesimagris galavnis simaRle 9 metri unda
yofiliyo, rac filonis rekomendaciiT optimaluri iyo imisaTvis, raTa
mowinaaRmdege misadgmeli kibeebiT, galavanze ver gadasuliyo. samwuxarod,
sebastopolisis
galavnis
daboloebis
forma
ucnobia.
antikuri
safortifikacio praqtikis Tanaxmad, galavanze unda mowyobiliyo
qongurebi. Tumca galavani qongurebiT yovelTvis rodi bolovdeboda.
soxum-sebastopolisis meore cixesimagris kedlebis wyoba nagebia e.w.
"opus miqstum"-is wesiT e.i. granitis qvebiTa da aguris sartylebiT
kirxsnarze. afsarosis, pitiuntisa da CrdiloeT SavizRvispireTis
Tanadrouli cixesimagreebisagan gansxvavebiT, sebastopolisis kedlis
wyobaSi gamoyenebulia xis Zelebi. Zelebi erTmaneTisagan 2,4-2,5 m-Taa
daSorebuli. amgvari wesi dadasturebulia soxumis Sua saukuneebis cixis
wyobaSic. galavnisa da # 2 koSkis kedlebSi, aguris fenebia datanili.
fenebs Soris manZili 1,5-1,17 m, aguris fenebis sisqe 0,20-0,23 sm. meore
cixesimagris aRmosavleT kedelze SemorCenilia ori koSki, romlebic
22

erTmaneTisagan 100 m-Taa daSorebuli. orive koSki, iseve rogorc pirveli


kastelumis koSkebi, kvadratuli formisaa.
soxumis yuredan 2 km-ze CrdiloeTiT, calke mdgomi sadarajo koSki
meore cixis koSkebis formis analogiuria, isic albaT, sebastopolisis
erTian TavdacviT sistemaSi Sedioda da cixe-qalaqis misadgomebs icavda.
koSkis saerTo farTobi 6,30 m 6,45 m; kedlis sigane 1 m. koSki riyis
qvebiTa da kirxsnariTaa nagebi. sadarajo koSki, rogorc iq aRmoCenili
masalebi mowmoben, III-V ss-Si iyo moqmedi.
analogebiTa da koSkis kedlis sisqis mixedviT, sebastopolisis calke
mdgomi koSki, ori an samsarTuliani unda yofiliyo da misi simaRle,
albaT, daaxloebiT 12 m-s aRwevda. wyobis teqnikiTa da zomebiT, is
Camogavs megarasTan da sunionis (atika) koncxze mikvleul koSkebs.
sebastopolisis meore cixesimagris dagegmareba, romelic ax.w. III-IV ss.
safortifikacio nagebobebisaTvisaa damaxasiaTebeli, analogebs pitiuntis,
satalis da sxva kastelumebTan poulobs.
guTebis Semosevebis Semdeg, ax.w. III s-is bolos Tu IV s-is
dasawyisSi aRdga afsaros-sebastopolis-pitiuntis cixesimagreTa xazi.
maTi funqcionireba ax.w. IV s-is manZilze grZeldeboda, rasac araerTi
monacemi mowmobs. arqeologiuri da numizmatikuri masalebis Tanaxmad,
pitiunti ax.w. III s-is bolodan, vidre IV s-is 80-ian wlebamde,
aRmavlobis gzaze dgas. is saerTaSoriso urTierTobebSia CarTuli.
swored ax.w. IV s-s ganekuTvneba naqalaqarze aRmoCenili monetaTa
umravlesoba. es pitiuntis fulad-sasaqonlo meurneobis ganviTarebis
maRal doneze miuTiTebs. am periodSia nagebi citadelis teritoriaze
ganlagebuli monumenturi Senobebi (principia, lazareTi, yazarmebi da
sxv.), rac gvafiqrebinebs, rom imJamindel pitiunt-biWvintaSi Tavmoyrili
unda yofiliyo aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi ganlagebuli romaelTa
samxedro Zalebis mniSvnelovani nawili.
ax.w. IV s-Si aRmavlobis gzaze idga afsaros-gonio, romelic
kvlavindeburad mniSvnelovan samxedro-strategiul rols TamaSobda
ponto-kavkasiis sasazRvro sistemaSi. is amgvar funqcias ax.w. IV s-is
bolomde asrulebda, rasac mowmobs kastoriusis ax.w. IV s-is meore
naxevarSi Sedgenili ruka, sadac afsarosi Sewyvilebuli koSkebiT aris
datanili, maSin roca, fasisi am rukaze saerTod ar aris aRniSnuli. Cans,
ax.w. IV s-is bolosaTvis fasisSi romauli garnizoni ukve aRar dgas.
aseve Sewyvilebuli koSkebiT aris datanili kastoriusis rukaze
sebastopolisic, romelic arqeologiuri monacemebiT, ax.w. IV-V ss-Sic
moqmedebda, rogorc romauli samxedro punqti. marTalia, sebastopolisSi
romauli samxedro nawilebis tvifriani damRebi jerjerobiT ar aris
dadasturebuli. samagierod, am ukanasknel xanebSi, soxumis cixis
teritoriaze saintereso samarxis berZnulwarweriani stela aRmoCnda. is
aq dislocirebuli IV-V ss-is romauli samxedro nawilebis statusze
23

migvaniSnebs. stelis zedapirze amoWrilia cxrastriqoniani laTinuri


asomTavruli warwera. warweris Targmania: - "qriste mravlis SemZle. aq
ganisvenebs oreste, mamaci jariskaci, legioneri, gTxovT moxvideT."
epitafia damwerlobis mixedviT, IV-V ss TariRdeba.
warweraSi moxseniebuli legioneri `oreste~, saxelis mixedviT,
berZeni
unda
yofiliyo.
aqedan
gamomdinare,
SesaZlebelia,
rom
sebastopolisis romauli garnizonis garkveuli nawili berZnulenovani
meomrebiT yofiliyo dakompleqtebuli. sebastopolisisa da saerTod,
saqarTvelos SavizRvispireTis romauli samxedro SenaerTebis kontingenti
umTavresad berZnuli warmomavlobis meomrebisagan, rom Sedgeboda, amas
mowmobs, aseve sebastopolisisa da pitiuntis naqalaqarebze aRmoCenili
berZnuli warwerebi Tu grafitoebi. es gasagebicaa, radgan romaelebi,
jer kidev ax.w. II s-dan, armiaSi berZnulenovan meomrebs iwvevdnen.
Sesabamisad, swored maT agzavnidnen im qveynebSi, sadac elinur (berZnul)
kulturas kargad icnobdnen.
orestes stelaze legioneris samxedro qvedanayofis saxelwodebaze
ar aris raime miniSneba, rac damaxasiaTebeli iyo legionerTa
epitafiisaTvis. SesaZloa, oreste XV legionis jariskaci yofiliyo,
romlis Stab-bina II-V ss-Si. satalaSi mdebareobda da romelTa samxedro
SenaerTi pitiuntSi iyo dislocirebuli. SesaZloa igi sebastopolisSi
ganlagebuli klavdiusis saxelobis II kohortis legioneria. xsenebuli
kohorta, rogorc aRiniSna, ax.w. I-III ss. afsarosSi idga. ar aris
gamoricxuli, rom es kohorta mogvianebiT, IV s. afsarosidan
sebastopolisSi gadmoesrolaT. orestes stelis warwera dokumenturad
adasturebs im mosazrebas, rom IV-V ss-Si sebastopolisi, iseve rogorc
pitiunti moqmedi cixesimagreebia, sadac kvlav romauli garnizoni dgas.
metic, rogorc warweridan irkveva, sebastopolisis garnizoni legionuri
yofila. legionuri garnizonebi ki mniSvnelovan samxedro-strategiul
centrebSi iyvnen dislocirebuli.
romauli garnizoni ax.w. IV s-is bolos da V s-Si pitiuntSic idga.
aRniSnul dros pitiuntSi romauli garnizonis arsebobis sasargeblod,
metyvelebs agreTve, bizantieli avtoris Teodorite kvirelis (394-457
ww.) cnoba ioane oqropiris pitiuntSi gadasaxlebasTan dakavSirebiT:
"pitiunti aris ukiduresi sazRvari pontosi da romaelTa samflobelosi
...".
rac Seexeba iberias, IVs-is. 30-ani wlebisaTvis sabolood
proromaulma orientaciam gaimarjva. romsa da iberias Soris kontaqtebi
gansakuTrebiT
iulianes
dros
(355-363ww.)
gaRrmavda.
amianus

marcelinusis cnobiT, iberias savromaki (anu saurmagi) `romaelTa


SemweobiT ganagebda. magram iulianes gardacvalebis Semdeg, sparseTis
mefem Sabur II (309-379ww.), savromaki gaaZeva da taxtze dasva asfaguri.
misi mefoba didxans ar gagrZelebula. romis imperatoris valentianusis
24

dros (364-375ww.), amianus marcelinusis cnobiT, `savromaki iberiis


samefodan GgamoZevebuli, Tormeti legioniTa da terencisiTurT, ukan
gaigzavna. am mravalmxriv saintereso cnobaSi, yuradRebas ipyrobs
`Tormeti legionis iberiaSi gamogzavnis faqti. rogorc cnobilia, es
legioni ax.w. 74w. dasavleTidan aRmosavleTSi gadmoisroles imperiis
sazRvrebze alanTa gaaqtiurebis Semdeg. misi mudmivi Stab-bina melitene
iyo.
cxadia,
iberiaSi
gamogzavnili
`Tormeti
legionis-s
sruli
Semadgenloba ki ar igulisxmeba, aramed misi veqsilacia, romelic 500-600
jariskacs Seadgenda. amianusis cnoba kidev erTxel adasturebs, rom
XII
legioni aRmosavleTSi V s-is bolomde Tu ara, am saukunis 70-ian
wlebamde mainc unda darCeniliyo.
amianusis zemoTmotanil cnobaSi miTiTebuli ar aris aRniSnuli
veqsilacia iberiaSi darCa Tu savromakis gamefebis Semdeg qveyana datova.
am kiTxvaze pasuxs misive naSromis sxva adgilas vpoulobT. Saburis mier
romis imperatorTan gagzavnil elCobasTan dakavSirebiT vkiTxulobT:
`Saburma imperators (valentinianuss _ T. T. v. k.) gamougzavna elCad
arSaki da urCevda mudmivi ubedurebis mizezi armenia sruliad
daetovebina, xolo Tu es ar endomeboda, mere sxvas moiTxovda, rom
iberiis gayofisaTvis Tavi daenebebina, gamoeyvana iqidan romauli nawilis
mecixovne jarebi da daenebebina mefoba mxolod asfagurisaTvis, romelic
TviTonve daudgina gamgeblad im xalxs~. rogorc Cans, XII legionis
veqsilacia iberiaSi savromakis gamefebis Semdegac darCenila. vfiqrobT, is
mcxeTaSi unda yofiliyo dabanakebuli. misi funqcia, mxolod savromakis
xelisuflebis dacva rodi iyo. mas ufro romaelTa poziciebis ganmtkiceba
iberiaSi da CrdiloeT kavkasiis regionis gakontroleba ekisreboda.
amianusis cnobebze dayrdnobiT, SesaZlebelia, aseve iberiaSi am
veqsilaciis yofnis xangrZlivobis dadgena. xsenebuli avtori, Tavisi
naSromis erT adgilze aRniSnavs, rom rodesac sparselebsa da romaelebs
Soris molaparakeba uSedegod dasrulda, Saburma gadawyvita `savromakis
dasacavad
gamwesebuli
jariskacebisaTvis
usastikesad
evno.
es
gadawyvetileba saswrafod asrulda kidec da verc veraferi eSvela am
saqmes, vinaidan romis saxelmwifos sxva safrTxeebic daatyda Tavs
Trakiaze guTebis Tavdasxmis saxiT-wers igi.
rogorc Cans, sparselTa jari iberiaSi SeWrila da iq romauli
sajariso SenaerTebi daumarcxebia. vfiqrobT, es faqti 378 wlis axlo
xanebSi unda momxdariyo. samxedro operacia warmatebiT dasrulebula.
savromaki qarTlidan gandevnil iqna da mefoba proiranuli orientaciis
aspakurs darCa. Sesabamisad, aRniSnuli droidan, romauli sajariso
nawilebic iberiaSi aRar unda yofiliyvnen.
iberiaSi romauli samxedro SenaerTebis yofnas da saerTod iberiaromis samxedro-politikur kontaqtebs ax. w. IVs-is pirvel naxevarSi
25

garkveuli cvlilebebi mohyva. aRniSnul periodSi, iberiis romaul


samyarosTan savaWro-ekonomikuri kontaqtebi winandeburad grZeldeba.
mcxeTaSi, kerZod armazisxevis pitiaxSTa samarxebSi dadasturebulia ax.
w. III-IV ss-is romauli torevtikis nimuSebi, minis nawarmi, gemiani
beWdebi, romelTa erTi nawili albaT, `falerebs~ warmoadgendnen magram,
maTi raodenoba
ax.w.I-III ss-is romaul importirebul produqciasTan
SedarebiT Zalian mcirea. igive iTqmis romaul monetebzec. iberiaSi, ax.w.
I-III ss-is romauli monetebi sakmaod mravalricxovania, maSin roca IVs-Si
isini mxolod ramdenime egzemplariTaa warmodgenili: konstantine I-is,
konstancius II-is ori solidi da valentis erTi vercxlis moneta;
samagierod, romauli kulturis gavlena iberiaSi SesamCnevia: IV
saukunidan iberiaSi vrceldeba romauli tipis wagrZelebuli formis,
ugumbaTo bazilikebi, romelTagan uZvelesad iTvleba nekresis samonastro
kompleqsis ansamblSi CarTuli IV s-is meore naxevris eklesia. uTuod
iberia-romis urTierTobis Sedegic iyo 326 wlisaTvis qarTlis samefoSi
qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadeba.
iberiisa da romis samxedro-politikuri urTierTobani ax.w. IV s-is
70-iani wlebidan Sewyda da qarTli mTlianad iranelebma daiqvemdebares.
aseTi viTareba gagrZelda V s-is pirvel naxevarSic, xolo amave saukunis
meore naxevridan qarTlisa da aRmosavleT romis, (bizantiis) imperias
Soris kontaqtebi kvlav ganaxlda.

26

ganmartebiTi leqsikoni

(danarTi #1)

akveduki
sagangebod wyalsadenisTvis agebuli xidi.
auqsilia (laT. Auxilia damxmare) damxmare samxedro SenaerTi,
romelic provincialebisa da mezobeli qveynebis moqalaqeebisagan
kompleqtdeboda. augustusis epoqidan auqsilia nawilobriv mZimed
SeiaraRebuli
kavaleriisagan
Sedgeboda
da
regularuli
armiis
Semadgeneli nawili iyo. ax.w. IV s-Si galur-germanuli msubuqad
SeiaraRebuli qveiTebisagan Sedgeboda da calkeul razmebad iyofoda.
TiToeuli razmi 500 jariskacs iTvlida.
balista (berZ. Balista satyorcni) lodsatyorcni manqanamowyobiloba.
maT
specialurad
gawvrTnili
balistariebis,
artileristebis razmi emsaxureboda. zogjer maTi ricxvi aTamde adioda.
balistis energiis wyaros cxovelis, gansakuTrebiT xaris kisris
dagrexili ZarRvebi Seadgenda. balistis zomebi 4-5 m-s aRwevda. isroda
daaxloebiT 400-500 m-ze.
veterani (laT. Veterani xandazmuli) samxedro samsaxuris vadis
damTavrebis Semdeg romaeli jariskacebi veteranebad iwodebodnen.
pretorianelebis jarSi samsaxuris vada 16 weli iyo, legionerebis 20
weli, xolo damxmare nawilebis jariskacebisaTvis 25 weli. veteranebi
samxedro samsaxuris dasrulebis Semdegac, garkveuli xniT armiaSi
rCebodnen da mravali SeRavaTiT sargeblobdnen. damxmare SenaerTebis
gadamdgari jariskacebi zogjer romis moqalaqeobas Rebulobdnen.
pretorianelebi da legionerebi ki miwaTmflobelebi xdebodnen.
veqsilacia (laT. Vexillatio droSa) specdaniSnulebis razmi.
romauli veqsilaciebi sxvadasxva saxeobis SenaerTebisagan Sedgeboda.
zogjer es iyo romelime legionis an kohortis nawili, zogierT
SemTxvevaSi ki damxmare kohortebis, flotisa da mxedarTa nakrebi. veqsilaciebis SemadgenlobaSi Sediodnen prefeqtebi, tribunebi, trierarqosebi,
signiferebi, eqimebi; sainJinro-teqnikuri personali arqiteqtorebi,
balistariebi, xelosnebi, mWedlebi, metalurgebi da a.S.
vikusi (laT. Vicus, sofeli) romauli sofeli, dasaxleba, romelic
gzis gayolebaze mdebareobda. vikusi zogjer Zveli italielebisaTvis
damaxasiaTebel uwesrigod ganlagebul soflur saxes inarCunebda, Tumca
vikusebSi dafiqsirebulia paraleluri quCebic, rac maTi saqalaqo
centrebad gardaqmnis tendenciis mimaniSnebelia; vikusebi, rogorc wesi,
romauli damxmare samxedro SenaerTebis banakebTan Cndebodnen, msgavsad
kanabebisa, romlebic legionebis kastelumebTan igebodnen.
imperatori (laT. Imperator, mTavarsardali, mTavari, mbrZanebeli)
respublikis periodSi aniWebdnen gamarjvebul mTavarsardals. iulius
cezars es tituli sicocxlis bolomde mieniWa. Zv.w. 29 w. senatma
27

sicocxlis bolomde daniSna augustusi; Semdgom romis saxelmwifos yvela


meTauris tituli iyo.
kabotaJi komerciuli navigacia erTi qveynis sxvadasxva portebs
Soris.
kanabe (laT. Canabe sawyobi) samoqalaqo dasaxleba, romelic
legionebis kastelumebis gverdiT arsebobda. kanabebi kastelumebisagan
Cveulebriv 2-3 km-iT iyvnen daSorebuli. kanabebSi gadamdgari jariskacebi,
maTi ojaxis wevrebi, xelosnebi da vaWrebi cxovrobdnen. kanabebi
saSuamavlo rolis funqcias asrulebdnen romael samxedro mosamsaxureTa
da adgilobriv mosaxleobas Soris. isini romauli kulturisa da
romanizaciis kerebsac warmoadgendnen.
kastelumi (laT. Castelum simagre) saSualo zomis cixesimagre. misi
farTobi 1,5-dan 3,5 heqtramde meryeobda. kastelums hqonda koSkebiT
gamagrebuli oTxi karibWe, romlebzedac gadioda banakis ori, centrSi
urTierTgadamkveTi quCa. cnobilia ori sxvadasxva tipis kastelumi. erTi
esaa "Castella Tumultuaria" - droebiTi safortifikacio nageboba,
xolo meore - "Castella Murata" mudmivmoqmedi, xangrZlivi droisaTvis
gankuTvnili TavdacviTi nageboba. imperiis sasazRvro punqtebSi arsebobda
mravalricxovani kastelumebi, romlebic kohortebisa da alebisaTvis iyo
gankuTvnili (magaliTad, zalcburgSi, emonaSi, biWvintaSi, afsarosSi da
sxv.).
katapulta (berZ. Catapulta sasroli) sasrol-satyorcni manqana,
romelic isroda pilumebs, Subebs da sxv. misi srolis manZili 300-500
metrs ar aRemateboda.
konsuli (laT. Consul) respublikis droidan erT-erTi maRali Cini,
xolo imperiis epoqaSi sapatio Tanamdeboba. konsulad yofna pirovnebas
saSualebas aZlevda karieris kibeze (sazogadoebriv da samxedro
sarbielze) ufro swrafad wasuliyo win.
legioni (laT. Legione, SerCeva, Segroveba) romis armiis ZiriTadi
nawili. respublikis xanaSi legioni iTvlida 4.2 aTass qveiTsa da 300
mxedars. Zv.w. IV s-is legionSi Sedioda 10 manipuli, romelic or
centuriad iyofoda. meore punikuri omis dros (Zv.w. 218-201 ww.),
legioni 30 manipulisa da 10 kohortisagan Sedgeboda. cezaris xanaSi
legioni 3 aTas qveiTs, 2-3 aTas mxedarsa da 4-5 aTas galuri tomebisagan
Semdgar mxedrobas iTvlida. augustusis epoqaSi legioni Sedgeboda 6100
mZimed SeiaraRebuli qveiTisa da 726 mxedrisagan. momdevno xanaSi 42005000 fexosansa da 120-300 kavalerias Soris. legionis SemadgenlobaSi
Sediodnen sainJinro-teqnikuri SenaerTebi, xuroTmoZRvrebi, eqimebi,
xelosnebi, artileristebi, qvissatyorcni manqanebi da sxv. TiToeul
legions Tavisi sakuTari nomeri, saxelwodeba, droSa-Standartebi hqonda.
saxelwodeba misi formirebis adgilze ("italikuri", "makedonuri",
"ponturi"), mfarvel RmerTebze ("apoloniseuli"), gawvrTnilobaze
28

("elviseburi")
an
garegnul
niSnebze
("alaudebi")
miuTiTebda.
legionerebis SeiaraReba unificirebuli iyo: maT hqondaT mZime saWurveli,
rkinis an brinjaos muzaradi, loyis sacavi firfitebiT, saxis dasacavad.
tanze ecvaT muxlamde sigrZis javSniani perangi, farebi marTkuTxedis
moyvanilobisa, brinjaos furcliT dafaruli, Subebi, romlis sigrZe 6575 sm-s aRwevda. xelCarTuli brZolisaTvis gamoiyeneboda orlesuli,
rombulwveriani, farTotaniani maxvilebi (gladius), romelTa piri 44-55
sm Soris meryeobda. fexze ecvaT "sandlebi" (caligae), romelTa sqeli
lanCebi rkinis lursmnebiT iyo moWedili.
limesi (laT. Limes sazRvari) romis imperiis sazRvari, erTmaneTTan
sagangebod nagebi gzebiT dakavSirebuli cixesimagreTa sistema. klasikuri
tipisa iyo britaneTis, zemogermaniis, reciis, adrianesa da antoninus
piusis droindeli limesebi, romlebic ax.w. 260 wlamde funqcionirebdnen.
panoniis, dakiisa da meziis usafrTxoebis uzrunvelyofis mizniT, maT
sasazRvro punqtebSi aSenda mravalricxovani safortifikacio nagebobani.
imperiis aRmosavleT provinciis sazRvrebis xSiri cvlilebebis gamo, aq
limesis sistema ar Seqmnila. magaliTad, egvipteSi limesi ar arsebobda.
aseve aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTSi, romlis TavdacviTi sistema pontokavkasiis sasazRvro xazad iwodeba.
mTel rig qveynebSi funqcionirebs specialuri samecniero disciplina
limesologia, romelic swavlobs romis imperiis TavdacviT nagebobaTa
tipebsa da maT funqciebs.
manipuli (laT. Manipulus muWa) legionis qveiTi SenaerTi. legionis
SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda 10 manipuli, romelic Tavis mxriv 2 centuriad
iyofoda da legionis mcire taqtikur erTeuls warmoadgenda. meore
punikuri omidan legioni 10 kohortisa da 30 manipulisagan Sedgeboda.
manipulis meTauri iyo centurioni. adrianes droidan manipuli gauqmda da
is centuriam Secvala.
numerebi (laT. Numero swrafi) policiis nawilebi. augustusis
dros policiis nawilebi 1000 jariskacisagan Sedgeboda.
pretoriumi (laT. Praetorium meTauris, winamZRolis saxli)
samxedro SenaerTis meTauris rezidencia, saxli, romelic idga banakis
gzaTa RerZebis gadakveTis adgilas. pretoriums sami kari hqonda.
pretoriumSi ganTavsebuli iyo xazina, kancelariis sacavi, sacxovrebeli,
samzareulo, sasadilo, iaraRisa da produqtebis sawyobi, marani, sakuWnao
da sxv.
retiul mxedarTa kohorta
alpebis olqis romauli samxedro
SenaerTi.
falera (laT. Fhalerae dawinaureba, jildo) respublikis xanaSi
mxedarTa wodeba. Zv.w. II saukunidan samxedro jildoebi. falerebs
ZiriTadad warmoadgenda samkaulebi (gemiani beWdebi, balTebi, samajurebi)
da liTonis ovaluri Tu mrgvali formis nivTebi (maxvilebi, Tasebi,
29

sasmisebi da sxv.). imperiis epoqaSi falerebiT ajildoebdnen ara marto


calkeul legionerebs, aramed samxedro qvedanayofebsac.
centuria (laT. Centuria aseuli) legionis samxedro qvedanayofi,
romelic 100 jariskacisagan Sedgeboda. servius tuliusis dros romael
moqalaqeTa definicirebuli qonebriv-asakobrivi erTeuli. TiToeul
centurias asi meomari unda gamoeyvana. imperiis epoqaSi centuriebis roli
gaizarda. adrianes droidan legionis erT-erTi mniSvnelovani taqtikuri
erTeuli.
Standarti sabrZolo SenaerTis droSis liTonis TavsarTi.

30

geografiul da sakuTar saxelTa ganmartebani

(danarTi #2)

abritusi _ qalaqi Tanamedrove bulgareTSi.


aieti _ Zveli kolxeTis legendaruli mefe. ixsenieba miTSi argonavtebis
Sesaxeb.
alanebi _ Crdilo kavkasiis mTieli tomebi, iTvlebian osebis erT-erT
winaprad.
albaneTi _ qveyana Tanamedrove azerbaijanis teritoriaze.
amianus marcelinusi _ ax.w. IV s-is romaeli istorikosi.
analiba _ romauli xanis cixesimagre, dRevandeli TurqeTis teritoriaze.
aniketi _ ax.w. 69 wlis monaTa ajanyebis meTauri.
antioqia _ qalaqi Tanamedrove siriis teritoriaze, axlandeli antakia.
armenia _ somxeTi. Zvelad arsebobda e.w. `mcire armenia~ dRevandeli
TurqeTis teritoriaze, `didi armenia~ ZiriTadad dRevandeli
somxeTis teritoriaze.
artemide _ Zvel berZenTa erT-erTi mniSvnelovani qal-RvTaeba;
cxovelebis,
xeebis, mcenareebis, nayofierebis mfarveli RvTaeba.
atika _ Zveli saberZneTis erT-erTi olqi.
baiburTi _ qalaqi dRevandeli TurqeTis teritoriaze.
beiuk-daSi _ dasaxleba azerbaijanSi.
boiotro _ romauli cixesimagre avstriaSi.
bostra _ qalaqi, dRevandeli bosra samxreT siriaSi.
bosfori _ mcire saxelmwifo Tanamedrove qerCis naxevarkunZulze.
galatia _ mcire aziis mTiani regioni, dRevandeli TurqeTis
teritoriaze.
galia _ moicavda dRevandeli safrangeTis, Sveicariisa da belgiis
teritorias.
gaC-darvazexi _ cixesimagre, dRevandeli siriis teritoria.
gemma _ Zvirfasi an naxevradZvirfasi Tlili qva raime gamosaxulebiT.
xSirad gamoiyeneboda sabeWdavad.
gorgipia _ qalaqi yirimSi, axlandeli anapa.
grafito _ (Zv. berZ. `amokawruli~) sayofacxovrebo xasiaTis warwera,
romelic amokawrulia Senobis kedlebze, WurWelze da sxva.
guTebi _ Zveli germaneli tomebi, ZiriTadi samosaxlo mdebareobda
belgiisa da Crdilo Sveicariis teritoriaze.
dakia _ qveyana dRevandeli rumineTis teritoriaze.
dion kasiusi _ Zveli romaeli istorikosi, daaxloebiT 153-230 w.w.
dioskuria _ sebastopolisis (soxumi) antikuri saxelwodeba.
diubua de monpere _ XIX s-is Sveicarieli mogzauri, imogzaura
saqarTveloSic da dagvitova misi aRweriloba.
31

evqsinis ponto _ `stumarTmoyvare zRva~, igive Savi zRva.


elius spatiane _ ax.w. IV s-is romaeli istorikosi.
emona _ qalaqi, dRevandeli lubliana (serbia).
epitafia _ mokle warwera saflavis qvaze.
vaSnari _ dRevandeli sofeli gurianTa ozurgeTis raionSi.
zaicelmaueri _ romauli cixesimagre germaniaSi.
zosime _ Zveli berZeni istorikosi, ax.w. VI saukune.
Trakia _ qveyana, dRevandeli bulgareTis teritoria.
ioane lide _ ax.w. VI s-is bizantieli istorikosi.
ioane oqropiri _ V s-is bizantieli RvTismetyveli.
kandelabri _ sanaTi mowyobiloba.
kapadokia _ mcire aziaSi mdinare halissa da evfrats Soris mdebare
regioni.
kariamne _ mcire dasaxleba dRevandel azerbaijanSi.
kastoriusis ruka _ ax. w. IV s-is romauli ruka; ruka cnobilia `tabula
pevtengerianas~ saxeliTac. masze aRniSnulia
`tefelisi~ (tfilisi).
kesaria _ qalaqi; kapadokiis dedaqalaqi, axlandeli keiseri TurqeTSi.
kimeriuli bosfori _ bosforis saxeli, romelic man miiRo kimerieli
(cxovrobdnen yirimSi) tomisagan.
klavdiusis saxelobis _ romis imperatoris klavdiusis saxelobis
(4154w.w.) samxedro SenaerTi.
konstantine I didi _ romis imperatori 306-337 w.w.
lukulusi _ lucinus liciniusi _ Zveli romis armiis mTavarsardali
(daax. Zv.w.117-56 w.w.)
markus antoniusi _ Zveli romis armiis mTavarsardali da istorikosi Zv.
w. 82-30 w.w.
megara _ Zveli berZnuli qalaqi-saxelmwifo; msxvili savaWro da
saxelosno centri dRevandel saberZneTSi.
mezia _ zemo mezia Tanamedrove serbiis teritoria; qveda mezia moicavda
md. dunaisa da balkaneTs Soris teritorias.
meotida _ Tanamedrove azovis zRva.
melitene _ qalaqi kapadokiasa da mcire somxeTis sazRvarze, dRevandeli
TurqeTis teritoria.
miTridate pergamoneli _ bosforis mefe Zv.w. I s. 50-40-ian w.w. marTavda
kolxeTsac.
naisa _ qalaqi, Drevandeli niSa iugoslaviaSi.
nerse _ bizantieli politikosi da mxedarTmTavari (daaxloebiT 478-568
w.w.)
numizmatika _ monetebis (liTonis fulis) Semswavleli mecniereba.
pangik-oreni _ romauli xanis nacixari dRevandel TurqeTSi.
32

palmira _ `palmis qalaqi~ Crdili-aRmosavleT siriaSi, saqaravno


vaWrobis
msxvili centri.
panonia _ olqi ZiriTadad dRevandeli ungreTis teritorias moicavda.
papirusi _ tropikuli lerwami; am mcenaris Reroebisagan damzadebuli
saweri masala; aseT masalaze Sesrulebuli xelnaweri.
parTia _ Zveli aRmosavluri saxelmwifo dRevandeli iranis teritoriaze.
periplusi _ (Zv. berZ.) `mogzauroba~.
pitiaxSi _ erisTavis sparsuli Sesatyvisi.
plinius ufrosi _ Zveli romaeli mwerali-enciklopedisti; daaxl. ax.w.
23-79 w.w.
plutarqe _ Zveli berZeni mwerali, filosofosi da moralisti (ax.w. 46120 w.w.)
polemon I _ pontos saxelmwifos mefe (Zv. w. 41-80 w.w.)
pontos samefo _ saxelmwifo samxreT-aRmosavleT SavispireTSi,
Tanamedrove TurqeTis SavizRvispira sanapiroze Zv.w. IV, ax.w. I ss-Si.
pontos moTridatidebis dinastia ganagebda, Semdeg ki polemonidebis.
prokopi kesarieli _ ax.w. VI s-is bizantieli istorikosi.
ravenis esekadra _ qalaq ravenis (Crd. italia) romauli samxedro
sazRvao flotis SenaerTi.
savromat IV _ bosforis mefe.
sanebi _ Wanebi; qarTveluri tomi, romelic trapezuntis aRmosavleTiT,
dRevandeli TurqeTis teritoriaze cxovrobda.
sarmatebi _ Zveli tomi, mcxovrebi dRevandel yirimSi.
satala _ qalaqi mcire somxeTSi, drevandeli TurqeTis teritoriaze.
svetoniusi _ Zveli romaeli mwerali (daaxl. ax.w. 70-140 w.w.) `Tormeti
cezaris cxovrebis~ avtori.
sinope _ berZnuli qalaqi daarsda Zv.w. VII s-Si. dRevandel TurqeTSi
sinopa.
solidi _ oqros moneta.
stela _ (aq) saflavis qva.
sunioni _ koncxi saberZneTSi.
tavrebi _ dRevandel yirimSi mcxovrebi Zveli tomi.
tavrida _ yirimis Zveli saxelwodeba.
torevtika _ liTonis (oqro, vercxli, brinjao) mxatvruli damuSavebis
teqnika.
trapezunti _ Zveli berZnuli qalaqi, daarsda Zv. w. VII s-Si, dRevandeli
qalaqi trabzoni TurqeTSi.
tulni _ romauli cixesimagre avstriaSi.
faiumi _ qalaqi egvipteSi; cnobilia berZnul-romauli kulturis
zegavleniT.
filipopolisi _ qalaqi, drevandeli plovdivi bulgareTSi.
33

Svicendorfi _ cixe-qalaqi germaniaSi.


xaraksi _ cixe-qalaqi yirimSi.
herasi _ dasaxlebuli punqti, dRevandeli qalaqi jarati iordaniaSi.

34

ZiriTadi literatura
1. gamyreliZe g., Todua T., romis samxedro-politikuri eqspansia
saqarTveloSi. Tb., 2006.
2. Todua T., romauli samyaro da kolxeTi, Tb., 2003.
3. lorTqifaniZe g., biWvinTis naqalaqari, Tb., 1991.
4. movses xorenaci, somxeTis istoria. Tb., 1984.
5. fifia k., romi da aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTi I-II ss., Tb., 2005.
6. Spaideli m., kavkasiis sazRvari; I s. garnizonebi afsarosSi, petrasa
da fasisSi, saq. mecn. akad. "macne" (ist. ... seria), Tb., 1985, # 1, gv.
134-140.
7. ., .
4, 1991, . 34-52.
8. ., - , ., 1981.
9. Bosworth A.B., Arrian and the Alani. Harward Studies Classical
Philology, 81, 1977, p. 217-255.
10. Dubois de Montpereux Fr., Voyage autour du Caucase..., Paris. 1839.
11. Mitford T.B., Cappadocia and Armenia Minor. Aufst und neideregang des
Rmischen Welt, 7, 2, 1975.
12. Rowel H.T., 1937, Numerus. Realenziklopedie, XVII, 1937.

35

tabulebis aRweriloba
I _ romauli samxedro SenaerTebis ganlagebis sqema.
II _ samxedro gamagrebaTa sqemebi:
1. biWvinTa (pitiunti)
2. gonio
3. foTi (diubua de monperes gviandeli Canaxatis mixedviT).
4. soxumi (sebastopolisi)
III _ 1. romaeli jariskacis muzaradi. napovnia sof. zemo qedSi.
2. romauli maxvilebi (napovnia saqarTveloSi).
3. beqTaris firfitebi (napovnia saqarTveloSi).
4. romaeli jariskacis sandali.
5. pilumi (satyorcni Subi) vanidan.
IV _ 1-2. romauli Standartebi da samxedro niSnebi.
3. sayviri
4. satevari
V _ 1. gneius pompeusi
2. iulius keisari
3. severusi
4. vespasiane
VI _ 1-2. romis armiis oficrebi.
3. legioneri
VII _ romaeli legionerebi
VIII _ romis samxedro manqanebi
1. balista
2. katapulta

36

37

II

38

III

39

IV

40

41

VI

42

VII

43

VIII

44